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Inclusive Design

What Inclusive Design Is: “ Design of mainstream products and/or services that are accessible to, and usable by, as many people as reasonably possible on a global basis, in a wide variety of situations and to the greatest extent possible without the need for special adaptation or specialised design.” Source: BS 7000 Part 6

Commercial Value

What Inclusive Design Isn’t: • One product fits all Market Positioning

Inclusive Design

Innovation & Development

• Replacing the need for specialist products and services • A new design genre

More Information Product Offering

For more information about how to apply inclusive design in your organisation: web: www.betterdesign.org e-mail: info@betterdesign.org

www.betterdesign.org


Business Drivers Business Advantage through Inclusive Design

Commercial Value Prioritise

Commercial Value

Innovation & Development

Market Positioning

Insight

Inclusive Design

Evaluate

Market Positioning

Product Offering

Commercial Context

Product Offering

Inspire

Innovation & Development


Business Drivers

Ageing Population “Design for the young and you exclude the old; design for the old and you include the young”

% Increase 1990-2050

0

Italy

UK

Germany

Spain

60

France

120

USA

Prioritise

Commercial Value

180

Japan

Increase in No. of People Over 65 (%)

- The late Bernard Isaacs, founding Director of the Birmingham Centre for Applied Gerontology'

Insight

Inclusive Design

Evaluate

Market Positioning

Product Offering

Market

Inspire

Innovation & Development

% Change (UK Population)

50% 40%

2002-2012 2002-2022

30% 20% 10% 0% -10% 0-14

15-29

30-44

45-59

60-74

75+

All Ages

-20%

• In many countries 50+ is the fastest growing segment • In the UK since 1900, life expectancy has increased on average by 2.5 years per decade. • By 2020: - Nearly half of UK adult population will be over 50 - 20% in USA and 25% in Japan will be over 65 Sources: US Census Bureau (www.census.gov), The Government Actuary's Department (GAD) National population projections 2000-based. Office for National Statistics, London, UK


Business Drivers

Commercial Value “Enabling accessible technology is a growth opportunity, it meets customer needs, and it’s the right thing to do” - Steve Ballmer, CEO Microsoft

Prioritise

Commercial Value

Insight

Inclusive Design

Hours

£

Inspire

Innovation & Development

180

10

160

9

140

8 7

Disposable weekly household income

120

6

100

Evaluate

Market Positioning

Disposable Weekly Household Income Against Average Daily Free Time by Age

5

80

Average free time per day

60 40

4 Highlighted Opportunity becomes a Priority

3 2

20

Product Offering

1 0

0 30

50

65

Age (Years)

Commercial

Source: The Henley Centre, Leisure Tracking Survey, Family Expenditure Survey 1996

75


Business Drivers

Inclusive Design Highlights Real Needs

“Necessity, who is the Mother of invention� - Plato, The Republic, (Greek author & philosopher, 427BC - 347BC)

Prioritise

Commercial Value

Insight

Inclusive Design

Inspire

Innovation & Development

Evaluate

Market Positioning

Product Offering

Innovation

In the case of the cordless kettle reducing the dexterity demand delivers a better product for everyone.


Business Drivers

Prioritise

Number of People

Commercial Value

Insight

Inclusive Design

Evaluate

Market Positioning

Product Offering

Product

Inclusive Design will have a Big Potential Benefit for the Total Population

Inspire

Innovation & Development

Finds Easy

Frustrated

Has Difficulty

Most Able

Excluded

Least Able Variation in Capability

“ 2 out of 3 Americans report having lost interest in a technology product because it seemed ‘too complex to set-up or operate’.” “ Only 13% of the American public believes that in general, ‘technology products are easy to use’.”

Source: The Philips Index (2004), www.usa.philips.com


Business Drivers “ In the US, 60% (101.4 million) of working age adults who range from 18 to 64 years old are likely or very likely to benefit from the use of accessible technology.�

Microsoft Survey A US-wide survey of 15,477 working-age adults and computer users asked questions about levels of difficulty with ordinary daily tasks (such as reading newspaper print and using the telephone) as well as direct questions about impairments and their impact on employment. The findings show that the majority of working-age adults are likely to benefit from the use of accessible technology.

Not Likely 40%

Very Likely 22%

Likely 38%

Source: Accessible technology market research commissioned by Microsoft, conducted by Forrester Research, Inc., 2003. www.microsoft.com

Microsoft Survey

Source: Accessible technology market research commissioned by Microsoft, conducted by Forrester Research, Inc., 2003. www.microsoft.com


Business Drivers

Philips Survey A US-wide web-based survey of 1,501 internet users, aged 18-75+.

“Only 13% of the American public believes that in general ‘technology products are easy to use’.”

Source: The Philips Index (2004), www.usa.philips.com

Philips Survey

“ Two out of three Americans report having lost interest in a technology product because it seemed ‘too complex to set up or operate.’ This sentiment is especially pronounced among females (74%) and people over aged 55 (70%+).” “ Only 13% of the American public believes that in general ‘technology products are easy to use’.” “ Consumers are beginning to demand that products be accessible for easy operation and set-up. The fact that some products have achieved this has raised the bar for what’s possible. ‘Ease-of-use’ is so important to the public (76%) that it is now equal in importance to the dimension of ‘high quality’ (76%).”

Source: The Philips Index (2004), www.usa.philips.com


Capability

Key Capabilities A person’s overall capability describes the combination of: 1. Sensory 2. Motion 3. Cognitive

Sensory

According to the Office of National Statistics, the total number of people in Great Britain identified as having reduced overall capability is over 8.5million. Hearing

Vision

Overall Capability Loss Variation by Age and Gender for Great Britain (%)

Motion

Locomotion

Reach & Stretch

Dexterity

Cognitive

GB Population (%)

75

Male

Female

50

25

Communication

Intellectual Functioning

Key Capabilities

Age Band Source: Disability in Great Britain (1999) Department of Social Security, Corporate Document Services, London, UK

85+

80-84

75-79

70-74

65-69

60-64

55-59

50-54

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

16-19

0


Capability

Sensory Capability A person’s sensory capability describes the combination of: 1. Hearing 2. Vision 3. Tactile 4. Taste 5. Smell According to the Office of National Statistics, the total number of people in Great Britain identified as having reduced sensory capability (hearing and vision only) is over 3.9 million. Hearing and Vision Capability Loss Variation by Age and Gender for Great Britain (%)

Hearing GB Population (%)

75

Male

Female

50

25

Age Band

Sensory

Source: Disability in Great Britain (1999) Department of Social Security, Corporate Document Services, London, UK

85+

80-84

75-79

70-74

65-69

60-64

55-59

50-54

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

Vision

16-19

0


Capability

Hearing Hearing ability decreases with age, in particular at higher frequencies.

Graph Showing Normal Deterioration with Ageing for Men

Hearing Loss (Decibels)

0 -10 -20

10-19 years

-30

30-39 years

-40 -50

40-49 years

20-29 years

-60 -70

50-59 years

-80 -90

70-79 years

60-69 years

-100 500

1000

2000

4000

8000

Frequency (Hertz)

Hearing

Source: Beales P H, (1965) Noise, hearing and deafness


Capability

Vision The functional capability of the eye decreases with age. One aspect of the change is the ability and speed of the eye to focus on near and far objects (accommodation).

Ocular Accommodation (Dioptres)

Changes of Accommodative Ability of the Eye 14 12

Mean

10 Upper Limit

8 6 4 Lower Limit

2 0 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Age (Years)

Vision

Source: Vassilief A and Dain S (1986) ‘Bifocal wearing and VDU operation: a review and graphical analysis’ Applied Ergonomics Vol 17 (2): 82 - 86


Capability

Vision

Simulations of Some Visual Impairments

No Impairment

Short-sightedness

Tunnel Vision

Diabetic Retinopathy

Macular Degeneration

Cataracts


Capability

Motion Capability A person’s motion capability describes the combination of: 1. Locomotion 2. Reach and Stretch 3. Dexterity According to the Office of National Statistics, the total number of people in Great Britain identified as having reduced motion capabililty is over 6.7 million.

Locomotion Motion Capability Loss Variation by Age and Gender for Great Britain (%)

Reach & Stretch

GB Population (%)

75

Male

Female

50

25

Dexterity

Motion

85+

80-84

75-79

70-74

65-69

60-64

55-59

50-54

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

16-19

0

Age Band Source: Disability in Great Britain (1999) Department of Social Security, Corporate Document Services, London, UK


Capability

Dexterity Dexterity decreases with age leading to reduced control and grip strength.

Relation of Age to Maximum Grip Strength and Grip Strength Endurance 120

Grip Strength

110

Pounds

100 90 80 70

Grip Strength Endurance

60 50

Age (Years)

Dexterity

75-79

70-74

65-69

55-59 60-64

50-54

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

16-19

12-15

40

Source: Burke et al (1953) ‘The relation of grip strength and grip strength endurance to age’ Journal of Applied Physiology Vol 5: 628 - 630


Capability

Cognitive Capability A person’s cognitive capability describes the combination of: 1. Communication 2. Intellectual Functioning According to the Office of National Statistics, the total number of people in Great Britain identified as having reduced cognitive capability is over 2.6 million. Cognitive Capability Loss Variation by Age and Gender for Great Britain (%)

Communication

GB Population (%)

75

Male

Female

50

25

Age Band

Intellectual Functioning

Cognitive

Note: Current research indicates that the incidence of cognitive loss is significantly higher in practice. Source: Disability in Great Britain (1999) Department of Social Security, Corporate Document Services, London, UK

85+

80-84

75-79

70-74

65-69

60-64

55-59

50-54

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

16-19

0


Capability

Intellectual Functioning Intellectual functioning decreases with age, leading to reduced memory and reasoning ability.

Graph Showing Normal Deterioration of Intellectual Functioning with Age 130 120

Mean IQ

110

Verbal IQ

100 90 Performance IQ

80 70 20

30

40

50

60

70

Age (Years)

Intellectual Functioning

Source: Baddeley A D (1992) Your memory: a user’s Guide Penguin Books


Users

Users Rose (83)

Rose

Carol

Carol (57)

=

David (64)

Jenny (29) David

Jenny

Ellie (4) Jack

Jack (1½)

Ellie

The Family

The Family


Users

Jenny Mother (Age 29) Jenny is a single mother to Jack and Ellie. Going shopping as a family is always an adventure. Ellie is curious about everything and often wanders off in a world of her own, unaware of where her mother is - while Jack longs to run around and often tries to escape from his buggy. Two active children, a buggy and bags of shopping do not make for an easy or comfortable bus journey! Jenny’s time is incredibly precious to her and so she has little patience with anything that unnecessarily wastes her time. One night a week she manages to escape to her aerobics class, while the children’s grandparents baby-sit.

Jenny


Users

Jack Child (Age 18 months) Jack is now walking, but can’t go far – and rarely in the direction you want him to! He frequently objects to being put in his buggy, as he finds it far more exciting to walk himself. Around the house, objects have to be put out of his reach if they are fragile, potentially dangerous or could be used as a ‘weapon’ for attacking his sister Ellie. Although Jack is at a delightful age, he is also quite time-consuming to look after as he’s absorbed with constantly learning about his environment.

Ellie Child (Age 4) Ellie has just left part-time nursery and started her foundation year at the local school. She is rapidly becoming more independent. Ellie is obsessed with anything pink or related to Barbie or Girls Aloud and would happily dress as a ballerina or fairy every day if she could. Ellie is learning to read and attempts to read everything she can around the house. She is at an impressionable age and wants very much to be part of the ‘in-crowd’ socially.

Jack and Ellie


Users

Carol Grandmother (Age 57) Carol has a part-time job in a local arts and crafts shop. She is currently learning to use a computer to help out with enquiries that come through the shop’s web site. She is normally very active, but has recently been hampered by a broken wrist sustained in a fall. Although she usually deals with problems in an optimistic and positive manner she is finding the plastercast very cumbersome. Many everyday tasks are now difficult and time-consuming. Carol is particularly frustrated by not being able to help and play with her grandchildren as much. Especially as Ellie desperately wants her grandmother to finish the fairy costume she’s been making for her.

Carol


Users

David Grandfather (Age 64) Recently retired, David spends most days pottering around the garden and playing golf. At weekends he enjoys walking in the countryside with his wife, Carol. He is currently searching for a walking holiday for them on the Internet. Although generally fit and healthy, David has become hard of hearing, but struggles to accept it. He does have a hearing aid and, like his reading glasses, it is another thing that Carol often has to search for. David doesn’t see himself as old, particularly as he helps care for his mother-in-law, Rose.

David


Users

Rose Great Grandmother (Age 83) Rose lives 15 minutes drive away from David and Carol. Although fiercely independent, she struggles with everyday tasks like shopping, cooking and housework. Carol and David need to come round most days to help. She still greatly enjoys an active social life - including her regular bridge and quiz night every week and going out for meals with the whole family. Unlike David, Rose has come to accept her hearing aid as a necessity. She has worn reading glasses for many years and always carries them with her.

Rose


INCLUSIVE DESIGN CARDS