Page 1

Unit............Emergent Urbanism Collaboration........Conor


Acknowledgements...Danny Richards Vikram Kaushal FAB






Cellular city 0.1....1

Redevelopment area / site....2

Wifi infrastructure....3

Wifi infrastructure model....4

Computation and data processing....5

D.O.A dead or alive....6


Existing programme....8

The grid....9

Cells vs Neighbourhoods....10

Percentage process and percentage Hull....11

100% Hull....12

Organising 100% Hull and its failures....13

Analogue cellular model....14


Human U city & Physically integrated....15

Urban Tool....16

Default Hull....17

Extreme Hull....18

Existing urban models and individual ideologies....19 - 24

Selected area....25

Re-planning....26 - 28

Old & New Hull....29

Automated planning....30

Beyong the Grid - by ETH....31

Streets in the Sky....32

Spatial complexity explored....33

Printing structure....34

Crystal castles....35-38


Walk and talk....39

Prototype 2.0....40

Work shops / arduino....41

Cellular City 0.1

Cellular City 0.1 The aim of Cellular City 0.1 is to produce a new impartial urban development scheme that gives the cities circulation and programmed space back to the inhabitants. Urban sprawl is minimised or even eradicated by the stacking of the cities programmes and spaces to produce a far denser urban context. It takes into account and engages with the ideals of the 'New Urbanism' agenda, 'Ubiquitous cities', 'data free cities' and 'network neutrality' etc with scenarios that are all played out via manipulated rules based on Conway's 'game of life', and using cellular automata as an impartial basis for new urban areas to be defined that constantly re-arrange to meet the demands of the inhabitants and ideals of previous agendas. Our proposed 'Cellular City 0.1' uses this manipulated cellular automation as a means to produce an infinite number of urban scenarios that physically manifest. Amalgamations of cells that form a 'neighbourhood', the cells inform the neighbourhood and visa versa as to what form they encompass. Although the neighbourhoods are disjointed in physical form and can be self-sufficient from one another, a network is present between them allowing for 'network neutrality'. Net neutrality, is a non restriction based internet source, there is no hierarchy within this structure and promotes an open source of information system to spawn, this is only a digital aspect for a new urban context but provides a basis for a Ubiquitous city which is a physical representation of network neutrality. These factors are all geared towards an emergent urban context that has a 'bottom up methodology', as opposed to the failed industrial and suburban schemes that are 'top down', the overall system can be self organising and can constantly update its self in real time via data provided from its integrated inhabitants and the surrounding context. The urban context never stagnates as the rules that govern the cellular automation are genetically programmed producing 'Meta algorithms' (algorithms that create algorithms) therefore the rules are able to evolve over time and a recursive script can be implemented so it runs indefi nitely, the purpose eradicates town planning schemes and sets up a framework that can be distributed for design. If the city no longer evolves then the city is dead and the inhabitants no longer reside.

Redevelopment area

S c a l e 1 : 12000 ( a l l p l a n s 1 : 12000)

Current plan of hull The Hu1 and Hu2 postcode areas were chosen because of their diversity in programme and its digital infrastructure that can later inform the proposed urban framework scheme

Wifi Infrastructure

Free public Wifi

Orange Wifi

Bt Wifi

Wifi Education

Wifi Public hotel

Wifi Private hotel

Public Wifi Digital city scape Study of public wifi areas supplied by tele communication companies and the buildings that supply the wifi facility that can be readily integrated into a ubiquitous city. Urban scenarios/games can be played out on this digital city scape that are based on cellular automaton and swarm cultures that learn interact and react with a recursive script, and the parameters can be altered affecting the 3d cellular automaton scenarios that are finally physically manifested

Wifi infrastructure model

Physical model mapping the areas and the buildings that supply the wifi facility

Computation and data processing

Computation – the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods. - problem solving that involves numbers or quantities

This thesis looks at computation and its processing power to extrapolate design from raw data, “We should not consider the computer as an extension of our mind, but rather a partner in the design process with fundamentally different aptitudes and ways to reason1”. The computer is engaged and activated from a benign state that is commonly the design approach of many digital design practices to date. We have manipulated a basic cellular automata script based on Conways ‘game of life’ to create a data processing tool that can create an urban framework planning model that can cater for individual or mass utopian ideologies and create an informed context. The advantages of this approach give a non-biased urban strategy as it takes raw data and interoperates this data to create a design based on the rules. It also allows for practices to set up an urban framework model that can then distribute design work whilst never losing sight of the larger picture. It also allows for an extremely flexible urban strategy that can be reprocessed instantaneously giving a new urban model if other external factors are integrated into the system or need to be accounted for avoiding failed urban strategies. Finally it allows for easy digital integration with other physical computing hardware such as the arduino which can have further benefits. We have looked at a large amount of architectural work that adopts this methodology of data processing to inform design in particular ETH Zurich CAAD and their own Kaisersrot programme they have developed. This methodology takes advantage of a computers processing power and utilises it as an activated tool as this process of design is something the human brain would find impossible. We feel that this approach gives a truly emergent culture in urban design that is far more sensitive and flexible then traditional urban models.

Algorithmic Architecture - Kostas Terzidis

D.O.A (dead or alive) Below are stills of a basic cellular automata script being run, this is not an urban model, but decisions are made within the script to what the cells state should be (dead or alive), it process the information after each iteration, what state the cell is around it and how many neighbouring cells it has this information is then processed and the appropriate action is taken based in the rules. For this particular model the rules are if x has exactly 2 or 3 neighbours live if x has doesn’t have exactly 2 or 3 neighbours die. This is a very simple script but again something the human brain finds almost impossible to process, although the first experiments by John Conway were run analogue, the computer greatly speeds up this very simple process. As you can see because it is making decisions on the cells state with more information about the cells state this can be evolved into an urban design tool. A cellular automata works on an individual cells state which is determined by is neighbourhood of cells the one cell is in but the individual cell also has an effect on the whole neighbourhood. Each cell and each neighbourhood is in competition with one another to reach an optimised state until it is solved. Firstly what one cell is and what one cell is in relation to a neighbourhood of cells. As the script works on a radius the neighbourhood can be any size.

16 mm 16 mm

radius 22mm

10 mm

Grid 17x17

1st itteration

2nd itteration

3rd itteration

4th itteration

5th itteration

6th itteration

7th itteration


Regularity in patterns is failed when orientating all aspects around this trivial matter. “The Wittgenstein house in Vienna is the showpiece for an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to regularly organise dimensions, at all level of detail, inside as well as out – a tasked doomed to failure, as long as one is working with trivial, regular, and predictable patterns like those found in wallpaper.”2 The front cover of the thesis was derived from randomised radii in a cellular automata script as describe in the previous page. It takes inspiration from the ‘millipede’ programme developed by ETH. Beyond the grid front cover pattern created from ‘millipede’ programme

Randomised radii

Cover area

Initial states

Randomised states

Beyond the grid - Architecture and information technology, applications of a digital architectonic – ETCH Zurich CAAD – Marjus Braach and Oliver Konigs

Existing programme

Dead space

Car parks




Public attractions





Fruit market



Public green space

Existing programme analysis Existing programme in the area was mapped

The Grid

Selected area for redevelopment

Grid overlaid on the sample area. The grid size (7500m2) was chosen as it is smaller than the OS grid and allows for more detail in further steps

Cells vs Neighbourhoods Scale 1 : 6000

The area of one cell is exactly 7500m2

Neighbourhood of cells radius 95 meters. Total cells in neighbourhood = 7 cells

Neighbourhood of cells is radius based therefore a neighbourhoods size and amount of cells can vary, radius = 190 meters. Total cells in neighbourhood = 19 cells

Existing programme in one cell

Existing programme in a neighbourhood of cells

Percentage process and percentage Hull

Cell area 7500m2 Sample cell Green space area - 1444m² Residentail area - 909m² 12% Residential 20% Green space 68% Dead space

R - Residential G - Green space D - Dead space Re - Religion C - Commercial Ch - Charities I - Industrial If - Infrastructure P - Public attractions L - Leisure C - Car parks T - Transport links E - Education

Hulls existing programme in each cell converted into a percentage which reflects the total area the programme occupies in a cell

100% Hull

Dead space

Car parks




Public attractions





Fruit market



Public green space

Predominant programme converted into 100% to determine cells state, this was no progressed as it is a far less sensitive model than constituent percentages.

Organising 100% Hull and its failures

Below are initial test scripts to redistributes Hull’s initial 100% cell state programme. This was a valid starting point to understand scripting and computation as a design strategy but it was ultimately a step to far on from the percentage model. This is because it is less sensitive due to the 100% make up of each cell and it does not produce either a feasible or realistic urban strategy. Another drawback with this model is that it bases its cellular states on the dead or alive principle which results in a large amount of dead space. Due to these reasons we will refer back to the Hull percentage model to progress the design intention and obtain more rigorous and realistic urban strategies.

Current organisation

cellular of Hull

Resi x 12 Commercial x 3 and Green space x 4

Resi x 23 and Green space x 4

Resi x Industry

12 x

and 34

Resi x 12 Education x 3 and Transport x 4

Resi x Commercial


23 4

Analogue cellular model

Physical analogue model of 100% cell states, this explored the processing capabilities of humans with the design proposal in its simplest form (100%) and also looked at the possibility of creating a 3d cellular automata. Ultimately the data was processed by the computer and then organised manually.








Reorgansied Hull’s cells based on industry and residentail predominating

Hull’s inital state

Exploring the possiblility of a three dimensional cellular automata

Human U city & Physically integrated

The human body relays information information constantly with no restrictions when external forces are induced upon the individual, all of this transfer of information is undertaken in order to return the body to homeostasis. The bloods acid levels increase therefore the lungs take in more oxygen to reduce these levels, information is detected and transfer with the appropriate resultant response. A Ubiquitous city model bases its ideologies on the levelling of information across all sectors in order to improve urban efficiency.

Brain regulating chemical imbalances

Ship cross section from “The Radiant City� by Le Corbusier. It is based on a ship model as a simple flow of information on across all levels is needed in order for the machine to work at an optimum state.




5 minute city

Increased transport

Ubiquitous city




Increased physical and digital conectivity

C o n o r A d a m As a human body can detect these changes based on simple chemical imbalances in the body it now makes sense to integrate people digitally into an urban network which monitors these chemical imbalances and produces the appropriate response to deal with these imbalances. The digitally integrated people now directly inform the urban context that they reside in.

Net Neutrality Is a principle proposed for users' access to networks participating in the internet. The principle advocates no restrictions by Internet service providers and governments on content, sites, platforms, the kinds of equipment that may be attached, and the modes of communication. This non restricted flow of digital information is a policy that will need to be installed in the proposed urban system

Urban Tool

Tool in action The urban tool that has been developed allows for individual ideologies or existing urban ideologies to be played out based on the set parameters and the base data (existing programme percentages) which is the cells initial state. The programme is based on a percentage make up of cells and the initial stats of the cells that has been recorded. This percentage make up then reacts with individual cells and neighbourhoods with respects to individual ideologies that are entered into the interface. The programme then runs to solve the information based on simple actions, ba sically, if the cell is this do this action if not then do this action. The cells try to obtain an optimized state until the whole group of cells are optimized with one another, then the problem has been solved. The programme provides an interface that allows for individual manipulation of the percentage parameters and will run the specified number of iterations, this scenario is then played out in real time and can then be analysed after the iterations are completed. The analysis consists of a gradient system that highlights the amount of that specific programme in the selected cell, white 100% and Black 0%. This data can then be given back as a numerical percentage and area which the specific programme occupies of the selected cell. Below are still of the urban tool in use;


Deafualt states


Individual manipulation

Check to see total is 100% exactly

How much % is greater or less than 100%

100% confirmed

5 minute city percentages

Venus project percentages

U city percentages

number of desired iterations


Still of script r u n n i n g

Pixilate polygons

Gradient programme per c e l l

Cell selected and m2 of programe given


Video of urban tool inside back leaf

Default Hull

This was a study undertaken to comparing Hulls existing percentage programme compared to minimum government standards that are suggested for an almost basic quantifiably successful urban strategy. The findings highlighted that Hull was far below these minimum standards, therefore the urban tool that redistributes existing programme and highlights what needs to be introduced in order for Hull to be minimally successful based on obtaining the correct programme percentage ratios with the residing population of Hull.

total pop 156,925/243,595 = 64%, 5311 = 3399 car park: min 17.26m person for hu1+2 = 58666m sq 2.3% per person of each 78 polygons total

15-64: 64% of sq per polygon

Industrial: min 9.2m sq max: 27.8m sq per person for hu1+2 = 48861m sq 3.7% per person of each polygon 65 polygons total

Total pop non drivers: 36% of 243,595 = 87694 36% of 5311 =1911 bus stop area min: 4.3m sq 50% bus tram stop area min: 6.8m sq 50% tram for hu1+2 = 2412m sq 32 polygons total

Public attractions min: 1.1m sq max: 4.2m sq per person for hu1+2 = 12746m sq 0.6% per person of each polygon 7 polygons total

Commercial: min: 10m sq per person for hu1+2 = 53110m sq 1.3% per person of each polygon 71 polygons total

Residential floor space per person: max: 69m sq min: 10m sq for hu1+2 = 366459m sq 9.2% per person of each polygon 489 polygons total 71 polygons total

Leisure: min: 1.3m sq max: 4.6m sq per person for hu1+2 = 6904m sq 0.6% per person of each polygon 9 polygons total

Green space: min: 1.77 hectares per thousand (0.00177 per person) = 17.7m sq for hu1+2 = 94005m sq 2.36% per person of each polygon 125 polygons total

Religion: church: min 0.4m sq max: 1.8m sq per person for hu1+2 = 2124m sq 3 polygons total islamic: min: 1.4m person for hu1+2 = 7435m sq 10 polygons total



Infrastructure: min: 10m sq per person for hu1+2 = 53110m sq 1.3% per person of each polygon 71 polygons total

Education: min: 2m sq max: 3m sq per person for hu1+2 = 10622m sq 0.2% per person of each polygon 14 polygons total

hinduism: min: 0.17m sq max: 0.76m sq per person for hu1+2 = 902m sq 1 polygons total buddism: min: 0.07m sq max: 0.32m sq per person for hu1+2 = 371m sq 0.5 polygons total sikkism: min: 0.03m sq max: 0.14m sq per person for hu1+2 = 159m sq 0.2 polygons total judaism: min: 0.03m sq max: 0.14m sq per person for hu1+2 = 159m sq 0.2 polygons total

Current hull The amount a cell is modified / distorted relates to the percentage amount a particular programme occupies that particular cell

Fillet - Religion Melt - Infrastructure Spherify - Transport Radius - Dead Taper - Education Skew - Liesure Bend - Industry Twist - Commercial Colour - Green space Height - Residential

Hull replaned to the minimum standards (default hull)

Extreme Hull

Urban models were chosen with the most extreme realistic programme predominating, an urban model has been spatially automated for each major programme that has been mapped in hull 80% Religion

80% Leisure

80% Green space

80% Industry

80% Residential

80% Commercial

80% Infrastructure

80% Education

Default Height

c e l l state









Spherify Colour

Infrastruc- Leisure Education CommercialIndustry Transport G r e e n ture space



Venus Project

Venus Project - Jeque Fresco The Venus project is a resource based economy model, it redefines what motivates its inhabitants, with this social reformation it looks to eradicate completely undesirable behaviour. This is achieved the scarcity of resources being eliminated, the financial scarcity / worries of people no longer exist as currency does not exist. As currency is no longer the main motivational factor in life people have alternative motivations in order to better one another’s life. Currency is obsolete due to the automation of most infrastructural requirements. There is an abundance of resources in the Venus project unlimited energy and all mundane tasks are automated giving people more time to carry out activities of interest putting a greater emphasis on quality of life. Transportation also has a vital significance in the Venus project, it redefines how people circulate not only around the city but globally. The Venus project is a technocentrically orientated project, the advancements of technology are integrated in order to enrich individual lives not to result in redundancy of human skills. The technological systems are put in place to self organise and help day to day routines. Hierarchy of rules and percentages Public green space - 26% Residential - 21% Leisure - 18% Education - 11% Commercial - 8% Transportation - 6% Public attractions - 4% Infrastructure - 3% Industry - 3% Car parks - 0% Charities - 0% Religion - 0% Dead space - 0%

(Religion is not apart of this model of life as it is seen as a controlling factor that ultimately restricts the human capacity, and charities are no longer needed as there is an abundance of all resource and a necessity of non.)

U city

Ubiquitous City or U-city Is a city or region with ubiquitous information technology. All information systems are linked, and virtually everything is linked to an information system through technologies.

This urban ideology is closely linked to the design strategy that is being explored as there is a continuous flow of unrestrained information on all levels that continually informs the urban context to achieve an optimised model. This produces a context that is in a state of constant flux in order to meet the alternating demands. The demands are based on the data that is collected from its inhabitants, the context is updated and alters in real time based on this closed loop system of inhabitants, data and resulting design. The system does not have to remain as closed loop system as it is based on adjustable parameters therefore new factors can be compensated for or redundant ones removed, this can be done manually but can also be automated. The system / algorithms can be genetically programmed or evolve new rules, this results in the computational system self optimising and creates new rules based on the ‘fitness’ of previous generations.

This approach is totally technocentrically orientated in terms of the design process and how it is then constructed. The construction process looks at possibilities of 3d printing buildings and constituent parts. It bases this possibility on the research carried out by Neri Oxman and MIT and Enrico Dini’s D-printing

U city (Songdo City Korea)




Total area 366,472 m2 Charities - Na

Commercial - 29,164 m2 8%

Dead space - 0

Bus stops total 35

Education - 23,596 m2 7%

Public Green space - 121,005 m2 33%

Industrial - 6,630 m2 2%

Infrastructure - 27,389 m2 8%

Leisure - 11,749 m2 3.2%

Public attractions - 11,302 m2 3%

Residential - 43,316 m2 12%

Transport links - 102,899 m2 28% Total 116%, this is because certain attributes (subway) are not on the same level therefore the constituant areas are greater than the overall area 366,472 m2

Songdo City total area = 366,472 m2 (cycle path areas apart of roads therefore not taken into account in final total)

Songdo City total cycle path area = 8,605 m2 2%

Songdo City total subway area = 102,899 m2 3%

U City automated Hull as a Ubiquitous city Percentages were taken from Songdo city and entered into the cellular automata script for hull, the image below is a still taken after 50 iterations

5 Minute City automated

Hull as a 5 Minute city Percentages were taken from Winny Maas 5 minute city and entered into the cellular automata script for hull, the image below is a still taken after 50 iterations

Hierarchy of rules and percentages Residentail 13% Public green space 22% Commercial 10% Industry 10% Religion 2% Infrastructure 13% Transport 6% Education 5% Leisure 6% Carparks 0% Dead space 0% Charities 0%

Original neighbourhood

5 Minute city neighbourhood

Individual ideologies Hierarchy of rules and percentages Public green space - 23% Residential - 19% Transportation - 15% Leisure - 13% Education - 11% Commercial - 10% Industry - 5% Infrastructure - 4% Religion - 1% Public attractions - 0% Car parks - 0% Charities - 0% Dead space - 0%

Default Height

c e l l state









Spherify Colour

Infrastruc- Leisure Education CommercialIndustry Transport G r e e n ture space



The percentages chosen encompass all previous ideologies that have been analysed, transport / physical connectivity was of particular importance because this factor would become very significant if an urban context could be specially distributed over multiple planes, transport is now just restricted to ground floor in a city context, the transport links are the structural fabric the encapsulate built form and programme. This complexity in space will not be maze like, with HU1 and HU2 existing wifi infrastructure in place updated information can be accessed at all times to give the quickest and most efficient route to be taken to access the abundant leisure and green space programme

Selected area

Existing programme in chosen area The sample area was chosen as it is large enough for multiple neighbourhoods to be accounted for. This area was chosen due to the already existing diversity in programme which therefore had a greater complexity to be solved from its initial state to meet the requirements of the cells reprogrammed state.

Scale 1:10000

Virtual model of existing programme in selected area

Selected area existing percentages

Existing percentage make up of each cell in the selected area. The neighbourhood size chosen is below

Scale 1:10000

Scale 1:10000

Selected area process

5 minute city percentage make up of each cell in the selected area, below is the process undertaken for manually re-planning the selected area, The programme is redistributed around the existing road infrastructure.

Scale 1:10000

Existing cell arrangement

5 Minute City percentages 10 % Green = 453 m2 3% Dead space = 136 m2 7% Industry = 317 m2 80% Resi = 3620 m2 -Average house footprint = 110 m2 - Average houses per cell = 9 Therefore if available area x / average house area y < 9 flats area created to meet this number

Current percentages

Existing road area

Cell total area = 7500 m² Total road area = 2975 m² Total area available = 4525 m²

Cell replanned according to 5 minute percentages

Scale 1:10000

Selected area re-planned

Selected area re-planned This stage was a manual process of re-planning the selected area based on the area provided for each programme per cell (the percentage make up per cell gave a maximum area foot print). Residential units could be stacked in order to meet requirements, on average 9 detached residential units occupied a cell, if the prescribe area / average residential area (110m2) was greater than 9 then the cell could have single homes, if not flats would be created. The re-planning is based on a 5 minute city

Existing cell with highlighted programme

Cell re-planned with highlighted programme 5 minute city percentages

Scale 1:10000

10% Green space = 453m2 3% Dead space = 136m2 7% Industry = 317m2 80% Residential = 3620m2

Virtual model of Hull as a 5 minute city in selected area

Although this is a manual attempt at re-planning Hull around an urban ideology an automated methodology can be carried out also. This method of working has been rigorously explored by ETH and their work compiled in the book Beyond the Grid and their own Kaisersrot programme. Building forms are generated by a more detailed programme then our explorations and can account for multiple factors, allowing for a greater amount of work at a larger scale to be taken on.

Old and New Hull Existing visual of Hull and the residing programme

Proposed visual of Hulls redevelopment based on Hull as a 5 minute city, it highlights a greater diversity in programme that can be reached within a 5 minute walking distance from one another

Automated planning

A basic attempt at automating planning and form finding has been carried out, the height and foot print relates to the percentage programme in a particular cell, again this methodology responds the cellular automata process which is a neighbourhood affects a cell, a cell affects a whole neighbourhood and ultimately the whole urban context.

Automated form generation with 5 minute city ideology implemented

Automated form generation with residential programme predominating

Automated form generation with industrial programme predominating

Visualisations of automated planning with Hulls road infrastructure based on the New York city model to make Hull a true 5 minute city

Beyong the Grid - by ETH

Beyond the Grid â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Architecture and Information Technology, Applications of a Digital Architectonic This is a body of work published by ETH under the guidance of Ludger Hovestadt over a period of 10 years. This is of particular interest as they are contemporary institute that branch out regularly into cross disciplinary fields of research that are technology based with the aim of increasing their own knowledge and the possibilities of how a future urban context is designed, constructed and also what systems can be integrated into the fabric of a city, with a data lead approach. They have worked with arduinos as data receivers and action producers, they have developed multiple programmes that are used as urban design tools that setup frameworks that can be distributed out of their own institute. Below are some projects carried out by ETH. 1


A selection of projects by ETH 1 - The Organisation of Plots ETH developed their own Kaisersrot programme to distribute the spatial organisation of plots taking into account the requirements of future residents. 2 - From Inside and Outside Collaboration with Herzog & de Meuron, the facade was automated to realise the structural requirements 3 - Cities Negotiating A the building forms were automated for a plot in Zurich, Zurich has strict light control and the forms mainly conform to this restriction including many other factors


Streets in the Sky

A reactive urban context that meets the demands of its inhabitants in real time, this concept is based on the work by Soo-in yang and David Benjamin and there projects such as Living city, and work by Philip Beesley and his projects Hylozoic ground.

It employs the combination of an urban context being digitally designed (parametrically modelled) with bottom up principles that are based on the parameters/information obtained from its inhibitors, climatic, economical conditions etc of a specific context, along with the use of programmes that can monitor evaluate and react in real time to changing conditions. Certain programmes structurally evaluate designs and self design the structural members therefore it can bridge a gap and also react and manipulate a physical member to the required optimal form meet the structural demands when its form alter to meet real time changes in climate or user input etc.

It adopts the ideas of Peter and Alison Smithson such as Golden Lane in London and The Park Hill scheme by Jack Lynn and Ivor Smith and their concepts of streets in the sky, the urban context can become an adaptable mesh that is no longer confined to a 2d plane of current cityscapes. These networks of travel are in a constant state of flux that react on a micro scale (user) in order to create optimal travel routes whilst also maintaining its form manipulation with respect to macro factors that it will impede on when constantly altering its form. Spatial complexity can now be achieved via a three dimensional cellular automata being implemented as it works on radius proximity. Due to planning now being automated we no longer have to be restricted to singular planar context effectively the computer is carrying out the same process but with more information, this process can lead to a super network of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;streets in the skyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; that span beyond the ideology of the Smithsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not only being confined to housing complexes but integrates into a cities urban fabric of transport. Combine this automation of planning from ETH with the physical construction of the urban context being carried out via 3d printing explored by Neri Oxman and MIT results in a inhabitable space that mimics that of crystal growth or complex eco systems that are all rooted to very simple rules of a cellular automata that produces a far more complex but more accurate and reactive urban context that has ever been produced.

Spatial complexity explored

3D cellular automata A basic three dimensional cellular automata has been shown below, it works on the same principle as before as it uses neighbourhoods defined in a radius proximity therefore it is quite easily applied to a 3d cellular automata without changing any rules. The significance though is the final forms are more complex than the initial 2d forms but just as rigorously produced when the same procedures are taken, this can then be extrapolated up to have urban contexts on multiple planes because it effectively just stacks existing programmes and produces new urban models in three dimensions. Although this is a holistic approach to design and is kinetic in its approach it still produces static end results, it does not utilise its maximum potential. This approach no longer needs to be confided to a virtual world of computers, it can be integrated into the physical with the aid of physical computation hardware such as microprocessors and arduino interfaces. This hardware can be used as data receivers and action implementers based on the source information they are connected to, this makes HU1 and HU2 an ideal test ground for this technology to be integrated due to the already existing digital infrastructure present and Hulls very own phone line system. The urban environment mimics that of a human body, the data receivers mimic that of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors that are found in the body that rely information to the brain in order to produce the appropriate reaction to return the body to homeostasis. Basic 3d cellular automata

Box made up of multiple boxes of 8x8x8 each box is 16x16x10

still after itterations

Existing hull cells with default programme states

existing stacked 4


cells layers

still after itterations


Radius of cell responds to required area of programme, crystalline structure can then be created based on this

Printing Structure

This ideology is based on the explorations carried out by Neri Oxman in collaboration with MIT and Enrico Dini and his work with D printing. The significance of this technology it can be integrated into a data oriented system that creates form based on data lead design.

Technology developed by Neri OXman and MIT

3d Printed pavillion by technology developed by Enrico Dini (D Printing)

3d Printed ball beaing track Constituent parts can also be printed that allows for physical movement with these homogenous material structures

Crystal Castles 0.1

Tessellation This was an experiment carried out that looked at spatial complexity developed through simple tessellation of very basic geometric forms. It is a development of Aranda and Lasch explorations into crystalline structures that can self organise, in particular those of quasicrystalline structures that can self organise and never have one component the same as the other but still tessellate exactly. The analogue model components are all different but this is due to human error and is tessellated with one another with best fit, it is neither intentional nor self organising, this is virtually impossible for a human to achieve on a greater scale and this experiment is carried out in its simplest form, this process must therefore be totally automated form digital planning through to construction. It explores potential form generations within a cell

Crystal castles 0.2 Visualisation of an urban fractal system, geometry can be divided into one another to meet the required area for a specific programme. The fractals are then tessellated and stacked to for habitable urban crystal castles that are specially organised by our developed programme



Density of the crystalline structure will respond to topological and geographical factors, a more hilly terrain will produce a super structure that is structurally denser as it will dissipate its load over multiple facets. A more humid climate may produce a structure that is more porous with more shading to cool air flow as it travels through the super structure. Minimal structure may be required on inland flat topographies as there is very little external forces induced on the structure such as wind and the flat topography results in a simpler structure being produced.


Superstructure that responds in real time to required programme, the super stucture is 3d printed

The structure does not remain unchanged, it is a data collector and can densify and alter according to induced factors, it mimics the functions of human bones that create more vaults to strength itself when regular stress is induced upon itself and eradicates these vaults if less stress is induced, this results in a self regulating material efficiency, the homogenous material is incorporated into a system that optimally manages itself as to how much material is needed for any give situation Structure printed according to spatial automated plates, the plates percentage programme are based on the rules in the cellular automata

UniBodies, Patterns with Kreysler & Associates, 2006 Homogenous materiality study, material density controls the light intensity the penetrates the structure

Circulation routes on multiple planes connecting cells that in a three dimensional crystalline structure

Crystal castles 0.4 Final visualisations of urban crystal growth, its urban fabric looks to streamline physical connectivity and house urban context over many levels, the final structure can be printed and deprinted allowing for a context that grows around the inhabitants and their specific requirements




Denise Yu Kan

Conor Black and Adam Blaney

Aaron Jones

Scott Desert

Yogesh Mistry

Rob Glass

Jamie Richardson

Steve Drew

Rosalba Ramirez

Emergent Urbanism walk and talk presentation Emergent Urbanism is - Danny Richards, Vik Kaushal, Yogesh Mistry, Steve Drew, Rob Barker, Jamie Richardson, Mark Ferguson, Rosalba Ramirez, Conor Black, Ben Danks, Aaron Jones, May Tsang, Adam Blaney, Rob Glass, Denise Yu Kan and Scott Desert May Tsang

Prototype 0.2

Prototype 0.2 is a physical representation of the cellular automata redistribution tool. 6 cells have been physically constructed and are their physical appearance is manipulated, these manipulations are in the form of led intensity height and sound, all these manipulations are governed by the cells state after one iteration in which multiple iterations occur.

Digital model of final physical model

Final model at current testing stage in which the cells height is governed manually by a potentiometer, this stage is to make sure that all cams line up before applying the script to automate movement. The model has been digitally fabricated as much as possible, this is to ensure the greatest amount of accuracy, as soon as a component is not in sync with another the system fails as it is magnified greatly when moving


workshop This workshop was organised by MAB LAB and explored basic uses and scripts for arduinos, this is a physical computing exercise that integrates hardware with scripting langue that allows for responsive mechanical systems to be integrated into a design proposal

Single led blinking on and off

int ledPin = 0; // we expect an LED connected to the arduino’s digital pin 10 void setup() { // set up our pin - setup runs when power is connected pinMode( ledPin, OUTPUT); pinMode( 1, OUTPUT);

Two led’s blinking on and off can alter frequency and time the stay on

Led intensity controlled by a variable resistor (potentiometer)

int ledPin = 0; // we expect an LED connected to the arduino’s digital pin 10

int ledPin = 3; // pin 3 supports Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) int pPin = A0; // pin A0 is an analog input pin from the potentiometer

void setup() { // set up our pin - setup runs when power is connected pinMode( ledPin, OUTPUT); pinMode( 1, OUTPUT); } void loop() { // loop runs continuously, as long as power is connected digitalWrite( ledPin, HIGH ); digitalWrite( 1, LOW ); delay( 500 ); digitalWrite( ledPin, LOW ); digitalWrite( 1, HIGH ); delay( 500 ); }

Led intensity controlled by a light detector

int pValue = 0; // storage for our potentiometer reading void setup() { // configure our pins pinMode ( ledPin, OUTPUT ); // we don't need to configure analog pins, as they're always input } void loop() { // read the potentiometer and send to output pin pValue = analogRead( pPin ); // analog input gives us a value between 0 and 1023 // analog write for PWM should be between 0 and 255 // to scale 0-1024 to 0-255, we divide by 4. analogWrite( ledPin, pValue/4); // wait a few milliseconds to allow the system to stabilise delay(10); }

int pPin = A0; // pin A0 is an analog input pin from the potentiometer int pValue = 0; // storage for our potentiometer reading void setup() { // initialize the serial communication: Serial.begin(9600); } void loop() { // read the potentiometer and send it through serial pValue = analogRead( pPin ); Serial.println( pValue ); // print the value to the serial port // wait a few milliseconds to allow the system to stabilise delay( 10 ); }

Cellular City  

Urban contexts programme governed by cellular automata, the user interface allows for individual ideologies to be processed and an emergent...

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