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Management Skills for Archivists and Records Managers Session - Change Management and Advocacy 23 February 2011 10.00 – 11.00 Birkbeck College lecture theatre B04

Adam Blackie MBA ACMA a.blackie@websmartgroup.co.uk


Change Management • People and Individuals • Leadership of Change • Groups and Teams • Summary • Reasons for change - Restructure - Culture - Merger/Acquisition


INDIVIDUAL CHANGE (Theory Types)

BEHAVIOURAL

COGNITIVE

(Changes what you do)

(Motivating for results)

PSYCHODYNAMIC

HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY

(What’s going on for you)

(Maximising your own potential)


COMPETENCE (Gestalt Style)


Learning Cycle (Kolb style) Experience (Start here) Experiments

Reflection Theories (or Start here)

Encourage New Activities Design Toolkits to experiment

Question and Analyse what is going on Research new ideas


Motivation “People do things because they want to” – Adam Blackie 2007

(A)Behavioural Theories: ( Changing what you do ) 1. Theory ‘X’ & Theory ‘Y’ – McGregor 1960 (Stick & Carrot?) 2. Hygiene Factors and Motivators – Herzberg 1950 -1960 (Removing Barriers?)


Motivation (B) Cognitive Theories: ( Motivating for results ) Aaron Beck – 1970

SELF CONCEPT & VALUES

BELIEFS

ATTITUDES

FEELINGS

BEHAVIOUR

RESULTS


(C) Psychodynamic: ( Whats going on for you? )

1. Reactions to change – Kubler - Ross 1969

S E L F E S T E E M

Denial Anger

Acceptance Bargaining Depression TIME


(C) Psychodynamic: ( Whats going on for you? ) 2. Reactions to change – Adams, Hayes & Hopson 1976 S E L F

E S T E E M C O N F I D E N C E M O R A L E

Integration Discovery Denial Shock

Experimentation

Anger

Acceptance Bargaining Depression TIME


(C) Psychodynamic: ( Whats going on for you? ) 3. Reactions to change – Satir 1991 & see also Wernberg 1977

P E R F O R M A N C E

NEW STATUS QUO

FOREIGN ELEMENT OLD STATUS QUO

IDEAS INTEGRATION PRACTICE CHAOS

TIME


(D) Humanistic Approach: ( Maximising your own potential ) 1. Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow 1970

Self Actualisation Self Esteem Needs Love and Belonging Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs


(D) Humanistic Approach: ( Maximising your own potential ) 2. Gestalt Approach to Change – Fritz Perls 1976

AWARENESS

ENERGY/ACTION

CONTACT

RESOLUTION

(ANALYSIS/ DATA)

(MOBILISE)

(OTHERS/ TEAMS)

(DO STUFF)

“Get out of your mind and come to your senses” – Fritz Perls


PEOPLE & PERSONALITIES Personality Types – Myers Briggs (E) Extraversion (S) Sensing (T) Thinking (J) Judging

Intraversion (I) Intuition (N) Feeling (F) Perceiving (P)

Useful Change Groups IS = Thoughtful Realists – cautious and careful – “If it isn’t broke don’t fix it” IN = Thoughtful Innovators – generates new ideas – “Let’s think ahead” ES = Action Oriented Realist – energy and enthusiasm – “Let’s just do it” EN = Action Oriented Innovators – enthusiastic for change – “Let’s change it”


PEOPLE & PERSONALITIES Personality Types - LIFO – Life Orientation Preferences “people prefer some behavioural styles more than others.” (SG) The supporting / giving-in orientation - Harmony (CT) The controlling / taking-over orientation - Action (CH) The conserving / holding-on orientation - Reason (AD) The adapting / dealing-away orientation – Excellence Some are more change oriented than others.


People and Individuals Summary Changing values and behaviours Achieving a change affects three dimensions of the individual

Physical

Emotional

Intellectual

People need to be competent in a new way of working

Change is understood to be an urgent need

There is a clear rationale for the proposed changes that makes standing still not an option


Change Management • People and Individuals • Leadership of Change • Groups and Teams • Summary


MANAGING CHANGE . “Those who make it happen. Those who let it happen. Those who wonder what happened” - ANON


MANAGING CHANGE 1. 5 factors in responding to change – Cameron & Green 2004 . 3. ORGANISATIONAL HISTORY

2. CONSEQUENCES OF CHANGE

RESPONSE TO CHANGE

1. NATURE OF CHANGE

4. TYPES OF INDIVIDUALS

5. INDIVIDUAL HISTORIES


MANAGING CHANGE 2. Schein’s Model – Lewin / Schein 1980 - 2000

UNFREEZE:

LEARNING:

REFREEZE:

CREATE MOTIVATION TO CHANGE

NEW CONCEPTS (AND NEW MEANINGS FOR OLD CONCEPTS)

INTERNALISING NEW CONCEPTS AND CHANGE


LEADERSHIP Business Goals

OUTCOMES

LEADERSHIP

INTERESTS

EMOTIONS

Influence, Authority & Power

Enable people & culture change


BALANCE OF LEADERSHIP


LEADERSHIP CONFLICT • • • • • • • • • • •

Build close relationships and keep your distance Lead from the front and hold oneself back Trust your staff and keep an eye on what’s happening Be tolerant and exercise control Achieve your team’s goals and be loyal to the organisation Plan your time well and be flexible with your schedule Express your view and be diplomatic Be a visionary and keep your feet on the ground Win consensus and be able to cut to the chase Be dynamic and reflective Be sure of yourself and be humble


RESISTANCE

“I cannot understand why my staff are not wholeheartedly embracing my changes” – any number of CEO’s 1920 – 2010

People often say they do not like change. What they are really trying to say is that they do not want change thrust upon them.


RESISTANCE 1. SCHEIN’S MODEL (SIMPLIFIED)

SURVIVAL ANXIETY > LEARNING ANXIETY Then...

LEARNING ANXIETY MUST BE REDUCED This is all about psychological safety


Change Management • People and Individuals • Leadership of Change • Groups and Teams • Summary


TEAMS vs. GROUPS SAMPLE DEFINITIONS GROUP – “any number of people who interact with each other, are psychologically aware of each other, and who perceive themselves to be a group” – Schein and Bennis 1965 TEAM – “A distinguishable set of two or more individuals who interact interdependently and adaptively to achieve specified, shared and valued objectives” – Morgan et al 1986 WORK TEAM – “A group of individuals who share responsibility for outcomes for their organisations” – Sundstrom, de Meuse and Futrell 1990


TEAM DEVELOPMENT 1. Bion 1961

Dependency

Fight or Flight

Pairing

Leaders selected and have power and authority

The team challenges the leaders and other members – some leave

Team members form alliances and groups to resolve anxieties


TEAM DEVELOPMENT 2. Tuckman 1965

FORMING

STORMING

NORMING

PERFORMING

Purpose Structure Roles Leader etc

Dealing with the emerging conflicts

Agreeing and collaboration

Getting on with it


TEAM DEVELOPMENT 3. Scott Peck 1990

Pseudocommunity

Chaos

Emptiness

Community

Members fake teamliness

Pecking order and team names established

Abandon assumptions and expectations

Accept each other and get on with tasks


Change Management • People and Individuals • Leadership of Change • Groups and Teams • Summary


ADKAR Change Readiness Model

Prosci 1996-2010


Good change managers will therefore: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Create a compelling vision Train staff Involve the staff in change planning Create groups around the change Provide coaches, feedback Acknowledge positive behaviours Provide support groups and sub groups Reward teamwork, innovation, risk taking Develop, involve, empower Aim high Get the rewards strategy right Link goals to motivation

• • • • • • • •

Treat people as individuals and understand their emotional motivators Believe that people want to grow and develop Encourage flexibility Create flexible structures Hold regular one to one meetings Individually praise all (especially junior) staff Invent Specialist Staff Grades Make sure staff and managers know what decisions they can take without reference to a senior manager


Change Management in Practice

• • • • • •

Practical change management is most often a mixture of the following elements: Technology Commercial Principles Business processes Human nature and interactions Legal contracts Money

• • • • •

It is generally affected by: Politics Personal ambition Financial pressures Accountability Desires to deliver and achieve

• • • •

• • • • •

Change often goes wrong due to: Over-expectation Un co-ordinated decision making Lack of clear objectives Cost reductions without a corresponding reduction in scope

The above is driven by senior staff responsible approving change , thus a change manager also needs to be a: Politician Psychologist Business analyst Project manager Diplomat


Manage Your Stakeholders Target

Impact on Target

Typical Reaction

Their Influence

How to Approach

Director

HIGH New practices New technology Less resource

BLOCKER Lacks skills to cope Doesn’t believe change is necessary

HIGH Respected Speaks their mind

One to one - explain need for change Offer external coaching Publicly debate / support their views

Manager

HIGH Changes to job description Tough time scale for new systems implementation

BLOCKER Wants to develop inhouse systems

MEDIUM Controls use of systems Track record is poor

Stress opportunity to increase their influence Demonstrate change operation in other locations

Staff

MEDIUM Changes in routines Some increase in workload

FLOATERS Don’t know enough about the project Concerned about security

LOW No decision making powers BUT their cooperation is what delivers the change

Explain purpose of project Stress operational benefits of new systems / process. Involve them in design.

Support Services

HIGH Change increases the need for internal services

CHAMPIONS Enthusiasts for opportunities

LOW-MEDIUM But no one else can supply.

Involve them in design Use their skills to deliver


If You Find Yourself Leading Change • • • • • • • •

Establish a sense of urgency Form a powerful guiding coalition Create a vision Communicate that vision Empower others to act on that vision Plan for and create short-term wins Consolidate all the improvements maintain momentum Institutionalize these new approaches


Useful Reading on Change Management 1. Making Sense of Change Management by Esther Cameron and Mike Green - Change Management theory 2. The Naked Leader by David Taylor - Leadership 3. Leading Change by John Kotter - Leadership 4. Maverick by Ricardo Semler - An alternative organisational model 5. Performance Coaching: The Handbook for Managers, HR Professionals and Coaches by Angus McLeod - Leadership


Thank You Any Questions?

Adam Blackie MBA ACMA a.blackie@websmartgroup.co.uk

WebSmart ltd. – www.WebSmartgroup.co.uk/WhatWeDo.htm


Change Management Theory in Practice  
Change Management Theory in Practice  

Change Management Lecture for UCL in 2009/10/11.

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