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17

18

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XX X XX X XX X X XX X XX X XX X X XX X XX X XX X X XX X XX X XX ½ç_ì 傍 †Šß‰ 1Ò MN †fÛÞ å…^ۍ 1Ò h] ‚m‚q The article of Imran Shahid Bhender in Jadeedadab.com is indeed an eye opener. We are very well familiar with many other qualities of Narang sahib but this aspect is particulary interesting.Anyway, this is very unfortunate and plagiarism should be discouraged and condemned at every level. To achieve this goal I think wider publicity should be given to such cases.I am writing this letter to request you to allow us to reproduce the article in a new quarterly journal launched from Delhi. The journal 'Behs-o-Mubahisa' is started by a group of teachers and writers from Delhi. Asif Azmi is its editor and publisher. If you allow us, we would also like to have the matter as inpage file. I hope you would do this favour. However, if the permission is required from Imran shahid sahib, I would request you to send his email ID.

( ‹Š ) ‚mæ^q o×Â

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30

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Saussure's argument depends on the different division of the chain of meaning in different languages. ' If words stood for pre-existing concepts' they would all have exact equivalents in meaning from one language to the next; but this is not true' (Saussure, 1974: 116). The truth is that different languages divide or articulate the world in different worlds. Saussure gives a number of examples. For instance, where French has the single mouton, English differentiates between mutton, which we eat, and sheep.............(Belsey, 36-37).

" Ò5E &‡ð•Z ë@* b‹LZ ä ög Gāìt%ZzÂÿLE Ôì Š H3g¿ÌÃk½Z kZ ¯ ) !* ƪ Zî ì Hì‡W, @* tä 8 -g ** P8ͲÔì H7™wøÃáZj‰ aÐ [ÂÅçJ.c±~ " Ò5E tÔì H·_„  ZgÓZ' ,»çJ.c±äV,ZÉ H7~ .ZÐ [ÂÅ ög GäV,Z!Zj »çJ.c±ā Ô¶ ŠÃk½ZsfzgqÆ8 -g ** P8ÍXì wVãZzÅ„c* +! Š Z $ E E E Vâ ZyZÆH㨠KZæL¾¡ ~wÍZ ýL {$ ~œ,gzZy WýL {$Æ~œ,ÞZ L L gzZ ÂgzZX ¶CW7Ãe~È{i ZèðÃÅ b§Ë~kZā¶ˆƒ{g 0* {g 0* -ukZ™ J# J $~ [µ~öáZzäY7, êµ ZÆV/Ì{zÔì @* Y¹{÷ á Š !* »6¨ KZÄE&Ì,Ø{ Y &zX å 4»H X ( 34Ôm )X ÷Æ‡ Z% ƒ  t äÕMuZÔe $ŠŽzÅ+®8 g-c* ƒy—,»í éH 5kE Ô,™g¨6, k½ZkZƲj^' , Zg~~ m, ôZW

29

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P ä V,ZāÍX ì HyÒ Ð x ** LZ Â/  Š!Zj%Ãg °Z z ]c* ‹Æ kgâ Û :™gzZ ¹Zāì @* ƒC Ù ªtÐ Tì HÜV»VŽÃ]‚½Z ~ m, ôZgzZzŠg QB‚ÆáZj6,V» tÃgzZ V\ Â]Ñì z g°Z L ā L ÷ ˜ ~ d⊠X åkˆZ » ÌZ Å] ÑìÆ VzuzŠ gŠ rä 8 -g ** P 8Íāìg ãZzt VŒ X ( 14Ô m ) ó óì ~÷%Z −F, z ƒÔ ÷ÆVzi ‚ V,Z,Ž X Å ¶g Ì,Å],Œ~gz¢ä V,Z V˜gzZì ¿g}Š,ÅÃ~ /Â]‚½Zq -ZP¤ /ZXì Š HHi Z0 +ZÃ6,Y ¯ Å$c* Š ~„¹Z~y*kZì ¿g}Š ä G M E $ ¹Z6, 4¨G @* Yc* Š™iZ0 +Zà é5G Y ¯Å}Z +ÃÆ—ÂDƒKk , ’Æ,ŏ™%~gŠ rÔ G $ Ž Ôì sŠ ZáƶŠ wîh 4¨G éME 5G +' × Ãe $Zzg {”ì‡~ [Š ZzŠg Q ** ™Ù7 {Š6,Åo ÝZ ëZ âZpÔ &‡ {z´Æ ä™VÈÃysgÆ ÜÆ 8 -g ** P 8 Íä ~ ~ y*kZXì 7¿dÿLE -ZP  WXì Åc¿Ì6,V0 DgzZ ]ZŠ § ~„Æ yZÐ áZjÆ xi Z yg e â † q 7 Ô÷˜8 -g ** P8 ÍX ÷D™g¨6, ]‚½Z &‡Ô÷ ë ~gó|& tÃ{z »[Š ZāìC 2_ÎkZ L L 7fZæ ÿLE Ù ªÐøÚ~çJ.G

|¤ /ZXì ( Tautological) Ô²!* g ZƒsÜÔì C™7@»|xg à ! Š Zāí~úŠt Xì tÂì Cƒì‡)g fÆy!* i6, gîj¸Ž ªÔ÷D™/Šë»Tì |{z Š Z%~g øÐ ì C™7@» *Š kZ ~g ó|Ôā ZƒtÝZgŠÔì C™7@»|~gó|ā L ~úŠ ( Tautology) ó²!* g ZƒtL ì C Ù ª ( Constructed in Language)ì ó Cƒ ì‡)g fÆ y!* iŽ

( 78Ôm)XX X XX Xì 7¼ ZÎÆ " Ò5E Ôì —ög G+u

From this post-Saussurean perspective it is clear that the theory of literature as expressive realism is no longer tenable. The claim that a literary form reflects the world is simply tautological. If by 'the word' we understand the world we experience, the world differentiated by language, then the claim that realism reflects the world means that realism reflects the world constructed in language. This is a tautology................ (Belsey, Catherine. Critical Practice, London, Routledge, 2003, P,43)

" Ò5E ÐTì Hsv .Æ  7ÂÆ ög GÐ~kZì H `gŠ k½ZŽ ä8 -g ** P8 Í


32 IF 4&ƪ Ñ!* {gÃè X ì Š HHm, / ¤ Ð ¶ŠÔ ÷g Ñ"āŽ Ô ]‚½Z VŒÃøL G ZîÅy*X ì GG3J43XÏzg {z´Æ] Y!Zj ÐStrucuralist Poetics Å°ï** Žz9»[ !* ‰‘6,~I ï 8 5E 4»G Structuralism and [  ž; ÷¢[ !* åŠ H–6,èEjE ðzg {z´Æ kZ X ì Š HHÜ

ÔN ⠁ Û ±5k½Z WXì HÀF, ä8 -g ** P8 ÍÂ/ÂÐSemiotics GG3J4X3Ïzg L L ®wEZ !»y!* iā L ÷ñW™cÐ wìkZÆmzzgkë~KÆVzI ï IF 58E 4»G 4&L Ãy!* 6,kZ èEjE Ôì @* ™Vc* úÃ\ WLZ ¿~g ÖZ ªÔì @* Wá ~© ó øL G i ~}g 0* ~ y!* i !ŎÔì Lg Vc* úU CZg 7Z ~ y!* i !Å ~²÷ á āì Hñƒ D™†ŸZ ìB bgÌZgŠkZ~~²÷ á ( equivalence)sŠ Z%āìzz¸Xì Lg ~zq {Š c* iUÅîZ ( 140) ó Xó X X X XX Xì cgq -Z »sŠ Z%Ìe $i ZáX ÔN ⠁ Û zÂ6, k½Z ~ m, ôZkZÆTerence Hawkes[ Z

We have already noticed the argument of Jakobson's fellow Prague school critic Mukarovsky with regard to foregrounding: that the aesthetic use of language pushes into the foreground the 'act of expression' itself. Jakobson offers the more refined proposal that the metaphoric mode tends to be foregrounding in poetry, whereas the metonymic mode tends to be foregrounded in prose. This makes the operation of 'equivalence' of crucial importance to poetry........(Structuralism and semiotics, 1984, p80)

ž;@' , Æ8 -g ** P 8 Ít‹Ç»mzzg kāì ;gƒVc* útÐ]‚½ZVâzŠ Ñ!* zgq Åä™ì‡W, @* t Ð ÅÑe Xr # ™8 -g * *āìt ]!* NŠ ~ k½Z kZXì³»]ù # ™8 r -g ** Xì 7|ðÃ~ kZ²Ô÷H·_„  ZgÓZ' ,Åmzzg kā÷ìg™Òà H ãZztā HÈ ¯VŒakZ ä ¶Zg&Xì HÜÃk½ZÐ t Z íZÆp ÖZzŠ q -Z¡ä M 6,ðZzg »ÅyZÐ ä™ (Zā ǃwì »yZXì ðƒŠiu èŠ Zg Z „ @* ÃtÐ r # ™8 -g ** ānY À &ŠX ÇñY 7,{Š6, ÒÃÅä™spÐ ó!LÐZ8 -g ** gzZì @* ™wEZ » ó C1)L¾; õ/GŸG ž{zāì }Y {zèY Ô Ì¾; gzZ ÷ ìg™wEZ » +zZz Ìr # ™8 -g ** X ÷ D™ ÐáZjÆðZzg »År # ™8 -g ** [Ât¦ù¨Xì Le** ™wEZ“ gzZVYÃb ˜Z {Š c* i·_»[ÂkZ ž; B‚B‚ÆÃvŠ {zāceÃ~g ‡Æy*kZXì ëZ e $. Levi straus, Barthes,Greimasä8 -g ** ›{z´ÆÜsw/swÅ[ !* kZèYñ™Ðz ]‚½Zx Ó6, VŒXì HÜÐ ( 87X 196Ôm)[ÂÏZ ž;Š Zñx ÓŠ H–6, TodorovgzZ

~g‡āì 4akZX 7Š°** ™yâ ‚ »? Ø Â Z™aÆ~g ‡™}Š wîÃy*Æ™ `gŠÃ À & ÔmÔ8 -g ** ) õ/GŸGŠ aÆ [!* ‰ ‘6,V»Ñ {z´Æ kZX}™Ýq ð‚g J - ù Zg f ÝZŠp

31 The last half of the nineteenth century and the last half of the twentieth were charecterized by the fragmentation of knowledge into isolated disciplines so formidable in their specialization as to seem beyond all synthesis. Even philosophy, the queen of the human sciences, came down from her throne to play solitary word games. Both the languagephilosophy of Wittgenstein and the existentialism of the Continental thinkers are philosophy of retreat......(Scholes, Structuralism in Literature, New York, Vail-Ballou Press,1974, p,1)

Y &zäVrZā÷ìg™ÒÃÅä™" 4»H ¤ ZXì H·_»í éH / 5kE $U* tr # ™8 -g** Ð k½ZkZ Y &zŠpt 4»H Š NZ¢ 6,²jä VrZpD™~ .Z ò}Zh +÷ á ÂD ⠁ Û Øi Åä™·_»+ éH 5kE KZ ä r # ™8 -g ** Ð [ Ñ!* {gÃèŲj^' , ZgX ~Š ⠁ Û «wî„à ò}ÆkZgzZ 3g »[ ÏZŠ ZñZg ‚ Š H–6,] (‚gzZ çJ.c±{z´ÆkZX ÷K Ü] ,ðZ’Z FÆ[ ÀF, ¡Ôì »3F, Â/  ÂwZÎpì `gŠ x ** »[  kZāÍ~gŠ rXìÀF, Â/ à ~ [  kZ ä ²j^' , Zg X Yƒ 7+ $O h~ äZz'Êp ÌðÃÐ ¶Š™

gzZ ,ÞQXì YY HÌŠšÐ j§Üæ&ìt‹»yZtX ì –~ e $×Å](‚ C(‚Ž ˆÆ úgzZ d $CÅ]c* Ã~ËÆ“ÙçQ c* Ï(Ô YÆ~œ, $ Æi ¸WÆt # IÆ](‚ øL FÌx Z%Z »kZì 1g »Ð§±]*—çL8Xâ äV,Zwe â Æ^' , Zgt‹tāt¿X¸Ñ äZ ÄÐì ò q »](‚Êp®F‰ Ü zkZX åŠ HƒB‚ Ž ÷D™7t‹z ô=6,i§ZÅøÚ¦½Z kZ +®Ëg â pi +gXì ÃY`»„Є J 7 } 9V¹8 -g ** P8 ÍāìtwZÎpÔÌçI.*ñgzZì Ìo¢ÐáZjÆ~g¹yg e â †

Ô,™g¨6, k½ZgzZq -ZÐ[ÂÅ8 -g ** P8͍W?÷ïŠ ð3Š E ¡ 7g »Ã¶ŠzgŠ: Z%WtD‚Ÿ¨ÃZh pôx ** Ət £]Æ㨠KZæL¾ā +gŠ L L Ã]ZŠ §½ZŠÆy!* iaÆ䙙Äñ; x  LZa#āì í~úŠ »kZX N YbŠ™ $ ÔD !* ( 217X 218Ôm )X X X XX ÷ìg D™i Z0 +ZÃc* s Z e1 øL F Š Ô÷˜~~ m, ôZkgâ Û :™

Derrida refuses to grant philosophy the kind of privileged status it has always claimed as the sovereign dispenser of reason. Derrida confronts this pre-emptive claim on its own chosen grounds. He argues that philosophers have been able to impose their various systems of thought only by ignoring, suppressing, the disruptive effects of languages.................... (Norris, Christopher. Deconstruction.3rd ed, London, Routledge,2002, P18-19)

M5G " ½6,ú›ggzZ Zh ÀF, Ƀ »[ÂÅkgâ Û :™Š Zñx Ó éE +gŠ~[ÂÅ8 -g ** P8Í


34

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38

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46

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The notion that literary works are ultimately about language, that their medium is their message, is one of the most fruitful of structuralist ideas and we have already noticed its theoretical foundations in the work of Jakobson. It validates the post-romantic sense that form and content are one, because it postulates that form is content. At one level, this permits, for instance, Todorov to argue that the ultimate subject of a work like The Thousand and One Night is the act of story-telling, of narration itself: that for the character involved- indeed for homo loquens at large- narration equals life: 'the absence of narration death'........... (Structuralism and Semiotics, p,100).

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60

Poetic language is deliberately self-conscious, self-aware. It emphasises itself as a medium æ over and above the 'message' it contains: it characteristically draws attention to itself and systematically intensifies its own linguistic qualities. As a result, words in poetry have the

59 áZz%1Lª

(HOMO LOQUENS) y ¨ KZƒ  g ZŠ™èYì ó¿»ì

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status not simply of vehicles for thought, but of objects in their own right, autonomous concrete entities, In Sausure's terms, then, they cease to be 'signifiers' and become 'signifieds', ...(P, 63-64).

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Formalist theory realised that the 'meaning' habitually carried by words can never be fully seperated from the words themselves because no word has 'simple' one meaning. The 'meaning of A is not simply A1 or A2 or A3, for A has a larger capacity to mean which derives from its particular context or use. No word is ever really a mere proxy for a denoted object. Infact the transaction of 'meaning' has a coplexity of dimensions which the 'poetic'

'NARRATION EQUALS LIFE: THE ABSENCE OF NARRATION DEATH' P' 92

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Š c* t)X Z +¬x Z²Z » ºu6,¾; ÷¢Ô vg** P 8Íā åeÐ ÂCƒ: ù ÷ á ~ 1984 D™iÃ%zÂ6,k½Z gzZ q -Z [Z WX ( ì Š HHÀF, Ð [ Š¾; [ !* Zg ‚tāìg Ôì H¾;÷¢X ÷ We have already noticed the arguments of Jakobson's fellow Prague school critic

use of language further complicates. Poetry, in short, does not seperate a word from its

Mukarovsky with regard to 'foregrounding': that the aesthetic use of language pushes into

meaning, so much as multiply - bewildering - the range of meanings available to it... (P, 64).

the foreground 'the act of expression' itself. Jakobson offered the most refined proposal that

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å ~ pŠzöÆÚ Ë ðÃX ÷ Tg s$ +8™ïÐ V/}uzŠgzZÐ t òz t (

the metaphoric mode tends to be foregrounded in poetry, whereas the metonymic mode tends to be foregrounded in prose. This makes the operation 'equivalence' of crucial importance to poetry, not only in the area of analogy, but also in the area of 'sound' of those metrical, rythmic and phonic devices,.......continue. (Terence Hawkes, P, 80).

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62

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76 occurring within discourse. It is evident that real power is exercised through discourse, and that this power has real effects....... The father of this line of thought is the German philosopher Nietzsche, who said that people first decide what they want and then fit the facts to their aim: 'Ultimately man finds in things nothing but what he himself has imported into them.' All knowledge is an expression of the 'will to power'.This means that we can not speak of any absolute truths or of objective knowledge.... Foucault regards discourse as a central human activity, but not as a universal, 'general text', a vast sea of signification. He is interested in the historical dimention of discursive change. What it is possible to say will change from one era to another. In science a theory is not recognised in its own period if it deos not conform to the power consensus of the institutions and official organs of science. Mendel's genetic theories fell on deaf ears in the 1860s; they were promulgated in a 'void' and had to wait until the twentieth century for acceptance. It is not enough to speak the truth; one must be 'in the truth'. (Selden, Raman. Contemporary Literary Theory,3rd ed, Britain,1993,P158-159)

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ÃÏZx ZúX å @* ƒ7¼gzZ {z´Æ} "z6,~ hÆVâ Zx~ ]Zg ¶Z yZX¸ D YbŠ wŽgßÅV'Š ZgzZVzi !* ÄáZz™~ zŠg QX¸ f e™tsÆ™g¦Zƒ Ö ~ ]Zg ¶Z

ãqzg L]¬çñF, {Š c* i n Æ™ ÃyZXì 7ZÐ Vß ZjÆ™fÆ óVâ Z6, LÁi Z ÁÔÌ sÜgzZsÜ~kZÔì m»WJ -V˜ÐáZjÆr # ™8 -g ** X ÷G «„ äó:7

ñY Zƒg Z2Z6,oè! fā7** ™ ãZzt Ð c kZŠ°Xì ŠŽñ~ ^ÝZ KZ „‘u Xce** ƒ~]uz´Å ` . Þ »gzZ:i ZñÔce** ƒg Z2Z6, oè„LZÉ

: äVß Zz™6 w@* 7, õY Åg £ÆóVâ Z6, Æ L óðZ' , LgzZ óðYZ LÐáZjÆ™¤ /Z

iq Ð Zx°¸ » óðZ' , LgzZ óðYZ LX ÇñYƒÂ** ™[Õ"Ã}nÇÆóVß Zz™ äZ6, LyZ ÂÅ

ÒÃÅä¯ ÛZÃ~g ‡ä óVß Zz™ äZ6, LyZXì ;g™ëZ Û DÐ ºuÌÃr # ™8 -g **

¼ {z´Æºu~e $ZzgÅ ™ ó LÅ óVâ Z6, LÐg ±Z kZXì Å6, gî~gÅÉ 7~ ó ~¢L

~^Å“ Wwâk , Æ+ M qzgŠ .x ** Qc* ìŠ HHÐxE! f‘ut—" Xì 7ŠŽñÌ Xì c* Wt ‚ Z(, Ѓ  » *ŠzŠg QˆÆàqÃr # ™8 -g ** p ÖZ‘6,tgzuÆ[ ÂÅr # ™8 -g ** Š Õ~ [Š ZzŠg Qā ñY H~ .Z Èt Ð kZ HX ÷ ìg™ÒÃÅä™" $U* i ‚tÃgzZŠ Õ }ÐkZ ñWt ‚Š Õ§à q6, Y ¯Å• wT¬w‚Îq -Z ?ì òiÑ** ƒtg ‚nÆ“ W År # ™8 -g * *āIÐ kZX ÷ ìg}Š ð3Š D™r # ™8 -g ** w ãî … • rÅ ºu{Š c* i 5_ðZgWz6, Ô÷˜y åHÓG X ÷D hñcg+ $YÅ ºuh +' × ÆyZ¬Ô›ß+ $Y There is another stand in poststructuralist thought which believes that the world is more than a galaxy of text, and that some theories of textuality ignore the fact that the discourse is involved in power. They reduce political and economic forces, and ideological and social control, to aspects of signifying processes. When a Hitler or a Stalin seems to dictate to an entire nation by wielding the power of discourse, it is absurd to treat the effect as simply


77

78

„qZāce´g~ÃÃ]* !kZX ÷D™wEZyZgzŠÆ]R ÛŒMg‡xk* !Žn™È‚Ÿ

~Y Ü] Ñìt* c Ͷðƒ: ðZ, k+ 5 ðÃ~äâ iÆY 1860ÅbÃÆ åÉOZ ÂDÆ( MENDEL)

ÆWk‚Z ~g ‡ÝZgŠ qภ»ƒz¨p/ ¤ ZX ÷ D™æW, '¢Z~g ‡ZÐ Q GG ¢OŠ nÆVzi ‚tÃÐ ¹ ¸ ½»bÃāì Hñƒ D™c°pÔì C á) ¯* !» ï

X ( 196X 194ÔmÔ8g * * )ì ó ~gz¢Ì* *ƒgó + 0Z Æ L ðCì 7°» Ü1

Âs %Z »p~Mg ‡nkZÔ ñYHÈ‚ŸÃqàƍ¢gzZ]* * kZÆVÂPÛŒZāì

R X ¼ ~ yZ Ô÷ D™wEZ j§gîgzZ ñZcŽ Mg ‡nƨz ƒpì Yƒ

X ( 319X 318ÔmÔ8g* * ) óì ó Ë$YÅÒÃÅä™Ä* c gŠÃyQÔfƒ 5_ ÔN ⠁ Û ±5Ãk½ZkZÐ~[!* ‰‘6, Z-™ 1ŽÆy åHÓG

The word 'revolution' in Kristeva's title is not simply metaphoric. The possibility of radical social change is, in her view, bound up with the disruption of authoritarian discourses. Poetic language introduces the subversive openness of the semiotic 'across' society's 'closed'

s sÜā L ì w¸g»kZX Z , 7* *™g OZ » ~œ,nÆqJKZ ÅyZgzZÔ¸ñƒ7

{zāìt È»TÔì YY ¬ŠÃwEZÆ+zZzÆr # ™8 -g ** ((~ k½Z kZ

! l»] q˜Z ÅVzuzŠ yZgzŠÆb‹‚ŠpLZ ä VrZā÷ìg™ì‡W, @* ¸ sÜ 5_Wz6,É k½Zt sÜ:ā åt wßZÔì 3gwì zx Ó!* ÃTÔÃ[!* ‰ ‘6,à ¯Æy åHÓG ît·_Zg øX Œ7ƒ  o** ™ (ZäVrZX ˜~+zZzÔì H‘uär # ™8 -g ** w¾ H 5_Wz6,ÂC Ù Š H–6,à ¯~ [ Šr # ™8 -g ** āì @* ™" $U* 6,gî ÀF,» [ Šy åÓG „ ~ +zZz ~ ~ m, ôZÃk½Z ‰ ‘ ~ +zZz Ñ!* zgqr # ™8 -g ** ˆÆ kD Z kZXì

symbolic order: 'What the theory of the unconscious seeks, poetic language practices, within and against the social order.' Sometimes she considers that the modernist poetry actually

Ô ÷˜

prefigures a social revolution which in the distant future will come about when society has

'IT IS NOT ENOUGH TO SPEAK THE TRUTH, ONE MUST BE IN THE

evolved a more conplex form. However, at other times she fears that bourgeois ideology will

„gƒVÈ+ M År # ™8 -g** Ð ä™yÒ~ ~ m, ôZÃk½Z kZX ( 196ÔmÔ8 -g ** ) TRUTH'

simply recuperate this poetic revolution by treating it as a safety valve for the repressed impulses it denies in society. Kristeva's view of the revolutionary potential of women writers in society is just as ambivalent.... (Selden, P142).

ÔBŠÃ# r™8g * *

Æ~i Z+ 0Z ñgzZ $ dC~ kgjegÇ~pp+ ig Yāìtg¦»[zZ » Z-™ L L

) ~zg {Š Zi WÅ ~g »$ dCC*K ¶~ x Âä´ÈgzZÈ‚ŸÆ` y* !i ~ÄXì«, 6¿ ], 's ÜÆ`gzZg+ 0ZÆ` ÃkZ y* !i ~ÄÔì LeŽgÅÑXì îŠ {Zgà ( W{e ?

y* !i ~Ä5ÂÇñYƒ{ë {Š * c iÔÈ‚Ÿ{Š * c i# Z x ÂYāì ¢ÃZ-™XìgŠ ‡, 6h N

-e » kZ™ CZÃq 5ÙC Yß * 7 c àW Zzjg1āì˜. } Ìt ÃkZpÔÇnY * c Ñ [zZ)g fÆ

Ô}™wEZ, 6 gîÆß Zz ´qZ Yß * c àW Zzjg1ÌÃ[zZ ~Äāì epOÔì îŠ wï X ( 202ÔmÔ8g * * )óì ó 7]i YZxk* !~`ÅXnÆ` Z yZÆ]* * Ìñƒ"ŠyZ

ŠpèaäVrZpÔìÀF, [Â~g ‚År # ™8 -g ** āì Hn²Ì¬äëā 6 H 5_Xì ;g 7, Itg ‚ÃyZ…nkZ ¹7Wáà -g ** 8 ™hg]‚½Zq -ZP[Âx ÓÅy åÓG

āŠ Hƒ y‚Wn kZ r‘u™Ö nÆr # ™8 -g ** Xì ðZ™ ù÷ á Ð x ** LZ ä r #™ nÆäZ™ ã;Š ¢Ã~g ‡{zāì 7y‚Wx »tnÆ¿}uzŠ ÌËX å³»yZ eg Z-Z 5_6, ñOŶŠáZjh +' × Æ]‚½ZÐ [ÂÅy åHÓG VŒnkZXìg @* ™Vc* i »‰ Ü z LZ

Ôì 7!Zjðû™ˆÆk½Z ~ m, ôZ kZpÔ÷Bg »„Ãk½Z ÏZsÜ{zāì

Wz6,ÃTì m» k½Z J -V˜X¸ T e ** Ö Ã~ .–ÝZ {zāì ;gƒC Ù ªt Ð T 5_ 8g»Ð „¾gâ à ¯&ì U~Š ã © C»]1] .Ëg ât ÝZgŠ Ôì Z hŽÐà ¯Ìä y åHÓG ā 6X¸M h™Ìs ÏZ » óðCLkZ ÂDƒ… Y¼~}g !* ÆkZr # ™8 -g** /ZXì ¤

$U* " ÃðCÅ} úŠ kZ Ô÷ G‘u[!* 9Ð [ÂkZ ä r # ™8 -g * *āì H ãZz ä ë 5_Wz6,nÆ ä™ ˜ y®ÐX ÷ D™7k½ZÐ [ !* ‰ ‘6,°ï** ŽÆ y åHÓG Ô÷ Jonathan Culler (see also chapter 5) has argued that a theory of reading has to uncover the interpretative operations used by readers. We all know that different readers produce different interpretations. While this has led some theorists to despair of developing a theory of reading at all, Culler argues in The Pursuit of Signs (1981) that it is this variety of interpretation which theory has to explain. While readers may differ about meaning, they may well follow the same set of interpretative conventions.... (Selden, P62).

ÔN â ہ±5)* *g » »# r™8g * * G-E # Ÿ Ã~g ‡dgzZƒzx ~Z {zāì ~gz¢nÆbÃÆ]R ÛŒāì êŠgzi, 6]* ! kZ°èE Ž L L


80

79 :÷ºs§År # ™8 -g **

c* Šgzi6,~Š Zi W~Š ã CkZ Åy¨ KZ ä e $ŠŽz~«£Æ(ESSANTIALISM)ó óèiÑL L

É ]zŒ Å b§C Ù s ÜÆ e $ƒ gzZ èiÑ b§Å F, g ‚ ÌBg !* Xì Š ã CÅ ~pC Ù Žå

]¸~g7 gzZ Ôå &y¶ K» ~i Zzjg1 ÃèiÑÌ{z b§Å F, g ‚X åb‡ »J - ( Åg ** Z) Û A Z3, XìC Ù ªÐMYTHOLOGIES (1957)"0ZcðZ’Zq -ZÅkZā 6å@* ™ŠgÃkZÐ

]uz F, g ‚èYÔŠ HòÐWÌÐ F, g ‚Ðg ±Zq -ZBg !* ~ ¿#Å~i Zzjg1gzZèiÑ z “s ÜÆY ‚ ~i Zzjg1~ ïŠ KZBg !* pÔå7” G» (INTEGRITY) Y ‚gzZ

,™Ýq ð‚ggz¢J -]Z~ .–ÝZ ~g ‡{¤XÐ,™ rZ „6,¶Š ,Å],sÜë XÐ H 5_ðZg ],Æ[ÂÅ8 -g ** P8ÍX X X XX X XX X XX X X XX X ],Æ[ÂÅy åÓG 79 -106X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 27 - 42 288 - 329X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 49 - 70 234 - 240X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 149 - 158 243 - 267X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 86 - 103 5_āì òúŠt Zg ø ù÷ á Ð x ** LZ ä 8 -g ** P8Í],x Ó‰ ŠÐ [ÂÅy åHÓG

g¨¤ /ZÔì!Zz» b§q -Z]uzÅy¨ KZ åI»kZX å@* ™7m, / ¤ ÐJ -e $×ŏÆ6 g

Gk , ’Špp ÖZP„h +÷ á ~[ ÂkZ är # ™8 -g ** āìt%Z ÑZzä™{Ši]ªX ÷ñZ™

ā7[Š Z n ÏZ öZÎāì I »kZX å @* ™e $×ÅkZBg !* Ôì uZz)gzZ Ú)Ž q {zC Ù

X ÇñYƒg DWi ZgtÀÂ7`Wāmƒ:¸tÌŠpÃyZ HX ¶]gz¢ 5_ -Z [ZÆä™7,F, q x Ó;ë›ÆºuÆr # ™8 -g ** Ð [ÂÅy åHÓG

Ô7Ì» Z} .Ôå7„b‡Ð}u »]uz{zXì óF LÝZgŠq -ZC Ù Ð~ë ÂñY¬ŠÐ

X ( 161X 162ÔmÔ8g * * ) ó Xó ì ÝZ)gzZì C™7:%»%~ÒÃÅä™Za ]uz

Ô÷D™g¨6, k½ZgzZq -ZÐ~y*ÏZÆu7yY

his arch enemy is the doxa, the prevailing view of things, which very often prevails to the extent that people are unaware it is only one of several possible alternative views. Barthes may not be able to destroy the doxa but he can lesson its authority by localizing it, by subjugating it to a paradox of his own...... Barthes is only fully to be appreciated, then, as some one who set out to disrupt as profoundly as he could the orthodox views of literature he found in France...........The grievances against contemporary criticism with which Barthes began were deeply influential on what he came to write later. There were four main ones. First, he objected that literary

HÅ™ x ** CZ '§6,[ÂÃr # ™8 -g * *ā Zƒ†ŸZ Ìn kZ ~ ]ª Å ¶Zg X Vƒ

»y*‰ ‘6, Bg !* VÑzg är # ™8 -g ** Ð [ ÂkZX ÷D™ qŽg+ $Y Å[  ~uzŠ

‰ ñZl Ð Structuralist Poetics Å°ï** Ž { ‰Æ y*ÏZāìgŠ c* Xì c* â Û ‘u

u7X ÷‰ nÐ [ ÂÅ John Sturrock {z÷ìg YG7]‚½ZŽ6,VŒpX ÷ är # ™8 -g ** »y*TXì HA $%Ã}p‰‘6, Vz®h +] .ˆâ õ0* ~[ÂkZ ä ÆV–ÆyZÃ}px ÓgzZ Hp Ò» ðC: Åäu7Xì {Š™k , ’CZ »u7{zì H‘u

Ãy*ñƒ‘6,Bg !* ñƒ D VZ {Z +Ãg7 ½ »y!* i ~uzŠ ä r # ™8 -g ** XH ù÷ á Ð x ** Ô÷˜u7yYX ÷D™7:i Zñ»VâzŠ WX 1™x ** LZ

criticism was predominantly ahistorical, working as it did on the assumption that the moral and the formal values of the texts it studied were timeless.....Barthes was never a member of the Communist party - let us say neo-Marxist objection. He dismissed existing histories of French literature as meaningless choronicles of names and dates... (Sturrock, P, 54-55)

Ð ]g '~(,Ã,Ås Z¤ /ZcnÆÝÑwðŠ~çWÅ ~g ‡är # ™8 -g** 6,ÔÏZ Ær # ™8 -g ** X Y{g7ÍzZÐÃÅkZ Ì‘utƒïq »ú1™Ì~g ‡¤ /ZÔì Hsp X ÷D™qŽgs§Åk½Z

Existentialism, on the contrary, preaches the total freedom of the individual constantly to ð change..... Barthes, like Sartre, pits therefore the fluidity, the anarchy, even, of existence against the rigor mortis of essentialism; not least because, again following Sartre, he sees

essentialism as the ideology which sustains that tradional bugbear of all French intellectuals, the bourgeoisie... he writes at the conclusion of his most feroriously anti-bourgeois book, the devastating Mythologies (1957......... In one way, Barthes goes beyond Sartre in his abhorrence of essentialism. Sartre, as so far as one can see, allows the human person a certain integrity or unity; but Barthes professes a

Z(,Ð ƒ  CZBg !* ÐQÔƒ C™wJe $ÒZ&g¦{”t»wŽgßzY âZ ªDOXAL L

philosophy of disintegration, whereby the presumed unity of any individual is dissolved into

vßxk!* &g¦{z»|ā c* Š ÑŠ kˆZ eZäkZpÔ7c* e™{ nà DOXA{zX å&ÔŠ

because it represents a counterfeit integration of its individual. It is a false memorial to a

Ì6,g¦: ZªÆ[Š ZçOXX X Xì @* ƒq -Z ¡Ð ~ ] Zg¦ÂÆ|Ô÷ B9

a plurality or discontinuous. This biography is especially offensive to him as a literary form living person....... (Sturrock, John. Structuralism and Since. London, Oxford University Press,1979, P 53)


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82

™Æu7yY ~g ‡nÆ+ Y ðCÅ ónZ ‹Z L¸aā÷n pg µÂtë6,VŒ Ær # ™8 -g ** VŒ Zg ø X Ç}™·_Šp » 164™Æ [ Šr # ™8 -g ** gzZ 58X 59 ì‡Ð ¬ ~ [Š Z zŠg Q™ƒ >%Æ ºuJ -u kZ {zāì nZ ‹Zt 6,ó]ŸZ ‹Z L‘zä G # ™8 r -g * *ā}™: ~ .Z³ éM›‹¢t ˆÆ] ‚½Z yZ ~g‡ ?¸ T e bŠ wîVYÃe $Zzg

6,]c* Ã! Š ZÐQXKçg!* g !* ä kZ6,W¶gzZW: ‚gæ X ðÎ[¢~g » äBg !* VÑzg E + G GG3B g @* ÅQāì wìx ¬èYÔì » ï )yDg¨ ¸~W! Š Zāt wÍ Z :¸ nZ ‹Z m{g e G4J54X E + G GG3B g@* tû kZ~}g!* Æï Å[Š Zp ;g 7êñLBg !* X ÷ EZŠg ZŠZ ¹ÜZgzZ ö-G 4E 5_gzZ Vñ** $NyY" » èEG F gZŒ Û {g éG 5kI ÃV:g@* ! Š Z ÅÇLZ ä kZXì gz¢Ëg â â Â;: Ëgâ

X ( 162X 163ÔmÔ8g * * ) ó óc* Š

-g ** 8 É t sÜ: Xì „ J -VŒ sÜu Å ºuÐ áZjÆ y*‰ ‘ 6,Bg !* Æ

»u7yYXì H‘uÂ/ÂÌÃb‹¿ÆV1Âx ÓÅBg !* ~y*Æu7är #™

:ì c* VZ~p ÖZyZnZ ‹Z ZuzŠÐáZjÆBg !* äu7

èa är # ™8 -g ** Xì »Îâg7 ½Ìt‹{Š™7»u7Xì Œ6,],K*y*t

Barthes's second complaints against academic criticism was that it was psychologically

7Â** Î{ i Z0 +Z »/‡dÅyZ n kZ Å7ÒÃÅä™Ýq ð‚gJ -~ .–ÝZ ÌË " Ò5E Ãh +' × ¼ {z´ÆyZwq¾Xì :ì —ög G+uX ÷D™g¨6, From this post-Saussurean perspective it is clear that the theory of literature as expressive realism is no longer tenable. The claim that a literary form reflects the world is simply tautological. If by 'the word' we understand the world we experience, the world differentiated by language, then the claim that realism reflects the world means that realism reflects the world constructed in language. This is a tautology................ (Belsey, Catherine. Critical Practice, London, Routledge, 2003, P,43)

: ÷D ⠁ Û ‘uV-r # ™8 -g ** &‡Ô ÷ ë ~g ó|&tÃ{z »[Š ZāìC .2_ÎkZ L L t Xì 7fZæ ÿLE Ù ªÐøÚ ~çJG

g ZƒsÜÔì C™7@»|xg Ã! Š Zāí~úŠ ~gøÐ |¤ /ZXì ( Tautological)Ô²!*

naive and deterministic....when critics chose to explain textual data by biographical ones, or the work by the life....The elements of a literary work - and this is an absolutely central point in literary structuralism - must be understood in the first instance in their relationship to other elements of that work..... (Sturrock, P,56)

Åä)ï~ p ÖZ yZ6,nZ ‹Z}uzŠÐáZjÆBg !* Æu7ä r # ™8 -g ** :ì ÅÒà Xì: â 9J -u: âêgÅ»];»W¶ā åtnZ ‹Z ZuzŠ »kZ6, WÒq -¶ LL &‡** ÆQ! Š Z q -Š 4, ÆkZX X X åx` °ç ÿLE -Š 4, q ÆkZ 'ÃQЊæ Å]â ¥ öZÎ Nt X ÷ n pgÐÜÁ}uzŠÆQ{zŽ ì YY ŒÐ Šæ ÅV¤g ½ZŠ yZ sÜÃÜÁ X ( 163ÔmÔ8g * * )óì ó ß~Š ã C»„C(‚

:ì V-¼~p ÖZÆu7nZ ‹Z ZŠ6, W¶ÐáZjÆBg !* Æu7

ā ~úŠt Âì Cƒ ì‡)g fÆy!* i6,gîj¸Ž ªÔ÷ D™/Šë »Tì |{zŠ Z%

They could see only one meaning in the texts they concerned themselves with, and that one

y!* iŽì C™7@» *Š kZ ~g ó|Ôā ZƒtÝZgŠÔì C™7@»|~g ó|L

meaning was usually a very literal one. This they subsequently held the meaning of the text,

¼ ZÎÆ( Tautology) ó²!* g ZƒtL ìC Ù ª ( Constructed in Language)ì ó Cƒ ì‡)g fÆ ( 78ÔmÔ8g * * )XX X XX Xì 7

" Ò5E ÐTì c* Š™sv .à ó†  7LÂÆ ög GÐ~kZì H‘uk½ZŽ ä8 -g ** P8 Í

" Ò5E ä V,Z ZuzŠ X Š Hc* Š 7}Ì!Zj »™ÆkZB‚B‚Æä™W, Op{Š™ì‡ » ög G b ˜Z m{tāì ÅÒÃÅä™ì‡W, @* t ™É~ +zZzà "²!* g Zƒ "~ k½Z Ñ!* zgq

ì Ht·_Zg ø Ô÷ìg}Š x ZuŠpr # ™8 -g ** x »xtgzZì fp â Ю}uzŠ Ë HH7 ùM¿VŒ&Ô k½Z Zg ‚ »}g ‚Xì ÅÒÃÅä™ì‡W, Š @* ßä r # ™8 -g ** ā " " ÒG 5E ÒG 5E g g ì 7» 8 -g ** P 8 ÍÔ ì » ö +ut‹Ñ!* zgqX ì fp â ɃР[ Šö Ô ì

and that to search further for supplementary or alternative meanings was futile. They were men of narrow and autocratic temper who fancied they were being scientific when they were merely being culpably dogmatic. Their minds were closed to the ambiguities of language, to the co-existence of various meaning within a single form of words,....... (Sturrock, P 57-58)

:ì c* Jm ®Å ºuLZ~p ÖZyZÃnZ ‹Z}ŠÆBg !* {Š™yÒÆu7ä8 -g ** Xì C™g ZÜZ6,kZÐ ð˜e e $.gzZì Š9Ãp{”ðÙsÜÆQW¶ L L ¶X ÷ Dƒ ßJ -u Å ÏŠƒ" 9 z ÒZ ~ [Š ZgzZ Ô ÷ M hƒ p~½sÜ ÂpÙ [Š ZgzZ÷g D»e $¬Š Z {zÔì CƒŠzöÃgzZ N* g‚f »yQāì –äBg !* ~}g !* ÆVzŠ Õ E E ¿B‚B‚pF~xg Äq -ZgzZì m, _Ð x ·Zîp©$ °[Š ZXX X ÷g ZŠbÆe $ÒZ~ X ( 163ÔmÔ8g * * ) ó ó÷M hƒY Zg W


84

83

Attempting to distinguish between constant and variable elements in a collection of a hundered Russian fairytales, Propp arrives at the principle that though the personage of a tale are variable, their functions in the tales are constant and limited. Describing function as "an act of a character, defined from the point of view of its significance for the course of the action," Propp developed inductively four laws which put the study of folk literature and of fiction itself on a new footing. I their baldness and universality, laws 3 and 4 have the shocking effect of certain scientific discoveries:

" Ò5E aÆ¥Æ} Z ! ~6¤' ,Ž Ôì B bg wÅ[ °g ¬q -Z [Ât Å ög G~ [fX

P8 Íāì ~gz¢ÌuZgŠ Z »%ZkZaÆMg‡VŒXì C™7sg¬¿»]c* Ã~W " 5E ÒG g ÀF, Â/Â]‚½Z FÐ [ÂÏZ Å ö äV,ZÉ H7ÜÃk½Z „q -Z¡ä8 -g ** " Ò5E :÷D™qŽgs§Å ög G[ZX ÷ñZ™ù ÷ á Ðx ** LZÆ™

Saussure's argument depends on the different division of the chain of meaning in different

1. Functions of characters serve as stable, constant elements in a tale, independent of how and by whom they are fulfilled. They constitute the fundamental components of a tale. 2. The number of function known to the fairy-tale is limited. 3. The sequence of functions is always identical.

languages. ' If words stood for pre-existing concepts' they would all have exact equivalents in meaning from one language to the next; but this is not true' (Saussure, 1974: 116). The truth is that different languages divide or articulate the world in different worlds. Saussure gives a number of examples. For instance, where French has the single mouton, English

4. All fairy tales are of one type in regard to their structure. (Morphology of the Folktale, pp. 21,22,23) In comparing the functions of tale after tale, Propp discovered that his total numbers of functions never surpassed thirty-one, and that however many of the thirty-one functions a tale had (none has every one) those that it had always appeared in the same order.... After the initial situation, in which the members of a family are enemerated or the future hero is introduced, a tale begins, consisting of some selection of the following functions in the following order: 1. One of the members of a family absents himself from home. 2. An interdiction is addressed to the hero. 3. The interdiction is voilated. 4. The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance. 5. The villain recieves information about his victim. 6. The villain attempts to deceive his victim in order to take possession of him or of his belongings. 7. The victim submits to deception and thereby unwittingly helps his enemy.

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Scholes, Robert, Structuralism in Literature, New York, Vail-Ballou Press,1974 P, 62-70.

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differentiates between mutton, which we eat, and sheep.............(Belsey, 36-37).

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85

86 specialization as to seem beyond all synthesis. Even philosophy, the queen of the human sciences, came down from her throne to play solitary word games. Both the language -philosophy of Wittgenstein and the existentialism of the Continental thinkers are philosophy of retreat......

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Derrida's professional training was as a student of philosophy (at the Ecol Normale Superieure in Paris, where he taught until recently), and his writings demand of the reader a considerable knowledge of the subject. Yet Derrida's texts are like nothing else in modern

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philosophy, and indeed represent a challenge to the whole tradition and self-understanding

The last half of the nineteenth century and the last half of the twentieth were charecterized

of that discipline.

by the fragmentation of knowledge into isolated disciplines so formidable in their


88

87

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Norris, Christopher. Deconstruction.3rd ed, London, Routledge,2002, P18-19)

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Derrida refuses to grant philosophy the kind of privileged status it has always claimed as the sovereign dispenser of reason. Derrida confronts this pre-emptive claim on its own chosen grounds. He argues that philosophers have been able to impose their various systems of thought only by ignoring, suppressing, the disruptive effects of languages. His aim is always to draw out these effects by a critical reading which fastens on, and skilfully unpicks,

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the elements of metaphor and other figural devices at work in the texts of philosophy.

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which language deflects or complicates the philosophers project. Above all deconstruction

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Deconstruction in this, its most rigorous form acts as a constant reminder of the ways in works to undo the idea-according to Derrida, the ruling illusion of Western metaphysicsthat reason can somehow dispense with language and achieve a knowledge ideally

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In this sense Derria's writings seem more akin to literary criticism than philosophy. They rest on the assumption that modes of rhetorical analysis, hitherto applied mainly to literary texts, are infact indispensable for reading any kind of discourse, philosophy included. Literature is no longer seen as a kind of poor relation to philosophy, contenting itself with mere fictive or illusory appearances and forgoing any claim to philosophic dignity and truth. This attitude has, of course, a long prehistory in Western tradition. It was plato who expelled the poets from his ideal republic, who set up reason as a guard against the false beguilements of rhetoric, and who called forth a series of critical 'defences' and 'apologise' which runs right through from Sir Philip Sydney to I. A. Richards and the Americans new critics. The lines of defence have been variously drawn up, according to whether the critic sees himself as contesting philosophy on its own argumentative ground, or as operating outside its reach on a different - though equally privileged - ground. (Norris,P19)

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:÷˜kgâ Û :™X ,™g¨6, k½ZgzZq -Z WXìÀF, ɃÐ

The counter-arguments to deconstruction have therefore been situated mostly on commonsense, or 'ordinary-language' ground. There is support from the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) for the view that such sceptical philosophies of language rest on a false epitemology, one that seeks (and inevitably fails) to discover some logical correspondence between language and the world. Wittgenstein himself started out from such a position, but came round to believing that language had many uses and legitimating 'grammars', non of them reducible to a clear-cut logic of explanatory concepts. His later philosophy repudiates the notion that meaning must entail some one-to-one link or

kZÃ8 -g ** ā Zƒt È»kZX ( 219ÔmÔ8g * *) óì ó @* ƒŒ~µÅ—C Ù XÐj™: —Ì

'picturing' relationship between propositions and factual status of affairs. Languages now

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jobs they are require to do (Wittgenstein 1953). The nagging problems of philosophy most

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conceived of as a repertoire of 'games' or enabling conventions, as diverse in nature as the often resulted, Wittgenstein thought, from the failure to recognise multiplicity of language games. Philosophers looked for logical solutions to problems which were only created in the first place by a false conception of language, logic and truth. Scepticism he argued, was the upshot of a deluded quest for certainty in areas of meaning and interpretation that resist any such strictly regimented logical account. (Norris, P127-128).

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But it is true that in Marx, as in Engels and Lenin, the putting into question of the self-certainty of consciousness is not "based on Differance".(Position,P62)

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120 X ÏñYƒ»„B‚Æ# Ö Z0 + µˆZáZzäƒZa~ËÆkZ X N Y ñÑt ‚ ë›h +' × ¼ 0Ð3 F, gzZ ºuāì ÒÃt ~g ø ~ y*kZ H _ 5 ðZg ä 8 Contemporary Literary Theory [  Åy åÓG -g * *āì [Y Hn²t ÌIÐ kZ ä8 -g ** ._Æ ï~g ø Xì H ( ~ ]gßÅ ä™t)ÀF,c* ‘u {Š c* i¹Ð ~ 8E H . G $ j 4 º Ó M G " ½™hg[!* 5_ gzZ kî c* Ô èE Ô èE ZXì c* Š™ÀF,»[Âx Ó éE 5G ~y WgzZ ª »[ Åy åHÓG H H J " 2g Ãg 5_Âq Ž ÷sZ eÃ6,[Z1Z yZXì Š HHÀF, Ð ~[ÂÅy åÓG -Zq -Z Š H–6,{)z ç.G 5_?Wác* X ÷˜y åHÓG ì tg ‚¿tā÷D™êQgzZX ‰K77Ì}IÐkZ Eagleton, like Althusser, argues that criticism must break with its 'ideological prehistory' and become a 'science'. The central problem is to define the relationship between literature and ideology, because in his view texts do not reflect historical reality but rather work upon ideology to produce an effect of the 'real'. The text may appear to be free in its relation to reality (it can invent characters and situations at will), but it is not free in its use of ideology. 'Ideology' here refers not to formulated doctrines but to all those systems of representations (aesthetic, religious, judicial and others) which shapes the individuals mental pictures of lived experience. The meanings and perceptions produced in the text are a reworking of ideologie's on working of reality. This means that the text works on reality at two removes. Eagleton goes on to deepen the theory by examining the complex layering of ideology from its most general pre-textual forms to the ideology of the text itself. He rejects Althusser's view that literature can distance itself from ideology; it is a complex reworking of already existing ideological discourses. However, the literary result is not merely a reflection of other ideological discourses but a special production of ideology. For this reason criticism is concerned not with just the laws of literary form or the theory of ideology but rather with 'the laws of the production of ideological discourses as literature'. Eagleton surveys a sequence of novels from George Eliot to D.H Lawrence in order to demonstrate the interrelations between ideology and literary form.... Eagleton examines each writer's ideological situations and analyses the contradictions which develope in their thinking and the attempted resolutions of the contradictions in their writing. After the destruction of liberal humanism in the first world war Lawrence developed a dualistic pattern of 'female' and 'male' principles. This antithesis is developed and reshuffled in the various stages of his work, and finally resolves in the characterisation of mellors (Lady Chatterley's Lover) who combines impersonal 'male' power and 'female' tenderness. This contradictory combination, which takes various forms in the novels, can be related to a 'deep-seated ideological crises' within contemporary society. The impact of poststructuralist thought produced a radical change in Eagleton's work in the late 1970s. His attention shifted from the 'scientific' attitude of Althusser towards the revolutionary thought of Brecht and Benjamine. This shift had the effect of throwing Eagleton back towards the classic Marxist revolutionary theory of the Thesis on Feuerbach (1845): 'The question whether objective truth can be attributed to human thinking is not a question of theory but is a practical question...The philosophers have only interpreted the

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121 world in various ways; the point is to change it'. Eagleton believes that 'deconstructive' theories, as developed by Derrida, Paul de Man and others can be used to undermine all certainties, all fixed and absolute forms of knowledge.............. Raman Seldon, Contemporary Literary Theory, 3rd ed, Britain, 1993,P, 92-93.

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-8E ~„ C1] .èEj.Gw– X {)z Ô¿gŠ ¿»nzcgzZ qçñgzZ “: 1] .~ÝZgzZ ^~C Ùª gzZÔì ZƒZ a 6,gî“. Þ ‡** Ð À} (,q -ZnzcC Ù gzZÔì 7nzcÙW** pgzZ {gHðà µ Z µ Z » Vzg0* ®~Š ZÐZWC1] .Xì @* ƒ Za Ð wŽgß]g @* ŠpŽ Ð ‚fáZz WÎ C X ì$ Ë ƒ Ìq -’c* $Zzg q e -ZŽ ìz » | # ‚ ~(,F,Wz q -ZŠ Û èY ÔC™7t‹ ÆkZŠpāì @* ™p ÒÌ»]!* kZ {z Ô@* ™7t :Z »Vz%i {”ðÐ ¬ 6,[Š ZŠ Õ C1] . I M ! :N»wŽgß]g @* ÃWC1] .Ëg â X ÷ æEE ÅkZŠpy s !* {)zßZÔg ZŠ™Ô[|Z Õä5 }%i {Š™É uZgŠ Z 9»|ā @* cebŠ äƒ:æY¦ / Ù Ã]Zg¦gzZce** C ƒ k ˆ Z »~ .–]g @* LZå ñƒDƒJÆ]ÑìpÔM hW7C Ù !* Ъ q¦çñKZg0 +ZÆVâ ië—" Xƒe X Ùƒ6, gî4Å|ā @* ÷M hh ÂÃwp -8E B‚ÆöÆ„C1] .~THE POLITICAL UNCONSCIOUS, (1981) [ÂÅ èEj.G G-Ê $ Ô](‚ ÕäMI 5!Ôì M¿» äÈÃÜÁŠ „Š¼ X {)z âgzŠ ZÐ ðG3Ÿ Z Ôe $àZ Û â](‚ øL F -8E E 458E Ôìāg¦»Ï0 + iÅ Z· Z Åäâ i *Š~ª q: G é5E ZgzZ {g 0* {g 0* Å ` {ŠŽñāì I» èEj.G -8E Yß c* àWx Óāì wìÌt» èEj.GÔ¸ÆÎ⦽ZgzZ{A ƒ  ]Zg¦gzZai~T »]!* kZà ` Žì ^ÅVh§gîÆ( CONTAINMENT)pg~1‡gzZ ä™Ýqg ZM Z ]gz¢~Š OZ L Ž L õg @* āìt]!* ůgzZXnYc* !* ŠÃ]ZŠ §eµÆõg @* āì îŠ µñ ''THE BRUTE REALITY OF ECONOMIC NECESSITY'' ó ì ó |“zÅ iŽ Qxk!* èYÔì @* ƒZgW¿b§ÏZ ÌQ! Š ZXì C™™„ŠpÃVh§gîyZƃ -8E LZÃ[ C*¶ KÆZ¤ / ®C(‚ä èEj.GXì @* ƒ# Ö ´ÅƒÆõg @* Šp{z Ôì @* ™7 G-JG 454X » Z¤ /X ÷ DƒC Ù ª~ Vâ% ö j§gîƃ ]g @* Xì @* ,Ð ! x»a Æ œ£ ' Ù ª]â £ {z ÂñY c* C â i W6,yᤠ/Z ÐZ Xì F F6,Vzg ZØÍÆ V¤g 㨠KZÂx  C(‚ X ˆ~Š !* ŠŽ ÷õg@* {z]â £‰¾:tX ‰¾ 7Ž ÷D Yƒ -8E ! Š Zq -Z¡6Òāì wì »kZXì ÅcæWg » ~(,~}g !* ƱÂÅkZgzZ6Òä èEj.G āa kZ Ôì ( EPISTEMOLOGICAL CATEGORY) ó{%i C G é5.БLq -ZÉ ì 7gî c* xg à & Ìtó‚q -ZgzZ ÂgzZXì C™7~xg ÃÆã¹Ã\WLZŠpaÆäƒûÿLE‡| X ( 267X 269) ó ì ó Yƒã¹ pgt ‚ÃV1ÂVâzŠ~ öÏZ ƒ=ÂÃ~g ‡¤ n /ZX @* ƒ7»6,Dk½Zt »8 -g ** -g * 8 *āÍXì Lg ~g YŸ »3F, Â/ Âā Ç ñYƒ s ÏZt Ð pg ~g Y·_ñƒ Ô÷D™ÒÃÅ%$ +K M F, ÅyZŠŽz!* Æä™ÀF, Â/ÂÃV¯Z¤ /ZcZÐ ~g Èð•Z -g ** 8 6,gîÆwVX c* Š äƒ7»ÃöaÆä™y‚WÃ| # ÙÅŠ Zñ‘zää ¶Zgp

123 from political power, the appearance of a major Marxist theorist is an important event. Jameson believes that in the post-industrial world of monoply capitalism the only kind of Marxism which has any purchase on the situation which explores the 'great themes of Hegel's philosophy - the relationship of part to whole, the opposition between concrete and the abstract, the concept of totality, the dialectic of appearance and essence, the interaction between subject and object'. For dialectical thought there are no fixed and unchanging 'objects'; an 'object' is inextricably bound up with a larger whole, and is also related to a thinking mind which is itself part of a historical situation. Dialectical criticism does not isolate individual literary works for analysis; an individual is always a part of a larger structure (a tradition or a movement) or part of a historical situation. The dialectical critic has no pre-set categories to apply to literature and will always be aware that his or her chosen categories (style, character, image, etc.) must be understood ultimately as an aspect of the critics on historical situation........ A Marxist dialectical criticism will always recognise the historical origins of its own concepts and will never allow the concepts to ossify and become insensitive to the pressure of reality. We can never get outside our subjective existence in time, but we can try to break through the hardening shell of our ideas 'into a more vived apprehension of reality itself'. His The Political Unconscious (1981) retains the earlier dialectical conceptio of theory but also assimilates various conflicting traditions of thought (structuralism, poststructuralism, Freud, Althusser, Adorno) in an impressive and still recognisably Marxist synthesis. Jameson argues that the fragmented and alienated condition of human society implies an original state of primitive communism in which both life and perception were collective.............. All ideologies are 'strategies of containment' which allow society to provide an explaination of itself which suppresses the underlying contradiction of history; it is history itself (the brute reality of economic Necessity) which imposes this strategy of repression. Literary texts work in the same way: the solutions which they offer are merely symptoms of the suppression of history. Jameson cleverly uses A.J Greimas' structuralist theory (the 'semiotic rectangle') as an analytic tool for his own purposes. Textual strategies of containment present themselves as formal patterns. Greimas' structuralist system provide a complete inventry of possible human relations... which when applied to a text's strategies, will allow the analyst to discover the posibilities which are not said. This 'not said' is the represses history. Jameson also developes a powerful argument about narrative and interpretation. He believes that narrative is not just a literary form or mode but an essential 'epistemological category'; reality presents itself to the human mind only in the form of the story. Even a scientific theory is a form of story.( Seldon, P, 95-97).

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126 the philosophy of science (T.S Kuhn) the term "paradigm" which refers to the scientific framework of concepts and assumptions operating in a particular period. "Ordinary science" does its experimental work within the mental world of a particular paradigm, until a new paradigm displaces the old one and throws up new problems and establishes new assumptions. Jauss uses the term "horizon of expectations" to describe the criteria readers use to judge literary texts in any given period.... For example, if we consider the English Augustan period, we might say that Popes's poetry was judged according to criteria, naturalness, and stylistic decorum (the words should be adjusted according to the dignity of the subject) which were based upon values of Popes's poetry. However this does not establish once and for all the value of Pope's poetry. During the second half of the eighteenth century, commentators began to question whether Pope was a poet at all and to suggest that he was a clever versifies who put prose into ryrhyming couplets and lacked the imaginative power required of true poetry. Leapfrogging the ninteenth century, we can say that modern readings of Pope work within a changed horizon of expectations: we now often value his poems for their wit, complexity, moral insight and their renewal of literary tradition. In Jauss's view it would be equally wrong to say that a work is universal, that its meaning is fixed forever and open to all readers in any period: 'A literary work is not an object which stands by itself and which offers the same face to each reader in each period. It is not a monument which reveals its timeless essence in a monologue.' This means, of course, that we will never be able to survey the successive horizons which flow from the time of a work down to the present day and then, with an Olympian detachment. to sum up the works final value or meaning. To do so would be to ignore the historical situation. Whose authority are we to accept? That of the readers? The combined opinion of readers over time? (Raman Seldon. P,52-53).

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competent readers go beyond surface meaning. If we regard a poem as a string of statements, we are limiting our attention to its 'meaning', which is merely what it can be said to represent in units of information. If we attend only to a poem's 'meaning' we reduce it to a (possibly nonsensical) string of unrelated bits. A true response starts by noticing that the elements (signs) in a poem often appear to depart from normal grammar or normal representation: the poem seemes to be establishing significance only indirectly and in doing so ' threatens the literary representation of realty'. It requires only ordinary linguistic competence to understand the poem's 'meaning', but the reader requires'literary competence' to deal with the frequent ' ungrammaticalities' encountered in reading a poem. Faced with the stumbling-block of ungrammaticalness the reader is forced, during the process of reading, to uncover a second (higher) level of significance which will explain the grammatical features of the text. What will ultimately be uncovered is a strcutural 'matrix', which can be reduced to a single sentence or even a single word. The matrix can be deduced only indirectly and is not actually present as a word or statement in the poem. The poem is conected to its matrix by actual versions of the matrix in the form of familiar statements, cliches, quotations, or conventional associations. it is the matrix which ultimately gives a poem unity. this reading process can be summarised as follows: 1. Try to read it for ordinary 'meaning': 2. Highlight those elements which appear umgrammatical and which obstruct on ordinary mimetic interpretation: 3. Discover the 'hypograms' (or commonplaces) which receive expanded or unfamiliar expression in the text; 4. Derive the 'matrix' from the ' hypograms'; that is, find a single statement or word capable of generating the ' hypograms' and the text. (Seldon, P,60-61).

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b§T~¬_C(‚LZäVâzŠyZX 7Æ'Æó~g ‡¢ A & !* Lx ¬Ë{zÔ÷D™ XM hƒ7z»¢ A &6f Å ó~g ‡g ïYLÌË÷átÔì H™f »Vâ%C»ßgzZ C§Æ äCt¢Ãgë@* Xñ7,Ð j§m{kZÃQ{zā $ Ë Y Å7µÂt Ð ~g ‡Cc* M F, š -Z q 8 G E 5 4 » j G E @* ™ b§¾g ðO{$ » Q~g ‡ā @* ™7ëZ Û VY ]Š ÞÅ]!* kZ·_ » èE āì ܇Рä¢Ãg~kZXì Q~semiotics of poetry (1978) :[ ÂÅkZúÅbÃÆ¢ÃgXì ÃÄë¤ /ZXì @* YÐWÐ páZz äƒ Za 6,RÅQ~g ‡¢ A & !* āì àZ e Ýzg6,ZkZ

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kZÐ + $Y ÅÁg ËÆ xW“Š¤ / ÆyZ c* -g ** 8 ~ zŠg Z¤ /Z X σ wVÅ „c* Š$ +'az » z–ÃVØz»Å b§kZaÆ’Å[Š ZzŠg Z ÂÔì „g YÅÒÃÅä™ì‡Ãg £ËÆb§ 5_ V˜ā÷ Ù Š Ìt ë~ k½Z ÏZ X ǃ ** ™Š1** sw/ swÌV;z Š Hc* Š 7!Zj» y åHÓG ë@* X ~]gßÅ ºu:gzZ~]gßÅ3 F, : Ô;g Yc* Š7}!Zj»™gzZÔì ;g YHÀF, Xì C™ Z9Ñ~„  zÅV¸g ‚Ã8 -g ** wàZzh • e:J -x ** ~[Z1ZvŠ The notion of 'structure', he argues, even in 'structuralist' theory has always presupposed a 'centre' of meaning of some sort. This 'centre' governs the structure but is itself not subject to structural analysis (to find the structure of the centre would be to find another centre). People desire a centre because it guarantees being as presence. For example, we think of our mental and physical life as centred on an 'I'; this personality is the principle of unity which underlies the structure of all that goes on in this space. Freud's theories completely undermine this metaphysical certainty by revealing a division in the self between conscious and unconscious. Western thought has developed innumerable terms which operate as centring principles: being, essence, substance, truth, form, begining, end, purpose, consciousness, man, God, and so on. It is important to not that Derrida does not assert the possibility of the thinking outside such term; any attempt to undo a particular concept is to become caught up in the terms which the concept depends on. For example if we try to undo the centring concept of consciousness by asserting the disruptive counter force of the 'unconscious', we are in danger of introducing a new centre, because we can not choose but enter the conceptual system (conscious/unconscious) we are trying to dislodge. All we can do is to refused to allow either pole in a system (body/soul, good/bad, serious/unserious) to become the centre and guarantor of presence. This desire for a centre is called 'Logocentrism' in Derrida's classical work Of Grammatology. 'Logos' (Greek for 'word') is a term which in the New Testament carries the greatest possible concentration of presence: ' In the begning was the word'......... Phonocentrism treats writing as a contaminated form of speech. Speech seems nearer to originating thought. When we hear speech we attribute to it a presence which we take to be lacking in writing. The speech of the great actor, orator, or politician is thought to posses presence; it incarnates, so to speak, the speaker's soul. Writing seems relatively impure and obtrudes its own system in physical marks which have a relative permanence; writing can be repeated (printed, reprinted, and so on) and this repition invites interpretation and reinterpretation. Even when a speech is subjected to interpretation it is usually in written form. Writing does not need the writer's presence, but speech always implies an immediate presence. The sounds made by a speaker evaporate in the air and leave no trace (unless recorded), and therefore do not appear to contaminate the originating thought as in writing. Philosophers have often expressed there dislike of writing; they fear that it will destroy the authority of philosophic truth. This Truth depends upon pure thought ( logic, ideas, propositions) which risk contamination when written. Francis bacon ............ (Seldon, 144-145).

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