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Sensei is the foremost and most widely used term for a teacher. Sensei is a Japanese word that basically means "person born before another.” In general usage, it means "teacher," or one who knows and the word is used as a title to refer to or address teachers, professors, professionals such as lawyers, CPA and doctors, politicians, clergymen, and other figures of authority. The word is also used to show respect to someone who has achieved a certain level of mastery in an art form or some other skill: accomplished puppeteers, novelists, musicians, and artists for example are addressed in this way. The two characters that make up the term can be directly translated as "born before" and implies one who teaches based on wisdom from age and experience. The Japanese expression of sensei shares the same characters as the Chinese word; it can also be attached to a man's name to mean "gentleman" or, more commonly, "mister". Prior to the development of the modern vernacular it is used to address teachers of both genders; this has fallen out of usage in Standard Chinese, though it is retained in some southern Chinese dialects such as Cantonese, Hokkien and Hakka where it still has the meaning "teacher" or "doctor". Renshi is an official title in Japanese society, which originated in the samurai warrior class, and means a 'Polished Master' of a particular martial art. Ever since the Meiji restoration in 1868, the title was issued and recorded by the Dai Nippon Buto-Ku-Kai in Kyoto, which became the National Governing Body and 'records office' for all of the traditional martial arts in Japan since 1895. According to the wording on the Diploma, it is awarded by the 'Society of Fellows' (the 'Shogo' in Japanese) 'in recognition of attainment of a high level of proficiency in the development of karate spirit and technical skill in the practice of karate-do'. It should also be noted that ‘Renshi’ is one of three recognized titles issued by the Shogo; the other two being ‘Kyoshi’ and ‘Hanshi’ respectively. Kyōshi refers to an advanced teacher. Usually this is awarded at 7th dan. It is thought to mean Teacher. Note: while the common belief is that a person holding a Sensei title or higher can open a dojo, in Okinawa it is common to not allow anyone to open their own dojo until they reach Kyoshi and 7th dan. Thus many times Kyoshi is called a teachers rank. Hanshi refers to a senior expert considered a "teacher of teachers". This title is used by many different arts for the top few instructors of that style, and is sometimes translated "Grand Master". Shihan Title of "Master" is a Japanese Honorific Title, Expert License Certification used in Japanese martial rts for Master Level Instructors. The award of the xpert License Certification is if designated

by the qualification by virtue of endorsement by either the Association of Chief Instructors or the Administration Head of an Association. SHOU-GOU is the master’s title-system set up by the Dai-Nippon Butoku-kai (greater Japan Budo Encouragement Federation established in 1895 in Kyoto). It consists of three ranks, Renshi, Kyoshi and Hanshi. The sho-go awarded consist of the three similar ranks and are much therefore classical ranks/titles similar to Samurai titles given under the auspices of Japan's Imperial Family during feudal times. The award of sho-go is based on each individual’s knowledge, teaching ability and the outstanding development of character through the study of the karate. Therefore it is important to realize that in the modern approach to karate, these titles/ranks are more difficult to achieve than the conventional Dan grades and are NOT automatically assigned with rank or seniority. The main theory of the title Shihan is the foundation of the word Shi meaning father and Han meaning of others. Together the titles represent the meaning Teacher of other teachers, or father of fathers. This title is normally separated from other titles; for example: Any person one with the title Shihan would not have any other title of Renshi or Kyoshi. It is of separate lineage as other titles. Such titles as Kyoshi or Hanshi are awarded were as Shihan can be used by anyone that is the teacher of other black belt teachers. In other terms it signifies one as a grandfather figure of an art form or school; One that has children that have children. Sōke is a Japanese term that means "the head family. In the realm of Japanese traditional arts, it is used synonymously with the term iemoto. Thus, it is often used to indicate "headmaster" (or sometimes translated as "head of the family" or even "grand master".) The English translation of sōke as "grand master" is not a literal translation but it does see use by some Japanese sources. It can mean one who is the leader of any school or the master of a style, but it is most commonly used as a highest level Japanese title, referring to the singular leader of a school or style of martial art. The term, however, is not limited to the genre of martial arts. Sōke is sometimes mistakenly believed to mean "founder of a style" because many modern sōke are the first generation headmasters of their art (shodai sōke), and are thus both sōke and founder. However, the successors to the shodai sōke are also sōke themselves. Sōke is generally considered the ultimate authority within their art, and has final discretion and authority regarding promotions, curriculum, doctrine, and disciplinary actions. A sōke has the authority to issue a menkyo kaiden certificate indicating that someone has mastered all aspects of his style. The widespread use of the term "sōke" is controversial in


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