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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 


 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

Software livre, cultura hacker e ecossistema da colaboração Anderson Fernandes de Alencar Murilo Bansi Machado Rafael Evangelista Sergio Amadeu da Silveira Vicente Macedo de Aguiar (Org)

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) Biblioteca Prof. José Geraldo Vieira

S664 Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração / organização Vicente Macedo de Aguiar ; ilustrações Murilo Machado. -- São Paulo: Momento Editorial, 2009. Vários autores. ISBN 978-85-62080-03-6 1. Ciência da computação 2. Software livre 3. Cultura hacker 4. Ecossistema da colaboração I. Aguiar, Vicente Macedo de II. Machado, Murilo CDD 005.1


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 

Conteúdo licenciado pela Creative Atribuição-Compartilhamento pela Licença 2.5 Brasil Commons. Essa licença permite copiar, distribuir, exibir e criar obras derivadas sobre esta obra. As novas obras devem conter menção aos autores nos créditos, porém as obras derivadas precisam ser licenciadas sob os mesmos termos dessa licença.

Software livre, cultura hacker e ecossistema da colaboração Revisão Karina Bersan Rocha Diagramação Murilo Bansi Machado Capa Aurélio A. Heckert

Anderson Fernandes de Alencar Murilo Bansi Machado Rafael Evangelista Sergio Amadeu da Silveira Vicente Macedo de Aguiar (Org)

Momento Editorial 2009


 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

“Se você tem uma maçã e eu tenho uma maçã, e nós trocamos as maçãs, então você e eu ainda teremos uma maçã. Mas se você tem uma idéia e eu tenho uma idéia, e nós trocamos essas idéias, então cada um de nós terá duas idéias” George Bernard Shaw


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 

SumĂĄrio

7

Introdução Vicente Macedo de Aguiar $JrQHVHGRIHQ{PHQRGRVVRIWZDUHVOLYUHVƒ2VKDFNHUV

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Distros e comunidades: a dinâmica interna de Debian, Fedora, Slackware e Ubuntu Murilo Bansi Machado %UHYHKLVWyULFRHFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVJHUDLVGDVGLVWULEXLo}HVƒ'LQkPLFDLQWHUQD GDVGLVWULEXLo}HVƒ%DUUHLUDGHHQWUDGDHSURFHVVRGHUHFUXWDPHQWRGHQRYRV FRODERUDGRUHVƒ2SRUWDYR]GDVFRPXQLGDGHVƒ$FRPXQLFDomRLQWHUQDH H[WHUQDƒ+LHUDUTXLDVHUHODo}HVGHSRGHUƒ2SHVRGRWUDEDOKREUDVLOHLURIUHQWH jFRPXQLGDGHLQWHUQDFLRQDOƒ2WHPSRGHGLFDGRjFRODERUDomRƒ2FRQFHLWRGH ³OLEHUGDGH´VREDyWLFDGHDOJXPDVFRPXQLGDGHV

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Software Livre e a Perspectiva da Dådiva: uma anålise sobre a produção colaborativa no projeto GNOME Vicente Macedo de Aguiar 2VXUJLPHQWRGRSURMHWR*120(ƒ23URMHWR*120(HRPRGHORFRODERUDWLYRGH SURGXomRHQWUHSDUHVƒ3ODQHMDQGRRHQUHGRGHXPDQRYDYHUVmRƒ3HUVSHFWLYDGD 'iGLYDHR3URMHWR*120(ƒ$GiGLYDFRPRIHQ{PHQRDQWURSROyJLFRƒ2*120( HDGiGLYDPHGLDGDSRUFRPSXWDGRUƒ&RQVLGHUDo}HV¿QDLV VREUHHVVD³FRPXQLGDGHDWXDO´

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PolĂ­tica e Linguagem nos debates sobre software livre Rafael Evangelista $FRQWULEXLomRGDVFLrQFLDVGDOLQJXDJHPĆ’6XMHLWRLGHRORJLDHVHQWLGRĆ’'XDV OLFHQoDVGLIHUHQWHVUHVWULo}HVĆ’$UHOHYkQFLDGDVOLFHQoDVĆ’1DVOLFHQoDVDV GLIHUHQoDVĆ’0DLVUHVWULo}HVĆ’*18/LQX[RX/LQX["Ć’6RIWZDUHOLYUHRXFyGLJR DEHUWR"Ć’'XDVFRUUHQWHV$PHVPDOXWD"Ć’6RIWZDUHOLYUHFHUYHMDJUiWLVH OLEHUGDGHGHH[SUHVVmRĆ’6RIWZDUHOLYUHQDSHULIHULDGRVLVWHPDĆ’2SURMHWRGH 3LQKHLURHRVDSHQVDGRVĆ’2SURMHWRGR3HUXĆ’'RLVPRPHQWRVQR %UDVLOĆ’&RPSDUWLOKDQGRWH[WRV


 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

151

A tecnologia na obra de Ă lvaro Vieira Pinto e Paulo Freire Anderson Fernandes de Alencar ĂˆOYDUR9LHLUD3LQWRXPROKDUUHĂ€H[LYRHULJRURVRĆ’2FRQFHLWRGHWpFQLFDH WHFQRORJLDĆ’$VGLYHUVDVDWLWXGHVIUHQWHjWHFQRORJLDĆ’$GHSHQGrQFLDDXWRQRPLD WHFQROyJLFDHDWHFQRORJLDFRPRSDWULP{QLRGDKXPDQLGDGHĆ’3DXOR)UHLUHXP ROKDURWLPLVWDFXULRVRHFUtWLFRĆ’3RUXPDSUi[LVWHFQROyJLFDĆ’$WHFQRORJLDD VHUYLoRGHTXHLQWHUHVVHV"Ć’(PGHIHVDGHXPDFRQFHSomRGHLQIRLQFOXVmRĆ’ &RQVLGHUDo}HVÂżQDLV3DXOR)UHLUHHR movimento do software livre

189

Mobilização colaborativa, cultura hacker e a teoria da propriedade imaterial Sergio Amadeu da Silveira 8PDEUHYHLQWURGXomRjTXHVWmRGDSURSULHGDGHHGDOLEHUGDGHƒ2PRGHORGH SURSULHGDGHGHEHQVWDQJtYHLVHRPRQRSyOLRGRVRIWZDUHƒ&HQiULRVGRFRQIURQWR HQWUHIRUoDVGRFRPSDUWLOKDPHQWRHGREORTXHLRGRFRQKHFLPHQWRWHFQROyJLFRƒ (OHPHQWRVSDUDXPDWHRULDGDSURSULHGDGHGHEHQVQmRHVFDVVRVƒ&RPXQLGDGHV WHFQROyJLFDVPRYLPHQWRVVyFLRWpFQLFRVHHVIHUDS~EOLFDƒ 3ROtWLFDSyVFDSLWDOLVWDGRVEHQVDQWLULYDLV"

271

Debates e discussĂľes interativas


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 

Introdução

A civilização do sĂŠculo XXI estĂĄ cada vez mais conectada. As tecnologias da informação, a exemplo da Internet, estĂŁo se tornando uma espĂŠcie de “tecido digitalâ€? do cotidiano da vida humana. Assim, cada vez mais a rede mundial GH FRPSXWDGRUHV VH DÂżUPD FRPR D EDVH WHFQROyJLFD SDUD D FRQVWLWXLomR GH DJUXSDPHQWRV H RUJDQL]Do}HV VRFLDLV TXH DFDEDP SRU LPSDFWDU GLUHWDPHQWH D dinâmica econĂ´mica, polĂ­tica e cultural do mundo moderno. Esse contexto atual de UHODo}HV HQWUH WHFQRORJLD H SURGXomR VRFLDO DFDED HQWmR VH WRUQDQGR XP FDPSR IpUWLOSDUDHVWXGRVHSHVTXLVDVFLHQWtÂżFDV0XLWRVVmRRVWUDEDOKRVDFDGrPLFRVTXH VH GHEUXoDP VREUH R WHPD SDUD WHQWDU FRPSUHHQGHU HVVD UHDOLGDGH GH LQWHQVDV transformaçþes que anunciam atĂŠ mesmo a superação da era industrial por uma ÂłLQIRUPDFLRQDO´HPTXHLPSHUDDHFRQRPLDGRVEHQVGLJLWDOL]DGRV  1R HQWDQWR GR SRQWR GH YLVWD GDV FLrQFLDV KXPDQDV SRXFRV DLQGD VmR os estudos que procuram analisar a singularidade de um fenĂ´meno que estĂĄ diretamente ligado a esse contexto de conectividade e que, ao mesmo tempo, SRGHVHUFRQVLGHUDGRFRPRXPGRVFDWDOL]DGRUHVGHERDSDUWHGRVSURFHVVRVGH mudanças ligados ao mundo digital: os denominados softwares livres. Em outras SDODYUDV SRGHVH GL]HU TXH WRGR R HFRVVLVWHPD FRODERUDWLYR UHODFLRQDGR jV comunidades e aos projetos que estĂŁo voltados para o uso, o desenvolvimento e a GLVWULEXLomRGHVRIWZDUHVFODVVLÂżFDGRVFRPRÂłOLYUHV´HQFRQWUDPVHIRUDGDSDXWDGH GLVFXVV}HVHSHVTXLVDVDFDGrPLFDV3RUHVVDUD]mRSRXFRDLQGDVHVDEHVREUHD UHDOLGDGHGDVFRPXQLGDGHVGHVRIWZDUHOLYUHVLWXDGDVQRFLEHUHVSDoRTXHPXLWDV YH]HV VmR UHVSRQViYHLV SRU GHÂżQLU RV UXPRV H SDGU}HV WHFQROyJLFRV GD SUySULD VRFLHGDGHHPUHGH$OpPGLVVRDpWLFDRWUDEDOKRDFXOWXUDDLGHRORJLDHDOyJLFD HFRQ{PLFDGRVVXMHLWRVTXHLQWHUDJHPQHVVHDPELHQWHGLJLWDODFDEDPGDPHVPD forma, sendo marginalizados e pouco compreendidos.


 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

Assim, em vez de fechar os olhos para essa realidade (social) singular que VHDSUHVHQWDSURS}HVH³TXHWHQWHPRVHQWHQGrODSRLVDYHUGDGHLUDTXHVWmRQmR é ser contra ou a favor, mas sim reconhecer as mudanças qualitativas na ecologia GRV VLJQRV QR DPELHQWH LQpGLWR TXH UHVXOWD GD H[WHQVmR GDV QRYDV UHGHV GH FRPXQLFDomR SDUD D YLGD VRFLDO H FXOWXUDO´ ± FRPR WmR EHP RULHQWD 3LHUUH /pY\  3DUWLQGRGHVVDSHUVSHFWLYDHVWHOLYURYLVDRIHUHFHUXPDSHTXHQDSDUFHOD GHFRQWULEXLomRQRHQWHQGLPHQWRVREUHRIHQ{PHQRVRFLDOHDVPXGDQoDVSROtWLFDV UHODFLRQDGRVDRVRIWZDUHOLYUH3DUDWDQWRHOHpFRPSRVWRSRUXPDFROHWkQHDGH DUWLJRVHODERUDGRVDSDUWLUGHHVWXGRVDFDGrPLFRVGHGLYHUVDViUHDVGDVFLrQFLDV humanas, que foram desenvolvidos em diferentes universidades e centros de SHVTXLVDGR%UDVLOPDVTXHWrPHPFRPXPRPHVPRREMHWRGHDQiOLVHDWHPiWLFD do Software livre, Cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração.  3DUWLQGR GH WDO FRQFHSomR QD SULPHLUD VHomR GHVWH OLYUR 0XULOR %DQVL 0DFKDGR DSUHVHQWD XP DUWLJR TXH IRL UHVXOWDGR GH XPD SHVTXLVD GH LQLFLDomR FLHQWt¿FDUHDOL]DGDQRDQRGHMXQWRDR&HQWUR,QWHUGLVFLSOLQDUGH3HVTXLVDGD )DFXOGDGH&iVSHU/tEHURTXHDERUGDDTXHVWmRGDGLQkPLFDGDVFRPXQLGDGHVGH VRIWZDUHOLYUHTXHGmRYLGDDGLIHUHQWHVSURMHWRVGHGLVWULEXLo}HVGRVLVWHPDRSH UDFLRQDO *18/LQX[ &RP R WtWXOR Distros e comunidades: a dinâmica interna de Debian, Fedora, Slackware e Ubuntu, é apresentada pelo autor uma análise com­ parativa entre tais comunidades on-line, em que são explorados elementos con­ siderados fundamentais para compreender a dinâmica interna de cada uma delas como, por exemplo, as formas de comunicação, as relações de poder, o período de FRODERUDomRGRVPHPEURVFRPRVSURMHWRVHQWUHRXWUDVTXHVW}HV  1D VHomR VXEVHTXHQWH 9LFHQWH 0DFrGR GH $JXLDU Gi FRQWLQXLGDGH DR HQWHQGLPHQWR VREUH D UHDOLGDGH GDV FRPXQLGDGHV GH VRIWZDUH OLYUH WUD]HQGR RV UHVXOWDGRV GH XPD SHVTXLVD QHWQRJUi¿FD UHDOL]DGD QR SHUtRGR GH GH]HPEUR GH DIHYHUHLURGHSHORDXWRUQR1~FOHRGH3yV*UDGXDomRHP$GPLQLVWUDomR GD (VFROD GH$GPLQLVWUDomR 13*$  GD 8QLYHUVLGDGH )HGHUDO GD %DKLD 8)%$  (VVD SHVTXLVD EXVFRX DQDOLVDU DV HVSHFL¿FLGDGHV GD GLQkPLFD GH WUDEDOKR GRV KDFNHUVQRSURFHVVRGHSURGXomRFRODERUDWLYRHQmRFRQWUDWXDOSUHVHQWHQDFRPX nidade on-line OLJDGD DR 3URMHWR *120( 3DUD WDQWR R DUWLJR Software Livre e a Perspectiva da Dádiva: uma análise sobre o trabalho e a produção colaborativa no Projeto GNOMEDQDOLVDFRPRVHPDQLIHVWDDRUJDQL]DomRHDGLQkPLFDGRWUDEDOKR TXH LPSXOVLRQD R SURFHVVR GH GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH VRIWZDUH QHVVH SURMHWR FRPR WDPEpPpH[DPLQDGDDQDWXUH]DGHVVHWUDEDOKRFRODERUDWLYRDGRWDGRSHORVKDFNHUV nessa comunidade. $SyV HVVD DQiOLVH PDLV HPStULFD GDV FRPXQLGDGHV GH VRIWZDUH OLYUH Rafael Evangelista apresenta um artigo intitulado Política e Linguagem nos debates


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 

sobre o software livre)UXWRGHXPDGLVVHUWDomRGH0HVWUDGRHP/LQJXtVWLFDTXH IRLGHIHQGLGDHPQD8QLYHUVLGDGH(VWDGXDOGH&DPSLQDV 81,&$03 HVVH DUWLJRSURFXUDUHĂ€HWLUGLVFXUVLYDPHQWHVREUHRVGHEDWHVTXHWUDWDPGDVYDQWDJHQV e desvantagens da adoção de sistemas livres em computadores. A partir de uma concepção que considera que o acontecimento de linguagem ĂŠ um acontecimento SROtWLFRSURFXUDVHHQWHQGHUFRPRHRQGHRSROtWLFRVHLQVFUHYHQHVVHGHEDWH3RU LVVRRDXWRUHVWDEHOHFHXPDUHĂ€H[mRVREUHRXVRGHFHUWRVWHUPRVHQRPHV Âł*18 /LQX[´ ÂłVRIWZDUH OLYUH´  H QmR RXWURV Âł/LQX[´ ÂłFyGLJR DEHUWR´  QD UHIHUrQFLD DRV REMHWRVGRGHEDWHLQYHVWLJDQGRDKLVWyULDGRVVHQWLGRVDHOHVDWULEXtGRV Na quarta seção deste livro, Anderson Fernandes de Alencar traz, dentro GHXPGHEDWHPDLVFRQFHLWXDOXPDUHĂ€H[mRVREUHA Tecnologia na obra de Ă lvaro Vieira Pinto e Paulo Freire, como resultado de uma dissertação de mestrado, defen­ GLGD HP  QD )DFXOGDGH GH (GXFDomR GD 8QLYHUVLGDGH GH 6mR 3DXOR 863  &RPHVVHDUWLJRRDXWRUEXVFDUHĂ€HWLUDFHUFDGHXPDPHWRGRORJLDGHPLJUDomRGR VRIWZDUHSURSULHWiULRSDUDRVRIWZDUHOLYUHTXHFRQWHPSOHHOHPHQWRVGRSHQVDPHQWR GRÂżOyVRIRĂˆOYDUR9LHLUD3LQWRHGRHGXFDGRU3DXOR)UHLUHEXVFDQGRDLQGDDSUHVHQWDU HOHPHQWRV WHyULFRSUiWLFRV UHOHYDQWHV SDUD D FRQVWLWXLomR GH XPD Âł3HGDJRJLD GD 0LJUDomR´  7HQGRFRPRREMHWRGHDQiOLVHRPRYLPHQWRGHGHVHQYROYLPHQWRHXVRGR VRIWZDUHOLYUHMXQWDPHQWHFRPDGLVSXWDSROtWLFDHHFRQ{PLFDFRPRVEHQHÂżFLiULRV GR PRGHOR KHJHP{QLFR GH SURSULHGDGH GH VRIWZDUH 6pUJLR $PDGHX GD 6LOYHLUD apresenta um artigo intitulado Mobilização Colaborativa, Cultura Hacker e a Teoria da Propriedade Imaterial(VVHDUWLJRWUD]RVUHVXOWDGRVGRHVWXGRDFDGrPLFRTXH IXQGDPHQWRXVXDWHVHGH'RXWRUDGRHP&LrQFLD3ROtWLFDGHIHQGLGDQD8QLYHUVLGDGH GH6mR3DXOR 863 HP(OHYLVDWUD]HURVSULQFLSDLVSRQWRVDERUGDGRVVREUH RSUREOHPDGDIRUPXODomRGHXPDWHRULDSROtWLFDGDSURSULHGDGHGHEHQVLPDWHULDLV no contexto de uma sociedade informacional e em rede.  1R~OWLPRFDStWXORGHVWHOLYURROHLWRUpFRQYLGDGRDFRODERUDUQDFRQWLQXDomR GHVVDVSHVTXLVDVSRUPHLRGHXPDPELHQWHLQWHUDWLYRQD,QWHUQHWRQGHHOHSRGHUi DFUHVFHQWDUQRYDVLQIRUPDo}HVHFRQWULEXLo}HVVREUHRVWHPDVDERUGDGRVFRPR WDPEpP SDUWLFLSDU GH GHEDWHV DVVtQFURQRV  FRP RV DXWRUHV VREUH R FRQWH~GR apresentado ao longo de todos os artigos.

A gĂŞnese do fenĂ´meno dos softwares livres 3DUD PHOKRU FRPSUHHQGHU DV WHPiWLFDV DERUGDGDV QRV GLIHUHQWHV DUWLJRV apresentados, este livro parte do pressuposto de que se faz necessĂĄrio para o


10 โ€ข Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 11

Free Software Fundation (FSF) HIRLRSURWDJRQLVWDGDHODERUDomRGHXPDUFDERXoR MXUtGLFRTXHJDUDQWLXDOpPGDDEHUWXUDGRFyGLJRIRQWHDSOHQDOLEHUGDGHGHXVR DSHUIHLoRDPHQWRHGLVWULEXLomRGHVVDWHFQRORJLDÂąSURSRQGRDVVLPDVXEVWLWXLomR GD OyJLFD GR copyright pelo “copyleftâ€?. 2 VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO *18 IRL HQWmR GLVSRQLELOL]DGRQD5HGHVHJXQGRRVWHUPRVGD*3/ General Public License), tendo RDSRLRGD)6)SDUDGDUVXVWHQWDELOLGDGHDHVVHSURMHWR  1RHQWDQWRDSHVDUGHWHUFULDGRDVFRQGLo}HVSROtWLFDVIDYRUiYHLVjPDQX WHQomRHDRGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGHVRIWZDUHVOLYUHVXPGRVVLVWHPDVFHQWUDLVGR3URMHWR *18R.HUQHO HURDQmRIXQFLRQRXHIHWLYDPHQWHDWpRDQRGH6HJXQGR &DVWHOOV   LVVR QmR RFRUUHX SRU LQFDSDFLGDGH WpFQLFD GH SURJUDPDomR Âą Mi TXH6WDOOPDQSRUH[HPSORpUHFRQKHFLGRFRPRXPGRVPDLRUHVSURJUDPDGRUHV TXH SDVVDUDP SHOR 0,7 (VVD GHPRUD HP GHVHQYROYHU XP SURMHWR GH WDPDQKD FRPSOH[LGDGHDFRQWHFHXHPGHFRUUrQFLDGRVKDFNHUVGRSURMHWR*18QmRWHUHP SHUFHELGRDLQGDRSRGHUGHFRODERUDomRGD,QWHUQHW

³6y XPD UHGH GH FHQWHQDV GH PLOKDUHV GH FpUHEURV WUDEDOKDQGR FRRSHUDWLYDPHQWHFRPGLYLVmRGRWUDEDOKRHVSRQWkQHDHFRRUGHQDomR PDOHiYHOPDVH¿FLHQWHSRGHULDOHYDUDFDERDWDUHIDH[WUDRUGLQiULDGH criar um sistema operacional capaz de lidar com a complexidade de computadores cada vez mais potentes interagindo por meio da Internet� &DVWHOOVS 

(QTXDQWR LVVR QD PHVPD GpFDGD GH  D PXOWLQDFLRQDO Microsoft co­ PHUFLDOL]RXHGLIXQGLXFRPDIRUoDGHXPPHUFDGRVHPFRQFRUUrQFLDXPVLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO SURSULHWiULR LVWR p FRP R FyGLJRIRQWH IHFKDGR  PHVPR VHQGR considerado tecnologicamente inferior. No entanto, pelo fato de ter uma interface DSDUrQFLD DPLJiYHOHGHIiFLOPDQXVHLRSDUDXVXiULRVÂżQDLVRVLVWHPDIHFKDGRGD 0LFURVRIWDWHQGHXDXPDGHPDQGDFDGDYH]PDLVFUHVFHQWHGHXVXiULRVFRPXQVGH FRPSXWDGRUHV&RPRDOWHUQDWLYDDHVVHFRQWH[WRVXUJHHQWmRRVLVWHPDRSHUDFLRQDO *18/LQX[TXHVHGHVHQYROYHDSDUWLUGRWUDEDOKRGH5LFKDUG6WDOOPDQ  PDV FRPXPPpWRGRGHGHVHQYROYLPHQWRPDLVVXEYHUVLYRTXHRSUySULR3URMHWR*18 GHVFREHUWRPHLRTXHSRUDFDVRSHORHQWmRHVWXGDQWHGD8QLYHUVLGDGGHGH+HOVLQNL GD)LQOkQGLD/LQXV7RUYDOGV Copyleft pXPDFDUDFWHUtVWLFDDWULEXtGDDGHWHUPLQDGDVREUDVSXEOLFDGDVVREOLFHQoDVOLYUHVFRPRD*3/ *HQHUDO 3XEOLF /LFHQVH  RX DOJXPDV OLFHQoDV GD &UHDWLYH &RPPRQV Âą TXH REULJDP TXH RXWURV GLVWULEXDP REUDV GHULYDGDV VRPHQWHVREXPDOLFHQoD OLYUH LGrQWLFDDTXHUHJHDREUDRULJLQiULD1DSUiWLFDLVVRVLJQLÂżFDTXHFDVRXPDHPSUHVD GHVHQYROYDXPVRIWZDUHXVDQGRSHGDoRVGHFyGLJRVGHXPRXWURVLVWHPDOLYUHTXHDGRWDD*3/HVVHVRIWZDUHGHULYDGR REUDGHULYDGD REULJDWRULDPHQWHWHPTXHXVDUWDPEpPD*3/FRPROLFHQoD  6H XP VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO p GHVFULWR FRPR XP FRQMXQWR GH SURJUDPDV H ÂłSDFRWHV´ TXH ID]HP XP FRPSXWDGRU funcionar, o kernel ĂŠ o mais importante “pacoteâ€? desse sistema. Isto porque o kernel realiza todas as operaçþes mais EiVLFDV SHUPLWLQGR TXH XP XVXiULR GH FRPSXWDGRU H[HFXWH RXWURV SURJUDPDV (OH p PXLWDV YH]HV GHVFULWR FRPR R “sistema nervosoâ€? de um sistema operacional para computadores, dada a sua complexidade e funcionalidade.


12 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

 (PRHQWmRXQLYHUVLWiULR/LQXV7RUYDOGVTXHKDYLDDGTXLULGRRVHX SULPHLURFRPSXWDGRUSHVVRDO XP3&GD,QWHO TXLVXWLOL]iORFRPXPVLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO81,;1RHQWDQWRFRPRQmRWLQKDUHFXUVRV¿QDQFHLURVSDUDWHUDFHVVR DHVVDWHFQRORJLDGHGLFRXVHXWUDEDOKRGHFRQFOXVmRGHFXUVRFRPRHVWXGDQWHGH FLrQFLDGDFRPSXWDomRSDUDGHVHQYROYHUVHXSUySULR.HUQHO3DUDHPSUHHQGHUWDO IDoDQKDHOHWRPRXFRPRUHIHUrQFLDRSUySULR.HUQHOGR81,;SDUDPiTXLQDV HXWLOL]RXRFRPSLODGRU*&&SDUDOLQJXDJHPC. Ao terminar sua primeira versão, ele DGHQRPLQRXGH³)UHL[´¹PDVVHJXQGR&DVWHOOVRDGPLQLVWUDGRUGRVHUYLGRUTXH HOHXWLOL]DYDHPKRPHQDJHPDRSUySULRFULDGRUGHQRPLQRXRGH/LQX['HYLGRjV GL¿FXOGDGHHQFRQWUDGDVDRORQJRGRVHX³SURMHWR¿QDOGHFXUVR´/LQXVGLYXOJRXR FyGLJRIRQWHGR.HUQHOQXPNewsgroup4 na Internet, em agosto de 1991, pedindo então ajuda e cooperação de outros programadores no desenvolvimento desse VRIWZDUHOLYUH  &RPRUHVXOWDGRGHVVDLQLFLDWLYD/LQXVDFDERXREWHQGRXPDH[WUDRUGLQiULD FRODERUDomR YLQGD GH WRGRV RV FDQWRV GR SODQHWD TXH GH DOJXPD IRUPD WLQKDP DFHVVRjUHGH6HJXQGR5D\PRQG  QRLQtFLRGRSURMHWR/LQX[SRUYROWDGH QmRHUDHVWUDQKRXPDQRYDYHUVmRGR.HUQHOVHUODQoDGDPDLVGHXPDYH]SRU GLD$VVLP³GLYXOJDo}HVUiSLGDVDPSODFRRSHUDomRHWRWDODEHUWXUDGDLQIRUPDomR SHUPLWLUDP D WHVWDJHP H[WHQVLYD H D GHSXUDomR GR FyGLJR GH WDO IRUPD TXH HP  R *18/LQX[ HUD XP VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO PHOKRU TXH RV VLVWHPDV 81,; SDWHQWHDGRV´ &DVWHOOV (PDOpPGRVVLVWHPDV81,;FRPHUFLDLV SDVVDUHPDDGRWDUR.HUQHO/LQX[VHJXQGR&DVWHOOV  MiKDYLDSHORPHQRV PLOK}HVGHXVXiULRVGR*18/LQX[HPWRGRRPXQGR

2Newsgroup Ê uma ferramenta de discussþes na Internet, onde usuårios postam mensagens de texto (denominadas GH³DUWLJRV´ HPIyUXQVTXHVmRDJUXSDGRVSRUDVVXQWR$RFRQWUiULRGDVPHQVDJHQVGHFRUUHLRHOHWU{QLFR e-mail), que são transmitidas quase que diretamente do remetente para o destinatårio, os artigos postados nos newsgroups são retransmitidos atravÊs de uma extensa rede de servidores conectados entre si.


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo โ€ข 13

ANO

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1950s &yGLJRVIRQWHVVmRGLVWULEXtGRVVHPUHVWULomRHQWUHHPSUHVDV FRPR,%0 FHQWUR e GHSHVTXLVDV FRPRRVODERUDWyULRV%HOOVH0,7 HXQLYHUVLGDGHV 1960s 1969 .HQ 7KRPSVRQ GHVHQYROYH D SULPHLUD YHUVmR GR 81,; 2 FyGLJRIRQWH GHVVH VLVWHPDpGLVWULEXtGROLYUHPHQWH 1978 'RQDOG.QXWK 6WDQGIRUG SXEOLFRXR7(;FRPRVRIWZDUHOLYUH 1979 $SyVD$7 7 VDQXQFLDUDFRPHUFLDOL]DomRGR81,;D8QLYHUVLGDGHGH%HUNHOH\ Gi LQtFLR DR GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GD VXD SUySULD YHUVmR GR 81,; R %6' Berkeley Software Distribution). (ULF$OOPDQQXPHVWXGDQWHGDPHVPD8QLYHUVLGDGHGH%HUNHOH\GHVHQYROYHXXP SURJUDPDTXHWUDQVIHUHPHQVDJHQVHQWUHFRPSXWDGRUHVSRUPHLRGD$53$1(7 que posteriormente evolui para o Sendmail. 1983 5LFKDUG6WDOOPDQSXEOLFDR0DQLIHVWR*18EXVFDQGRDGLIXVmRGRVRIWZDUHOLYUHH cria a Free Software Foundation. 1987 2GHVHQYROYHGRU$QGUHZ7DQHQEDXPODQoDR0LQL[DYHUVmRGR81,;SDUD3&V 0DF$PLJDH$WDUDL67GLVSRQLELOL]DQGRFRPSOHWDPHQWHRFyGLJRIRQWH 1991 /LQXV7RUYDOGV SXEOLFD D YHUVmR  GH XPD YDULDomR GR NHUQHO GR 0LQL[ SDUD R SURMHWR*18TXHHOHFKDPRXGHยณ/LQX[ยด 1993 eODQoDGRR)UHH%6'EDVHDGRQR%6'8QL[ ,DQ0XUGRFNFULDXPDQRYDGLVWULEXLomRGR*18/LQX[FKDPDGDGHยณ'HELDQยด 1994 0DUF(ZLQJIRUPDDHPSUHVDRed Hat/LQX[HFULDXPDGLVWULEXLomRSUySULDSDUD SUHVWDUVHUYLoRVFRPHVWHVRIWZDUHOLYUH 1995 2*UXSRGHKDFNHUVGHQRPLQDGRGHยณ$SDFKHยดFRQVWUyLXPQRYRVRIWZDUH OLYUH  SDUDVHUYLGRUHV:HETXHDWXDOPHQWHpRPDLVXVDGRHPWRGRRPXQGR 1996 2desktop.'(pODQoDGRSDUDXVXiULRVGR*18/LQX[SRU0DWWKLDV(WWULFKSRUpP com alguns aplicativos proprietรกrios. 1997 23URMHWR*120(pLQLFLDGRSRU)HGHULFR0HQDH0LJXHOGH,FD]DFRPRdesktop OLYUHRยฟFLDOGR3URMHWR*18 1999 2Q~PHURGHXVXiULRV*18/LQX[pHVWLPDGRHPPLOK}HVGHXVXiULRV 2000 Novas empresas multinacionais de TI (como a Novel e Real) lanรงam versรตes de VHXVSURGXWRVTXHURGDPQR*18/LQX[ 2001 2Q~PHURGHXVXiULRV*18/LQX[pHVWLPDGRHPSHORPHQRVPLOK}HVHPWRGR o mundo. 2007 0DLVGHSURMHWRVGHVRIWZDUHVOLYUHVHVWmRUHJLVWUDGRVHPapenas um dos PDLRUHVUHSRVLWyULRVGHFyGLJRDEHUWRGRPXQGRRVLWHSourceForge.net. 5HIHUrQFLDOpen Source TimelineLQ+$56H2X 


14 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

Os hackers 3RUÂżPpQHFHVViULRUHDOL]DUQHVWDLQWURGXomRXPSHTXHQRHVFODUHFLPHQWR VREUH D DPELJXLGDGH H R PDO HQWHQGLPHQWR TXH VH ID] VREUH R WHUPR H D SUi[LV VRFLDOGHWHFQyORJRVTXHVHDÂżUPDPFRPRÂłKDFNHUV´,VWRSRUTXHDRORQJRGHWRGDV as pesquisas que compĂľem este livro, o termo hacker nĂŁo estĂĄ associado a in­ divĂ­duos irresponsĂĄveis que visam penetrar em sistemas computacionais de forma ilĂ­cita – como ĂŠ normalmente propagado pela mĂ­dia de massa tradicional. Esse tipo GHLQGLYtGXRVTXHYLRODPVLVWHPDVGHVHJXUDQoDHTXHEUDPFyGLJRVFRPSXWDFLRQDLV VmRHVSHFLÂżFDPHQWHGHQRPLQDGRVGHcrackers e, em geral, sĂŁo repudiados pelos PHPEURVGDVFRPXQLGDGHVLQWHUQDFLRQDLVGHVRIWZDUHOLYUH  'HIRUPDFRQWUiULDDHVVDYLVmRSUpFRQFHELGDRVHVWXGRVTXHFRPS}HP este livro consideram que a prĂĄxis dos hackers fundamenta uma cultura que diz respeito ao conjunto de valores e crenças que emergiu das redes de programadores de computador que interagiam on-lineHPWRUQRGHSURMHWRVWpFQLFRVHFRODERUDWLYRV que visavam resultados inovadores. Assim, essa cultura desempenha um papel FHQWUDODRORQJRGDKLVWyULDGHGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGRVSULQFLSDLVVtPERORVWHFQROyJLFRV GDDWXDOVRFLHGDGHHPUHGH FRPRR3&Personal ComputerD,QWHUQHWHVRIWZDUHV FRPRRVLVWHPDRSHUDFLRQDO*18/LQX[ DWpRVGLDVDWXDLV$ÂżQDOÂżFDFODURGHSRLV de uma anĂĄlise mais aprofundada, que ĂŠ essa cultura hacker que dĂĄ sustentação DRDPELHQWHIRPHQWDGRUGHLQRYDo}HVWHFQROyJLFDVVLJQLÂżFDWLYDVPHGLDQWHDFROD ERUDomRHFRPXQLFDomROLYUHVFRPRWDPEpPpHODTXHDFDEDSHUPLWLQGRDFRQH[mR HQWUHRFRQKHFLPHQWRRULJLQDGRHPXQLYHUVLGDGHVHFHQWURVGHSHVTXLVDVHRVVXE produtos empresariais que difundem as tecnologias da informação no “mundo dos ĂĄtomosâ€? ­ isto ĂŠ, na materialidade da sociedade capitalista.

ReferĂŞncias &$67(//60DQXHO$*DOi[LDGD,QWHUQHWUHĂ&#x20AC;H[}HVVREUHD,QWHUQHWRVQHJyFLRVHDVRFLHGDGH. 5LR'H-DQHLUR-RUJH=DKDU(GLWRU +$56$OH[DQGHU286KDRVRQJ:RUNLQJIRUIUHH"0RWLYDWLRQVIRUSDUWLFLSDWLQJLQRSHQVRXUFHSURMHFWV International Journal of Electronic Commerce  YRO  Q S Âą 'LVSRQtYHO HP KWWS FVGOFRPSXWHURUJSHUVDJHQ'/$EV7RFMVS"UHVRXUFH3DWK GOSURFHHGLQJV WRF FRPSSURFHHGLQJV KLFVVWRF[PO '2, +,&66!$FHVVRHPMXQ /e9<3LHUUH&LEHUFXOWXUD6mR3DXOR(G 67$//0$15LFKDUG0)UHH6RIWZDUH)UHH6RFLHW\6HOHFWHG(VVD\VRI5LFKDUG06WDOOPDQ%RVWRQ -RVKXD*D\


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 15

Distros e comunidades a dinâmica interna de Debian, Fedora, Slackware e Ubuntu Murilo Bansi Machado

Ao contrĂĄrio do que alguns apregoam, o universo open source estĂĄ longe de ser homogĂŞneo. Em torno de um objeto em comum â&#x20AC;&#x201C; o software livre â&#x20AC;&#x201C;, achamVH GLYHUVRV FRODERUDGRUHV TXH FRQVLGHUDQGR JUDXV GH DÂżQLGDGH RX GHWHUPLQDGR LGHiULRGLVS}HPVHHPFRPXQLGDGHVHVSHFtÂżFDV7DLVFRPXQLGDGHVSRUVXDYH] embora convirjam em inĂşmeros pontos, detĂŞm vĂĄrios atributos que a elas sĂŁo muito SUySULRVFRQÂżJXUDQGRVHDVVLPXPFHQiULRSOXUDOGHPRFUiWLFRHSRUFHUWROLYUH Entre os aspectos em comum, pode-se citar o fato de todas se valerem de XPPRGHORDEHUWRHFRODERUDWLYRGLQkPLFRHĂ&#x20AC;H[tYHOFDOFDGRQDHVSRQWDQHLGDGH H QD YROXQWDULHGDGH 1HVVH PHLR ID]HPVH SUHVHQWHV D FXOWXUD PHULWRFUiWLFD H D produção entre pares, elementos-chave da cultura hacker. Os muitos voluntĂĄrios, motivados por uma busca pelo conhecimento, pela possibilidade de se relacionar HSHODYRQWDGHGHVHUHPUHFRQKHFLGRVHPIXQomRGHVHXVIHLWRVH[SUHVVDPVHXV desejos Ă  comunidade e se empenham em tarefas nas quais sejam mais hĂĄbeis H TXH PDLV OKHV GHHP SUD]HU (VVH PRGHOR GH WUDEDOKR YDOH GL]HU GHVDÂżD GH forma consistente as limitaçþes do paradigma neoliberal dominante porque seus trabalhadores nĂŁo tĂŞm perspectiva de um retorno que possa ser lucrativo e suas açþes nĂŁo sĂŁo respaldadas por leis ou contratos, prevalecendo, portanto, um ambiente de troca, e as comunidades de software livre sĂł se tornam projetos possĂ­veis em função disso. Nesse sentido, tambĂŠm nĂŁo sĂŁo poucos os pontos em que as comunidades se distanciam. Observaram-se, de um lado, modos de trabalho um tanto rĂ­gidos e ÂżpLVDXPWLSRGHKLHUDUTXLDHGHRXWURVLVWHPDVXPSRXFRPDLVGHVFHQWUDOL]DGRV )D]HPVHQRWDUDLQGDGLIHUHQWHVHVWUXWXUDVGHRUJDQL]DomRRUDFRP&RQVHOKRV RUD FRP /tGHUHV H &RQVWLWXLo}HV H RUD FRP XP ÂłGLWDGRU EHQHYROHQWH YLWDOtFLR´ (QTXDQWRSDUDXQVDLGpLDGHÂłOLEHUGDGH´HVWiDVVRFLDGDDRDSULPRUDPHQWRGDV LQWHUIDFHVJUiÂżFDVDÂżPGHWRUQDURVLVWHPDPDLVuser-friendly possĂ­vel e, assim,


16 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

XQLYHUVDOL]DU R DFHVVR SDUD RXWURV VHU ÂłOLYUH´ GHSHQGH GH TXDO SRGHU R XVXiULR WHP VREUH R FyGLJRIRQWH H SRU LVVR FRQYpP WUDEDOKDU SDUD VXD H[FHOrQFLD$V diversidades sĂŁo, pois, patentes aos olhos. Para fundamentar toda esta nossa discussĂŁo, foram analisadas quatro distribuiçþes de software livre durante o ano de 2008. SĂŁo elas: Debian, Fedora, Slackware e Ubuntu. Para tal, acompanhamos fĂłruns, listas de discussĂľes, comuniGDGHV HP UHGHV VRFLDLV FDQDLV QR ,5& HWF EHP FRPR HQWUHYLVWDPRV GLYHUVRV XVXiULRVHFRODERUDGRUHV-iVREUHRVFULWpULRVXWLOL]DGRVSDUDHVFROKHUHVVDVTXDWUR distribuiçþes em meio a uma vastidĂŁo delas,1 FRQYpP GL]HU HP SULPHLUR OXJDU buscou-se trabalhar com comunidades cuja representatividade no Brasil fosse alta â&#x20AC;&#x201C; nĂŁo apenas em termos de nĂşmeros, mas em participação e envolvimento. Outra SUHRFXSDomR FRQVLVWLX QD HVFROKD GH FRPXQLGDGHV GH GLIHUHQWHV QDWXUH]DV DOJR que remete Ă  estrutura de sua fundação, consolidação e funcionamento. Dessa IRUPDDRSDVVRTXH8EXQWXH)HGRUDID]HPVHGLVWULEXLo}HVFRPHUFLDLVÂąLVWRp sĂŁo mantidas por grandes empresas que dĂŁo apoio aos trabalhos prestados pelos colaboradores das respectivas comunidades â&#x20AC;&#x201C;, Slackware e Debian sĂŁo os maiores H[HPSORV GH GLVWULEXLo}HV QmRFRPHUFLDLV QDV TXDLV SHVDP DSHQDV D IRUoD GDV intensas atividades de seus voluntĂĄrios.  1HVWH DUWLJR IH]VH HP XP SULPHLUR PRPHQWR XP EUHYH KLVWyULFR GRV grupos, dos projetos e das distribuiçþes, apontando brevemente algumas de VXDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVPDLVHYLGHQWHV3RUÂżPHPÂł1RUPDVSURFHVVRVGLQkPLFDV´ OHYDQWDUDPVHDOJXQVWySLFRVSDUDXPDDQiOLVHFRPSDUDWLYDHPTXHVmRH[SORUDGRV elementos considerados chave para compreender a dinâmica interna de cada FRPXQLGDGH Âą PHVPR VRE RV LQHTXtYRFRV ULVFRV GH LQFRUUHU QD VXSHUÂżFLDOLGDGH inĂłcua ou no reducionismo caricatural.

Breve Histórico e características gerais das distribuiçþes Slackware Linux ³6y 6ODFNZDUH p /LQX[ H 3DWULFN 9RONHUGLQJ R VHX SURIHWD´ $ IUDVH encontrada em muitos fóruns, listas de discussão, comunidades do Orkut etc., descreve o espírito que estå solenemente incutido na mente de grande parte dos colaboradores dessa distribuição. Slackware pDPDLVDQWLJDGLVWULEXLomR/LQX[PDQWLGDSRUXPDFRPXQLGDGH 1 Segundo o site Distro Watch KWWSZZZGLVWURZDWFKFRP HPFRQVXOWDUHDOL]DGDHPDJRVWRGHH[LVWHPPDLV de 1000 distribuiçþes em atividade em todo o mundo


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 17

e uma das primeiras a serem lançadas, sendo que sua criação data de 16 de Julho GHTXDQGRRHVWDGXQLGHQVH3DWULFN9RONHUGLQJJUDGXRXVHHP&LrQFLDVGD &RPSXWDomR SHOD 8QLYHUVLGDGH (VWDGXDO GH 0LQQHVRWD H ODQoRX D YHUVmR  9RONHUGLQJpXPPLWRSDUDXVXiULRVHGHVHQYROYHGRUHVGDGLVWULEXLomR slackers), TXHVHUHIHUHPDHOHFRPR³RKRPHP´ the man) e BDFL (Benevolent Dictator For LifeRX'LWDGRU9LWDOtFLR%HQHYROHQWH 7DLVDOFXQKDVDVVLPFRPRDIUDVHWHPDTXH LQLFLDHVWHWySLFRVLQWHWL]DPWRGRRUHVSHLWRHDGPLUDomRTXH9RONHUGLQGLQVSLUD  1DV SULPHLUDV YHUV}HV GD GLVWULEXLomR 9RONHUGLQJ WUDEDOKRX VR]LQKR QR projeto, e apenas em um segundo momento aceitou a ajuda de outros desenvolvedores, que ainda hoje são poucos. Jå o nome que escolheu Ê originårio do próprio WHUPR ³VNDFN´ TXH HPERUD VHMD XPD GHVLJQDomR HP LQJOrV SDUD ³SUHJXLoRVR´ RX ³IROJDGR´ GHULYD GH XP FRQFHLWR FXQKDGR SHOD Igreja do Sub-gênio2 comumente WUDGX]LGR SRU ³VHQVR GH OLEHUGDGH LQGHSHQGrQFLD H RULJLQDOLGDGH SDUD DOFDQoDU VXDVPHWDVSHVVRDLV´  0RYLGRVSHORSULQFtSLR.,66 DFU{QLPRSDUD³Keep it simple, stupid´LVWRp ³PDQWHQKDRVLPSOHVHVW~SLGR´ RVslackers se habituaram a manter um sistema FRP LQWHUIDFHV JUi¿FDV SDUD SRXFDV IXQo}HV DOJR TXH SRGH VH DVVHPHOKDU DR 81,; RULJLQDO ¹ ³VLPSOLFLGDGH´ QHVVH FDVR QmR GL] UHVSHLWR j IDFLOLGDGH GH XVR PDV DR GHVLJQ ,VVR DOpP GH FRQIHULU UDSLGH] H OHYH]D VLJQL¿FD TXH R XVXiULR não conta com a ajuda de barras, menus e ícones intuitivos para trabalhar com JUDQGHSDUWHGRVFRPDQGRVTXHVmRUHDOL]DGRVHPVXDPDLRULDSRUPHLRGHOLQKDV GHFyGLJRSRLVRVPHPEURVGDFRPXQLGDGHDFUHGLWDPTXHRVJUi¿FRVRFXOWDPR ³YHUGDGHLUR´VLVWHPD3RULVVRGL]VHTXH³Vy6ODFNZDUHp/LQX[´H[SUHVVmRTXH UHPHWH D XPD GLVWULEXLomR ³SXUD´ ³RULJLQDO´ QHOD HVVH ³YHUGDGHLUR VLVWHPD´ HVWi plenamente à disposição de quem opera a måquina, alguÊm que tem o poder de garantir a segurança e o bom andamento de quaisquer aplicaçþes. Hoje, nem mesmo o próprio processo de instalação do Slackware Ê totalPHQWHJUi¿FRRTXHGL¿FXOWDDUHDOL]DomRGHWDOIHLWRSRUXPLQLFLDQWH0XLWRVFUrHP TXHDGLVWULEXLomRH[LJHPXLWRWHPSRGRVXVXiULRVQHVVDGL¿FXOGDGHGHDSUHQGL]DGR imediato. Os slackers, no entanto, acreditam que o sistema Ê simples à medida que pFRPSUHHQGLGRHTXHVHXXVRpVLQJXODUPHQWHYDQWDMRVRHPIXQomRGDH[SHULrQFLD angariada durante o processo de pesquisa a que o iniciante se submete nos primeiros momentos. AlÊm de simples e, portanto, leve, o Slackware tem por característica SUHSRQGHUDQWHDHVWDELOLGDGHUD]mRSHODTXDOpDPSODPHQWHXVDGRHPPiTXLQDV que cumprem o papel de servidores de sistema e devidamente aproveitado por 2 Igreja do Sub-gênio &KXUFKRIWKH6XE*HQLXV pXPDUHOLJLmR¿FWtFLDGDTXDO3DWULFN9RONHUGLQJp³PHPEUR´7UDWDVH GHXPJUXSRSVHXGRUHOLJLRVRTXHVDWLUL]DDOpPGDVUHOLJL}HVDWHRULDGDFRQVSLUDomRRVH[WUDWHUUHVWUHVHDVSHFWRV da cultura popular.


18 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

PDLVGHRXWUDVGLVWULEXLo}HVTXHGHOHVHID]HPGHULYDGDV No Brasil, a comunidade Slackware PDLV H[SUHVVLYD HVWi HP yUELWD GR *XVEU R *UXSR GH 8VXiULRV 6ODFNZDUH %UDVLO 2 *XVEU VXUJLX QR GLD  GH GH]HPEURGHFRPRIUXWRGDYRQWDGHGHXPJUXSRGHDPLJRVFXMRREMHWLYRHUD promover a troca de informaçþes sobre a distribuição e ser uma referência diante GDVFRPXQLGDGHVQDFLRQDLVHLQWHUQDFLRQDLV3RGHVHGL]HUTXHDWpFHUWRSRQWRR projeto de seus fundadores3 tem sido bem-sucedido.  4XDQGRVDLUiDSUy[LPD RXDVSUy[LPDV YHUVmR }HV GRSlackware? Patrick 9RONHUGLQJUHVSRQGH³RQRYR6ODFNZDUHYDLVHUODQoDGRTXDQGRHVWLYHUSURQWR´4

Ubuntu Linux Se, nos dias atuais, a imagem que se consolidou quanto ao fato de os VLVWHPDVGHQ~FOHR*18/LQX[VHUHPPDQLSXODGRVHFRPSUHHQGLGRVDSHQDVSRU hackers ou grandes peritos em informática está em grande parte superada, isso PXLWRVHGHYHDRVXUJLPHQWRSULPHLUDPHQWHGHLQWHUIDFHVJUi¿FDVOLYUHVDPLJiYHLV ±VHQGRRVJUDQGHVH[SRHQWHVR.'(HPHR*120(HP±HHP VHJXQGR OXJDU DR DSDUHFLPHQWR GR 8EXQWX /LQX[ FXMD SULPHLUD YHUVmR   IRL ODQoDGDDRVGHRXWXEURGHVRERFRGLQRPH³ZDUW\´5 %DVHDGDQDGLVWULEXLomR'HELDQR8EXQWXpPDQWLGRSHODHPSUHVD&DQRQLFDO /WG IXQGDGD SHOR VXODIULFDQR 0DUN 5LFKDUG 6KXWWOHZRUWK FRP VHGH QD ,OKD GH 0DQHYROWDGDSDUDDSURPRomRGHVRIWZDUHVOLYUHV3URJUDPDGRUEHPVXFHGLGR 6KXWWOHZRUWKIH]VHPLOLRQiULRDRSDVVDUVXDHPSUHVDGH³VHJXUDQoDQDLQWHUQHW´ D7KDZWHDRVFXLGDGRVGDWDPEpPHPSUHVDGHVHJXUDQoD9HUL6LJQGRV(VWDGRV 8QLGRV&RPRGLQKHLURGDYHQGDHOHYLDMRXQRPXQGRGDOXD±OLWHUDOPHQWH3RU 20 milhões de dólares, tornou-se o segundo turista espacial do mundo a bordo da QDYHUXVVD6R\X]70HP'HYROWDDRSODQRWHUUHQRFULRXD&DQRQLFDO/WG TXH VXVWHQWD R 8EXQWX DVVLP FRPR DV GHULYDo}HV .XEXQWX ;XEXQWX (GXEXQWX H *REXQWX6  GH GLYHUVDV IRUPDV ± GHVGH R ¿QDQFLDPHQWR GH GHVHQYROYHGRUHV H (QWUHRVIXQGDGRUHVHVWmR$OHVVDQGUR0DUWLQV$QWRQLR0DUFHOR%UXQR+HQULTXH-DUEDV&HODQWH-RmR$OH[DQGUH 0DUFHOR6DPVRQLXN0DUFRV7DGHX5LFDUGR&DUUDQRH5RGULJR*UDHII 4 O que não ocorre em algumas distribuições, nas quais são estabelecidas certas periodicidades para o lançamento GDSUy[LPDYHUVmRVHQGRPDLVFRPXPDGHVHLVPHVHV1HVVDFRUULGDFRQWUDRWHPSRDOJXPDVFRLVDVSRGHP¿FDU SRUID]HU1R6ODFNZDUHFRQWXGRDQRomRGHWHPSRpUHOHJDGDDVHJXQGRSODQRHPEHQHItFLRGDEXVFDSRUDTXLORTXH julgam ser um sistema perfeito. Por isso, a periodicidade pode variar: no ano de 1993, foram lançadas 5 versões. Em TXDWURYHUV}HV1RVDQRVGHHWUrVQRYDVYHUV}HVIRUDPODQoDGDV(PHGXDV YHUV}HV(PHDSHQDVXPDYHUVmR $HVFROKDGRQ~PHUR³´QmRIRLDRDFDVR$UHJUDFRQVLVWHHPGHGLFDURQ~PHURGDHVTXHUGDDRDQRGHODQoDPHQWR e o da direita, ao mês. Quanto aos codinomes, trata-se de uma prática muito comum associar um apelido a cada versão lançada. 7UDWDVHFRPRGLWRGHGHULYDo}HVGRPHVPRVLVWHPD³.XEXQWX´QDGDPDLVpGRTXHR8EXQWXVREDLQWHUIDFHJUi¿FD .'( SRUSDGUmRR8EXQWXYHPFRP*120( ³;XEXQWX´WUD]DLQWHUIDFH;IFHDRSDVVRTXH³(GXEXQWX´WUD]RQ~FOHR GR8EXQWXDSULPRUDGRHVSHFL¿FDPHQWHSDUDDPELHQWHVHGXFDFLRQDLVHR³*REXQWX´pXPDYDULDQWHPDLVOHYHHFRP menos recursos, contendo apenas por software livre em todas as aplicações.


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 19

mantenedores do sistema em diversos cantos do mundo atĂŠ o envio gratuito de PtGLDV &'V FRQWHQGRRVLVWHPDRSHUDFLRQDOSDUDTXDOTXHUSDUWHGRSODQHWD  1mRpjWRDTXHRVORJDQGR8EXQWXpÂł/LQX[IRUKXPDQEHLQJV´RXVHMD Âł/LQX[SDUDVHUHVKXPDQRV´2VLVWHPDFXMRQRPHpXPFRQFHLWRVXODIULFDQRTXH SRGHUVHUWUDGX]LGRFRPRÂłKXPDQLGDGHSDUDFRPRVRXWURV´pSURMHWDGRSDUDTXH TXDOTXHUSHVVRDVHMDFDSD]GHXViORLQGHSHQGHQWHPHQWHGRQtYHOGHFRQKHFLPHQWR HPLQIRUPiWLFDRXGDQDFLRQDOLGDGH(VVHHVStULWRGHWHQWDWLYDGHXQLYHUVDOL]DomR IH] GR 8EXQWX XP VLVWHPD GHYHUDV LQWXLWLYR GHVGH R SURFHVVR GH LQVWDODomR DWp D XWLOL]DomR GDV PDLV YDULDGDV IXQo}HV FRQWDQGR LQFOXVLYH FRP YDVWtVVLPD GRFXPHQWDomR RÂżFLDO H H[WUDRÂżFLDO FDSD] GH VDWLVID]HU WDQWR DV G~YLGDV GH XP LQLFLDQWHTXDQWRDVGHXPLQLFLDGR7UDWDVHSRUVLQDOGHXPDOLWHUDWXUDFRPSOHWDp PXLWRFRPXPDREDL[DURVPDQXDLVPDLVXVDGRVHQFRQWUDUFDStWXORVLQWURGXWyULRV DOXVLYRVjKLVWyULDGRVRIWZDUHOLYUHHjVÂżORVRÂżDVHPMRJRVHPSUHHPOLQJXDJHP acessĂ­vel e com analogias fĂĄceis de serem compreendidas. A nacionalidade do usuĂĄrio, como dito, tambĂŠm nĂŁo costuma ser uma barreira, jĂĄ que o sistema ĂŠ WUDGX]LGR SDUD PXLWRV LGLRPDV DWUDYpV GRV HVIRUoRV GH LQ~PHURV FRODERUDGRUHV TXHWDPEpPWUDGX]HPHHODERUDPQRYDVGRFXPHQWDo}HV&RPXPDQRYDYHUVmR a cada seis meses, o Ubuntu ĂŠ geralmente lançado apĂłs decorrido, em mĂŠdia, um PrVGRODQoDPHQWRGRQRYR*120(VXDLQWHUIDFHJUiÂżFDSDGUmR  1R %UDVLO D FRPXQLGDGH 8EXQWX VHJXH j ULVFD D ÂżORVRÂżD FRP D TXDO R VLVWHPDIRLHODERUDGRHQDTXDOVXVWHQWDWRGDDVXDEDVH'D(TXLSH2ÂżFLDOEURWDP vĂĄrios subtimes que trabalham para aprimorar a distribuição. Entre eles estĂŁo: &RQVHOKR%UDVLO yUJmRPi[LPRTXHUHSUHVHQWDRÂżFLDOPHQWHDFRPXQLGDGHEUDVLOHLUD DWXDOPHQWHFRPWUrVPHPEURV 'RFXPHQWDomR7UDGXomR3ODQHWD IHUUDPHQWDTXH agrega as informaçþes postadas em blogs de membros da comunidade), Segurança, 8EXQWX*DPHV)yUXQV'LVWURV SDUDFXLGDUGDVTXHVW}HVDOXVLYDVjVGLVWULEXLo}HV GHULYDGDV.XEXQWXH;XEXQWX HRV*UXSRV5HJLRQDLVTXHVmRDVUHSUHVHQWDo}HV nos estados.1DPDLRUSDUWHGDVYH]HVRVVXEWLPHVGHVHPSHQKDPVHXVWUDEDOKRV por meio do Launchpad8 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; um conjunto de aplicaçþes na plataforma web usado no desenvolvimento de programas de cĂłdigo aberto, controlando tarefas e facilitando todo o processo de colaboração. Para que um indivĂ­duo comece a participar da comunidade ajudando ativamente, criar uma conta no Launchpad ĂŠ um Ăłtimo começo.

$WpHQWmRH[LVWHPJUXSRVUHJLRQDLVQRVHVWDGRVGH$ODJRDV%DKLD&HDUi0DWR*URVVR0DUDQKmR0LQDV*HUDLV 3DUDtED 3DUDQi 3DUi 3HUQDPEXFR 5LR *UDQGH GR 6XO 5LR GH -DQHLUR 6DQWD &DWDULQD 6mR 3DXOR 6HUJLSH H QR Distrito Federal. Nada impede, entretanto, que algum usuĂĄrio reĂşna um grupo de pessoas e crie um novo grupo regional onde nĂŁo houver nenhum. 2/DXQFKSDGDVVLPFRPRR8EXQWXIRLGHVHQYROYLGRHpPDQWLGRSHOD&DQRQLFDO/WG


20 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

Debian GNU/Linux  &RQWDQGR DWXDOPHQWH FRP PDLV GH PLO GHVHQYROYHGRUHV HVSDOKDGRV SRU todo o mundo, a comunidade Debian se destaca por ter um grande nĂşmero de SHVVRDV WUDEDOKDQGR DWLYDPHQWH QR VRIWZDUH $OpP GLVVR ID]VH QRWiYHO VXD RUJDQL]DomREHPGHÂżQLGDGRWDGDGHQRUPDVPXLWRFODUDVHSUHFLVDV  (VVDGLVWULEXLomRGHQ~FOHR*18/LQX[pRFDUURFKHIHGR3URMHWR'HELDQ RÂżFLDOPHQWHIXQGDGRHPGHDJRVWRGHSHORHVWDGXQLGHQVH,DQ0XUGRFN que juntou as trĂŞs letras iniciais do nome de sua mulher, Debra, com seu primeiro QRPHDÂżPGHIRUPDURWtWXORGDGLVWULEXLomR,QLFLDOPHQWHFRPDSRLRGRSURMHWR*18 e da Free Software Foundation (entre 1994 e 1995), a distribuição começou com um SHTXHQRJUXSRGHKDFNHUVFXMRLGHDOHUDEHPVHPHOKDQWHDRGRSUySULR/LQX[QR TXHGL]UHVSHLWRDPDQWHUXPGHVHQYROYLPHQWRDEHUWRDEUDQJHQWHHFROHWLYR Para disciplinar todas essas pessoas na elaboração de um sistema de alto SDGUmRR3URMHWR'HELDQWHPÂąDOpPGHGRFXPHQWRVFRPSROtWLFDVGHRUJDQL]DomR comunicação, conduta etc., bastante comum Ă s outras comunidades â&#x20AC;&#x201C; uma Âł&RQVWLWXLomR´ LQWHUQD H XP Âł&RQWUDWR 6RFLDO´ (QTXDQWR HVWH LPSHOH R PHPEUR a assumir um compromisso com a comunidade declarando, entre outras coisas, TXHÂłR'HELDQSHUPDQHFHUiOLYUH´ÂłLUHPRVUHWULEXLUjFRPXQLGDGHVRIWZDUH OLYUH´ÂłQmRHVFRQGHUHPRVSUREOHPDV´HÂłQRVVDSULRULGDGHVmRQRVVRVXVXiULRVHR VRIWZDUHOLYUH´DTXHODWUDWDGDHVWUXWXUDRUJDQL]DFLRQDOSDUDDWRPDGDGHGHFLV}HV na comunidade, dividindo-a em grupos cuja composição e poderes sĂŁo claramente SRVWXODGRV 9DOH UHVVDOWDU LQFOXVLYH TXH D &RQVWLWXLomR QmR H[HUFH UHJXODo}HV sobre os trabalhos individuais. Pelo contrĂĄrio, ela assegura sua independĂŞncia.  7DLV DJUXSDPHQWRV GL]HP PXLWR VREUH D FRPXQLGDGH $ HVWUXWXUD JHUDO consiste em 2ÂżFLDLV9 (incluindo lĂ­der, comitĂŞ tĂŠcnico e secretĂĄrio), trabalhadores ligados Ă  Distribuição UHODFLRQDGRV D SDFRWHV LQGLYLGXDLV UHSRVLWyULRV )73 gerĂŞncia de lançamento, documentação etc.), Ă  Publicidade (imprensa, eventos, parceria, marketing) e Ă  Infra-estrutura (suporte a idiomas, acompanhamento dos bugs, mantenedores de chaveiros, equipe de segurança, site na web etc.) e Distribuição Personalizada ('HELDQ-USDUDFULDQoDV'HELDQ0HGSDUDSHVTXLVD PpGLFD'HELDQ(GXSDUDHGXFDomR'HELDQ/H[SDUDHVFULWyULRVOHJDLV'HQLDQ 13SDUDRUJDQL]Do}HVVHPÂżQVOXFUDWLYRVH'HELDQ$FHVVLELOLW\SDUDSHVVRDVFRP GHÂżFLrQFLD   4XDQWR DR H[HUFtFLR GR SRGHU QD FRPXQLGDGH p HVWDEHOHFLGD D VHJXLQWH &DEHDROtGHUGR3URMHWR'HELDQHQWUHRXWUDVFRLVDVWRPDUGHFLV}HVXUJHQWHVHFRPDQGDUGLVFXVV}HV(OHpHOHLWR SHORVGHVHQYROYHGRUHVHPXPSURFHVVRFRPSOH[RTXHOHYDHPFRQWDWDQWRRJUDXGHDFHLWDomRTXDQGRGHUHMHLomR GRFDQGLGDWR-iR&RPLWr7pFQLFRpR~QLFRyUJmRTXHWHPSRGHUVREUHDVGHFLV}HVLQGLYLGXDLVGRVGHVHQYROYHGRUHV sendo que a comunidade prefere usĂĄ-lo apenas como Ăşltima alternativa.


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 21

hierarquia: 1. Os desenvolvedores,10 por via de resolução geral ou de uma eleição; 2. O líder do Projeto; 3. O comitê tÊcnico e/ou seu presidente; 4. O desenvolvedor individual trabalhando em uma tarefa particular; 5. Delegados apontados pelo líder SDUD WDUHIDV HVSHFt¿FDV  2 VHFUHWiULR ¹ UHVSRQViYHO HQWUH RXWUDV FRLVDV SRU recolher os votos entre os desenvolvedores, determinar seu número e identidade H UHVROYHU GLVSXWDV FRP UHODomR j LQWHUSUHWDomR GD &RQVWLWXLomR 'HVVD IRUPD evidencia-se uma estrutura fundamentada, mais do que na meritocracia, na ³SLVWLFUDFLD´ 5XRVR LVWRpQDUHODomRGHFRQ¿DQoDHQWUHRVSDUHV AlÊm disso, um usuårio deve ter grande envolvimento nos trabalhos para FRQVHJXLU GHWHUPLQDGRV SRVWRV ¹ R TXH GLJDVH DFDED SRU YDORUL]iORV 4XDQGR perguntado, no FISL 2008, sobre os requisitos para se tornar um desenvolvedor, um DVSLUDQWHDWDOSRVWRGLVVH³ePXLWRPHOKRUDVVLPHVVHpRHVStULWRGDFRPXQLGDGH e XP WHVWH SDUD YHU VH R FDUD TXHU UHDOPHQWH VHJXLU FRODERUDQGR GLIHUHQWH GH RXWUDVGLVWURVDSHVVRDID]SRXFRMiUHFHEHXPHPDLOFRPRQRPHGRSURMHWRH VH DFRPRGD´ $OpP GHVVDV HVWUXWXUDV LQVWLWXFLRQDLV TXH VH YHUL¿FDP HP JHUDO um pouco mais rígidas do que nas demais comunidades (mas que, de fato, não H[HUFHPJUDQGHSUHVVmRVREUHVHXVFRODERUDGRUHV HVWiDEXVFDREVHVVLYDSHOD estabilidade dos pacotes por parte dos mantenedores.11 No Debian, nada do que QmR HVWHMD FRPSOHWDPHQWH ¿QDOL]DGR HVWiYHO H IXQFLRQDQGR SHUIHLWDPHQWH EHP SRGH HQWUDU QR VLVWHPD ¿QDO GLVSRQLELOL]DGR DRV XVXiULRV ¹ H LVVR PXLWDV YH]HV implica abrir mão de uma versão mais atual para dar lugar a algo mais antigo, porÊm HVWiYHO ,VVR WXGR GLJDVH QmR VH WUDGX] HP XP SUREOHPD D FRPXQLGDGH JRVWD GHUHVVDOWDUTXH³R'HELDQYDLODQoDUTXDQGRHVWLYHUSURQWR´LVWRpQmRKiGDWDV previamente marcadas para isso acontecer.  1R%UDVLODFRPXQLGDGH'HELDQVHID]UHSUHVHQWDWLYDQmRWDQWRSHORQ~PHUR de desenvolvedores ou de pessoas que trabalham mais ativamente no software ¿QDO ¹ WDO Q~PHUR DOLiV p FRQVLGHUDGR EDL[R TXDQGR FRPSDUDGR j TXDQWLGDGH de desenvolvedores europeus e norte-americanos. No entanto, o número de HQWXVLDVWDV HYDQJHOL]DGRUHV H RXWURV YiULRV FRODERUDGRUHV HOHYD D FRPXQLGDGH 'HELDQEUDVLOHLUDDXPSRVWRPXLWRVLJQL¿FDWLYRQRPXQGRGRVRIWZDUHOLYUH

2VGHVHQYROYHGRUHVVmRRVPHPEURV³R¿FLDLV´GDFRPXQLGDGH3DUDDOFDQoDUWDOSRVWRHOHVGHYHPWHUXPDFKDYH *3* HVSpFLH GH DVVLQDWXUD GLJLWDO  DVVLQDGD SRU DOJXpP TXH Mi p GHVHQYROYHGRU FKDPDGR GH ³SDGULQKR´  SDVVDU por provas de habilidade tÊcnica e compreensão Êtica e moral com relação ao software livre e à comunidade Debian. $R¿QDOJDQKDPXPHPDLOFRPRGRPtQLR³GHELDQRUJ´XPDSiJLQDQD,QWHUQHWHRDFHVVRDRUHSRVLWyULRFHQWUDOGD distribuição.  0DQWHQHGRUHV VmR UHVSRQViYHLV SRU SDFRWHV HVSHFt¿FRV DVVHJXUDQGR D HVWDELOLGDGH GRV VRIWZDUHV 3DUD LVVR QmRSUHFLVDPVHUGHVHQYROYHGRUHVPDVIUHT HQWHPHQWHVHFDQGLGDWDPDRSRVWReFRPRVHIRVVHXPSURFHVVRGH DSUHQGL]DGRRGHVHQYROYHGRUGHYHVHUYLUFRPRPDQWHQHGRUSRUXPWHPSRDWpSURYDUVXDFDSDFLGDGH


22 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

Fedora O Projeto Fedora teve inĂ­cio em 2002, quando a empresa Red Hat, criada HPHHVSHFLDOL]DGDHPVHUYLoRVUHODFLRQDGRVDVRIWZDUHOLYUHHGLVWULEXLo}HV /LQX[GHFLGLXYROWDUVHXVHVIRUoRVSDUDRPHUFDGRFRUSRUDWLYRRIHUHFHQGRVROXo}HV open source. Dessa forma, dividiu sua distribuição em duas: Red Hat Enterprise /LQX[H)HGRUD&RUHFULDQGRDVVLPR3URMHWR)HGRUDTXHSDVVRXDVHUFRQGX]LGR em boa parte pela comunidade. Sustentado pela Red Hat, o Projeto teve investimento inicial em pessoas, divulgação e eventos e ĂŠ considerado um laboratĂłrio de inovação, pesquisa e GHVHQYROYLPHQWRVHJXQGR0D[6SHYDFNÂąVHXOtGHUDWpIHYHUHLURGH(QFDUDGR como uma parceria entre comunidade e empresa, o Projeto, que lança uma nova YHUVmRGDGLVWULEXLomRDFDGDVHLVPHVHVWHPFRPRXPDGDVÂżQDOLGDGHVWHVWDUH DSHUIHLoRDU DSOLFDo}HV TXH VHUmR LPSOHPHQWDGDV QR VRIWZDUH RÂżFLDO GD 5HG +DW ODQoDGRDFDGDGH]RLWRPHVHV$VVLPR)HGRUDJHUDOPHQWHWUD]RTXHKiGHPDLV recente e corre o risco, em nome da inovação, de portar uma aplicação passĂ­vel de bugs$FRPXQLGDGHSRUFHUWRVHUHVSRQVDELOL]DSURQWDPHQWHSRUHOHV1mRp UDURSRUH[HPSORHQFRQWUDUXPDJUDQGHTXDQWLGDGHGHDWXDOL]Do}HVSRXFRWHPSR depois da data de lançamento.  2 3URMHWR p JHULGR SHOR )DP6&R Fedora Ambassadors Steering Committee  XP FRPLWr GH  HPEDL[DGRUHV12 eleito a cada seis meses por HPEDL[DGRUHVHVSDOKDGRVSHORPXQGR2FRPLWrpUHVSRQViYHOSHODVHVWUDWpJLDV GHPDUNHWLQJGDGLVWULEXLomRHSHODRUJDQL]DomRGDFRPXQLGDGHPXQGLDORULHQWDQGR D DWXDomR GRV GHPDLV HPEDL[DGRUHV H IRUQHFHQGR RV UHFXUVRV QHFHVViULRV SDUD as comunidades locais. Atualmente, o brasileiro Rodrigo Padula de Oliveira ĂŠ um de seus membros. Nas eleiçþes de Janeiro de 2008, recebeu o maior nĂşmero de votos (41 do total de 69), o que corroborou a credibilidade e a representatividade da comunidade brasileira diante do Projeto. AlĂŠm disso, Padula tambĂŠm assumiu o cargo de Community Manager GR)HGRUDQD$PpULFD/DWLQD )HGRUD/$7$0 yUJmR TXH SUHWHQGH UHDOL]DU QD UHJLmR DWLYLGDGHV VHPHOKDQWHV jV GHVHPSHQKDGDV SHOR )DP6&R  $FLPD GR )DP6&2 H[LVWH XP yUJmR Pi[LPR GH GHFLV}HV WUDWDVH GR )HGRUD%RDUGFRQVLGHUDGRXPWLPHH[HFXWLYRFRQVWLWXtGRÂąDWpPHDGRVGH â&#x20AC;&#x201C; por 5 membros indicados pela Red Hat e 4 membros eleitos pela comunidade. 7RGDYLDDSyVRODQoDPHQWRGR)HGRUDGHFRGLQRPHÂł6XOSKXU´HPGHPDLR de 2008, a força da comunidade aumentou substancialmente e o quadro foi revertido: &DEHDRVHPEDL[DGRUHVUHSUHVHQWDUR)HGRUDSHUDQWHRS~EOLFRDMXGDUDGLVVHPLQDUDGLVWULEXLomRHRVRIWZDUHOLYUH em geral, ser um intermediĂĄrio na comunicação entre membros da comunidade e ajudar a recrutar novos membros. Ser HPEDL[DGRUH[LJHSRUWDQWRJUDQGHFRPSURPHWLPHQWRFRPDÂżORVRÂżDGDFRPXQLGDGH+iHPEDL[DGRUHVEUDVLOHLURVQRV HVWDGRVGH$0%$&(070*3%355-6&6372HQR'LVWULWR)HGHUDO


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 23

PHPEURVSDVVDUDPDVHUHOHLWRVHRVRXWURVLQGLFDGRVSHODHPSUHVD$EDL[R GR)DP6&2HVWmRRVHPEDL[DGRUHVFRPXQVHRVOtGHUHVGHFDGDVXESURMHWRTXH VmR 'RFXPHQWDomR 7UDGXomR 0DUNHWLQJ (PEDL[DGRUHV $UWH ,QIUDHVWUXWXUD ,QWHUQDFLRQDOL]DomR:HEVLWHV1RWtFLDV'LVWULEXLomRH6,*VÂą6SHFLDO*URXS,QWHUHVWV RX*UXSRGHLQWHUHVVHV(VSHFLDLV JUXSRVTXHGHVHQYROYHPHDSULPRUDPVRIWZDUHV YROWDGRVSRUH[HPSORSDUDTXHPVHLQWHUHVVDSRUUiGLRDPDGRURXDVWURQRPLD  2XWURV SURMHWRV VmR *UXSRV 5HJLRQDLV 7UDGXomR 'RFXPHQWDomR 0DUNHWLQJ 0tGLD*UiWLV GLVWULEXLomRJUDWXLWDGR'9'GHLQVWDODomR (GXFDomR YROWDGDDRXVR DFDGrPLFRHFLHQWtÂżFR (PSDFRWDPHQWRH2/3& OLJDGRDRSURJUDPDOne Laptop Per Child). Uma das grandes bandeiras do Fedora ĂŠ a facilidade de uso. Para isso, o '9'GHLQVWDODomRYHPFRPYiULDVLQWHUIDFHVJUiÂżFDVFRPR*120(.'(;)&( :LQGRZ0DNHUHWFFDEHQGRDRXVXiULRHVFROKHUHQWUHXPDRXPDLVGHODV

Dinâmica interna das distribuiçþes Barreira de entrada e processo de recrutamento de novos colaboradores 0XLWRV XVXiULRV LQLFLDQWHV QR PXQGR GR VRIWZDUH livre costumeiramente creem que, para ajudar determinada distribuição ou comunidade, Ê necessårio ID]HUSDUWHDWLYDPHQWHGRVSURMHWRVHVWDUHPFRQVWDQWHFRQWDWRFRPVHXVOtGHUHV DQJDULDU YiULDV UHVSRQVDELOLGDGHV H UHDOL]DU WUDEDOKRV UHJXODUPHQWH 3RU FHUWR LVVRWXGRVHID]GHJUDQGHUHOHYkQFLDPDVDVFRPXQLGDGHVGHL[DPFODURTXHXPD DWLWXGH FRODERUDWLYD H[LJH PXLWR PHQRV$ SULQFtSLR D PHOKRU IRUPD GH DMXGDU p usando a distribuição e testando o sistema, o que Ê amplamente salientado nos sites de vårios projetos: Debian³<RXFDQVLPSO\WHVWWKHRSHUDWLQJV\VWHPDQGWKHSURJUDPVSURYLGHG LQLWDQGUHSRUWDQ\QRW\HWNQRZQHUUDWDRUEXJV\RX¿QGXVLQJWKH%XJ7UDFNLQJ 6\VWHP´13 Fedora³8WLOL]DUR)HGRUDpDPDQHLUDPDLVVLPSOHVGHSDUWLFLSDU>@0DLV usuårios -> mais bugs resolvidos -> sistema operacional de melhor qualidade -> PDLRUQ~PHURGHXVXiULRV´14 13 Disponível em: http://www.debian.org/intro/help$FHVVRHPMXOKR7UDGXomRYRFrSRGHVLPSOHVPHQWHWHVWDUR sistema operacional e os programas nele disponíveis e reportar quaisquer erros ou bugs ainda não conhecidos usando R³%XJ7ULDJH6\VWHP´ 14 Disponível em: http://www.projetofedora.org/portal/participe. Acesso em julho/2008.


24 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

SlackwareÂł7KHPRVWREYLRXVZD\\RXFDQKHOSZLWK6ODFNZDUHLVWRXVHLW7KH PRUHSHRSOHWKDWXVHLWWKHPRUHSHRSOHWKDWFDQÂżQGDQGUHSRUWEXJV7KLVZLOO PDNH6ODFNZDUHHYHQPRUHVWDEOHWKDQLWLVQRZ´15 (PERUD D LGpLD GH ÂłUHFUXWDPHQWR´ VHMD YiOLGD H DGRWDGD SHORV FKDPDGRV ÂłHYDQJHOL]DGRUHV´ Âą RX VHMD DTXHOHV TXH WrP SRU LGHDO SURPRYHU R XVR H D disseminação do software livre em todas as esferas da sociedade, nĂŁo medindo esforços para tal â&#x20AC;&#x201C;, hĂĄ muitos membros nas comunidades estudadas que pensam GH RXWUD IRUPD ,JRU 3LUHV 6RDUHV FKHIH GH WUDGXomR H HPEDL[DGRU GR )HGRUD SUHIHUHGHL[DUTXHDLQLFLDWLYDGHTXHUHUSDUWLFLSDUYHQKDGRXVXiULRHDSyVVDEHU do interesse do indivĂ­duo, fornece todo o apoio necessĂĄrio para tirar suas dĂşvidas e direcionĂĄ-lo Ă  ĂĄrea de seu interesse. JĂĄ um dos lĂ­deres do Ubuntu-SP, Paulo ) &KULVWLDQR SUHIHUH TXH DV SHVVRDV HP SULPHLUR OXJDU ÂłVH HQFDQWHP´ SHOD distribuição. Segundo ele, isso farĂĄ com que esses usuĂĄrios busquem por respostas H VH HPSHQKHP (P XP PRPHQWR SRVWHULRU &KULVWLDQR WDPEpP IRUQHFH WRGD D ajuda necessĂĄria, empenhando-se na inserção dos novatos. AlĂŠm disso, nos fĂłruns e listas de discussĂŁo de todas as distribuiçþes, hĂĄ tĂłpicos destinados a usuĂĄrios LQLFLDQWHVHFRPSRXFDH[SHULrQFLD5HFUXWDUFRODERUDGRUHVQmRpSRUWDQWRUHJUD geral. Quando Ă  barreira de entrada nas comunidades, hĂĄ um choque maior das ÂżORVRÂżDV GDV GLVWULEXLo}HV *URVVR PRGR RV slackers aparentam (o que, como veremos, nĂŁo corresponde Ă  realidade) usar de uma postura arrogante quando se deparam com usuĂĄrios principiantes.16 De fato, nĂŁo ĂŠ raro observar nos fĂłruns da FRPXQLGDGH D EUHYH UHVSRVWD Âł57)0´ SDUD GHWHUPLQDGDV SHUJXQWDV7UDWDVH GH XP DFU{QLPR SDUD ÂłRead the fucking manual´ LVWR p ÂłOHLD D SRUFDULD GR PDQXDO´ HPXPDWUDGXomREHPSROLGDGLJDVH 2XWUDUHVSRVWDPXLWRFRPXPpÂłSURFXUDQR JRRJOH´  .OHE&KDRVRQGHFRQVLJRPDQXDOGRVFRPDQGRVGRVODFNZDUH"  DWKD.OHE&KDRVQRJRRJOH  3OHEHRVDLXGDVDOD TXLWÂł%LWFK;DQHZIUDJUDQFHIRUPHQE\&DOYLQ .OHLQ´   .OHE&KDRVDWKDEO]D

2IUDJPHQWRDFLPDH[WUDtGRGRFDQDOVODFNZDUHEUGDUHGHFreenode no ,5&QRGLDGHVHWHPEURGHSRGHLJXDOPHQWHWUD]HUDLGpLDGHTXHRVslackers 15 DisponĂ­vel em: http://www.slackware.com/faq/do_faq.php?faq=general$FHVVRHPMXOKR7UDGXomRDPDQHLUD PDLVyEYLDGHYRFrDMXGDUR6ODFNZDUHpXVDQGRR4XDQWRPDLVSHVVRDVXVDUHPPDLVSHVVRDVSRGHUmRHQFRQWUDUH reportar bugs. Isso tornarĂĄ o Slackware ainda mais estĂĄvel do que ĂŠ agora. 'XUDQWHR),6/ )yUXP,QWHUQDFLRQDO6RIWZDUH/LYUHGH RVVODFNHUVÂżFDUDPQDPDLRUSDUWHGRWHPSR sentados ou deitados no chĂŁo do grande saguĂŁo no qual vĂĄrias comunidades e empresas instalaram seus estandes. De PRGRJHUDOHOHVVHGLYHUWLDPFRPMRJRVRXSURJUDPDYDPDOJXPVRIWZDUH7RGDYLDVHPSUHTXHVXUJLDDOJXPXVXiULR FRPG~YLGDVRXGLÂżFXOGDGHVRVVODFNHUVGHGLFDYDPVHXWHPSRHHVIRUoRSDUDWHQWDUUHVROYHUDVTXHVW}HV


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 25

QmRVHGmRDRWUDEDOKRGHUHVSRQGHUDSHUJXQWDVHLJQRUDPRVQRYDWRV&RQWXGR p SHUIHLWDPHQWH SRVVtYHO XP XVXiULR VHU PXLWR EHPYLQGR j FRPXQLGDGH7XGR R TXH VH SHGH p TXH DQWHV GH ID]HU TXDOTXHU SHUJXQWD OHLDPVH WRGRV RV DUWLJRV WXWRULDLVHGLFDVDUHVSHLWRGRDVVXQWRHVHUHDOL]HPWRGDVDVWHQWDWLYDVLPDJLQiYHLV de respondĂŞ-la autonomamente. Depois disso, serĂĄ respeitado por seus pares, que seguramente o ajudarĂŁo a resolver os problemas. Desfeito esse mito sobre o Slackware, passemos Ă s outras distribuiçþes, nas quais as barreiras de entrada variam muito. Em linhas gerais, membros do 8EXQWXHGR)HGRUDWrPSRUSULQFtSLRIRUQHFHUTXDOTXHUWLSRGHDX[tOLRPHVPRTXH DVG~YLGDVDSUHVHQWDGDVMiWHQKDPVLGRHVFODUHFLGDVRXDWpGRFXPHQWDGDV&RPR essas distribuiçþes declaradamente se preocupam com a facilidade de uso e com o amplo apoio ao usuĂĄrio leigo, alguns membros chegam a passar um bom tempo respondendo dĂşvidas nos e-mails pessoais â&#x20AC;&#x201C; o que ĂŠ contra o consenso geral de que as perguntas devem ser respondidas nos fĂłruns para que mais pessoas se EHQHÂżFLHP GDV UHVSRVWDV 1R HQWDQWR HVVHV PHPEURV DUJXPHQWDP TXH PXLWRV usuĂĄrios nĂŁo frequentam fĂłruns, seja por falta de tempo ou de prĂĄtica, e tudo o que TXHUHPpXPDUHVSRVWDVLPSOHVHUiSLGD7XGRpIHLWRHPQRPHGDXQLYHUVDOL]DomR do acesso.  4XDQGR DRV PHPEURV GR 'HELDQ YHULÂżFRXVH XPD SRVWXUD LQWHUPHGLiULD HQWUH DV GLVWULEXLo}HV FKDPDGDV FRPHUFLDLV H R 6ODFNZDUH &RPR Ki XPD YDVWD e detalhada documentação em portuguĂŞs abordando vĂĄrios aspectos do sistema operacional, alĂŠm dos sites da distribuição e da comunidade, ĂŠ difĂ­cil que alguĂŠm se sinta perdido no Debian. Ademais, muitos de seus representantes brasileiros sĂŁo IDFLOPHQWHHQFRQWUDGRVQR,5&HIUHTXHQWHPHQWHVHGLVSRQLELOL]DPDFRQYHUVDUHD ajudar os usuĂĄrios. Em suma, a resposta mais comum obtida quando se indagou algum membro GDVFRPXQLGDGHVHVWXGDGDVVREUHÂłRTXHpSUHFLVRSDUDVHHQWUDUQDFRPXQLGDGH´ IRL VLPSOHVPHQWH ÂłERD YRQWDGH´ 0DOJUDGR FDGD GLVWULEXLomR VLJD VXDV SUySULDV ÂżORVRÂżDVHSUHFHLWRVDVVLQDODVHTXHRHVStULWRGHFRPXQLGDGHHVWiSUHVHQWHHP todas elas.

O porta-voz das comunidades Este tópico consiste na tentativa de buscar nas comunidades uma grande YR] DWLYD ¹ DOJXpP TXH DR SDVVDU SHORV GHVD¿RV H SURYDV LQHUHQWHV j FXOWXUD meritocråtica e fundamentar suas atividades nas relaçþes sociais em meio ao JUXSRFRQVHJXLXDQJDULDUXPFDSLWDOVLPEyOLFRWmRVLJQL¿FDWLYRDSRQWRGHWHUDV TXDOL¿FDo}HVQHFHVViULDVSDUDUHVSRQGHUSHODFRPXQLGDGH1mRVHHVWiIDODQGRDTXL


26 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

SRUFHUWRDSHQDVGRGHVHQYROYHGRUPDLVDWLYRRXGRWUDGXWRUPDLVHÂżFLHQWH7UDWD VHGHHQFRQWUDUXPVtPERORXPDÂżJXUDFXMDFRQGXWDVHLGHQWLÂżTXHSRQWXDOPHQWH FRPDÂżORVRÂżDGDVGLVWULEXLo}HV DRLQFRUSRUDU VHXVWUDoRVHOHPHQWDUHVHVWDQGR DVVLPDSWRDUHSUHVHQWDUVHXVPHPEURV(QÂżPXPSRUWDYR] Observou-se que, na maioria dos casos, esses representantes nĂŁo se valiam GH DOJXP FDUJR RÂżFLDO RX LQVWLWXFLRQDOL]DGR SDUD GHVHPSHQKDU VXDV DWLYLGDGHV 9DPRVDRVH[HPSORV2QRPHPDLVLQĂ&#x20AC;XHQWHGDFRPXQLGDGH6ODFNZDUHQR%UDVLO pRGHÂł3LWHU381.´DOFXQKDGH5REHUWR)UHLUHV%DWLVWD(OHDOpPGHVHUR~QLFR brasileiro que contribui ativamente no desenvolvimento do sistema operacional e um dos mais antigos usuĂĄrios da distribuição, ĂŠ o responsĂĄvel pela Slackware Zine HVSpFLH GH UHYLVWD HOHWU{QLFD  H RUJDQL]D HYHQWRV H SDOHVWUDV UHODFLRQDGRV ao Slackware â&#x20AC;&#x201C; como o SlackShow, ocorrido em agosto de 2008. Apesar de tudo, 5REHUWRJDUDQWHTXHQmRIDODGHÂłIRUPDRÂżFLDO´SHODGLVWULEXLomR Quanto Ă  comunidade Debian, a maior parte dos usuĂĄrios da distribuição e PHPEURVGDFRPXQLGDGHGHVLJQDPRSDUDQDHQVH)HOLSH$XJXVWRYDQGH:LHO RX VLPSOHVPHQWHÂłIDZ´ FRPRVHXSRUWDYR]'HIDWR)HOLSHQmRpXPGRVPHPEURV PDLV DQWLJRV WHYH VHX SULPHLUR FRQWDWR FRP VLVWHPDV GH Q~FOHR *18/LQX[ HP 1998 e com o Debian em 2002), mas seu envolvimento com a comunidade e sua habilidade ao falar sobre ela em pĂşblico facultaram a ele a possibilidade concreta de UHSUHVHQWDURVDGHSWRVGDGLVWULEXLomR'XUDQWHR),6/SRUH[HPSOR)HOLSHIRL responsĂĄvel pelo estande do Debian e ministrou palestras sobre a distribuição. Ele MiUHSUHVHQWRXDFRPXQLGDGHHPHYHQWRVFRPRR/DWLQRZDUH &RQIHUrQFLD/DWLQR DPHULFDQD GH VRIWZDUH /LYUH  H QR &RQLVOL &RQJUHVVR ,QWHUQDFLRQDO GH VRIWZDUH livre). No Projeto Fedora, o nome em destaque ĂŠ o de Rodrigo Padula. Um dos SULPHLURVHPEDL[DGRUHVGDFRPXQLGDGHKRMHHOHpPHPEURGR)DP6&R )HGRUD $PEDVVDGRUV6WHHULQJ&RPPLWWHH HH[HUFHDIXQomRGHCommunity Manager do )HGRUD /$7$0 yUJmR GR )HGRUD QD $PpULFD /DWLQD  $OpP GLVVR IRUDP YiULRV os casos em que Rodrigo ajudou pessoalmente na inserção de novos membros RX QD SHUPDQrQFLD GRV DQWLJRV QHVVH SURMHWR -XQWDPHQWH FRP R HPEDL[DGRU EDLDQR&ULVWLDQRDMXGRXQDRÂżFLDOL]DomRGHXPJUXSRORFDOGR)HGRUDHP6HUJLSH convidando o usuĂĄrio OtĂĄvio para coordenar o projeto. Em outra oportunidade, DRODGRGH'LHJR=DUFDUmRRXWURHPEDL[DGRU5RGULJRFXLGRXSDUDTXH,JRU3LUHV Soares, hoje chefe da traduçĂ��o, nĂŁo saĂ­sse do Projeto Fedora.

&RPR DV FRLVDV DSHUWDUDP QD IDFXOGDGH WDOYH] HX WLYHVVH VDtGR GR SURMHWRMiTXHRPHXWHPSROLYUHSUDWLFDPHQWHQmRH[LVWLDPDLVPDVIRL aĂ­ que Rodrigo Padula e Diego ZacarĂŁo me convidaram para entrar no


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 27

JUXSRGHHPEDL[DGRUHV'HSRLVGLVVRQmRWHYHFRPRVDLUPDLVSRLVHX UHDOPHQWHTXHULDID]HUXPWUDEDOKRGHORQJRSUD]RHDVFRQGLo}HVGH contribuição dentro do projeto eram totalmente favoráveis

&RP UHODomR DR 8EXQWX QmR IRL SRVVtYHO LGHQWLÂżFDU XP ~QLFR SRUWDYR] FDSD] GH IDODU DEHUWDPHQWH HP QRPH GD FRPXQLGDGH 2 TXH VH REVHUYDP QR entanto, sĂŁo fortes lĂ­deres locais, que ajudam a fomentar o uso e a disseminação GD GLVWULEXLomR HP VXDV iUHDV GH LQĂ&#x20AC;XrQFLD 3RU H[HPSOR QD %DKLD H HP 0LQDV *HUDLVHVWDGRVHPTXHDFRPXQLGDGH8EXQWXpPXLWRVLJQLÂżFDWLYDRVQRPHVPDLV LQĂ&#x20AC;XHQWHVVmRRVGH)iELR1RJXHLUDHGH/LFLR)RQVHFDUHVSHFWLYDPHQWH DPERV VmRLQFOXVLYHPHPEURVGR&RQVHOKR8EXQWX%UDVLO 

A comunicação interna e externa Evidentemente, o ciberespaço é o grande ponto de encontro das comunidades GH VRIWZDUH OLYUH HVWXGDGDV 0XLWR HPERUD FDGD GLVWULEXLomR SURPRYD HQFRQWURV presenciais por meio de eventos comemorativos ou fomente a participação de seus membros em congressos, palestras, fóruns e conferências, a imensa maioria das tarefas dos membros das comunidades se dá por meio de (não necessariamente na ordem de relevância ou quantidade): - Listas de discussão (mailing lists): trata-se de um mecanismo que roda na SODWDIRUPDGHFRUUHLRHOHWU{QLFRFRPXP2VSDUWLFLSDQWHVHQYLDPPHQVDJHQVXQV DRVRXWURVFRQWHQGRG~YLGDVRSLQL}HVHVFODUHFLPHQWRVeRPRGRPDLVVLPSOHVGH FRPXQLFDomRHWDPEpPRPDLVXVDGRMiTXHH[LJHDSHQDVXPHQGHUHoRGHHPDLO 'HPRGRJHUDOH[LVWHPOLVWDVGHGLVFXVVmRSDUDFDGDVXESURMHWR GRFXPHQWDomR WUDGXomR GHVHQYROYLPHQWR ]LQH HWF  DVVLP FRPR SDUD FDGD WLSR GH XVXiULR LQLFLDQWHGHVHQYROYHGRUHWF 7DLVOLVWDVVmRQDPDLRUSDUWHGRVFDVRVDEHUWDVDR S~EOLFR7RGDVDVFRPXQLGDGHVXWLOL]DPDVOLVWDVGHGLVFXVVmR - Fóruns: Ambiente mais propício à solução de dúvidas e troca de informações. Diferentemente das listas de discussão, as mensagens não circulam no ambiente GH FRUUHLR HOHWU{QLFR PDV SRU PHLR GH SRVWDJHQV QRV VLWHV 5HFRPHQGDVH TXH DQWHVGHODQoDUTXDOTXHUSHUJXQWDHPXPIyUXPRXVXiULRIDoDXPDEXVFDD¿P GH YHUL¿FDU VH D TXHVWmR Mi IRL HVFODUHFLGD 1HQKXPD FRPXQLGDGH SUHVFLQGH GRV fóruns; - ,5&7UDWDVHGHXPSURWRFRORXVDGRSDUDSURJUDPDV scripts) de chat. Através do ,5&pSRVVtYHOID]HUDFRQH[mRFRPVHUYLGRUHVGHWRGRRPXQGR&DGDVHUYLGRU 'HSRLPHQWRFROKLGRHPHQWUHYLVWDFRP,JRU3LUHV6RDUHV


28 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

possui canais, isto ĂŠ, salas em que se pode conversar abertamente ou em particular. As comunidades estudadas mantĂŞm canais ativos na rede Freenode (irc.freenode. QHW QRVTXDLVXVXiULRVWURFDPLQIRUPDo}HVGDGRVVROXFLRQDPG~YLGDVUHDOL]DP reuniĂľes ou simplesmente conversam sobre assuntos triviais. Durante a pesquisa, IRL SRVVtYHO SDUWLFLSDU GH XPD UHXQLmR GD FRPXQLGDGH )HGRUD QR ,5& QD TXDO VH SUHWHQGHX GLVFXWLU D GHÂżQLomR H D FULDomR GRV *UXSRV 5HJLRQDLV GH 8VXiULRV 2 HQFRQWUR LGHDOL]DGR H FRQGX]LGR SRU 5RGULJR 3DGXOD GHXVH jV K KRUiULR GH %UDVtOLD  GR GLD  GH MXQKR GH  H FRQWRX FRP D SUHVHQoD GH HPEDL[DGRUHV XVXiULRVHFXULRVRVHPJHUDOFRPRVHREVHUYDQDÂżJXUDDEDL[R

Canal #fedora-br da rede Freenode - Blogs: Os usuårios mais representativos comunicam seus feitos ou os rumos tomados pela distribuição em seus blogs pessoais, que, em determinados casos, são hospedados pelos servidores da própria distribuição; - Planeta7DPEpPFKDPDGRGH³EORJGRVEORJV´7UDWDVHGHXPVLWHTXHDJUHJD todos os blogs que têm alguma ligação com a distribuição, com o software livre ou


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 29

com questĂľes relacionadas Ă  tecnologia de um modo geral. Ă&#x20AC; medida que o usuĂĄrio HVFUHYH XP SRVW HP VHX EORJ D PHQVDJHP p GLUHFLRQDGD DR Âł3ODQHWD´ HP TXH estarĂŁo os posts de outros blogueiros. As comunidades Ubuntu e Debian tĂŞm seu prĂłprio Planeta Brasil, ao passo que a comunidade Fedora tem apenas o Planeta do projeto internacional; - E-mail: Em geral, nĂŁo ĂŠ recomendĂĄvel que se tirem dĂşvidas ou se troquem informaçþes por meio dos e-mails pessoais. Parece ser um consenso entre os PHPEURV GDV FRPXQLGDGHV TXH TXDQWR PDLV SHVVRDV VH EHQHÂżFLDUHP GDV UHVSRVWDVPHOKRUWHUiVLGRRWUDEDOKRUHDOL]DGRSHORVYROXQWiULRV&RQWXGRDOJXQV poucos membros ainda se dispĂľem a responder dĂşvidas pelos e-mails, pois DFUHGLWDPTXHDLQGDpXPDIRUPDYiOLGDGHDX[LOLDUDFRPXQLGDGH - Zines6mRHVSpFLHVGHUHYLVWDVHOHWU{QLFDVGHGLFDGDVjFRPXQLGDGHGDGLVWULEXLomR contendo, na maioria dos casos, artigos tĂŠcnicos com resolução de problemas ou GLFDVSDUDRWLPL]DUFHUWDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGRVLVWHPD$VFRPXQLGDGHVEUDVLOHLUDV 6ODFNZDUH H 'HELDQ SRVVXHP VXD SUySULD ]LQH H D FRPXQLGDGH )HGRUD PDQWpP XPDUHYLVWDHOHWU{QLFDFRPSOHWDFRQWDQGRFRPQRWtFLDVWXWRULDLVWH[WRVRSLQDWLYRV referĂŞncias Ă  comunidade, informaçþes sobre jogos, perguntas e respostas etc. Esses mecanismos tratam mormente da comunicação interna, isto ĂŠ, UHDOL]DGD SHORV SUySULRV PHPEURV GD FRPXQLGDGH &RQWXGR QDGD LPSHGH TXH alguĂŠm que nĂŁo faça parte das atividades de sua distribuição participe ativa ou SDVVLYDPHQWHXPDYH]TXHRVIyUXQVDVOLVWDVGHGLVFXVV}HVR,5&RVEORJVHDV ]LQHVHVWmRDEHUWRVjOHLWXUDGHTXDOTXHULQWHUQDXWD'HVVDPDQHLUDSRGHVHGL]HU TXHHVVHVPHLRVWDPEpPVHFRQÂżJXUDPXPFDQDOGHFRPXQLFDomRH[WHUQD

Hierarquias e relaçþes de poder Os preceitos de liberdade apregoados pelos membros das mais variadas FRPXQLGDGHV GH VRIWZDUH OLYUH QmR VH WUDGX]HP GH PDQHLUD DOJXPD HP XPD IRUPDLUUHVWULWDPHQWHDQiUTXLFDGHRUJDQL]DomR'HPDQHLUDJHUDODVFRPXQLGDGHV estão envolvidas em relaçþes de poder fundamentadas na cultura meritocråtica e a liderança que nelas se estabelece estå sujeita a avaliaçþes pessoais por parte GRV FRODERUDGRUHV ¹ D¿QDO HVWDPRV IDODQGR GH YROXQWiULRV &DVR XP OtGHU WRPH uma atitude que não corresponda aos anseios e vontades da comunidade, os colaboradores podem resolver contribuir com outro projeto ou não mais contribuir.  *HQHULFDPHQWH DV KLHUDUTXLDV VH GmR HP QtYHO PDLV HOHYDGR QRV ³FRQ VHOKRV´ GRV UHVSHFWLYRV SURMHWRV 1DV GLVWULEXLo}HV FRPHUFLDLV FRPR )HGRUD WDLV


30 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

FRQVHOKRVVmRLQĂ&#x20AC;XHQFLDGRVGLUHWDPHQWHSHODVHPSUHVDVPDQWHQHGRUDVÂąQRFDVR do Fedora Board, quatro dos nove membros pertencem Ă  Red Hat. JĂĄ nas comunidades das distribuiçþes nĂŁo-comerciais, os conselhos sĂŁo compostos, evidentemente, apenas por colaboradores. No caso do Debian, conforme abordamos GXUDQWHREUHYHKLVWyULFRGDVFRPXQLGDGHV H[LVWHXPDHVWUXWXUDGHRUJDQL]DomR muito precisa. O projeto tem um lĂ­der, um comitĂŞ tĂŠcnico (com seu respectivo presiGHQWH XPVHFUHWiULRHGHOHJDGRVPDVRJUDXPi[LPRGHSRGHUHVWiQDVPmRVGRV GHVHQYROYHGRUHVTXHSRGHPH[HUFrORSRUPHLRGHXPD5HVROXomR*HUDORXSHODV prĂłprias eleiçþes internas.  (PQtYHOLQIHULRUDRGRVFRQVHOKRVH[LVWHPRVOtGHUHVHVSHFtÂżFRVGHFDVD VXESURMHWRTXHFRRUGHQDPDTXLORTXHVHSRGHULDFODVVLÂżFDUFRPRFDGDFpOXODGDV atividades bĂĄsicas da tradução, documentação, grupos regionais, divulgação etc. $ HVVHV OtGHUHV FDEH DOpP GH PDQWHU UHJXODUPHQWH D UHDOL]DomR GRV WUDEDOKRV DVVHJXUDU D DWLYLGDGH GDV OLVWDV FXPSULU RV SUD]RV GHWHUPLQDGRV LVWR p TXDQGR RSURMHWRVHFRPSURPHWHDHVWLSXODUGDWDVSDUDDGLVSRQLELOL]DUXPDQRYDYHUVmR como ĂŠ o caso de Fedora e Ubuntu) e incentivar novos colaboradores.  1DPDLRULDGRVFDVRVHVVHVOtGHUHVVHMDPRVTXHHVWmRHPQtYHOPi[LPR ou os que tĂŞm atividades mais locais, chegaram a seus atuais postos em função das SUySULDV FRPSHWrQFLDV 8P GRV FyGLJRV PRUDLV TXH DWXDP FRPR IRUoD PRWUL] GH VXDÂżORVRÂżDUHFRPHQGDYHHPHQWHPHQWHTXHVHGHWHUPLQDGROtGHUQmRFRQVHJXLU desempenhar suas funçþes da melhor maneira possĂ­vel (seja por falta de tempo, por H[FHVVRGHWUDEDOKRRXSRUSHUGDGHLGHQWLÂżFDomRFRPRWUDEDOKR HVVHLQGLYtGXR GHYHSDVVDUVHXFDUJRDRVFXLGDGRVGHTXHPHIHWLYDPHQWHSRVVDID]rOR$VVLP XPERPOtGHUQmRGHYHGHL[DUGHRVHUDWpPHVPRTXDQGRGHFLGLUTXHGHL[DUiVHX projeto. No que se refere Ă s relaçþes lĂ­deres-liderados, tambĂŠm foi possĂ­vel obserYDU FHUWDV GLYHUJrQFLDV HQWUH DV FRPXQLGDGHV (QTXDQWR QR 8EXQWX VH YHULÂżFRX maior independĂŞncia dos colaboradores â&#x20AC;&#x201C; que podem desenvolver livremente seus SURMHWRV ORFDLV RX SHVVRDLV VHP D QHFHVVLGDGH GH UHSRUWDU R TXH HVWmR ID]HQGR â&#x20AC;&#x201C;, no Projeto Fedora, hĂĄ um acompanhamento um pouco maior por parte dos HPEDL[DGRUHVFRPUHODomRjVDWLYLGDGHVJHUDLVHPTXHRVPHPEURVGDFRPXQLGDGH se envolvem. JĂĄ no Debian, a questĂŁo central nĂŁo estĂĄ tĂŁo ligada Ă  relação entre lĂ­deres e colaboradores quanto ao maior vĂ­nculo que estes tĂŞm com a distribuição. (P JHUDO R ÂłPRGR 'HELDQ GH RUJDQL]DomR´ VHJXQGR DTXL GHVFULWR H[LJH PDLRU comprometimento dos voluntĂĄrios. Quanto ao Slackware, vĂŞ-se que a distribuição foge um pouco Ă s regras JHUDLV$SULQFtSLRDJDUDQWLDGHH[FHOrQFLDGRVLVWHPDHVWiDFUHGLWDPRVslackers, no desenvolvimento de certo modo fechado. AlĂŠm de poucas pessoas contribuĂ­rem DWLYDPHQWH SDUD D GLVWULEXLomR DR WRGR VmR PHQRV GH TXLQ]H GHVHQYROYHGRUHV


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 31

VHJXQGR 3LWHU 381. R ~QLFR EUDVLOHLUR GHVVH WLPH  QDGD p LPSOHPHQWDGR QR VLVWHPD VHP D DTXLHVFrQFLD GH VHX IXQGDGRU H JUDQGH ³GLWDGRU EHQHYROHQWH YLWDOtFLR´3DWULFN9RONHUGLQJ$GHPDLVQmRKiPXLWRHVSDoRSDUDTXHVWLRQDPHQWRV FRQVLGHUDGRVWRORVLVWRpGHTXHPQmRVHSUHSDURXRVX¿FLHQWHSDUDID]rORV$TXL H[LVWHPSRUWDQWRKLHUDUTXLDVHUHODo}HVGHSRGHUYLVLYHOPHQWHGH¿QLGDV

O peso do trabalho brasileiro frente Ă  comunidade internacional 'LDQWH GR TXH VH H[SORURX DWp HQWmR HVWi PDLV GR TXH FODUR TXH DV TXDWUR FRPXQLGDGHV HVWXGDGDV Âą 8EXQWX )HGRUD 6ODFNZDUH H 'HELDQ Âą ID]HP VHPXLWRH[SUHVVLYDVVREGLYHUVRVDVSHFWRVQRPXQGRGRVRIWZDUHOLYUH$OpPGH contarem com uma vasta gama de colaboradores espalhados por todo o mundo, DV GLVWULEXLo}HV SURGX]LGDV SHODV FRPXQLGDGHV UHYHODPVH D FDGD QRYD YHUVmR WUDEDOKRVGHH[FHOrQFLDWpFQLFDIDWRTXHpFRPSURYDGRSRUVXDDPSODDFHLWDomR HPLQVWLWXLo}HVHGXFDFLRQDLVRUJDQL]Do}HVJRYHUQDPHQWDLVHQmRJRYHUQDPHQWDLV e no prĂłprio mercado (atravĂŠs de empresas que, em muitos casos, dedicam-se apenas aos trabalhos open source) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; isso sem mencionar a grande quantidade de VHUYLGRUHVQRVTXDLVVHXVDPHVVDVGLVWULEXLo}HVGHQ~FOHR*18/LQX[ E, malgrado a presença de sistemas operacionais livres nĂŁo seja tĂŁo pronunciada (quando comparada Ă  dos softwares proprietĂĄrios) entre os assim FKDPDGRVÂłXVXiULRVGRPpVWLFRV´DVGLVWULEXLo}HVTXHQRVVHUYLUDPGHUHIHUrQFLD tĂŞm grande participação tambĂŠm nesse meio. Diante disso, deve-se enaltecer, enĂŠrgica e justamente, a atuação de seus protagonistas que, por meio de constantes HVIRUoRVFROHWLYRVWRUQDPSRVVtYHODUHDOL]DomRGRVWUDEDOKRVPHQFLRQDGRV1HVWH WySLFR GLVFXWLUHPRV TXmR H[SUHVVLYRV VH PRVWUDP RV DWRUHV EUDVLOHLURV TXH VH lançam Ă  colaboração no Slackware e no Fedora.  eGLJQRGHQRWDTXHDDWLYLGDGHGHPHGLUDUHOHYkQFLDGHXPDFRPXQLGDGHID] se de alto risco. NĂŁo convĂŠm, evidentemente, tratar apenas do nĂşmero de membros HDSDUWLUGDtTXDOLÂżFDURVSHVRVFRPEDVHHPVLPSOHVDQiOLVHVFRPSDUDWLYDV18 &RQIRUPHREVHUYDPRVSRUH[HPSORRIDWRUÂłQ~PHUR´QmRpPXLWROHYDGRHPFRQWD SHODFRPXQLGDGH6ODFNZDUHÂąDRPHQRVQRTXHGL]UHVSHLWRDRVGHVHQYROYHGRUHV GLUHWRVGRVLVWHPD6HpSRVVtYHODÂżUPDUTXHRVslackers acreditam que o nĂşmero UHGX]LGR GH GHVHQYROYHGRUHV FRQIHUH PDLRU H[FHOrQFLD DR SURFHVVR WDPEpP VH SRGH GL]HU TXH VXD FRPXQLGDGH p PXLWR YDVWD H H[SUHVVLYD QR %UDVLO 'RLV IDWRV eSRVVtYHOQRWDUTXHDWpHQWmRQmRVHIDORXHPQ~PHURGHPHPEURVGDVFRPXQLGDGHVRXQ~PHURGHXVXiULRVGDV GLVWULEXLo}HV&RPRDÂżUPDPRVQDLQWURGXomRGHVGHPyGXORpPXLWRGLItFLOPHQVXUiORV3ULPHLURSRUTXHQmRKiFRPR SRVWXODUH[DWDPHQWHTXDLVRVUHTXLVLWRVQHFHVViULRVHVXÂżFLHQWHVSDUDTXHDOJXpPVHWRUQHXPPHPEURGHTXDOTXHU GDVFRPXQLGDGHV8PVLPSOHVVLPSDWL]DQWHTXHSURPRYDDOJXPDGDVÂżORVRÂżDVHPMRJRPHVPRTXHGHIRUPDEHP modesta, pode ser considerado um membro, a depender das concepçþes que disso se faça. Quanto aos usuĂĄrios, a situação ĂŠ semelhante. NĂŁo ĂŠ necessĂĄrio pagar nem tampouco se cadastrar para pode usufruir de qualquer uma das distribuiçþes.


32 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

SHUPLWHPLQIHULORRSULPHLURGHOHVMiFLWDGRGL]UHVSHLWRDRIDWRGHTXHH[LVWHXP brasileiro nesse seleto grupo de desenvolvedores Slackware. O segundo, que estå relacionado ao primeiro, deu-se nos anos de 2004 e 2005, quando o grande ditador EHQHYROHQWHHYLWDOtFLR3DWULFN9RONHUGLQJSDVVRXSRUJUDYHVSUREOHPDVGHVD~GH HQmRS{GHGHGLFDUVHXVHVIRUoRVjPDQXWHQomRGDGLVWULEXLomR1DTXHODpSRFD PXLWRVHHVSHFXORXVREUHR¿PGR6ODFNZDUHGDGDDLPSRUWkQFLDGDDWXDomRGH 9RONHUGLQJ5DSLGDPHQWHDFRPXQLGDGHVHPRELOL]RX3LWHU381.HQYLRXDVHJXLQWH mensagem à lista de usuårios da distribuição: ³3RYR 'HVVDYH]RHPDLOQmRpSDUDSDVVDUXPDPHQVDJHPGLYHUWLGD Acho que todo mundo sabe; mas, para quem não sabe, Patrick 9RONHUGLQJpRFULDGRUHPDQWHQHGRUGRVODFNZDUH(HOHHVWi doente. Ele escreveu uma longa carta com a descrição da doença: IWSIWSVODFNZDUHFRPSXEVODFNZDUHVODFNZDUHFXUUHQW3 $7 1(('6<285+(/3W[t Quem tiver contato com centros de pesquisa ou mÊdicos na årea de patologia, poderia passar essa mensagem para eles. Sei que tem vårios assinantes da lista que trabalham em XQLYHUVLGDGHVjVYH]HVXPSXOLQKRQDIDFXOGDGHGHPHGLFLQDH conversar com algum amigo possa quebrar um galhão e ajudar R3DWULFNDPHOKRUDU3DUDHOHFRORFDULVVRQR&KDQJH/RJGR FXUUHQWFRPFHUWH]DQmRHVWiEHP Falous, 3LWHU381. PS/1> Quem não conhecer mÊdicos, centros de pesquisa e SDWRORJLDHWFFRPFHUWH]DSRGHDMXGDUFRPDWRUFLGDHRUDo}HV pela melhora do patrick 36! 6H YF QmR JRVWD GD SDODYUD ³RUDo}HV´ VXEVWLWXD SRU UH]DVRXSHQVDPHQWRSRVLWLYRRTXH¿FDUPHOKRUSDUDDVVXDV FUHQoDV´19

No entanto, a grande prova da relevância da comunidade brasileira estå QR IDWR GH TXH 9RONHUGLQJ GHVLJQRX R *86%5 *UXSR GH 8VXiULRV 6ODFNZDUH Brasil) para dar continuidade aos seus trabalhos enquanto se recuperava. Segue a notícia do (PSL-BR) Projeto Software Livre Brasil de 24.11.2004:20 Comunidade GUS-BR passa a auxiliar o Slackware.com 2¿FLDOPHQWH 19 Disponível em: KWWSRVGLUFRPPOXVHUJURXSVOLQX[EUD]LOVODFNZDUHPVJKWPl. julho/2008. 20 Disponível em: http://www.softwarelivre.org/news/3353. Acesso em: julho/2008.

Acesso

em:


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo โ€ข 33

3RUDOJXPWHPSR3DWULFN9RONHUGLQJHVWDUiFXLGDQGRPDLVGD VXDVD~GHHSDUDQmRGHL[DURVImVSUHRFXSDGRVLQFXELXDR *86%5GHYHULยฟFDUHYDOLGDUVHFXULW\ยฟ[HVH%XJ)L[HVQR 6ODFNZDUH&XUUHQWDOpPGR6ODFNZDUH 7RGDDLQIRUPDomRSRGHVHUREWLGDQRVLWHZZZVODFNZDUHRUJ EU H WRGRV RV XVXiULRV GR *86%5SRGHPDX[LOLDU LQIRUPDQGR problemas e remendos diretamente na lista slack-users.

 2XWUD FRPXQLGDGH EUDVLOHLUD PXLWR H[SUHVVLYD TXDQGR OHYDGD DR FHQiULR LQWHUQDFLRQDOUH~QHVHHPWRUQRGR3URMHWR)HGRUD$VVLPFRPR3LWHU381.OLGHUDRV WUDEDOKRVQR6ODFNZDUH5RGULJR3DGXODGH2OLYHLUDWUDGX]VHQRJUDQGHH[SRHQWH do Fedora, sendo que seus esforรงos para com a comunidade estabelecem uma relaรงรฃo de troca mรบtua e salutar. ร€ medida que desenvolve seus trabalhos, Rodrigo WUD]PDLRUQRWRULHGDGHSDUDDFRPXQLGDGHGR3URMHWR)HGRUD%UDVLOTXHSRUVXD YH]OKHGiWRGRRDSRLRHLQFHQWLYRSDUDUHSUHVHQWiORยฑRTXHGLJDVHPHUHFHR reconhecimento da comunidade mundial.  &RQIRUPH DSRQWDPRV R QRPH GH 5RGULJR IRL R PDLV PHQFLRQDGR QDV HOHLo}HVGHMDQHLURGHSDUDR)DP6&2FRPTXDVHGRWRWDOGHYRWRV 7DPEpPDVVXPLXHPDEULOGRPHVPRDQRDOLGHUDQoDGR&RPPXQLW\0DQDJHUGR )HGRUDQD$PpULFD/DWLQD )HGRUD/$7$0 TXHGDUiDSRLRjVFRPXQLGDGHVUHJLRQDLV latinas. Hรก, รฉ claro, outros brasileiros muito ativos, tais como Diego Zarcarรฃo e David %DU]LOD\ TXHWDPEpPpIXQFLRQiULRGD5HG+DW PDVHVVDQRWRULHGDGHGH5RGULJR em especial, รฉ uma forma de a naรงรฃo Fedora, cujos membros estรฃo espalhados por WRGRRPXQGRUHFRQKHFHUDH[SUHVVmRGDFRPXQLGDGHQR%UDVLO(PHQWUHYLVWDjย ediรงรฃo do 1ยบ ano da Fedora Zine, em marรงo de 2008, Rodrigo assinalou: $ PLQKD UHHOHLomR SDUD R &RPLWr 'LUHWLYR GH (PEDL[DGRUHV )HGRUD demonstrou nรฃo somente a credibilidade do Projeto Fedora Brasil GHYLGRDVXDRUJDQL]DomRSDUWLFLSDomRHUHVXOWDGRVPDVDXQLmRHP TXH RV HPEDL[DGRUHV EUDVLOHLURV H ODWLQRV HP JHUDO VH HQFRQWUDP &RPDFULDomRGRKWWSSUR\HFWRIHRGRUDRUJTXHDJUHJDYiULRVSDtVHV GD $PpULFD /DWLQD FRPR 3DUDJXDL %UDVLO $UJHQWLQD &KLOH 0p[LFR 3HUX 9HQH]XHOD H 8UXJXDL KRXYH XPD LQWHJUDomR PXLWR IRUWH HQWUH esses paรญses, que em grande parte me apoiaram na reeleiรงรฃo... Alรฉm, claro, de outros paรญses que acreditam no meu trabalho e em tudo que HVWDPRVGHVHQYROYHQGRDTXL9HMRQmRVRPHQWHFRPRPpULWRSHVVRDO mas como mรฉrito de toda a equipe do Projeto Fedora Brasil >@ O Brasil VHUYHFRPRXPPRGHOR&RPRVRPRVDPDLRUFRPXQLGDGHGD$PpULFD Latina e um pouco mais madura devido ao tempo de participaรงรฃo, SDVVDPRV PXLWDV H[SHULrQFLDV SDUD HOHV H FRQVWDQWHPHQWH WURFDPRV LQIRUPDo}HVDWUDYpVGDOLVWDGHHPEDL[DGRUHVODWLQRVHGHHYHQWRVFRPR D,&RQIHUHQFLD/DWLQR$PHULFDQDGH(PEDL[DGRUHVH8VXiULRV)HGRUD


34 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

UHDOL]DGDQRLatinoware HPFRPDSDUWLFLSDomRGR3DUDJXDLGR %UDVLOGD$UJHQWLQDHGD9HQH]XHOD

Outro fator merecedor de destaque: alĂŠm de ser numerosa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a maior da $PpULFD /DWLQD FRQWDQGR FRP HPEDL[DGRUHV HP YiULRV HVWDGRV EUDVLOHLURV $0 %$&(070*3%355-6&6372HQR'LVWULWR)HGHUDO ÂąDFRPXQLGDGH EUDVLOHLUDpPXLWRDWLYD1mRVmRUDUDVDVYH]HVSRUH[HPSORHPTXHDVWUDGXo}HV SDUD R LGLRPD ÂłSRUWXJXrV GR %UDVLO´ VmR XPD GDV SULPHLUDV D VHUHP FRQFOXtGDV quando nĂŁo as primeiras.

O tempo dedicado Ă  colaboração Pensou-se em chegar a algumas posiçþes sobre o tempo que os membros das quatro comunidades dedicam Ă  colaboração, especialmente pelo fato de que RSURFHVVRGHSURGXomRGRVRIWZDUHOLYUHQHVVDVFLUFXQVWkQFLDVYHULÂżFDVHXPD atividade fundamentada basicamente no voluntariado. Os resultados obtidos, emERUD PXLWR JHQpULFRV H VXSHUÂżFLDLV PDQWLYHUDP FHUWD UHODomR FRP DV LQ~PHUDV ELEOLRJUDÂżDVTXHWUDWDPGDTXHVWmRGDFXOWXUDKDFNHU 3RGHVHGL]HUHPSULPHLUROXJDUTXHDPDLRULDGRVFRODERUDGRUHVGHVHP penha suas funçþes durante seu tempo considerado livre, apesar de muitos admiWLUHP TXH WDPEpP R ID]HP GXUDQWH DOJXQV PRPHQWRV HP TXH GHYHULDP HVWDU ocupados com outros compromissos â&#x20AC;&#x201C; como trabalho ou estudo. Em qualquer um dos dois casos, a opção por colaborar, evidentemente, implica relegar a segundo plano qualquer outra atividade, seja ela uma obrigação iminente ou um tempo de SXUROD]HU Quando se tentou chegar a uma conclusĂŁo sobre a quantidade de tempo GHVSHGLGRFRPRVPDLVYDULDGRVWLSRVGHWUDEDOKRYHULÂżFRXVHSRUYiULRVPRWLYRV que se tratava de uma tarefa quase impossĂ­vel. Um desses motivos estĂĄ no fato de que muitos dos colaboradores estĂŁo envolvidos com o mundo do software livre em WHPSRLQWHJUDO'LYLGHPVHDTXLPDLVXPDYH]GXDVHVIHUDVGHWUDEDOKRVTXHSRGHP estar voltados a uma determinada distribuição: primeiro, aquelas atividades que estĂŁo ligadas diretamente ao software, tais como desenvolvimento, programação, tradução, documentação etc.; segundo, todo e qualquer trabalho indireto que faça alusĂŁo Ă  distribuição, sendo os mais comuns a divulgação, o incentivo ao uso, a promoção de eventos, palestras e seminĂĄrios ou a postagem de conteĂşdos em fĂłruns e listas de discussĂľes, tirando dĂşvidas, trocando informaçþes, direcionando os principiantes.


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 35

 $VVLPHPIXQomRGDH[LVWrQFLDGRTXHVHFKDPRXGHVHJXQGDHVIHUDGH trabalhos, muitos colaboradores estĂŁo envolvidos praticamente durante todo o tempo com suas distribuiçþes. E, de um modo geral, observa-se que a quantidade de tempo despendida ĂŠ muito variĂĄvel entre os membros, e isso se dĂĄ, entre outras UD]}HVSHODVGLIHUHQWHVSRVWXUDVTXHVHDVVXPHPRXVHMDSHORVGLIHUHQWHVQtYHLV de comprometimento â&#x20AC;&#x201C; e, nesse aspecto, tambĂŠm se notaram muitas diferenças: GHVGHXVXiULRVTXHQmRÂż]HUDPTXHVWmRGHUHSDVVDUDVUHVSRVWDVTXHREWLYHUDP em fĂłruns atĂŠ militantes que passaram horas respondendo a e-mails pessoais com dĂşvidas de usuĂĄrios.  3RU ÂżP D GHVSHLWR GH WRGDV DV FRQVLGHUDo}HV VREUH WHPSR GHGLFDGR j FRODERUDomR FDEH ID]HU XP SDUrQWHVH 'H IDWR RV HVIRUoRV SHVVRDLV VmR PXLWR YDORUL]DGRV QRV PRGRV GD SURGXomR HQWUH SDUHV DVVLP FRPR R WHPSR TXH VH despende para corroborar tais esforços. No entanto, inferiu-se que, em meio Ă  FXOWXUD PHULWRFUiWLFD PDLV LPSRUWDQWH GR TXH R WHPSR p D HÂżFLrQFLD GR WUDEDOKR ÂżQDO 'H QDGD DGLDQWD SRUWDQWR HPSHQKDUVH GXUDQWH KRUDV QD SURJUDPDomR GH uma ferramenta que se apresenta com muitos erros.

O conceito de â&#x20AC;&#x153;liberdadeâ&#x20AC;? sob a Ăłtica de algumas comunidades HĂĄ vĂĄrios motivos pelos quais alguĂŠm opta por usar um software livre em detrimento de um software proprietĂĄrio, mas trĂŞs deles merecem certo destaque â&#x20AC;&#x201C; os PRWLYRVWpFQLFRVRVVRFLDLVHRVÂżQDQFHLURV(VWHV~OWLPRVVmREHPFRPSUHHQVtYHLV algumas pessoas nĂŁo querem ou nĂŁo podem pagar pelo alto preço das licenças e, por isso, passam a usar softwares livres, que estĂŁo gratuitamente disponĂ­veis na rede.  1RVFDVRVPDLVHOHPHQWDUHVGHXVXiULRVÂżQDLVHPHPEURVGDVFRPXQLGDGHV de software livre, os dois primeiros discursos (a saber, os aspectos tĂŠcnicos e os VRFLDLV FRVWXPDPSUHYDOHFHUÂąRUDVHFRPSOHPHQWDPRUDVmRDQWDJ{QLFRV'HVVD PDQHLUDSHUPHLDRVÂłDVSHFWRVWpFQLFRV´XPDYLVmRTXHVHEDVHLDXQLFDPHQWHQD H[FHOrQFLD WpFQLFD GR VRIWZDUH VHQGR TXH DTXHOHV TXH D GHIHQGHP DSUHJRDP que se deve usar software livre simplesmente porque ele ĂŠ melhor. Para esses LQGLYtGXRVRFRQFHLWRGHÂłOLEHUGDGH´HVWiHPSRGHUDFHVVDUHDOWHUDURFyGLJRIRQWH GRVSURJUDPDV1RHQWDQWRVHJXQGRHOHVQmRH[LVWHRPHQRUSUREOHPDHPVHXVDU software proprietĂĄrio nos casos em que ele funcione melhor ou garanta a facilidade de uso. Por outro lado, hĂĄ aqueles que consideram que a liberdade que move aqueOHV TXH HVWmR IRFDGRV DSHQDV QRV DVSHFWRV WpFQLFRV p LQH[LVWHQWH Âą RX TXDQGR muito, incompleta. Esses usuĂĄrios estĂŁo mais preocupados com as questĂľes


36 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

sociais implĂ­citas no ato de usar um software livre â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ato que, por essĂŞncia, denotaria independĂŞncia (seja das licenças proprietĂĄrias cobradas pelas grandes corporaçþes, VHMDGDVDWXDOL]Do}HVUHPXQHUDGDVTXHVmRH[LJLGDVRXGRFyGLJRIRQWHIHFKDGR  H DOWLYH] (OHV HVWmR HP JUDQGH SDUWH GRV FDVRV HQYROYLGRV HP YiULRV SURMHWRV de inclusĂŁo digital em comunidades desfavorecidas e acreditam que a inclusĂŁo social estĂĄ diretamente relacionada Ă  prĂłpria inclusĂŁo digital â&#x20AC;&#x201C; e esta, diga-se, QmR SRGHULD VH UHDOL]DU FRP VRIWZDUHV SURSULHWiULRV TXH GHYHULDP VHU DEROLGRV SRUFRPSOHWR$VVLPDÂłYHUGDGHLUD´OLEHUGDGHYDLPXLWRDOpPGDVUD]}HVWpFQLFDV VHQGRRVRIWZDUHOLYUHGHQWUHPXLWRVRXWURVXPLQVWUXPHQWRFDSD]GHSRUWDUXPD LGHRORJLDTXHPRELOL]HSHVVRDVHFRPXQLGDGHV(VVHVGRLVGLVFXUVRVMiUHFHEHUDP YiULDVDOFXQKDV7DOYH]DVPDLVFRQKHFLGDVWUDWHPRSULPHLURFRPRÂł26,´21RXÂłopen source´HDVHJXQGDFRPRÂł)UHH6RIWZDUH´RXÂł[LLWD´ AlĂŠm dessas divergĂŞncias, hĂĄ pequenos embates de ordem tĂŠcnica que, SRUÂżPWDPEpPDFDEDPVHWRUQDQGRTXHVW}HVGHOLEHUGDGH(PSULQFtSLRFRQWXGR GL]HP UHVSHLWR D FHUWDV SHFXOLDULGDGHV WpFQLFDV GH FDGD GLVWULEXLomR ,VVR SRGH ser facilmente ilustrado pelos sistemas Debian e Slackware: no primeiro, quando XP XVXiULR GHFLGH EDL[DU GHWHUPLQDGR SURJUDPD SRU PHLR GR PRGR WH[WR LVWR p XVDQGROLQKDVGHFRPDQGREDVWDUHFRUUHUDR$37 $GYDQFHG3DFNDJLQJ7RRO XP JHUHQFLDGRU GH SDFRWHV TXH ID] R GRZQORDG QmR DSHQDV GR DSOLFDWLYR VROLFLWDGR mas de todas as suas dependĂŞncias, facilitando o trabalho do usuĂĄrio. No caso do Slackware, o aplicativo correspondente ĂŠ o Slackpkg, que busca apenas o arquivo solicitado, sem suas dependĂŞncias.220XLWRVXVXiULRVGDVGLVWULEXLo}HVGHULYDGDVGR 'HELDQ RXPHVPRGDTXHODVGHULYDGDVGR)HGRUDHPTXHRJHUHQFLDGRUpR<XP FRPIXQomRVHPHOKDQWHjGR$37QRTXHGL]UHVSHLWRjEXVFDSRUGHSHQGrQFLDV  defendem o uso de seu gerenciador pelo fato de ele proporcionar facilidade de uso. JĂĄ grande parte dos slackers, em contrapartida, acreditam que isso fere a liberdade GRXVXiULRXPDYH]TXHHOHQmRWHPSOHQRFRQWUROHVREUHRVLVWHPD2GHSRLPHQWR GHXPXVXiULRGR6ODFNZDUHGXUDQWHXPDFRQYHUVDQRFDQDOVODFNZDUHEUGDUHGH )UHHQRGHQHWQR,5&pPXLWRHVFODUHFHGRU Âł$ GLIHUHQoD p TXH QRV 'HELDQV GD YLGD RX QRV 5HGKDW GD YLGD SURJUDPDV GHVVH WLSR ID]HP FKHFDJHP GH GHSHQGrQFLDV &RPR R 6ODFNZDUHSRUQDWXUH]DQmRWHPHVVDSROtWLFDRVODFNSNJWDPEpPQmR RID]4XHUEDL[DURDSDFKH">'LJLWH@ÂłVODFNSNJLQVWDOODSDFKH´HSURQWR (OHQmRYDLEDL[DUQDGDDOpPGRTXHYFRUGHQDU8PÂłDSWJHW´MiFKHFD (PDOXVmRjOLFHQoD2SHQ6RXUFH,QLDWLYH 26, TXHQmRREULJDDSXEOLFDomRGHDOWHUDo}HVUHDOL]DGDVQRFyGLJR IRQWHGHDOJXPVRIWZDUHSRVVLELOLWDQGRDH[LVWrQFLDGHSURMHWRVLQWHJUDGRVSRUVRIWZDUHVOLYUHVHVRIWZDUHVSURSULHWiULRV eFRPRVHHPDQDORJLDEHPUXGLPHQWDUXPLQGLYtGXRSUHFLVDVVHFR]LQKDUDUUR]4XDQGRXVDUR$37RJHUHQFLDGRU do Debian, nĂŁo precisarĂĄ se preocupar com qualquer ingrediente: o gerenciador buscarĂĄ pelos grĂŁos, pela ĂĄgua e pelos WHPSHURVFRPELQDQGRWXGRRTXHIRUQHFHVViULRSDUDTXHRDOLPHQWRÂżTXHSURQWR4XDQGRXVDUR6ODFNSNJRXVXiULR terĂĄ em suas mĂŁos apenas os grĂŁos, devendo, portanto, buscar todo o resto por conta prĂłpria.


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 37

VHRDSDFKHGHSHQGHGHDOJXPDRXWUDFRLVDHYDLTXHUHUEDL[DUHVVD outra coisa tb. Os usuårios dessas distros vêem isso como facilidade. 1yV XVXDOPHQWH YHPRV LVVR FRPR ³SHUGD GH FRQWUROH´ SRU SDUWH GR XVXiULRSTVHSRUH[HPSORYFPDQGDUHPRYHURSRVW¿[QXPGHELDQ redhat, ele vai querer remover outras coisas junto, mas não foi isso que YFPDQGRXFHUWR"´

&RQVLGHUDo}HVÂżQDLV Por meio dos breves resultados aqui apresentados, acredita-se, foi possĂ­vel compreender ao menos uma parte daquilo que se constitui como a dinâmica e o funcionamento de uma comunidade de software livre. Os vĂĄrios relatos, depoimentos, SDVVDJHQVHQÂżPWRGRRPDWHULDOFROKLGRQRVSHUPLWHFRQVWDWDUFRPRVHHVWDEHOHFH HRTXHVLJQLÂżFDDSOXUDOLGDGHGHDo}HVLGpLDVHSRVWXUDVSUHVHQWHVHPPHLRDR universo open source. 3RUÂżPGHYHVHDSRQWDUTXHRVH[HPSORVGDVFRPXQLGDGHVGHVRIWZDUH OLYUH FRQÂżJXUDPVH FRPR XPD SHTXHQD SDUWH GH DOJR PXLWR PDLRU YLJHQWH QD sociedade em rede pĂłs-industrial. O novo modo de produção, de avaliação e de GLVWULEXLomR GH LQIRUPDo}HV Âą GR TXDO ID]HP SDUWH DOpP GR VRIWZDUH OLYUH YiULRV SURMHWRVFRQVROLGDGRVDSDUWLUGDUHGHWDLVFRPRR<RX7XEHR6ODVKGRWR'LJJ D :LNLSpGLD R 6HWL#+RPH D OLFHQoD &UHDWLYH &RPPRQV HWF Âą SDUHFH HVWDU LQĂ&#x20AC;XHQFLDQGRGLUHWDPHQWHRVYHOKRVSDUDGLJPDVGDVRFLHGDGHTXHSRUVXDYH] SDVVDPSRUFRQVWDQWHVSURFHVVRVGHUHYLVmRHGHDGDSWDomR4XHDÂżORVRÂżDopen source possa ajudĂĄ-los.


38 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 39

Software Livre e a Perspectiva da Dádiva uma análise sobre o trabalho e a produção colaborativa no projeto GNOME Vicente Macedo de Aguiar

Este capítulo se sedimenta sobre um estudo1 FLHQWt¿FR TXH EXVFRX DQDOLVDUDVHVSHFL¿FLGDGHVGDGLQkPLFDGHWUDEDOKRGRVKDFNHUVQRSURFHVVRGH SURGXomR FRODERUDWLYR H QmRFRQWUDWXDO SUHVHQWH QDV FRPXQLGDGHV YLUWXDLV2 de GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH VRIWZDUHV OLYUHV  HP SDUWLFXODU QD FRPXQLGDGH UHODWLYD DR Projeto GNU Network Object Model Environment, PDLVFRQKHFLGRHGLIXQGLGRSHOD sigla GNOME.  (QYROYHQGRPDLVGHKDFNHUVGHWRGRVRVFLQFRFRQWLQHQWHVGRJORERR 3URMHWR*120(JLUDHPWRUQRGHGRLVREMHWLYRVFRPXQV'HXPODGRWHQGRFRPR IRFRRFKDPDGR³XVXiULR¿QDO´RSURMHWRYLVDRGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGHXPDPELHQWH de desktop3 FRP XPD LQWHUIDFH JUi¿FD Graphical User Interface – GUI) e um FRQMXQWRGHDSOLFDWLYRV VRIWZDUHV TXHIDFLOLWHPDRPi[LPRDLQWHUDomRGRXVXiULR FRPRFRPSXWDGRU KDUGZDUH $OpPGRdesktopRSURMHWRDFDEDWHQGRDLQGDFRPR (VVHHVWXGRFLHQWt¿FRIRLUHDOL]DGRSRUPHLRGHXPDLPHUVmR³QHWQRJUi¿FD´ SHVTXLVDSDUWLFLSDQWH GHQWURGRDPELHQWH FRPSXWDFLRQDOTXHFRPS}HDFRPXQLGDGHRQOLQHGR3URMHWR*120(QRSHUtRGRGHGH]HPEURGHDIHYHUHLURGH $OpPGHVVDLPSRUWDQWHLPHUVmRIRUDPUHDOL]DGDVHQWUHYLVWDVVHPLHVWUXWXUDGDVFRPPHPEURVGHGLIHUHQWHV SDtVHVTXHSDUWLFLSDPGHIRUPDDWXDQWHGHVVH3URMHWR,QWHUQDFLRQDO3DUDPDLVLQIRUPDo}HVVREUHHVVDSHVTXLVDYHU DGLVVHUWDomRLQWLWXODGD³2V$UJRQDXWDVGD,QWHUQHWXPD$QiOLVHQHWQRJUi¿FDVREUHDFRPXQLGDGHRQOLQHGHVRIWZDUH livre do projeto GNOME à luz da teoria da Dádiva” TXH VH HQFRQWUD GLVSRQtYHO QR OLQN KWWSZZZDGPXIEDEUSXE SXEOLFDFDR0$$'LVVHUWDFDR*QRPH9HUVDR)LQDOSGf 1HVWHDUWLJRVmRFRQVLGHUDGRVFRPR³FRPXQLGDGHVYLUWXDLV´RX³FRPXQLGDGHVRQOLQH´RVDJUXSDPHQWRVVRFLDLVTXH VHPDQLIHVWDPQD,QWHUQHWRQGHRSURFHVVRGHFRPXQLFDomRpHVVHQFLDOPHQWHPHGLDGRSRUFRPSXWDGRUHV6HJXQGR .R]LQHWV   R XVR GR WHUPR ³FRPXQLGDGH´ SDUD FODVVL¿FDU WDLV DJUXSDPHQWRV GH SHVVRDV MXVWL¿FDVH SHOR IDWR GHVVH WLSR GH RUJDQL]DomR VRFLDO WHU HP JHUDO XPD H[LVWrQFLD SHUHQH GHGLFDUVH GH IRUPD RUJDQL]DGD D REMHWLYRV H Do}HV FRPXQV DOpP GH SRVVXLU XPD H[LVWrQFLD ³UHDO´ SDUD VHXV PHPEURV LQGHSHQGHQWHPHQWH GDV SUR[LPLGDGHV JHRJUi¿FDV3RULVWRpVHPSUHLPSRUWDQWHUHVVDOWDUTXH³XPDFRPXQLGDGHYLUWXDOQmRpLUUHDOLPDJLQiULDRXLOXVyULD WUDWDVHVLPSOHVPHQWHGHXPFROHWLYRPDLVRXPHQRVSHUPDQHQWHTXHVHRUJDQL]DSRUPHLRGRQRYRFRUUHLRHOHWU{QLFR PXQGLDO´ /pY\S  3 O desktoppXPVLVWHPDFRPSXWDFLRQDOFRPSRVWRSRUXPFRQMXQWRGHDSOLFDWLYRV VRIWZDUHV TXHVHJXHPHGH¿QHP XPSDGUmRGHLQWHUIDFHJUi¿FD *UDSKLFDO8VHU,QWHUIDFH*8, HDRPHVPRWHPSRSHUPLWHPDLQWHUDomRGRXVXiULR FRPXPFRPDVIXQFLRQDOLGDGHVGHXPGHWHUPLQDGRVLVWHPDRSHUDFLRQDO$VVLPSRGHVHGL]HUTXHWRGDDDUTXLWHWXUD VLPEyOLFDHRSDGUmRJUi¿FR YLVXDO GHPHQXVtFRQHViUHDVGHWUDEDOKRH³MDQHODV´VmRGH¿QLGRVSHORVLVWHPDGH desktop.


40 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

segundo objetivo a estruturação de uma plataforma4GHGHVHQYROYLPHQWRFRQWHQGR XPDFROHomRGH,QWHUIDFHVGH3URJUDPDomRGH$SOLFDWLYRV $3,V DOpPGHGLYHUVDV IHUUDPHQWDVGHSURJUDPDomRTXHVmRXWLOL]DGDVSRUKDFNHUVWDQWRGRSURMHWRFRPR WDPEpPGHRXWUDVFRPXQLGDGHVGHVRIWZDUHVOLYUHVHVSDOKDGDVSHORFLEHUHVSDoR $VVLP FRPR SRQWR GH SDUWLGD HVWH DUWLJR DQDOLVD FRPR VH PDQLIHVWD D RUJDQL]DomRHDGLQkPLFDGRWUDEDOKRTXHLPSXOVLRQDRSURFHVVRGHGHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH WRGR R FRQMXQWR GH VLVWHPDV FRPSXWDFLRQDLV OLYUHV TXH FRPS}HP R 3URMHWR *120(1XPPRPHQWRSRVWHULRUSDUWLQGRGHVVDPHVPDUHDOLGDGHEXVFDUHPRV FRPSUHHQGHUWDPEpPDQDWXUH]DGRWUDEDOKRDGRWDGRSHORVKDFNHUVQRSURFHVVR GHSURGXomRHQWUHSDUHVTXHDFDEDHQYROYHQGRXPDFRPXQLGDGHLQWHUQDFLRQDOGH colaboradores.

O surgimento do projeto GNOME (P  VHJXQGR R VRFLyORJR 0DQXHO &DVWHOOV   Mi KDYLD SHOR PHQRVPLOK}HVGHXVXiULRVGR*18/LQX[HPWRGRRPXQGR&RQWXGRPHVPR VHQGR GLIXQGLGR FRPR XP VRIWZDUH GH H[FHOHQWH TXDOLGDGH WHFQROyJLFD QR LQtFLR GR VHX SURFHVVR GH GHVHQYROYLPHQWR R VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO *18/LQX[ WDPEpP HUD FRQVLGHUDGR XP VRIWZDUH TXH H[LJLD SRU SDUWH GRV XVXiULRV XP QtYHO GH FRQKHFLPHQWRWpFQLFRPDLVHOHYDGRSDUDRVHXERPIXQFLRQDPHQWR,VVRSRUTXH SRUWHUVLGRGHVHQYROYLGR³SRUWHFQROyJRV´H³SDUDWHFQROyJRV´R*18/LQX[XWLOL]DYD XPSDGUmRGHLQWHUIDFHJUi¿FD tFRQHVMDQHODVERUGDVHWF PHQRVLQWXLWLYRHFRP SDGU}HVVLPEyOLFRVPHQRVDFHVVtYHLVjVSHVVRDVFRPXQVDRFRQWUiULRGHDOJXPDV YHUV}HV SURSULHWiULDV GH FyGLJR IHFKDGR  FRPR R VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO Windows e o Mac OS X, TXH HVWDYDP VHQGR GHVHQYROYLGRV SRU JUDQGHV FRUSRUDo}HV GH 7HFQRORJLDGD,QIRUPDomR 7, TXHSULRUL]DYDPPDLVHVVDVTXHVW}HVGHLQWHUIDFH JUi¿FD$VVLP SDUD TXH R *18/LQX[ VH GLIXQGLVVH GH IRUPD PDLV DPSOD ID]LD VHQHFHVViULRRGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGHXPDPELHQWHGHdesktopTXHSRVVLELOLWDVVHD H[LVWrQFLDGHXPVLVWHPDGHLQWHUIDFHFRPtFRQHVHMDQHODVHQWUHRXWURVDSOLFDWLYRV TXH VHJXLVVH RV SULQFtSLRV GH OLEHUGDGH WHFQROyJLFD H DR PHVPR WHPSR TXH SHUPLWLVVH TXH XP XVXiULR FRPXP SXGHVVH IDFLOPHQWH LQWHUDJLU H DFHVVDU VXDV funcionalidades.  3RU YROWD GH  R SULPHLUR SURMHWR TXH VXUJH SDUD WHQWDU VXSULU HVVD lacuna foi denominado de K – desktop Environment .'( 1RHQWDQWRRIXQGDGRU $SODWDIRUPDpDLQIUDHVWUXWXUDWHFQROyJLFDTXHVHUYHGHEDVHSDUDRGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGDVDSOLFDo}HVGR*120( 7HFQLFDPHQWHHODpXPFRQMXQWR UHSRVLWyULR GHELEOLRWHFDVGHREMHWRVIXQo}HVHHVWUXWXUDVGHGDGRVTXHSRGHPVHU UHXWLOL]DGDVQRGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGHQRYDVDSOLFDo}HVRXVHMDpXPDHVSpFLHGH³DUPD]pP´DEHUWRGHFDL[DDEHUWD FKHLDGHFyGLJRVSUpGH¿QLGRVTXHVHUYHGHUHIHUrQFLDSDUDTXDOTXHUGHVHQYROYHGRULQWHUHVVDGRHPXWLOL]iOD 7RGDYLDDQWHVGHDGHQWUDUHVVHVSRQWRVID]VHQHFHVViULRFRPSUHHQGHUDDPELJXXLGDGHHRPDOHQWHQGLPHQWRTXH VHID]VREUHRWHUPRHDSUi[LVVRFLDOGRVKDFNHUVDERUGDGDQRFDStWXORLQWURGXWyULRGHVWHOLYUR


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 41

GHVVHSURMHWR0DWWKLDV(WWULFKRSWRXSRUXWLOL]DUXPDWHFQRORJLDDWpHQWmRGHFyGLJR IHFKDGR  R VRIWZDUH Qt toolkit da empresa 7UROO7HFK  HP VHXV SDFRWHV R¿FLDLV $VVLP PHVPR QmR VHQGR XP VRIWZDUH FRPHUFLDO R desktop KDE causou muitas GLVFRUGkQFLDV QR LQWHULRU GR PRYLPHQWR SHOR 6RIWZDUH /LYUH GHYLGR DR IDWRGHVVH VLVWHPDQmRVHJXLUQDVXDLQWHJUDOLGDGHRVSULQFtSLRVGHDEHUWXUDHOLEHUGDGHGD ¿ORVR¿D*18$SDUWLUGHVVHFRQWH[WRHPGRLVKDFNHUVPH[LFDQRV)HGHULFR 0HQDH0LJXHOGH,FD]DVHDUWLFXODUDPSDUDGHVHQYROYHUXPSURMHWRGHdesktop TXHQmRDSHQDVIRUQHFHVVHXPVLVWHPDDEHUWRGHLQWHUIDFHJUi¿FDPDLVLQWHOLJtYHO SDUDRXVRPDVTXHWDPEpPVHJXLVVHGHIRUPDLQWHJUDORVSULQFtSLRVGHOLEHUGDGH WHFQROyJLFD H FRODERUDomR DVVRFLDGRV DR VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO *18/LQX[. Esse projeto foi denominado de *18  1HWZRUN 2EMHFW 0RGHO (QYLURQPHQW  mais FRQKHFLGRHGLIXQGLGRSHODVLJOD*120(  $OpPGHFRQWDUFRPRDSRLRHDFRODERUDomRFUHVFHQWHGHKDFNHUVGHYiULRV SDtVHV QR DQR TXH VH VHJXLX DR ODQoDPHQWR GD VXD YHUVmR SULPHLUD YHUVmR R SURMHWR *120( SDVVRX WDPEpP D WHU R DSRLR GH GHVHQYROYHGRUHV GH VRIWZDUHV TXHHUDPSDJRVSRUHPSUHVDVGH7,DH[HPSORGDRed Hat e a Eazel.6HJXQGR ,FD]D   FRP R DSRLR GLUHWR H D SDUWLFLSDomR GH YiULRV KDFNHUV HVSDOKDGRV SHOD 5HGH MXQWDPHQWH FRP HVVHV GHVHQYROYHGRUHV FRQWUDWDGRV HP  R SURMHWR*120(ODQoDDVXDYHUVmR  3RVWHULRUPHQWHQRDQRGHMiFRP intuito de fortalecer ainda mais a missão do projeto de desenvolver uma plataforma FRPSXWDFLRQDO OLYUH p FULDGD D )XQGDomR *120(  (VVD )XQGDomR FRP VHGH QD &DOLIyUQLD (8$ WRUQRXVH XPD HVSpFLH GH RUJDQL]DomR IRUPDO TXH Gi DSRLR LQVWLWXFLRQDO j FRPXQLGDGH YLUWXDO e HOD TXH UHSUHVHQWD IRUPDOPHQWH R 3URMHWR QR ³PXQGR GRV iWRPRV´ VHQGR JHULGD GH IRUPD YLUWXDO SRU XP &RQVHOKR 'LUHWRU FRPSRVWR SRU VHWH SHVVRDV GH GLIHUHQWHV SDUWHV GR PXQGR TXH VmR HOHLWDV SHOD comunidade.

O Projeto GNOME e o modelo colaborativo de produção entre pares  2 3URMHWR *120( TXH Gi R VHQWLQGR GH H[LVWrQFLD SDUD WRGD HVVD FRPXQLGDGHYLUWXDOGHKDFNHUVJLUDHPWRUQRGHGXDVPHWDV'HXPODGRWHQGR FRPR IRFR R FKDPDGR ³XVXiULR ¿QDO´ R SURMHWR YLVD DR GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH XP ambiente de desktopSDUDGLVWULEXLo}HVGR*18/LQX[FRPXPDLQWHUIDFHJUi¿FD Graphical User Interface – *8,  H XP FRQMXQWR GH DSOLFDWLYRV VRIWZDUHV  TXH IDFLOLWHPDRPi[LPRDLQWHUDomRGHVVHXVXiULRFRPRFRPSXWDGRU hardware). Por LVVRGHIRUPDLPEULFDGDDRGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGHVVHDPELHQWHJUi¿FR*120(ID]


42 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

VHSUHVHQWHWDPEpPRSURFHVVRGHWUDGXomRGRVVRIWZDUHVTXHFRPS}HPRGHVNWRS SDUDPDLVGHLGLRPDVQRPXQGRDEUDQJHQGRDVVLPGHVGHLGLRPDVRFLGHQWDLV FRPR(VSDQKRO)UDQFrVH3RUWXJXrV TXHXVDPRPHVPRDOIDEHWRDOtQJXDVH GLDOHWRVTXHXVDPDOIDEHWRVFRPSOHWDPHQWHGLVWLQWRVFRPRSRUH[HPSOR&KLQrV *UHJRÈUDEH+LQGLH+HEUDLFR3RURXWURODGRRSURMHWRDFDEDWHQGRWDPEpPFRPR IRFRDHVWUXWXUDomRGHXPDSODWDIRUPDGHGHVHQYROYLPHQWRFRQWHQGRXPDFROHomR GH,QWHUIDFHVGH3URJUDPDomRGH$SOLFDWLYRV $3,V DOpPGHGLYHUVDVIHUUDPHQWDV GHSURJUDPDomRTXHVmRXWLOL]DGDVSRUKDFNHUVWDQWRGRSURMHWRFRPRWDPEpPGH RXWUDVFRPXQLGDGHVGHVRIWZDUHVOLYUHVHVSDOKDGDVSHORFLEHUHVSDoR  3DUWLQGRGHVVDUHDOLGDGHpLPSRUWDQWHIULVDUTXHRSURFHVVRGHGHVHQYRO YLPHQWRGHVRIWZDUHVOLYUHVHPFRPXQLGDGHVGHVVDQDWXUH]DpVLQJXODUHPUHODomR DXPDVSHFWRSUDJPiWLFRGRPRGRGHYLGDKDFNHU(QTXDQWR ³D~OWLPDUHYROXomRLQGXVWULDOPDUFRXDWUDQVLomRSDUDXPDVRFLHGDGH TXH FRQWDYD FRP RV UHVXOWDGRV FLHQWt¿FRV RV KDFNHUV FKDPDP D DWHQomR SDUD R IDWR GH TXH QD (UD GD ,QIRUPDomR PDLV LPSRUWDQWH TXHRVUHVXOWDGRVFLHQWt¿FRVpRPRGHORGHSURGXomRHQWUHSDUHV1TXH SHUPLWHREWHQomRGHVVHVUHVXOWDGRV´ +LPDQHP 

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 43

PDQHLUD HVVHV VLVWHPDV FRPSXWDFLRQDLV VHJXQGR R SDGUmR GH GHVHQYROYLPHQWR DQWHULRU DR VXUJLPHQWR GR /LQX[ GHYHULDP VHU HODERUDGRV GH IRUPD FHQWUDOL]DGD HLVRODGDSRUXPSHTXHQRJUXSRGHGHVHQYROYHGRUHVHVSHFLDOLVWDVTXHVyGLVSR QLELOL]DULDP R UHVXOWDGR GH VHX WUDEDOKR TXDQGR SHUFHEHVVHP TXH XPD SULPHLUD YHUVmRGHGHWHUPLQDGRVRIWZDUHHVWLYHVVHVLJQL¿FDWLYDPHQWHSURQWD±DVVLPFRPR DFRQWHFHQDPDLRULDGDVHPSUHVDV ¿UPDV GHSURGXomRGHVRIWZDUHVTXHWrPR FyGLJRIRQWHIHFKDGR(VVHPRGHOR5D\PRQG  GHQRPLQRXGHCatedral.  'HQWUR GHVVH FRQWH[WR R OHPD ³OLEHUH FHGR XPD YHUVmR GR VRIWZDUH  H IUHTXHQWHPHQWH GHOHJXH WXGR TXH YRFr SRVVD HVWHMD DEHUWR DR SRQWR GD SURPLVFXLGDGH´FKHJRXFRPRXPJUDQGHFKRTXHSDUDRXQLYHUVRGDHQJHQKDULD GHVRIWZDUHVFRPSOH[RV,VVRSRUTXHDPDLRULDGRVGHVHQYROYHGRUHVLQFOXLQGRR SUySULR(ULF5D\PRQGDFUHGLWDYDTXHHVVDHUDXPDPiSROtWLFDSDUDSURMHWRVGHVVD QDWXUH]D WHQGR HP YLVWD TXH RV SRVVtYHLV GHIHLWRV GHQRPLQDGR bugs) poderiam VHUSDVVDGRVSDUDRVXVXiULRV  3RURXWURODGRQRLQtFLRGRSURMHWR/LQX[SRUYROWDGHDUHODomRHQWUH XVXiULRV H GHVHQYROYHGRUHV GH XP SURMHWR GH VRIWZDUH OLYUH IRL FRPSOHWDPHQWH DOWHUDGDFRPDGLVSRQLELOL]DomRGRFyGLJRIRQWHPXLWRVXVXUiULRVSDVVDPDVHUFR GHVHQYROYHGRUHVH¿FD]HV/LQXV7RUYDOGVSHUFHEHXTXHPXLWRVXVXiULRVVmRKDFNHUV WDPEpPHSRUWDQWRHOHVSRGHPGLDJQRVWLFDUSUREOHPDVVXJHULUFRUUHo}HVHDMXGDU DPHOKRUDURFyGLJRPXLWRPDLVUDSLGDPHQWHGRTXHXPSURJUDPDGRURXDWpPHVPR XPDHTXLSHWpFQLFDGHIRUPDLVRODGDIHFKDGD(PRXWUDVSDODYUDV³GDGRVROKRV VX¿FLHQWHVWRGRVRVHUURVVmRWULYLDLV´ 5D\PRQG $VVLPQHVVHPRGHOR DEHUWRQmRHUDHVWUDQKRXPDQRYDYHUVmRGR.HUQHO/LQX[VHUODQoDGDPDLVGHXPD YH] SRU GLD ± R TXH SDUD PXLWRV SURJUDPDGRUHV H HQJHQKHLURV FRPSXWDFLRQDLV VHULDKXPDQDPHQWHLPSRVVtYHODSDUWLUGHXPPRGHORWUDGLFLRQDO ³1HQKXPDFDWHGUDOFDOPDHUHVSHLWRVDDTXLDRLQYpVDFRPXQLGDGH /LQX[ SDUHFHX DVVHPHOKDUVH D XP JUDQGH H EDUXOKHQWR ED]DU GH GLIHUHQWHVDJHQGDVHDSUR[LPDo}HV DGHTXDGDPHQWHVLPEROL]DGRSHORV UHSRVLWyULRVGR/LQX[TXHDFHLWDULDVXEPLVV}HVde qualquer pessoa) de RQGH XP VLVWHPD FRHUHQWH H HVWiYHO SRGHULD DSDUHQWHPHQWH HPHUJLU VRPHQWHSRUXPDVXFHVVmRGHPLODJUHV´ 5D\PRQG 

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44 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo โ€ข 45

GNOME: um โ€œbazarโ€ organizado?  6HJXQGR*HUPDQ  DWXDOPHQWHR3URMHWR*120(HVWiDVVRFLDGRD XP VLVWHPD FRPSXWDFLRQDO FRPSRVWR SRU PDLV GH  VRIWZDUHV HQWUH ELEOLRWHFDV e aplicativos do desktopHGDSODWDIRUPD(PRXWUDVSDODYUDVLVVRFRUUHVSRQGHD PDLVGHGRLVPLOK}HVGHOLQKDVGHFyGLJRTXHSRGHPVHDPSOLDUDLQGDPDLVDFDGD nova versรฃo. O fato de o Projeto ser subdividido em diversos aplicativos e bibliotecas estimula uma forma de divisรฃo da produรงรฃo em mรณdulos2 de desenvolvimento GHIRUPDSURSRUFLRQDOHFRUUHVSRQGHQWHDRQ~PHURGHVRIWZDUHVTXHDWXDOPHQWH JLUD HP WRUQR GH  (VVHV PyGXORV GH GHVHQYROYLPHQWR VmR DJUXSDGRV H VLVWH PDWL]DGRVSHOR6LVWHPDGH&RQWUROHGH9HUV}HV Concurrent Versions System &96  GR*120(HFRQWDPFRPDFRRUGHQDomRGHQRPtQLPRXPSURJUDPDGRUHIHWLYR SDUD FDGD PyGXOR   TXH UHFHEH R QRPH GH mantenedor e HVVH PDQWHQHGRU R KDFNHUUHVSRQViYHOSRUSODQHMDURVUXPRVGHXPGHWHUPLQDGRVRIWZDUHTXHFRPS}H RVLVWHPDDOpPGHJHULURHQYLRGHGRDo}HVGHFyGLJRVGHSURJUDPDomRDSHOLGDGDV de patchs.  $VGRDo}HVSRGHPHVWDUUHODFLRQDGDVWDQWRjFRUUHomRGHXPHUUR bug) no SURJUDPDTXDQWRDRHQYLRGHFyGLJRVFRPQRYDVIXQFLRQDOLGDGHVHHVSHFLยฟFLGDGHV TXHDOJXPXVXiULRTXHLUDDJUHJDUjTXHOHGHWHUPLQDGRVRIWZDUH(pQHVVHSRQWR TXHUHVLGHVHJXQGR5D\PRQG  XPDGDVSULQFLSDLVYLUWXGHVGHVVHPRGHOR DEHUWR GH SURGXomR FRODERUDWLYD HQWUH SDUHV  TXH HOH GHQRPLQRX GH ยณED]DUยด HQTXDQWRQRPRGHOR&DWHGUDOSUHVHQWHHPERDSDUWHGDVHPSUHVDVGHVRIWZDUH QRPXQGRRVHUURVQRVSURJUDPDVVmRWUDWDGRVGHIRUPDIHFKDGDSRUPHLRGHXP H[DPHPLQXFLRVRHGHPRUDGRIHLWRSRUXPQ~PHURSHTXHQRGHWpFQLFRVยณQDYLVmR ED]DUSRURXWURODGRYRFr PDQWHQHGRU DVVXPHTXHHUURVVmRJHUDOPHQWHWULYLDLV PXLWRUDSLGDPHQWHTXDQGRH[SRVWRVSDUDFHQWHQDVGHiYLGRVFRGHVHQYROYHGRUHV WULWXUDQGRFDGDQRYDOLEHUDomRยด 5D\PRQG   6HJXLQGR HVVD ยฟORVRยฟD SRU H[HPSOR R PDQWHQHGRU GH TXDOTXHU PyGXOR GR3URMHWR*120(GLVSRQLELOL]DGHIRUPDIUHTXHQWHQDZHEGDFRPXQLGDGHXPD QRYD YHUVmR FRP R LQWXLWR GH WHU VHPSUH PDLV FRUUHo}HV GRDo}HV  GH TXDOTXHU RXWUR KDFNHU DR UHGRU GR PXQGR TXH TXHLUD XVDU H FRQWULEXLU 'HVVD IRUPD R PDQWHQHGRUGRSDFRWHFRQVHJXHUHGX]LURWUDEDOKRHRFXVWRTXHWHULDSDUDPDQWHU DTXHOH GHWHUPLQDGR VRIWZDUH GH IRUPD LVRODGD$OpP GLVVR TXDQGR XP XVXiULR GHVHQYROYHGRUSDVVDDID]HUGRDo}HVFRQVWDQWHVGHpatchs,HOHSDVVDWDPEpPD WHUJUDQGHVSRVVLELOLGDGHVGHGLYLGLURSRVWRGHPDQWHQHGRURXDWpPHVPRDVVXPLU H[FOXVLYDPHQWHWDOFDUJRFDVRRDWXDOPDQWHQHGRUFRQVLGHUHTXHQmRWHPPDLV WHPSROLYUHHRLQGLTXHSDUDDVVXPLUWDOIXQomR


46 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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Organograma do Projeto GNOME


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo โ€ข 47

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48 โ€ข Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 49

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50 โ€ข Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo

c) Congelamento das mensagens de comando dos softwares โ€“ Este perรญodo visa LQLELUTXHTXDOTXHUPDQWHQHGRUGHDOJXPVRIWZDUHSRVVDDFUHVFHQWDUTXDOTXHU PHQVDJHP ยณH[WUDยด QDV EDUUDV GH PHQX GRV DSOLFDWLYRV FRPR ยณ6DOYDUยด RX ยณ,PSRUWDU$UTXLYRยดSRUH[HPSOReDSDUWLUGHVVHFRQJHODPHQWRTXHDVYiULDV HTXLSHV GR 3URMHWR GH 7UDGXomR GNOME Translation Project)4 comeรงam a WUDEDOKDUGHQWURGHXPDPELHQWHPDLVHVWiYHO,VVRSRUTXHFRPRHVVHSURMHWR pFRPSRVWRSRUPDLVGHHTXLSHVYROXQWiULDVGHWUDGXomRHVSDOKDGDVSHOR PXQGRDPRGLยฟFDomRGHXPDPHQVDJHPDSyVHVVHFRQJHODPHQWRSRGHWUD]HU XPLPSDFWREHPQHJDWLYRHPWHUPRVGHUHWUDEDOKR d) Congelamento de Cรณdigoยฑ(VWH~OWLPRFRQJHODPHQWRpRPDLVUtJLGR$SDUWLU GHVVHPRPHQWRTXDOTXHUPRGLยฟFDomRยฟFDLPSHGLGDGHVHULPSOHPHQWDGDVDOYR DOJXPHUURGUiVWLFRTXHยฑSRUPRWLYRGHIRUoDPDLRUWHQKDVHTXHVHUPRGLยฟFDGD WHUiTXHWHURDYDOGRUHOHDVHWHDPDQWHV(QWUHHPFHQDGHVVDYH]DHTXLSH GHPDUNHWLQJ GNOME Marketing Team)TXHLUiSUHSDUDUDVQRWDVTXHVHUmR lanรงadas para imprensa e meios de comunicaรงรฃo em geral sobre a nova versรฃo do GNOME.  $SyVDFRQFOXVmRGHVVHFLFORVHPHVWUDOGHSURGXomRHQWUHSDUHVRdesktop SDVVDDVHUGLVSRQLELOL]DGRHSRVWHULRUPHQWHXWLOL]DGRSRUGLYHUVDVGLVWULEXLo}HVGR VLVWHPDRSHUDFLRQDO*18/LQX[TXHVmRGHVHQYROYLGDVWDQWRSRUHPSUHVDVFRPR SRURXWUDVFRPXQLGDGHVRQOLQHHVSDOKDVSHODUHGHPXQGLDOGHFRPSXWDGRUHV'H DFRUGRFRPDVLQIRUPDo}HVTXHFRQVWDPQRVLWHGR3URMHWR*120(PDLVGH GLVWULEXLo}HVGLIHUHQWHVGR*18/LQX[QRPXQGRDGRWDPHVVHdesktop livre.  &RPR UHVXOWDGR GHVVH SURFHVVR PXQGLDO GH GLVWULEXLomR VHJXQGR )RVWHU  VHPFRQWDUFRPDPDLRULDGRVXVXiULRVGRPpVWLFRVHPWRGRVRVSDtVHVTXH QmRVmRFRQWDELOL]DGRVPDLVGHPLOSHVVRDVHP([WUHPDGXUDH$QGDOXL]DQD (VSDQKDXPPLOKmRQD&KLQDHPLOSHVVRDVQRVWHOHFHQWURVGH6mR3DXORQR %UDVLOXVDPR*120(FRPRRDPELHQWHGHdesktop dos seus computadores. Na %DKLDGHDFRUGRFRP9D]  PDLVGHQRYHQWDPLOSHVVRDVHVWmRFDGDVWUDGDV FRPRXVXiULRVQRV,QIRFHQWURVGR*RYHUQRGR(VWDGRTXHDGRWDPHVVHdesktop OLYUHHPWRGDVDVHVWDo}HV$VVLPHPRXWUDVSDODYUDVSDUDDOpPGDFRPSOH[LGDGH GRSURFHVVRGHSURGXomRRUHVXOWDGRGRWUDEDOKRFRODERUDWLYRGHVVHVKDFNHUVFRQ segue ser distribuรญdo livremente para os cinco continentes do planeta.


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 51

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52 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 53

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54 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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56 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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58 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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Grade Analítica Dimensões Indicadores Reconhecimento Interesse

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 59

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60 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 61

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62 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 63

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64 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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70 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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72 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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78 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 79

Política e Linguagem nos debates sobre software livre Rafael Evangelista

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102 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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A tecnologia na obra de Álvaro Vieira Pinto e Paulo Freire Anderson Fernandes de Alencar

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160 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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162 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 163

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164 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 165

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188 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração


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Mobilização colaborativa, cultura hacker e a teoria da propriedade imaterial Sergio Amadeu da Silveira

Uma breve introdução à questão da propriedade e da liberdade Este texto Ê um recorte da tese de doutorado que defendi em 2005. Ele visa trazer os principais pontos lå abordados sobre o problema da formulação de uma teoria política da propriedade de bens imateriais no contexto de uma sociedade informacional e em rede. O objeto de anålise Ê a mobilização tÊcnico-social para o desenvolvimento e uso de software aberto e não-proprietårio, conhecido como moYLPHQWRGHVRIWZDUHOLYUHVHXHPEDWHFRPRVEHQH¿FLiULRVGRPRGHORKHJHP{QLFR de propriedade de software. A unidade de anålise foi a rede de comunidades de VRIWZDUHOLYUHHDEHUWR)RUDPUHFROKLGRVRVVHXVDUJXPHQWRVREVHUYDGDVXDDomR RUJDQL]DomRHSULQFLSDOPHQWHVHXPRGHORGHSURSULHGDGHGHEHQVQmRPDWHULDLV  3DUDLQYHVWLJDUFRPPDLVSURIXQGLGDGHDVDo}HVHREMHWLYRVGDUHGHGHVVH movimento tÊcnico-político, o foco foi colocado na comunidade Debian, que desenvolve e distribui uma versão do sistema operacional GNU/Linux. Essa opção deu-se DSyVXPLQWHQVRUDVWUHDPHQWRGRVJUXSRVHFRPXQLGDGHVGHFRODERUDomRVHMDP de desenvolvimento ou de debates. Para entender bem o modelo colaborativo e OLYUHGHGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGHVRIWZDUHVFRPREHPLQWDQJtYHOWtSLFRIRLQHFHVViULR UHFRQVWUXLUDWUDMHWyULDKLVWyULFDGRGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGDVWHFQRORJLDVGDLQIRUPDomR H REVHUYDU D FRQVWUXomR GR PRGHOR KHJHP{QLFR GH SURSULHGDGH GH VRIWZDUH EDVHDGRQRVSULQFtSLRVGRVEHQVWDQJtYHLV A pesquisa partiu de duas hipóteses que nasceram da teoria liberal de propriedade. Essas hipóteses foram lançadas no terreno das evidências empíricas HSHUPLWLUDPFRQFHQWUDUDVEXVFDVHDSXUDURVROKDUHVD¿PGHFRQ¿UPiODVDOWHUi


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192 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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196 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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O empenho de Gates em reivindicar a arquitetura de hardware aberta nĂŁo era o mesmo na ĂĄrea de software. A abertura do hardware implicava na possibilidade


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 197

de outros fabricantes adotarem aquele modelo ou linha de construção. A Apple, de 6WHYH -REV QmR DEULD VXD DUTXLWHWXUD TXH HVWDYD SDWHQWHDGD$ FORQDJHP VHULD judicialmente barrada. A interoperabilidade entre hardwares era muito difícil sem TXHH[LVWLVVHDDUTXLWHWXUDDEHUWDRXXPDSDGURQL]DomRVHJXLGDSRUWRGRV  $$SOOH&RPSXWHU,QFIXQGDGDHPDEULOGHDFUHGLWRXHDODYDQFRXR VHJPHQWRGHPLFURFRPSXWDGRUHV2$SSOH,,WUD]LDXPPLFURSURFHVVDGRU0RWRUROD $H[SORVmRGDVYHQGDVGRPLFURFRPSXWDGRUSDUHFLDQHJDUDIDPRVDVHQWHQoD GH .HQ 2OVHQ IXQGDGRU GD 'LJLWDO (TXLSPHQW ³QmR YHMR SRU TXH DOJXpP KDYHULD GH WHU XP FRPSXWDGRU HP FDVD´ 5$1*(/    (P  D$SSOH WUD]LD RSULPHLURVRIWZDUHGHSODQLOKDGHFiOFXOR9LVL&DOFRTXHJHURXXPFUHVFLPHQWR DLQGDPDLRUQDVYHQGDV(PD,%0FRQKHFLGDFRPR%LJ%OXHSHFHEHXTXH microcomputadores eram uma realidade e, principalmente, que ela estava fora desse mercado. ³$,%0TXHULDODQoDUVHXPLFURFRPSXWDGRUQRPHUFDGRHPPHQRVGH XP DQR 3DUD SRGHU FXPSULU HVVH FURQRJUDPD WHULD TXH DEDQGRQDU o esquema tradicional, que consistia em fabricar todo o hardware e software ela mesma. De modo que a IBM decidiu construir seu PC com componentes já prontos, ao alcance de qualquer um. Isso levou a uma SODWDIRUPDIXQGDPHQWDOPHQWHDEHUWDIiFLOGHVHUFRSLDGD´   ³(PERUD JHUDOPHQWH FRQVWUXtVVH VHXV SUySULRV PLFURSURFHVVDGRUHV a IBM decidiu comprar da Intel os microprocessadores para seu PC. Para a Microsoft, foi importante a IBM ter decidido não criar seu próprio VRIWZDUHHOLFHQFLDURQRVVRVLVWHPDRSHUDFLRQDO´ *$7(6 

Como bem demonstra o relato de Gates, este ĂŠ o ponto importante de LQĂ&#x20AC;H[mRTXHYDLFRQVROLGDUD0LFURVRIWHRVHXPRGHORGHOLFHQFLDPHQWRSURSULHWiULR de software. Exatamente no momento em que se aposta na abertura do hardware, a Microsoft tentava tornar-se um padrĂŁo de fato na ĂĄrea de software no crescente mercado mundial de computadores pessoais. Sem dĂşvida, quando um padrĂŁo, XPD DUTXLWHWXUD H XP VRIWZDUH VmR DEHUWRV WRGRV WrP DFHVVR j VXD HVWUXWXUD H ao seu conteĂşdo. A cĂłpia ou o clone permite expandir o uso do que tiver qualidade em um ritmo bem mais veloz, alĂŠm de envolver mais empresas e pessoas no seu processo de inovação incremental. Essa ĂŠ uma evidĂŞncia na ĂĄrea de hardware, mas WDPEpPQRVHJPHQWRGHVRIWZDUH7RGDYLDDVGHFLV}HVDGRWDGDVSHORJLJDQWHGD WHFQRORJLDD,%0DOLDGDVjEXVFDGHXPFRQMXQWRGHSHTXHQDVHPpGLDVHPSUHVDV HPVHWRUQDUHPPRQRSyOLRVGHVHXVVHJPHQWRVEHPFRPRRVLQGtFLRVGHXPDIRUWH tendĂŞncia da economia da informação ser essencialmente uma economia de redes, levaram o modelo de licenciamento de software para o lado proprietĂĄrio.


198 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

³&RPVXDUHSXWDomRDOLDGDjGHFLVmRGHXVDUXPSURMHWRDEHUWRTXH outras empresas poderiam copiar, a IBM tinha realmente chance de criar XPSDGUmRQRYRHDEUDQJHQWHGHFRPSXWDGRUSHVVRDO1yVTXHUtDPRV SDUWLFLSDU $FHLWDPRV SRUWDQWR R GHVD¿R GH HVFUHYHU R VLVWHPD operacional. Adquirimos um trabalho anterior, desenvolvido numa HPSUHVDWDPEpPGH6HDWWOHHFRQWUDWDPRVVHXHQJHQKHLURFKHIH7LP 3DWHUVRQ &RP LQ~PHUDV PRGL¿FDo}HV R VLVWHPD WUDQVIRUPRXVH QR Sistema Operacional de Disco da Microsoft, o MS-DOS. Tim tornouse, na verdade, o pai do MS-DOS. A IBM, nosso primeiro licenciado, EDWL]RXVXDYHUVmRGH3&'26DVOHWUDV3&VmRDVLQLFLDLVGHSHUVRQDO FRPSXWHUFRPSXWDGRUSHVVRDO´ *$7(6 

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Gates deixa claro que o padrão e a arquitetura aberta para o hardware IRL DFRPSDQKDGR GR PRGHOR GH FyGLJR IHFKDGR SDUD R VRIWZDUH (QTXDQWR qualquer empresa podia fabricar um computador pessoal, tal qual o modelo IBM, HYHQGHUHPVHXPHUFDGRUHJLRQDOD0LFURVRIWQmRSHUPLWLDTXHRPHVPRIRVVH IHLWRFRPVHXVDOJRULWPRV6HXREMHWLYRHUDIHFKDUFRPSOHWDPHQWHRFyGLJRIRQWH de seu software e levar o seu modelo de licenças de uso para todo o crescente mercado de microcomputadores. Gates defendia o valor do compartilhamento nos VHJPHQWRVGDVWHFQRORJLDVGDLQIRUPDomRHFRPXQLFDomRGHVGHTXHQmRIRVVHP GDiUHDGHVRIWZDUH³2SDGUmR,%0WRUQRXVHDSODWDIRUPDLPLWDGDSRUWRGRV  


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 199

7LPLQJHPDUNHWLQJVmRDPERVIDWRUHVIXQGDPHQWDLVSDUDDDFHLWDomRGHSURGXWRV WHFQROyJLFRV´ *$7(6   $ GHVFULomR GD HVWUDWpJLD GH DEHUWXUD QR KDUGZDUH SDUD PRQRSROL]DU o software é bastante evidente. Gates reconhece que o conhecimento aberto, portanto acessível a todos, de como construir o hardware PC, foi decisivo para sua consolidação como o padrão de mercado dos computadores pessoais. Por outro ODGRRIXQGDGRUGD0LFURVRIWLQWHUSUHWDGHRXWURPRGRHVVHSURFHVVR ³7RUQRXVH PXLWR FRPXP HQWUH GHWHUPLQDGR JUXSR GH KLVWRULDGRUHV revisionistas, concluir que a IBM cometeu um erro trabalhando com a ,QWHOHD0LFURVRIWSDUDFULDUVHX3&$UJXPHQWDPTXHD,%0GHYHULDWHU patenteado a arquitetura de seu PC e também que a Intel e a Microsoft DFDEDUDP OHYDQGR YDQWDJHP VREUH D ,%0 0DV RV UHYLVLRQLVWDV não entenderam o principal. A IBM transformou-se no carro-chefe da indústria de PCs justamente porque foi capaz de canalizar uma TXDQWLGDGHLQFUtYHOGHWDOHQWRVFULDWLYRVHGHHQHUJLDHPSUHHQGHGRUDH utilizá-los para promover sua arquitetura aberta. A IBM estabeleceu os SDGU}HV´ *$7(6 

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200 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

Uma sociedade que utiliza intensamente a informação Ê centralmente uma sociedade da hiper-comunicação. Depende de protocolos e softwares que cumprem RSDSHOGHOLQJXDJHQVHQWUHUHGHVTXHFRQHFWDPPiTXLQDVTXHFRQHFWDPSHVVRDV (VVDVRFLHGDGHFRQHFWDGDFRQVWLWXLXPDJUDQGHHP~OWLSODUHGH6XDHFRQRPLDGi VHWDPEpPHPUHGHHRVHIHLWRVHFRQ{PLFRVGHXPSDGUmRYmRVHDODVWUDQGRSHORV QyVGHVVDPHVPDUHGH%RE0HWFDOIHRFULDGRUGD(WKHUQHWSURS{VTXHRYDORU HFRQ{PLFRHVRFLDOGHXPDUHGHDXPHQWDH[SRQHQFLDOPHQWHHPUHODomRDRQ~PHUR GHSHVVRDVFRQHFWDGDV 6+$3,52 9$5,$1 3DGU}HVSHUPLWHPTXH a rede constitua-se ou comporte-se como querem suas normas. A comunicação GHSHQGHGHSDGU}HV*DWHVREVHUYRXTXH

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 201

constituem o padrão de fato do setor. Os sistemas operacionais rivais QmR SRVVXHP PDVVD FUtWLFD VX¿FLHQWH SDUD FRQVWLWXLU XPD DPHDoD´ 6+$3,52 9$5,$1 

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&RPRYHUHPRVjIUHQWHHQWHQGHUDQRomRGHFRPSDWLELOLGDGHpHVWUDWpJLFR para poder manipulå-la a favor de sua ampliação ou pelo seu bloqueio.  *DWHV VDELD TXH ³VHP R VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO R FRPSXWDGRU QmR VHUYH para nada. O sistema operacional Ê a base sobre a qual são construídos todos RV SURJUDPDV DSOLFDWLYRV´ *$7(6    'RPLQDU R VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO SHUPLWLULD WHQWDU GRPLQDU RXWURV SURJUDPDV DSOLFDWLYRV 2 VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO GH um computador poderia impedir que certos aplicativos dos concorrentes rodassem sobre ele. Os softwares podem ser divididos em båsicos e aplicativos. O principal software båsico Ê o sistema operacional. Uma planilha de cålculo Ê um aplicativo. ([HPSOL¿FDQGRXPDSODQLOKDTXHURGDVREUHRVLVWHPDRSHUDFLRQDO8QL[SRGHQmR rodar sobre o Windows. Com o modelo proprietårio de software e a partir do acordo com o modelo de hardware aberto da IBM, a Microsoft viu-se na posição de licenciar XPDSODWDIRUPDGHVRIWZDUHjLQG~VWULDGHFRPSXWDGRUHV4XDOSODWDIRUPD"$SOD taforma de seu sistema operacional, que se chamava DOS e posteriormente foi substituída pelo Windows, apesar de terem convivido durante muito tempo.  (P TXH VH EDVHLD HVVH OLFHQFLDPHQWR"$ OLFHQoD SURSULHWiULD WHP FDUDF WHUtVWLFDVFRPXQVTXHVHUmRUHDOoDGDVDSyVDDQiOLVHGDOLFHQoDGHXPDGDVYHUV}HV GR VLVWHPD RSHUDFLRQDO GD 0LFURVRIW SDUkPHWUR GR PHUFDGR GH VRIWZDUH 1mR serå feita aqui uma anålise jurídica das licenças, nem de sua evolução histórica. A observação se concentrarå nos elementos estruturais ou essenciais do licenciamento de um software proprietårio, amplamente utilizado, para posteriormente comparå-


202 โ€ข Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo

los com o modelo de licenciamento aberto e nรฃo-proprietรกrio. Antes รฉ importante HVFODUHFHUTXHDLGHLDGHOLFHQoDGHSURSULHGDGHWHPQDVXDRULJHPREORTXHLRRX DQHJDomRGHDFHVVRDRVTXHQmRHVWmROLFHQFLDGRV$HPSUHVDTXHOLFHQFLDWHPR monopรณlio daquele produto, ou seja, o monopรณlio do desenvolvimento do mesmo, LQGHSHQGHQWH GH WLSRV GLIHUHQFLDGRV GH DXWRUL]Do}HV H GH IRUPDV GH SDJDPHQWR SHORVHXXVRFRPRSRGHPRVREVHUYDUQRH[HPSORVHJXLQWH ยณ1RV YHOKRV WHPSRV TXDQGR D 0LFURVRIW HQIUHQWDYD FRQFRUUrQFLD QR mercado de sistemas operacionais, ela licenciou o DOS para fabricantes GHFORQHVPHGLDQWHRHPSUHJRGHXPDHVFDODSURJUHVVLYDTXHGHSHQGLD do nรบmero de mรกquinas que o fabricante produzia, estivesse ou nรฃo o DOS instalado nelas. Isso era chamado de licenรงa-por-processador, SRUTXH RV FOLHQWHV GH 2(0 GD 0LFURVRIW SDJDYDP UR\DOWLHV D HOD pela licenรงa de uso do DOS com base no nรบmero de processadores PiTXLQDV TXHYHQGHVVHP2EVHUYHTXHDยฟ[DomRGHSUHoRVEDVHDYD se na produรงรฃo de mรกquinas, nรฃo no nรบmero de mรกquinas nas quais R '26 IRUD LQVWDODGR ,VVR VLJQLยฟFDYD TXH TXDQGR RV IDEULFDQWHV instalavam um sistema operacional na mรกquina antes de expedi-la, a HVFROKDQDWXUDOHUDR'26XPDYH]TXHMiKDYLDVLGRSDJRHPYLUWXGH da polรญtica de licenciamento. O DOS teve custo incremental zero de LQVWDODomRRTXHRWRUQRXPXLWRDWUDHQWHHPUHODomRjFRQFRUUrQFLD2 'HSDUWDPHQWRGH-XVWLoD QRUWHDPHULFDQR TXHVWLRQRXHPHVVD HVWUXWXUDGHยฟ[DomRGHSUHoRVHD0LFURVRIWFRQFRUGRXHPDEDQGRQi ODยด 6+$3,52 9$5,$1 

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo โ€ข 203

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WHU LQVWDODGR R 3URGXWR D PHQRV TXH YRFr IRUQHoD DV LQIRUPDo}HV necessårias para ativar a sua cópia licenciada na forma descrita durante a etapa de instalação do Produto. Você pode ativar o Produto por meio GR XVR GD ,QWHUQHW RX WHOHIRQHV WDULIDV SRGHP VHU DSOLFDGDV 9RFr WDPEpPSUHFLVDUiUHDWLYDUR3URGXWRVHYRFrPRGL¿FDURFRPSXWDGRU RX DOWHUDU R 3URGXWR +i PHGLGDV WHFQROyJLFDV QR 3URGXWR TXH VmR FULDGDVSDUDLPSHGLU RXVRLOHJDORXQmROLFHQFLDGRGR3URGXWR9RFr FRQFRUGDFRPRXVRGHVVDVPHGLGDV´

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benefício na publicação, e ainda mais em se usar sistemas projetados por terceiros jå publicados e [positivamente] analisados. Mantê-los VHFUHWRV p RVEFXULGDGH GHVQHFHVViULD R SULQFtSLR GH .HUFNKRIIV GL] TXHQmRGHYHKDYHUPRWLYRGHVHJXUDQoDDLPSHGLUDSXEOLFDomRHD PRGHUQDFRPXQLGDGHGHFULSWyJUDIRVUHLWHUDGDPHQWHGHPRQVWUDVHXV HQRUPHVEHQHItFLRV´ 6&+1(,(5 

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo โ€ข 207

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210 โ€ข Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo

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212 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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214 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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218 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 219

de escala que enviam sinais sociais melhores do que aqueles obtidos pelos sisWHPDVGHSUHFL¿FDomRGRVPHUFDGRV3LHUUH/pY\GL]SUHVHQFLDUDGHFDGrQFLDGR DXWRU QR FLEHUHVSDoR DR PHVPR WHPSR HP TXH Yr VXUJLU R IHUYLOKDU GH FULDo}HV HHODERUDo}HVFROHWLYDVQRPXQGRYLUWXDO-RKQ3HUU\%DUORZD¿UPRXTXHRIXWXUR VHULDGHXPDHFRQRPLDEDVHDGDPXLWRPDLVQRUHODFLRQDPHQWRGRTXHQDVUHODo}HV de propriedade. AndrÊ Gorz coloca que todo o conhecimento pode ser abstraído do VHXVXSRUWHPDWHULDOSRGHQGRVHUSURSDJDGRVHPFXVWRGHUHSURGXomRHFRPPXLWR PDLVJDQKRVRFLDO2TXHWXGRLVVRWHULDHPFRPXP"7RGRVHVWmRVHUHIHULQGRGH DOJXPDIRUPDjSURGXomRHGLVWULEXLomRGHEHQVLQWDQJtYHLVRXLPDWHULDLV  e SRVVtYHO QRWDU TXH HQTXDQWR RV EHQV WDQJtYHLV WrP VXD SURSULHGDGH MXVWL¿FDGDSRUPRWLYRVGLYHUVRVTXHYDULDUDPDGHSHQGHUGHFDGDSHUtRGRKLVWyULFR DSURSULHGDGHGRVEHQVLQWDQJtYHLVWrPQRLQFHQWLYRjFULDomRVHXDUJXPHQWRPDLV DPSODPHQWH GLIXQGLGR7RGDYLD HVVH QmR p R ~QLFR DUJXPHQWR SDUD D GHIHVD GD propriedade das ideias. No site de um dos parceiros da Microsoft podemos encontrar XPERPH[HPSORGHVVDGHIHVD ³$SURSULHGDGHGRVRIWZDUHpGLIHUHQWHGDSURSULHGDGHGHRXWURVWLSRV de produtos. Embora o software seja, em sua maioria, distribuído DWUDYpV GH XPD PtGLD WDQJtYHO FRPR XP &' HOH QmR p H[DWDPHQWH uma commodity. O software Ê considerado propriedade intelectual. A propriedade de tal bem Ê controlada por acordos de licenciamento. As OLFHQoDVGHVRIWZDUHVmRGRFXPHQWRVOHJDLVTXHGHVFUHYHPDFRUUHWD utilização e distribuição deste software, de acordo com as normas do fabricante. As licenças fornecem ao fabricante deste software a receita necessåria para continuar produzindo o produto, oferecendo os serviços HRVXSRUWHQHFHVViULRVSDUDRVXVXiULRVOHJtWLPRV´

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220 โ€ข Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo

SRVVXHP FRUSR ItVLFR DSHVDU GH H[LJLUHP XP VXSRUWH SDUD VHUHP UHDOL]DGRV RX PHOKRUYLVXDOL]DGRVHWUDQVSRUWDGRV(PJHUDOEHQVLPDWHULDLVVmREHQVVLPEyOLFRV H FRPR WDO SRGHP DGTXLULU XP IRUPDWR GLJLWDO RX VHMD VHU WUDQVIRUPDGRV HP XP FRQMXQWRGHGtJLWRV&RPRHOHPHQWRVGLJLWDLVWrPGXUDomRQmRยฟQLWDVHQGRDSHQDV ยฟQLWRRVXSRUWHTXHRVDUPD]HQDDUTXLYDRVRXRVJXDUGD  3RGH VHU HQTXDGUDGD FRPR EHP LQWDQJtYHO WRGD D SURGXomR FXOWXUDO QR VHQWLGR DPSOR H DUWtVWLFR GHVSUHHQGLGD GH VXSRUWH ItVLFR 8P ยฟOPH XPD P~VLFD XPVRIWZDUHXPDLGHLDXPDLQIRUPDomR$LQIRUPDomRpGHยฟQLGDSHOD7HRULD0D temรกtica da Comunicaรงรฃo como a probabilidade de ocorrer um evento, dado um FRQMXQWRGHSRVVLELOLGDGHVRXVHMDDLQIRUPDomRpยณXPSURFHVVRGHUHPRomRGH LQFHUWH]DVยด 'DQWDV    $VVLP D LQIRUPDomR SRGH VHU HQWHQGLGD FRPR XPDXQLGDGHEiVLFDQDTXDOWRGRVRVEHQVLQWDQJtYHLVSRGHPVHUH[SUHVVRV8PD SDUWLWXUDGH0R]DUWFRQWpPXPDVpULHGHLQIRUPDo}HVTXHSRGHPVHUWUDQVIHULGDV e, independente do seu primeiro suporte de papel, inseridas em um CD em outra IROKDRXVLPSOHVPHQWHPHPRUL]DGDVSRUXPDSHVVRD8PยฟOPHpLQGHSHQGHQWHGD ยฟWDTXHRKRVSHGD6HXFRQMXQWRGHTXDGURVSRGHVHUGLJLWDOL]DGRHGHVSUHQGLGRGR VHXVXSRUWHHFRPRLQIRUPDomRVHUDORFDGRHPXPFRPSXWDGRUVHUYLGRUHPDOJXP provedor de conteรบdos da rede mundial de computadores. Do mesmo modo, um software distribuรญdo em um CD รฉ um conjunto de bits que traduzem para a mรกquina XPDVpULHGHLQVWUXo}HVHVFULWDVSRUSURJUDPDGRUHV(VVDVLQVWUXo}HVHVWmRHPXP FyGLJRIRQWHHVmRWUDQVIRUPDGDVHPXPDOLQJXDJHPELQiULD VHV SDUDTXHRV FRPSXWDGRUHVSRVVDPH[HFXWiOD(VWHFyGLJRH[HFXWiYHOVmRLQIRUPDo}HVTXHWrP DXWRQRPLDGR&'TXHDVSRUWD6RIWZDUHVVmRLQIRUPDo}HV)yUPXODVFLHQWtยฟFDV DOJRULWPRVHHVWyULDVWDPEpPVmRLQIRUPDo}HV Assim, as caracterรญsticas bรกsicas e essenciais da informaรงรฃo sรฃo as caracWHUtVWLFDV GRV EHQV LQWDQJtYHLV RX LPDWHULDLV 7DPEpP p LQWHUHVVDQWH LQGLFDU TXH a informaรงรฃo, como sinal do mercado, รฉ um elemento fundamental para a teoria HFRQ{PLFD$ WHRULD GR HTXLOtEULR GDV IRUoDV GH PHUFDGR EDVHLDVH QR OLYUH ร€X[R GH VLQDLV VREUH RV SUHoRV SUDWLFDGRV SHORV DJHQWHV HFRQ{PLFRV 3RU RXWUR ODGR D DVVLPHWULD GDV LQIRUPDo}HV RX VHMD DV SURIXQGDV GLIHUHQoDV HQWUH RV DJHQWHV HFRQ{PLFRVVHMDGRODGRGDRIHUWDRXGDGHPDQGDWHPVLGRHQWHQGLGDFRPRXPD das fontes explicativas de crises, instabilidade e desarranjos da economia de merFDGR$LQIRUPDomRWDPEpPSRGHVHUHQWHQGLGDFRPRUHJLVWURGHVLQDLVGHIDWRV ,QIRUPDo}HV SRGHP VH DSUHVHQWDU FRPR XQLGDGH GH VLQDLV GH SURGXo}HV VLP EyOLFDVGHLGHLDVHGHFRQKHFLPHQWR,VVRVLJQLยฟFDTXHRFRQKHFLPHQWRGHDOJR TXDQGRpGHDOJXPDIRUPDUHJLVWUDGRRXFRGLยฟFDGRWUDQVIRUPDVHHPXPFRQMXQWR GHLQIRUPDo}HV Arrow analisou as caracterรญsticas ou propriedades da informaรงรฃo do


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 221

SRQWRGHYLVWDHFRQ{PLFRHHVWDEHOHFHXXPDVpULHGHFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV$SULPHLUD característica Ê que a informação Ê indivisível em seu uso. O uso de parte da mesma não implica em sua efetiva divisão. Ela continuarå existindo tambÊm de modo FRPSOHWR6HJXQGDDLQIRUPDomRSRUQmRGHSHQGHUGHXPFRUSRItVLFRHSHODVXD LQWDQJLELOLGDGHpGHGLItFLODSURSULDELOLGDGHRXDSURSULDomR7HUFHLUDDH[LVWrQFLDGH XPSDUDGR[RIXQGDPHQWDOSDUDGH¿QLURYDORUGDLQIRUPDomR,VVRRFRUUHSRUTXH SDUD DOJXpP DGTXLULU XPD LQIRUPDomR QHFHVVLWDULD FRQKHFrOD SDUD SRGHU YDORUi OD3RURXWURODGRDRFRQKHFHUDLQIRUPDomRQmRVHULDPDLVQHFHVViULRSDJDUSRU HOD4XDUWDRSURFHVVRGHLQYHQomRRXGHJHUDomRGHLQIRUPDo}HVQmRSRGHVHU previsto de modo perfeito a partir de seus insumos. A atividade de produção de LQIRUPDo}HVpH[WUHPDPHQWHVXMHLWDDLQFHUWH]DV4XLQWDRLQVXPRGDLQIRUPDomRp a própria informação. Albuquerque alerta que essa característica amplia os possíveis SUREOHPDVGHULYDGRVGDVGXDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVDQWHULRUHV³DGH¿QLomRGRVHXYDORU HDLQFHUWH]DTXDQWRDRUHVXOWDGRGHVHXSURFHVVRGHSURGXomR´ $/%848(548(  $VH[WDFDUDFWHUtVWLFDpTXHRXVRGDLQIRUPDomRQmRDGHVJDVWDSRUWDQWR não hå nenhum sentido em aplicar recursos para criar uma mesma informação SHOD VHJXQGD YH] %DVWD XVDU D LQIRUPDomR Mi SURGX]LGD 8PD YH] SURGX]LGD D LQIRUPDomRSRGHVHUUHSURGX]LGDGHPRGRLQ¿QLWR  7DLVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVOHYDUDP$UURZDFODVVL¿FDUDLQIRUPDomRFRPRXPEHP HFRQ{PLFR HVSHFLDO GLIHUHQWH GRV GHPDLV $UURZ FRQFOXLX TXH D LQIRUPDomR H R conhecimento não se tornam facilmente apropriåveis de modo privado como os EHQVWDQJtYHLV3RUH[HPSORDLQIRUPDomRFRPRXPUHODWRGHSUHoRVGRVYiULRV FRQFRUUHQWHV DR VHU SULYDWL]DGD H YHQGLGD JHUD XP LPSRUWDQWH SUREOHPD SDUD R SHQVDPHQWRHFRQ{PLFREDVHDGRQRHTXLOtEULRDXWRPiWLFRGDVIRUoDVGHPHUFDGR $OEXTXHUTXHD¿UPDTXH$UURZ ³HQWUH RXWURV DUJXPHQWRV FRPHQWD TXH TXDQGR D LQIRUPDomR SDVVD a ser uma mercadoria, a capacidade dos sistemas de preços de WUDQVPLWLUWRGDVDVLQIRUPDo}HVQHFHVViULDVDRVDJHQWHV jOD+D\HN  ¿FDFRPSURPHWLGDSRLVKiXPSUREOHPDOyJLFRHPWHUPRVGDGH¿QLomR GR SUHoR GD LQIRUPDomR HP VL -XVWL¿FDGR WHRULFDPHQWH R VWDWXV GD informação como mercadoria especial, Arrow discute o processo de LQYHQomR FRPR XP SURFHVVR GH SURGXomR GH QRYDV LQIRUPDo}HV´ $/%848(548( 

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222 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

apropriação. Ou seja, a informação como sinal coletado, como ideia ou conhecimento SURGX]LGRQXQFDVHUiQDWXUDOVHPSUHVHUiDUWL¿FLDOeIUXWRGDFRQGLomRKXPDQDH produto de sua inventividade e capacidade cultural. A propriedade da informação foi uma invenção no interior do Estado. Sua QHFHVVLGDGHLQLFLDOWHPRULJHPQRFRQWUROHHQDFHQVXUDGHFySLDVDSDUWLUGDUHSUR GXWLELOLGDGHSHUPLWLGDSHODPiTXLQDLPSUHVVRUDGHWLSRVPyYHLVGH*XWHQEHUJ'H SRLVIRLXPDIRUPDGHJDUDQWLUJDQKRVDRVHGLWRUHV-iDLGHLDGHSDWHQWHWLQKDQR VHX QDVFLPHQWR R REMHWLYR GH DVVHJXUDU j VRFLHGDGH TXH R FRQKHFLPHQWR VREUH XPHQJHQKRQmRSRGHULDPRUUHUFRPDPRUWHGHVHXLQYHQWRU$VVLPR(VWDGRSUR SXQKDDRFULDGRUDJDUDQWLDGRPRQRSyOLROHJDOGDH[SORUDomRGHVXDREUDSRUXP determinado período de tempo em troca da socialização do conhecimento. O funGDPHQWRVRFLDO SUHVHUYDURFRQKHFLPHQWR SUHFHGLDRPLFURHFRQ{PLFR PRQRSyOLR de exploração privada do invento). Se a ideia de propriedade material pode ser defendida como posse antes do Estado, as características da informação inviabilizam essa condição, principalmente se considerarmos que uma informação pode ser multiplicada, copiada e retransmitida DSDUWLUGHYiULRVVXSRUWHV,PSRVVtYHOSURLELUTXHDOJXpPOHYHQDPHPyULDDOJRTXH viu. Improvåvel que essa pessoa seja impedida de atualizar, ou seja, desvirtualizar e inserir em uma mídia qualquer a informação sobre aquilo que vira.  2VOLPLWHVGDSURSULHGDGHVREUHLQIRUPDo}HVQmRVmRItVLFRVPDVWHPSRUDLV HGHYDOLGDGHMXUtGLFROHJDO$GLVWkQFLDGHXPWLURGHFDQKmRTXH.DQWYLVOXPEURX como a extensão dos limites para a propriedade material, aqui poderia ser muito mal comparada com a capacidade do Estado de atuar sobre camelos e invadir a residência de jovens que usam cópias de software não-autorizadas. O tempo GHYDOLGDGHGHXPDSDWHQWHRXGRGLUHLWRGHH[SORUDomRHFRQ{PLFDGHXPDREUD SURWHJLGDSHORGLUHLWRDXWRUDOSRGHVHUHQWHQGLGRFRPRXPGRVOLPLWHVGDSURSULHGDGH informacional. A comparação Ê fundamental. A extensão da propriedade material Ê um GRVWHPDVIXQGDPHQWDLVSDUDDGLVFXVVmRVREUHVXDOHJLWLPLGDGH/RFNHSURSXQKD que o trabalho fosse a medida do direito para a aquisição e que o desperdício IRVVHHYLWDGRD¿PGHJDUDQWLURXVXIUXWRGRVEHQVGDQDWXUH]DSDUDRVGHPDLV 2WUDEDOKRSRGHVHUFRQVLGHUDGRDIRQWHGHOHJLWLPLGDGHGRGLUHLWRGHDTXLVLomRRX GH DSURSULDomR GD LQIRUPDomR 3RU RXWUR ODGR XPD VpULH GH DUJXPHQWRV VREUH D RULJHPVRFLDORXFROHWLYDGDVLGHLDVHGRFRQKHFLPHQWRSRGHPLQDUHVVDGHIHVD 0DVSRUTXDQWRWHPSRVHULDOHJtWLPRGDUDSURSULHGDGHGHXPDLGHLDDXPDSHVVRD RXHPSUHVD"  1R FDVR GRV EHQV PDWHULDLV /RFNH GHIHQGLD D SDUFLP{QLD QR XVR GRV EHQV0DFSKHUVRQDSRQWRXTXHHVVDLGHLDORFNHDQDYLVDYDUHVSHLWDURLJXDOGLUHLWR


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 223

DOKHLR0DVWDPEpPREVHUYDYDTXHRVOLPLWHVGDDFXPXODomRHUDPDODUJDGRVFRP o advento da economia monetĂĄria ou intermediada pela moeda, como expressĂŁo da riqueza, pois ela permitia superar o desperdĂ­cio e conservar a riqueza em bens QmRSHUHFtYHLV Âł4XHPDFXPXOHEHQVSHUHFtYHLVQmRVyFDXVDXPGDQRjKXPDQLGDGH por subtrair de circulação, inutilmente, bens necessĂĄrios, mas ainda comete uma tolice. Ă&#x2030; possĂ­vel, no entanto, acumular o equivalente a bens de qualquer natureza sem retirĂĄ-los do mercado. Esse equivalente, a moeda, ĂŠ o mesmo instrumento inventado pelos homens para facilitar a troca. Materiais durĂĄveis, como o ouro e a prata, sĂŁo normalmente XVDGRVOHPEUD/RFNHSDUDHVVDIXQomRGHUHSUHVHQWDUDVPHUFDGRULDV &RPDPRHGDVXUJLXDOJRGXUDGRXURTXHDVSHVVRDVSRGHULDPUHWHU VHPHVWUDJDUHTXHSHORP~WXRFRQVHQWLPHQWRRVKRPHQVDFHLWDULDP HP WURFD GRV YHUGDGHLURV PDV SHUHFtYHLV VXVWHQWRV GD YLGD Â&#x2020;   Sendo nĂŁo sĂł um meio de troca, mas tambĂŠm reserva de valor, a moeda resolve o problema da acumulação, permitindo uma nova forma GH H[SDQVmR GD SURSULHGDGH 2V KRPHQV GLOLJHQWHV ÂżpLV DR SUHFHLWR divino de ocupar a terra e transformĂĄ-la, para dela extrair o mĂĄximo EHQHÂżFLRSRGHPDVVLPGLIHUHQFLDUVHGRVGHPDLVHQULTXHFHQGRVHP YLRODURVOLPLWHVGRGLUHLWRQDWXUDO´ .817= 

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224 โ€ข Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo

SHFWLYD 0DV VH R REMHWLYR IRU SULQFLSDOPHQWH DVVHJXUDU XP JDQKR VXยฟFLHQWH DR FULDGRURVSUD]RVGHSHQGHUmRGRTXHDVRFLHGDGHFRQVLGHUHXPJDQKRMXVWR'H RXWUDIRUPDVHRREMHWLYRIRUXPPL[HQWUHJDQKRVRFLDOHLQGLYLGXDORVSUD]RVDLQGD GHSHQGHUmRGHMXt]RVYDORUDWLYRV3DUHFHHYLGHQWHTXHORQJRVSUD]RVGHSURWHomR SRGHPDFDEDUJHUDQGRXPHIHLWRFRQWUiULRDTXDOTXHUEHQHItFLRVRFLDOHVHUYLQGR apenas ao interesse particular. Podem acabar, sim, desperdiรงando o tempo social em que uma criaรงรฃo em domรญnio pรบblico pudesse fomentar novas ideias ou novos inventos, jรก que o maior insumo da informaรงรฃo รฉ a prรณpria informaรงรฃo. A contenรงรฃo do acรบmulo anti-social da riqueza, auferida com os limites da SURWHomR GRV GLUHLWRV GH DSURSULDomR SULYDGD GH LQIRUPDo}HV RX LGHLDV WHP VLGR uma preocupaรงรฃo menor no inรญcio do seculo XXI. O debate tem sido conduzido pelo GRJPDGHTXHVHPOLPLWHVH[WHQVRVHDomRULJRURVDGRV(VWDGRVSDUDDGHIHVD das empresas detentoras da propriedade de ideias, o ritmo de criaรงรฃo e inovaรงรฃo HVWDULDP JUDYHPHQWH FRPSURPHWLGRV $ LQG~VWULD QRUWHDPHLFDQD GH VRIWZDUH IHUWLOL]DQWHVELRWHFQRORJLDHHQWUHWHQLPHQWRWHPXVDGRRJUDQGHSRGHUGHVHX(V tado para envolver o mundo com seus prazos e limites de proteรงรฃo, e seus arJXPHQWRVWDPEpPVHDVVHQWDPQRVHQRUPHVFXVWRVSDUDVHSURGX]LUDVLGHLDVHQD DXVrQFLDGHFXVWRVPDUJLQDLVSDUDDVXDUHSURGXomR$SHVDUGDVSDWHQWHVHOHWUR HOHWU{QLFDVSHUGHUHPRVHQWLGRGDSURWHomRHPSRXFRPHQRVGHFLQFRDQRVGHYLGR jREVROHVFrQFLDUHDOGHVHXFRQWH~GRR75,36H[LJHTXHWRGDVDVOHJLVODo}HVGR PXQGRGRV(VWDGRV8QLGRVDR$IJDQLVWmRWUDEDOKHPFRPDQRVGHSURWHomR $V LQG~VWULDV TXH GHWrP HVVDV SDWHQWHV VmR REULJDGDV D SDJDU XPD WD[D DQXDO SDUDDVVHJXUDUVXDYDOLGDGH(PJHUDOQDPDLRULDGRVFDVRVGHL[DPGHSDJiODQR quinto ano. Isso quer dizer que ela perdeu o sentido atรฉ mesmo do ponto de vista GHTXHPDUHJLVWURX ,167,7872'((678'2662&,2(&21ร0,&26  Sem dรบvida, os custos de produรงรฃo da informaรงรฃo sรฃo bem maiores do TXH RV FXVWRV GH UHSURGXomR 6HJXQGR R HFRQRPLVWD &KDUOHV -RQHV FDVR XPD HPSUHVDยฟ[HRSUHoRGHXPVRIWZDUHFRPRVHQGRLJXDODRFXVWRPDUJLQDOGHVXD SURGXomRHODWHULDOXFURVQHJDWLYRVXPDYH]TXHRVUHWRUQRVFUHVFHQWHVHPHVFDOD OHYDP R FXVWR PpGLR D VHU VHPSUH PDLRU TXH R FXVWR PDUJLQDO GD SURGXomR GR VRIWZDUH 2X VHMD QLQJXpP HQWUDULD QR PHUFDGR SDUD GHVHQYROYHU R VRIWZDUH D XPFXVWRยฟ[RVHQmRSXGHVVHHVWDEHOHFHUVHXSUHoRDFLPDGRFXVWRGDSURGXomR GHFDGDXQLGDGHDGLFLRQDO1HVVHVHQWLGR5RPHUGHVWDFRXTXHDQHFHVVLGDGHGH se auferir lucros impele a produรงรฃo das ideias para um mercado de concorrรชncia LPSHUIHLWD2REMHWLYRpSHUPLWLUTXHRHPSUHViULRUHFXSHUHRFXVWRยฟ[RGDFULDomR GREHP$FULDomRGHQRYDVLGHLDVSDUDVHFULDUQRYRVEHQVHVHUYLoRVH[LJHQHVVD perspectiva, o monopรณlio.  $TXHVWmRGRSUHoRGDLGHLDRXLQIRUPDomRUHPHWHQRVjVSRVVLELOLGDGHVGH


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de competição schumpeteriana e, portanto, os incentivos para inovar GLPLQXHP 1XP FDVR H[WUHPR VH XP PRQRSyOLR VH DVVHJXUDU GH TXH QmR Ki DPHDoD GH FRPSHWLomR HOH QmR LQYHVWLUi HP LQRYDo}HV 7HUFHLUDDSUySULDLQRYDomRSRGHVHUPDOGLUHFLRQDGDD¿PGHJDUDQWLU o aumento tanto das barreiras de entrada quanto dos custos dos rivais. (PVLVWHPDVRSHUDFLRQDLVRGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGHSDGU}HVSURSULHWiULRV alternativos e a construção de middleware não-interoperåvel são H[HPSORV GH LQRYDo}HV TXH SRGHP SRWHQFLDOPHQWH UHIRUoDU R SRGHU monopolista. Quarta, os incentivos de um monopólio para inovar são limitados. Como o monopolista produz menos que o socialmente ótimo, as economias com uma redução no custo de produção são menores do que num mercado competitivo. TambÊm os incentivos para um monopolista patrocinar pesquisas não as levarão ao nível socialmente H¿FLHQWH3UHIHUHQFLDOPHQWHVXDSUHRFXSDomRpLQRYDUDSHQDVQRULWPR necessårio para afastar a competição, um ritmo marcadamente menor que o socialmente ótimo. Em resumo, monopolização não ameaça os consumidores apenas pelo aumento dos preços e pela redução da SURGXomRPDVWDPEpPUHGX]DLQRYDomRQRORQJRSUD]R´ 67,*/,7= -$621 

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230 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

enrijecimento dos mecanismos de propriedade intelectual pode corroer o domínio de informação pública e inviabilizar o acesso a fontes fundamentais de pesquisa com FRQVHTXrQFLDV H[WUHPDPHQWH VpULDV SDUD D YLWDOLGDGH GD FRPXQLGDGH FLHQWt¿FD $/%848(548(  Uma proteção fraca da propriedade intelectual pode ser indispensável SDUD D LQRYDomR HP PXLWRV VHJPHQWRV HFRQ{PLFRV$ LQG~VWULD GH VRIWZDUH WHP XPDEDUUHLUDGHHQWUDGDPXLWREDL[D7UDWDVHGHXPGRVVHWRUHVPDLVGLQkPLFRV e inovadores da economia. A principal hipótese que explica a velocidade elevada do desenvolvimento dessa indústria é sua diminuta barreira de entrada. Com uma OHJLVODomRGHSDWHQWHVGHVRIWZDUHH[WUHPDPHQWHIRUWHpSURYiYHOTXHVHDXPHQWHP RVUHFXUVRVQHFHVViULRVDXPLQRYDGRUVHMDFRPRSDJDPHQWRGHOLFHQoDVRXFRP RV FXVWRV GH WUDQVDomR RULJLQDGRV HP OLWtJLRV MXGLFLDLV $OpP GLVVR VROXo}HV GH software não-proprietárias, além de aumentar a possibilidade de modernização HFRQ{PLFD GH XP FRQMXQWR GH SHTXHQDV HPSUHVDV HVWmR JHUDQGR XP ULWPR GH LQRYDo}HVLQFUHPHQWDLVWmRRXPDLVYHOR]HVGRTXHRGRVVRIWZDUHVSURSULHWiULRV FRPRSRGHPRVQRWDUQDHYROXomRGRVVRIWZDUHVSUHVHQWHVQR6RXUFH)RUJH. Esse cenário de complexidade divide até mesmo os chamados libertarians (ultra-liberais no contexto político norte-americano) a respeito dos impactos e da OHJLWLPLGDGHGDSURSULHGDGHVREUHDVLGHLDV(QTXDQWR+HUEHUW6SHQFHU/\VDQGHU 6SRRQHU H$\Q 5DQG WrP VLGR DUGRURVRV GHIHQVRUHV GRV GLUHLWRV GH SURSULHGDGH LQWHOHFWXDO7KRPDV-HIIHUVRQWHPXPDSRVLomRDPEtJXDVREUHRWHPD-i%HQMDPLQ 7XFNHU H 7RP 3DOPHU UHMHLWDUDP FDWHJRULFDPHQWH D SURSULHGDGH VREUH LGHLDV 2 DUJXPHQWR FHQWUDO GRV libertarians defensores da propriedade intelectual centrase na defesa do direito ao produto do trabalho, os contrários veem essa forma de SURSULHGDGHFRPRXPLQDFHLWiYHOSULYLOpJLRJDUDQWLGRSHOR(VWDGR /21*   $WHRULDGDSURSULHGDGHGHEHQVWDQJtYHLVQmRVHDSOLFDFRQIRUWDYHOPHQWH DXPDVRFLHGDGHEDVHDGDQDLQIRUPDomRGHYLGRjVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVSDUWLFXODUHVH GLVWLQWDVGRVEHQVLQWDQJtYHLV1HVVHVHQWLGRH[LVWHDQHFHVVLGDGHGHGHVHQYROYHU XPDWHRULDGDSURSULHGDGHGRLPDWHULDO(VVDWHRULDGHYHFRQVLGHUDUDVVHJXLQWHV FRQVWDWDo}HV HPSLULFDPHQWH FRPSURYiYHLV SDUD WHU YDOLGDGH DUJXPHQWDWLYD  D LQIRUPDomRFRPREHPLQWDQJtYHOpH[SRQHQFLDOPHQWHUHSURGXWtYHOVHPGHVJDVWH VHP SHUGDV  R DXWRU GH XPD LGHLD VHPSUH WHUi DVVHJXUDGD D VXD DXWRULD VRE SHQD GH YLRODU D YHUGDGH KLVWyULFD  D PDWpULDSULPD RX LQVXPR SDUD D FULDomR de ideias são também ideias. Assim, o conhecimento privado tem como base o conhecimento socialmente produzido, portanto, a propriedade sobre ideias deve ser sempre relativizada, pois o trabalho intelectual individual e privado não pode ter SUHVFLQGLGRGRFRQKHFLPHQWRFROHWLYR±DVRFLHGDGHHPUHGHDFHOHUDRVSURFHVVRV 'LVSRQtYHOKWWSVRXUFHIRUJHQHW$FHVVRHP


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo โ€ข 231

de troca e compartilhamento. Quanto mais se compartilha o conhecimento, mais HVVHFRQKHFLPHQWRFUHVFHRH[HPSORPDUFDQWHpRGDVFRPXQLGDGHVGHVRIWZDUH OLYUH 2X VHMD RV FyGLJRV JDQKDP PXLWR YDORU QXP FRQWH[WR GH JLIW HFRQRP\ RX economia da doaรงรฃo.  $WHQGrQFLDGHXPDVRFLHGDGHEDVHDGDHPร€X[RVGHLQIRUPDomRpFDGD vez mais desmaterializar e desprivatizar a propriedade das ideias, permitindo a distribuiรงรฃo dos seus benefรญcios. A reaรงรฃo a essa tendรชncia sรณ pode ocorrer com RHQULMHFLPHQWRGDSURSULHGDGHVREUHRVEHQVLQWDQJtYHLV(VVHHQULMHFLPHQWRQmR pode ser executado sem o Estado e sua aรงรฃo jurรญdico-repressiva. Tal possibilidade QmRSRGHVHUUHDOL]DGDVHPEORTXHDUROLYUHร€X[RGRFRQKHFLPHQWRWHFQROyJLFRR TXHSRGHUiIUHDURULWPRGDLQRYDomR$VVLPRFRPSDUWLOKDPHQWRDOpPGHDVVHJXUDU DFULDomRHVWiHPFRQVRQkQFLDFRPDHVVrQFLDGDFRPXQLFDomRHPUHGHTXHpD WURFDGHLQIRUPDo}HV$VUHVWULo}HVHVWDWDLVjWURFDGHLQIRUPDo}HV LQFOXVLYHFRPR FRQKHFLPHQWRVFRGLยฟFDGRV H[LJHPXPDDomRHVWDWDOGXUDTXHSRGHWDPEpPDFDEDU ferindo a liberdade de expressรฃo, de troca e de criaรงรฃo. O texto do movimento GNU pH[WUHPDPHQWHHVFODUHFHGRUGRLGHiULRGRFRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR ยณ3RUTXHR6RIWZDUH1mR'HYHULD7HU'RQRV 2VLVWHPDGHGLUHLWRDXWRUDO FRS\ULJKW VHGHVHQYROYHXFRPDLPSUHQVD HVFULWDXPDWHFQRORJLDSDUDFRSLDUHPODUJDHVFDOD2GLUHLWRDXWRUDO FRPELQDYDEHPFRPHVVDWHFQRORJLDSRUTXHHOHUHVWULQJLDDSHQDVRV JUDQGHV SURGXWRUHV GH FySLDV 1mR WLUDYD OLEHUGDGH GRV OHLWRUHV GH livros. Um leitor comum, que nรฃo possuรญsse uma mรกquina impressora, podia copiar livros apenas com caneta e tinta, e poucos leitores foram HQTXDGUDGRVSRULVVR$WHFQRORJLDGLJLWDOpPDLVร€H[tYHOTXHDLPSUHQVD TXDQGRDLQIRUPDomRHVWiQDIRUPDGLJLWDOYRFrSRGHIDFLOPHQWHFRSLi ODHFRPSDUWLOKiOKDFRPRVRXWURVHHVVDJUDQGHร€H[LELOLGDGHQmRVH encaixa bem num sistema como o de direito autoral. Essa รฉ a razรฃo de ser dessas medidas cada vez mais severas e lamentรกveis postas em prรกtica para aplicar o direito autoral de software. Consideremos essas quatro prรกticas da Associaรงรฃo dos Produtores de software (software 3XEOLVKHUV$VVRFLDWLRQ63$ DPHULFDQD3URSDJDQGDPDVVLYDGL]HQGR TXHpHUUDGRGHVREHGHFHUDRVGRQRVSDUDDMXGDUXPDPLJR3HGLGRV D DOFDJXHWHV SDUD TXH GHQXQFLHP VHXV FROHJDV GH WUDEDOKR %DWLGDV FRP DMXGD SROLFLDO  HP HVFULWyULRV H HVFRODV QDV TXDLV VH H[LJH GDV SHVVRDV TXH SURYHP TXH VmR LQRFHQWHV GH FySLD LOHJDO 3HUVHJXLomR SHOR JRYHUQR DPHULFDQR D SHGLGR GD 63$  D SHVVRDV FRPR 'DYLG LaMacchia, do MIT, nรฃo por copiar software (nรฃo o acusam de copiar nada), mas simplesmente por deixar recursos de cรณpia disponรญveis RXPDOJXDUGDGRVRXSRUQmRFHQVXUDUVHXXVR7RGDVHVVDVTXDWUR SUiWLFDVOHPEUDPDTXHODVXVDGDVQDDQWLJD8QLmR6RYLpWLFDRQGHFDGD PiTXLQDFRSLDGRUDWLQKDXPJXDUGDSDUDSUHYHQLUFySLDVSURLELGDVH os indivรญduos tinham que copiar informaรงรฃo secretamente e passรก-la de PmRHPPmRFRPRยณVDPL]GDWยด+iFODURXPDGLIHUHQoDRPRWLYRSHOR TXDOVHFRQWURODYDDLQIRUPDomRQD8QLmR6RYLpWLFDHUDSROtWLFRDJRUDR


232 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

PRWLYRpHFRQ{PLFR0DVVmRDVDo}HVTXHQRVDIHWDPQmRRPRWLYR 4XDOTXHU WHQWDWLYD GH EORTXHDU D WURFD GH LQIRUPDo}HV QmR LPSRUWD TXDOOHYDDRVPHVPRVPpWRGRVHjPHVPDWUXFXOrQFLD´8

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo โ€ข 233

tentarei demonstrar a hipรณtese de que um movimento sรณcio-tรฉcnico que domina a OLQJXDJHPHVVHQFLDOGDVRFLHGDGHHPUHGHVRIWZDUHVSURWRFRORVGHUHGHHSD GU}HVFRQWUiULRjVXDSULYDWL]DomRHDRREVFXUDQWLVPRGHVXDHVVrQFLDUH~QHVH HP FRPXQLGDGHV FLEHUHVSDFLDLV GH FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR TXH GHVHQYROYHP Do}HV H XPGLVFXUVRFUtWLFRFRQWUDDSURSULHGDGHLQWHOHFWXDO'DGDDLPSRUWkQFLDYLWDOSDUD RFDSLWDOLVPRLQIRUPDFLRQDOGRVLVWHPDGHSURSULHGDGHKHJHP{QLFRHGDGRTXHD SURSULHGDGH LQWHOHFWXDO QmR SRGH H[LVWLU VHP D OHJLVODomR H R DSDUDWR MXUtGLFRUH SUHVVLYRGR(VWDGRDVDo}HVHLGHLDVGRPRYLPHQWRGHVRIWZDUHOLYUHFKRFDPVH contra o status quo e tornam-se assim um movimento cultural planetรกrio de novo tipo, essencialmente polรญtico, por questionar os fundamentos teรณricos, culturais e HFRQ{PLFRVGDSURSULHGDGHGHLGHLDV Tal como nos cafรฉs descritos por Habermas, uma nova esfera pรบblica conforma-se, nรฃo literรกria, mas uma esfera pรบblica tecno-social, uma esfera pรบblica GH KRPHQV OLYUHV TXH QmR VH FRQFHQWUDP PDLV HP EXUJRV PDV FRQHFWDPVH no ciberespaรงo, em listas e fรณruns prรณprios que se constituem como uma esfera S~EOLFD LQLFLDOPHQWH KDFNHU 'D SUiWLFD KDFNHU GH FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR GH FyGLJRV IRQWHGHVRIWZDUHVDFRPXQLGDGHGHVRIWZDUHOLYUHLQVSLURXRVXUJLPHQWRGHXPD aรงรฃo similar em outras รกreas, tais como na mรบsica, com o Creative Commons, e QDFRQVROLGDomRGHUHSRVLWyULRVS~EOLFRVGHFRQKHFLPHQWRFRPRD:LNLSpGLDHQWUH RXWURVWDQWRVH[HPSORV2VRUJDQL]DGRUHVGR)yUXP6RFLDO0XQGLDOUHDOL]DGRQD ร‹QGLDHPXWLOL]DUDPSHODSULPHLUDYH]RVSURJUDPDVGHFRPSXWDGRUOLYUHVSRU FRQVWDWDUHP TXH RV PRYLPHQWRV VRFLDLV DQWLJOREDOL]DomR HVWDYDP DSULVLRQDGRV SHODVOLQJXDJHQVLQIRUPDFLRQDLVFRQWURODGDVSHODVFRUSRUDo}HVFRQFHQWUDGRUDVGH ULTXH]DHSRGHUHTXHHUDSRUWDQWRQHFHVViULRURPSHUFRPRPRGHORGHWHFQRORJLDV proprietรกrias.  2VKDFNHUVDUWLFXODPVHHPFRPXQLGDGHVYLUWXDLVยณRVQRYRVFDIpVHVDORRQVยด SDUD HVFUHYHU FyGLJRV H GLVSRQLELOL]iORV SHOR SODQHWD 'HVVD SUiWLFD VXUJHP HQ FRQWURV OLVWDV GH GLVFXVVmR IXQGDo}HV DVVRFLDo}HV YLUWXDLV H SUHVHQFLDLV FRP XPDยฟORVRยฟDDQWLSURSULHWiULDHGHFUtWLFDDRIHFKDPHQWRHDREORTXHLRGHFyGLJRV &RPRWRGRJUDQGHPRYLPHQWRDKHWHURJHQHLGDGHpXPDGHVXDVSULQFLSDLVFDUDF WHUtVWLFDVSRULVVRLQWHUHVVDQRVGHVWDFDUDTXLDFRPXQLGDGHTXHWUD]FRQVLJRRV HOHPHQWRVPDLVFRPSOHWRVGDยฟORVRยฟDHpWLFDKDFNHUDFRPXQLGDGH'HELDQ(VVD FRPXQLGDGHpXPGRVยณQyVยดGDHVIHUDS~EOLFDLQLFLDOPHQWHKDFNHUHGDSROLWL]DomR do movimento sรณcio-tรฉcnico.  (PJHUDODGLVFXVVmRGDUHODomRHQWUHWHFQRORJLDHVRFLHGDGHSDVVDQH cessariamente pelo posicionamento diante da teoria crรญtica debatida pela Escola GH )UDQNIXUW $QWKRQ\ *LGGHQV DR GLVFXWLU R SHQVDPHQWR FUtWLFR GH 0DUFXVH DยฟUPRX TXH ยณR SRGHU VXEYHUVLYR GD UD]mR WLQKD VLGR VXEYHUWLGR QR ยตSHQVDPHQWR


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242 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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SDUrQFLDGRVSURWRFRORVSDGU}HVHVRIWZDUHVSDUDTXHRHVSDoRYLUWXDOSRVVDVHU FRQVLGHUDGRXPHVSDoRS~EOLFRYLUWXDOHVVHQFLDOjVXDFRQVROLGDomRFRPRHVIHUD pública. Nesse sentido, um dos principais processos de consolidação da Internet, SULQFLSDODJUHJDGRUGDFRPXQLFDomRPHGLDGDSRUFRPSXWDGRUFRPRHVIHUDS~EOLFD está nas comunidades de software livre. Tal como na esfera pública inicialmente literária dos séculos XVII e XVIII, podemos observá-las como uma esfera pública LQLFLDOPHQWHKDFNHUGRVpFXOR;;, Habermas escreveu que ³D HVIHUD S~EOLFD UHWLUD VHXV LPSXOVRV GD DVVLPLODomR SULYDGD GH SUREOHPDV VRFLDLV TXH UHSHUFXWHP QDV ELRJUD¿DV SDUWLFXODUHV 1HVVH contexto particular é sintomático constatar que, nas sociedades européias do século XVII e XVIII, tenha se formado uma esfera pública EXUJXHVD PRGHUQD FRPR ³HVIHUD GDV SHVVRDV SULYDGDV UHXQLGDV H IRUPDQGR XP S~EOLFR´ 'R SRQWR GH YLVWD KLVWyULFR R QH[R HQWUH esfera pública e privada começou a aparecer na forma de reunião e GH RUJDQL]DomR GH XP S~EOLFR OHLWRU FRPSRVWR GH SHVVRDV SULYDGDV EXUJXHVDV TXH VH DJOXWLQDYDP HP WRUQR GH MRUQDLV H SHULyGLFRV´ +$%(50$6 

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244 โ€ข Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo

livre tornou-se um dos novos movimentos mundiais mais crรญticos a um dos pilares EiVLFRVGRSURFHVVRGHUHSURGXomRFDSLWDOLVWDVHXPRGHORHVXDWHRULDKHJHP{QLFD da propriedade intelectual. ร‰ um movimento socio-tรฉcnico formado por diversas comunidades. As comunidades de desenvolvedores de software sรฃo a base principal GHVVDJUDQGHUHGHTXHHVWDPRVGHQRPLQDQGRPRYLPHQWRGHVRIWZDUHOLYUH7DLV FRPXQLGDGHVWrPWDPDQKRYDULDGRHSRGHPDWLQJLUPLOKDUHVGHLQWHJUDQWHVFRPR a do GNU/Linux. Por outro lado, vรกrios jovens desenvolvedores lanรงam projetos GH VRIWZDUH H HP VHJXLGD SHGHP DSRLR QDV OLVWDV GH KDFNHUV H QDV GLYHUVDV comunidades. Milhares desses projetos nรฃo atraem muitos outros apoiadores e acabam permanecendo com dois ou trรชs desenvolvedores. Apesar disso, essas PLFURFRPXQLGDGHV OLJDPVH j JUDQGH UHGH GD PDFURFRPXQLGDGH GRV TXH GHVHQYROYHPFyGLJRVGHPRGRDEHUWRHFRPSDUWLOKDGR Castells jรก havia apontado que ยณDFXOWXUDGD,QWHUQHWpXPDFXOWXUDIHLWDGHXPDFUHQoDWHFQRFUiWLFD QRSURJUHVVRGRVVHUHVKXPDQRVDWUDYpVGDWHFQRORJLDOHYDGRDFDER SRUFRPXQLGDGHVGHKDFNHUVTXHSURVSHUDPQDFULDWLYLGDGHWHFQROyJLFD livre e aberta, incrustada em redes virtuais que pretendem reinventar a sociedade, e materializada por empresรกrios movidos a dinheiro nas HQJUHQDJHQVGDQRYDHFRQRPLDยด &$67(//6

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A liberdade, como valor superior ao dinheiro, e a colaboração, como meio de ajudar e ao mesmo tempo de ser reconhecido, pode explicar o fundamento que HVWi QR FHQWUR GH JUDYLGDGH GR PRYLPHQWR GH VRIWZDUH OLYUH 2X VHMD FRQWULEXLU FRPRFRQKHFLPHQWRFROHWLYRpDIRUPDGHUHDOL]DUVHFRPRVHUTXHLQWHJUDDTXHOD comunidade. Apoiar e resolver problemas que estĂŁo sendo enfrentados pelos outros ĂŠ essencial para demonstrar competĂŞncia e capacidade que, por sua vez, SDUDVHUHPVRFLDOPHQWHRXFRPXQLWDULDPHQWHUHFRQKHFLGRVH[LJHPHIHWLYDomRHP FRQWULEXLo}HVUHDLV$VVLPRMRYHPSDUDQDHQVH0DUFHOR7RVVDWLWRUQRXVHRPDQ WHQHGRUGR.HUQHOGR/LQX[1mRIRLVXDWLWXODomRDFDGrPLFDQHPXPDLQGLFDomR IDPLOLDURXLQĂ&#x20AC;XrQFLDSROtWLFDTXHROHYRXDRWRSRGHXPDFRPXQLGDGHGHPDLVGH 150 mil desenvolvedores espalhados pelo planeta. Seu intenso trabalho de revisĂŁo e de solução de problemas do sistema operacional Linux, sua presença no WUDEDOKRFROHWLYRGHPHOKRULDGRFyGLJRHVXDFRPSHWrQFLDDRHVFUHYHUDVOLQKDV GHSURJUDPDomRpTXHRWRUQDUDPDRVDQRVXPDVXPLGDGHQRPXQGRGDWHF QRORJLDGDLQIRUPDomR0DUFHOR7RVVDWLQmRUHDOL]RXFXUVRVXSHULRUDRPHQRVDWpR momento da conclusĂŁo deste texto. Eduardo Maçan nĂŁo se tornou um dos primeiros (talvez o primeiro, ele mesmo tem dĂşvida sobre isso) desenvolvedores brasileiros aceitos na comunidade 'HELDQTXHGLVWULEXLXPDGDVYHUV}HVGR*18/LQX[SRUVHUHVWXGDQWHGD&LrQFLD GD&RPSXWDomRPDVSHODTXDOLGDGHHLQWHQVLGDGHGHVXDVFRQWULEXLo}HV3RXFR YDOH WHU GRXWRUDGR H QmR FRQVHJXLU UHVROYHU XP SUREOHPD HVSHFtÂżFR 3RXFR YDOH saber muito se o indivĂ­duo nĂŁo tiver o Ă­mpeto de ajudar as pessoas da comunidade D HQFRQWUDU VROXo}HV (VVH HVStULWR GH FRPSHWrQFLD FRODERUDWLYD TXH H[HFXWD D LQWHOLJrQFLD FROHWLYD GH XPD FRPXQLGDGH IRL R TXH OHYRX R HQJHQKHLUR GR &HQWUR GH&RPSXWDomRGD8QLFDPS5XEHQV4XHLUR]DFULDUR5DX7XXPDIHUUDPHQWD FRODERUDWLYDGHSHUJXQWDVHUHVSRVWDV25DX7XSHUPLWHTXHFRODERUDGRUHVUHVSRQ


246 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

GDPSHUJXQWDVIRUPXODGDVSRUYLVLWDQWHV2XVRpOLYUHHJUDWXLWRHRVLVWHPDSRGH ser obtido (baixado) do próprio site e usado nos termos da licença GPL (General Public Licence). O interessante é que esse sistema passou a ser uma ferramenta GHWUDEDOKRHPDOJXQVGRVGHSDUWDPHQWRVGD8QLFDPS4XDQGRDOJXpPWHPXPD G~YLGDHODpSRVWDGDQR5DX7XHDUHVSRVWDpREWLGDPXLWDVYH]HVHPPLQXWRV 2VLVWHPDSRVVXLXPUDQNLQJGHFRODERUDGRUHVHPFDGDXPDGDViUHDVWDPEpP FKDPDGDV GH FRPXQLGDGHV TXH R FRPS}HP R TXH WHP SRVVLELOLWDGR XPD FHUWD GLVSXWDHQWUHXPJUXSRGHVWDFDGRGHFRODERUDGRUHVSDUDYHUTXHPPDLVUHVSRQGH as dúvidas em menor tempo. O reconhecimento pela qualidade da resposta e SHODSDUWLFLSDomRDWLYDQDFRODERUDomRHPUHGHSDUHFHDEVRUYHUDTXLORTXH3HNND +LPDQHQGHQRPLQRXGHpWLFDKDFNHUHTXHWHPVLGRHOHPHQWRYLWDOGDFRPXQLGDGH de software livre.  -iDFRPXQLGDGH'HELDQpXPDJUXSDPHQWRGHYROXQWiULRVVHPVHGHItVLFD GLVSHUVRSHORPXQGRFRPLQWHJUDQWHVGHGH]HQDVGHSDtVHVTXHEXVFDGLVWULEXLU uma versão do Linux estável e completamente dentro do espírito do copyleft. Pelas VXDV FDUDFWHUtVWLFDV ¿ORVy¿FDV H SRU VXD IRUPD GH RUJDQL]DomR D REVHUYDomR da comunidade Debian pode melhor permitir a compreensão dos motivos pelos TXDLV R PRYLPHQWR GR VRIWZDUH OLYUH SRUWDGRU GH XPD pWLFD KDFNHU FHQWUDGD QD colaboração interativa e no compartilhamento do conhecimento, tornou-se um LPSRUWDQWHPRYLPHQWRSROtWLFRJOREDOHQmRSDUWLGiULR  $FRPXQLGDGH'HELDQTXHFRQWDDSUR[LPDGDPHQWHFRPLQWHJUDQWHV em seus diversos níveis, expressa o modelo de desenvolvimento compartilhado FRPXPSURFHVVRGHFLVyULRFRPSOH[RSDUDDVVHJXUDUDVXDGHPRFUDFLDLQWHUQD6HX cotidiano permite vislumbrar que uma rede sem centro físico, com seus servidores LQVWDODGRV HP  SDtVHV p FDSD] GH SURGX]LU VROXo}HV WHFQROyJLFDV FRPSOH[DV mantendo-se democrática e coerente com seus princípios fundadores.  (GXDUGR 0DoDQ D¿UPD TXH XPD SHVVRD SDUD LQJUHVVDU QD FRPXQLGDGH 'HELDQQHFHVVLWDGHPRQVWUDUTXH³VDEHID]HUHTXHID]´2XWURHOHPHQWRHVVHQFLDO é a necessidade de conhecer e de ser capaz de defender o Contrato Social do Debian e concordar com a Constituição da comunidade. Para ser desenvolvedor 'HELDQRKDFNHUGHYHFRQFRUGDUFRPR³&RQWUDWR´TXHpXPDFDUWDGHSULQFtSLRV da comunidade e que a vincula com os ideais primeiros do software livre, nascidos do movimento GNU e da Free software Fondation.  2&RQWUDWR6RFLDO'HELDQYHUVmRUDWL¿FDGRHPGHMXOKRGHp XPDSHoDYROWDGDDRVVHXVLQWHJUDQWHVPDVpXPFRPSURPLVVRGLDQWHGDVGHPDLV FRPXQLGDGHVGHVRIWZDUHOLYUHFRPRSRGHPRVREVHUYDU


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo โ€ข 247

ยณ&2175$72 62&,$/ '(%,$1 3(5$17( $ &2081,'$'( '( VRIWZDUH/,95( O Debian permanecerรก 100% livre. Nรณs prometemos manter a GLVWULEXLomR 'HELDQ *18/LQX[ FRQVWLWXtGD LQWHJUDOPHQWH GH VRIWZDUH OLYUH&RPRKiPXLWDVGHยฟQLo}HVGHVRIWZDUHOLYUHLQFOXtPRVDVGHยฟQLo}HV TXH XVDPRV SDUD D LGHQWLยฟFDomR GH VRIWZDUH ยณOLYUHยด DEDL[R ,UHPRV apoiar nossos usuรกrios que desenvolvem e executam software nรฃo livre sobre o Debian, mas nunca faremos o sistema depender de um item de VRIWZDUHTXHQmRVHMDOLYUH9DPRVUHWULEXLUjFRPXQLGDGHGRVRIWZDUH livre. Quando escrevermos novos componentes do Sistema Debian, nรณs o licenciaremos como software livre. Iremos fazer o melhor sistema que pudermos, de modo que software livre seja amplamente distribuรญdo H XVDGR ,UHPRV IRUQHFHU DRV DXWRUHV RULJLQDLV GRV FRPSRQHQWHV XVDGRV SRU QRVVR VLVWHPD DV FRUUHo}HV GH EXJV DSHUIHLoRDPHQWRV pedidos de usuรกrios, etc. Nรณs nรฃo esconderemos problemas. Iremos PDQWHU QRVVR EDQFR GH GDGRV GH UHODWyULR GH IDOKDV QRVVR EXJWUDT  DEHUWR SDUD D YLVXDOL]DomR S~EOLFD WRGR R WHPSR 5HODWyULRV TXH RV XVXiULRV SUHHQFKHP RQOLQH ยฟFDUmR LPHGLDWDPHQWH YLVtYHLV SDUD WRGRV os outros. Nossas prioridades sรฃo nossos usuรกrios e o software livre. 1yVVHUHPRVJXLDGRVSHODVQHFHVVLGDGHVGHQRVVRVXVXiULRVHSHOD comunidade de software livre, colocando seus interesses em primeiro OXJDUHPQRVVDVSULRULGDGHV$SRLDUHPRVDVQHFHVVLGDGHVGHQRVVRV usuรกrios para operaรงรฃo em muitos tipos diferentes de ambiente computacional. Nรฃo iremos fazer objeรงรฃo a software proprietรกrio que deva rodar em sistemas Debian, e permitiremos a outros criarem GLVWULEXLo}HV FRP YDORU DJUHJDGR FRQWHQGR WDQWR R 'HELDQ FRPR software comercial, nรฃo sendo nenhuma taxa por nรณs cobrada. Para apoiar estes objetivos forneceremos um sistema operacional de alta TXDOLGDGHOLYUHVHPUHVWULo}HVOHJDLVTXHSRVVDPLPSHGLUHVVHV WLSRVGHXVR3URJUDPDVTXHQmRDWHQGHPQRVVRVSDGU}HVGHVRIWZDUH OLYUH1yVUHFRQKHFHPRVTXHDOJXQVGHQRVVRVXVXiULRVSUHFLVDPXVDU SURJUDPDV TXH QmR DWHQGHP D 'HยฟQLomR 'HELDQ GH VRIWZDUH /LYUH &ULDPRVDViUHDVยณFRQWULEยดHยณQRQIUHHยดGHQWURGHQRVVRVUHSRVLWyULRV de FTP para estes softwares. Os softwares contidos nestes diretรณrios QmRVmRSDUWHGR'HELDQHPERUDHVWHMDPFRQยฟJXUDGRVSDUDXVRFRP o sistema Debian. Nรณs encorajamos fornecedores de CDs a ler as licenรงas de pacotes de software nestes diretรณrios e determinarem se podem ser distribuรญdos em seus CDs. Desta forma, embora software nรฃo livre nรฃo seja parte do Debian, nรณs apoiamos seus usuรกrios e IRUQHFHPRVLQIUDHVWUXWXUD FRPRQRVVRVLVWHPDGHFRQWUROHGHEXJVH OLVWDVGHGLVFXVVmR SDUDXVXiULRVGHVRIWZDUHQmROLYUHยด

2HVIRUoRSULQFLSDOGDFRPXQLGDGH'HELDQQmRpHFRQ{PLFRSRLVVHXFRQWUDWR deixa isso muito claro. O objetivo รฉ desenvolver software de modo colaborativo, cujo resultado seja de excelente qualidade, mas que nรฃo esconda suas falhas e SUREOHPDVHTXHVHMDWRWDOPHQWHOLYUHRXVHMDQmRSURSULHWiULRHFRPVHXFyGLJR IRQWHDEHUWR8VDQGRROLFHQFLDPHQWR*3/RHIHLWRYLUyWLFRpDVVHJXUDGRRXVHMD 'LVSRQtYHOKWWSZZZGHELDQRUJ$FHVVRHP


248 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

WRGRVDTXHOHVTXHXVDPFyGLJRVGR'HELDQQmRSRGHPWRUQiORIHFKDGRQHPVH apropriarem do mesmo, tal como fariam com obras disponíveis em domínio público. $SRVWXUDGRGHVHQYROYHGRU'HELDQpXPDSRVWXUDLGHROyJLFDFXMRFRPSURPLVVRp a liberdade de conhecimento.  -iD&RQVWLWXLomR'HELDQpRFRQMXQWRGHQRUPDVTXHUHJHPDJRYHUQDQoD GD FRPXQLGDGH H GH¿QHP FRPR VH Gi R SURFHVVR GH GHFLVmR DV DWULEXLo}HV GH FDGDJUXSRGHWUDEDOKRFRPVHXVGLUHLWRVHGHYHUHV&DGDGHFLVmRQDFRPXQLGDGH 'HELDQpDGRWDGDVHJXLQGRDVHJXLQWHKLHUDUTXLDGHFLVyULD9RWDomRGRVGHVHQ YROYHGRUHVpDLQVWkQFLDPi[LPD/tGHUGRSURMHWR&RPLWr7pFQLFRHRXVHXOtGHU  GHVHQYROYHGRU SDUWLFXODU H[HFXWDQGR XPD WDUHID HVSHFt¿FD  GHOHJDGRV DSRQ WDGRVSHOR/tGHUGRSURMHWRSDUDUHDOL]DUWDUHIDVHVSHFt¿FDV6HFUHWiULRGRSURMHWR O Líder do projeto é eleito anualmente pelos desenvolvedores. Somente ele pode falar pelo projeto Debian. O Líder também é quem indica o Comitê Técnico que é convocado para enfrentar problemas que não tiveram uma solução consensual HQWUHXPRXPDLVGHVHQYROYHGRUHV&DGDKDFNHUSRGHIDODUHPVHXQRPHSUySULR mas não poderá falar em nome do projeto Debian sem ser destacado pelo Líder eleito. Os candidatos a Líder apresentam suas propostas e as debatem nas listas de discussão da comunidade. Sua eleição é realizada pela votação em rede, utilizando DV FKDYHV FULSWRJUi¿FDV GH FDGD PHPEUR GD FRPXQLGDGH R TXH Gi VHJXUDQoD DR SURFHVVR XPD YH] TXH D DVVLQDWXUD GLJLWDO  WpFQLFD EDVHDGD QD FULSWRJUD¿D DVVLPpWULFDSHUPLWHJDUDQWLUDDXWRULDHDLQWHJULGDGHGHTXHPDXWLOL]RX  2PpWRGRGHPRFUiWLFRGDFRPXQLGDGH'HELDQpH[WUHPDPHQWHVR¿VWLFDGR H WUDQVSDUHQWH 6XDV YRWDo}HV VmR HIHWXDGDV SRU XP VLVWHPD GH JHUHQFLDPHQWR GH YRWDo}HV FKDPDGR '(ELDQ 9R7H (QJLQ(>GHYRWHH@ 2 VLVWHPD SHUPLWH VDEHU R HVWDGR JHUDO GDV YRWDo}HV QR PRPHQWR HP TXH VH DFHVVD H R UHVXOWDGR GDV YRWDo}HV DQWHULRUHV 2 HVWDGR GDV 5HVROXo}HV *HUDLV HP WUkQVLWR SRGHP DLQGD H[SRUDVSURSRVWDVTXHHVWmRHPGLVSXWDLQFOXLQGRDVVHJXLQWHVIDVHV³3URSRVWD $JXDUGDQGRSRUDSRLR'LVFXVVmR3HUtRGRSDUDGLVFXVV}HVGHQRPtQLPRGXDV semanas. Votação - O processo de votação está ocorrendo. Fechado - A votação DFDERX´ A transparência e a auditabilidade plena são características relevantes do SURFHVVRXPDYH]TXHRUHVXOWDGRGDVYRWDo}HVpDEHUWREHPFRPRDOLVWDFRPR QRPHGHTXHPYRWRXHTXDLVIRUDPVHXVYRWRVLQFOXVLYHRWH[WRGHFDGDYRWR(VWD OLVWDJHPVyQmRpGLVSRQtYHOTXDQGRDFRPXQLGDGHGHFLGHUHDOL]DUGHWHUPLQDGDV YRWDo}HV GH PRGR VHFUHWR SDUD HYLWDU TXDLVTXHU FRQVWUDQJLPHQWRV$ HVFROKD GR Líder do projeto Debian é feita pelo método Condorcet.  $LGHLDSUHVHQWHQD&RQVWLWXLomRGRSURMHWR'HELDQpFKHJDUDXPDGHFLVmR o mais próxima possível do que é aceito por todos. O voto de cada membro do


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 249

SURMHWRSRVVXLXPDJUDGDomRTXHKLHUDUTXL]DVXDVSUHIHUrQFLDV(VVDSUiWLFDWHP VLGREHPVXFHGLGDHWHPJHUDGRXPSURFHVVRGHFLVyULRGHHVFROKDGHOLGHUDQoDV FXMRUHVXOWDGRHIHWLYRIRLDSURGXomRGHSURJUDPDVGHFRPSXWDGRUGLIHUHQWHV até junho de 2005. A democracia participativa, baseada no debate efetuado nas listas GHGLVFXVVmRQDpWLFDPHULWRFUiWLFDGRVKDFNHUVHHPVHXHVStULWRFRODERUDWLYRH VROLGiULRWHPJHUDGRVRIWZDUHVOLYUHVTXHQmRSRGHPVHUDSURSULDGRVSULYDGDPHQWH $DomRFRQFUHWDGDFRPXQLGDGHGRFyGLJROLYUHIXOPLQDRSDUDGLJPDSURSULHWiULRGH produção e distribuição de software, que só pode ser mantido pela ação jurídicorepressiva do Estado.  $FRPXQLGDGH'HELDQpXPGRV³QyV´FRQHFWDGRVDHVVDJUDQGHUHGHTXH FRQIRUPDXPDHVIHUDS~EOLFDLQLFLDOPHQWHKDFNHUHTXHVHHVSDOKDSHODVGHPDLV iUHDVGDSURGXomRVLPEyOLFDGDKXPDQLGDGH :LNLSHGLD&UHDWLYH&RPPRQVHWF  (VVH HVStULWR RX eWLFD 'HELDQ IRL REVHUYDGR D SDUWLU GD DQiOLVH HWQRJUi¿FD UHD OL]DGD SRU *DEULHOD &ROHPDQ GD 8QLYHUVLGDGH GH &KLFDJR H SRU %HQMDPLQ +LOO desenvolvedor do projeto Debian. Eles descreveram o modelo Debian centrado na LQGHSHQGrQFLDQRWUDEDOKRYROXQWiULRHQDFRQVWLWXLomRGHUHGHVGHFRQ¿DQoDHSHU FHEHUDPDFRQIRUPDomRGHXPDHVIHUDS~EOLFD ³(QTXDQWR RV KDFNHUV GR VRIWZDUH OLYUH H GH FyGLJR DEHUWR VmR PDLV IDFLOPHQWHDVVRFLDGRVDDOJXPSURMHWRFRPRSRUH[HPSORR'HELDQ HOHVWDPEpPSDUWLFLSDPGHXPDµKDFNHUVIHUD¶TXHVHUYHSDUDVXEVWDQFLDU D OLEHUGDGH FRPR FRQFHLWR GH UHOHYkQFLD PRUDO VXSHULRU D TXHVW}HV técnicas. Essa esfera pública ocorre através de uma variededade de canais on-line e off-line que proveem, com consistência, um espaço de DUJXPHQWDomRHGHGLVFXVVmRUDFLRQDODFHUFDGHXPDJDPDGHDVVXQWRV GH QDWXUH]D SROtWLFD H MXUtGLFD (VVH HVSDoR DEULJD FRP IUHTXrQFLD GLVFXVV}HV OHYDQWDGDV SRU QRYRV DUWLJRV FDVRV MXGLFLDLV HGLWRULDLV H FRPHQWiULRV SURGX]LGRV QD FRPXQLGDGH$ RULJHP GHVVD QDVFHQWH esfera pública pode ser rastreada ao início dos anos 80 (nos sistemas GHEROHWLQVHOHWU{QLFRV±%%6 DRFHQiULRGDVFRQIHUrQFLDVGHKDFNHUV JUXSRV GD 8VHQHW H OLVWDV HOHWU{QLFDV GH GLVFXVVmR´   ³1HVVHV IRUXPV GLVFXVV}HV VREUH FHQVXUD SROtWLFD WHFQRORJLD SURSULHGDGH intelectual e mídia contribuiram para marcar certas tendências como LPSRUWDQWHVSDUDRVKDFNHUVHSDUDWUD]HUFHUWDVSUHRFXSDo}HVVRFLDLV DRPXQGRGHOHV´ &2/(0$1+,// 

As vårias comunidades de software livre conformam uma rede de solidarieGDGH WHFQROyJLFD H LGHROyJLFD GH FUHQoD QD OLEHUGDGH H QR FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR GR conhecimento que se torna crescentemente política quanto mais avança o uso pela VRFLHGDGHHSHORPHUFDGRGDVVROXo}HVFRPSDUWLOKDGDV,VVRRFRUUHSRUTXHSDUD FRQWLQXDUH[LVWLQGRRPRYLPHQWRSUHFLVDPDQWHUXPJUDXGHOLEHUGDGHGHFULDomR


250 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

incompatível com o endurecimento das leis de propriedade intelectual e a ação esWDWDOFRQWUiULDjH[SDQVmRGDVFRPXQLGDGHVGHFyGLJRDEHUWR  &RPREHPGLVVH6WDOOPDQ³VRIWZDUHOLYUHpXPDTXHVWmRGHOLEHUGDGHHQmR GHSUHoR´2VLGHDLVGRPRYLPHQWRGHVRIWZDUHOLYUHQmRVmRVLPSOHVPHQWHWpFQLFRV RX HFRQ{PLFRV VmR SROtWLFRFXOWXUDLV 3UHJDP D VROLGDULHGDGH H EDVHLDPVH HP uma Êtica em que compartilhar Ê o modo pelo qual se obtÊm o reconhecimento coPXQLWiULR$FRPXQLGDGH'HELDQpXPH[HPSORGHXPDWHLDGHQWURGDJLJDQWHVFD UHGH GR FLEHUHVSDoR GH XPD QRYD HVIHUD S~EOLFD D HVIHUD S~EOLFD LQLFLDOPHQWH KDFNHUFXMDpWLFDPHULWRFUiWLFDH[LJHRWUDEDOKRYROXQWiULRDFRODERUDomRDWLYDH R FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR GR FRQKHFLPHQWR PDV WDPEpP H[LJH XPD SRVWXUD FUtWLFD H YLJLODQWHFRQWUDREORTXHLRHRDSULVLRQDPHQWRGRFRQKHFLPHQWR$RPHVPRWHPSR Ê o movimento dessas milhares de comunidades de software livre, tambÊm um moYLPHQWRSHODWUDQVSDUrQFLDGRVFyGLJRVSURWRFRORVHSDGU}HVXWLOL]DGRVQDVRFLH GDGHHPUHGHTXHSRGHDVVHJXUDUTXHRFLEHUHVSDoRSRVVDVHUWDPEpPXPDHVIHUD S~EOLFDHPTXHDVSHVVRDVSULYDGDVVHPFRQVWUDQJLPHQWRVSRVVDPH[HUFHURXVR de sua razão comunicativa.

Política pós-capitalista dos bens anti-rivais? ³7HFKQRORJ\LVQRWQHXWUDO:HœUHLQVLGHRIZKDWZHPDNHDQG LW LQVLGH RI XV :HœUH OLYLQJ LQ D ZRUOG RI FRQQHFWLRQV ¹ DQG LW PDWWHUVZKLFKRQHVJHWPDGHDQGXQPDGH´ 'RQQD+DUDZD\ 

$RGHIHQGHURFRPSDUWLOKDPHQWRHVHXPRGRGHSURGX]LUFyGLJRVRPR vimento do software livre chocou-se contra o sistema de propriedade de bens inWDQJtYHLVKHJHP{QLFRVQRFDSLWDOLVPRJOREDO'DGRTXHDSURSULHGDGHLQWHOHFWXDO QmRSRGHH[LVWLUVHPDOHJLVODomRHRDSDUDWRMXUtGLFRUHSUHVVLYRGR(VWDGRRPR YLPHQWRGRVRIWZDUHOLYUHGHXPDHVIHUDLQLFLDOPHQWHKDFNHUIRLFDPLQKDQGRpara D FRQVWLWXLomR GH XPD JUDQGH UHGH GH FRPXQLFDomR FUtWLFD VREUH D SURSULHGDGH GHLGHLDV(VWDUHGHFRPELQRXDSURGXomRGHFyGLJRVFRPDSURGXomRGHLGHLDV FRQWUiULDVDREORTXHLRGRFRQKHFLPHQWRWHFQROyJLFRHSDVVRXDDUWLFXODUFDPSDQKDV políticas pela liberdade do compartilhamento do saber. Essa mobilização política não se deu nos moldes nem na chave de enTXDGUDPHQWR SROtWLFR WUDGLFLRQDO TXH FRQWUDSXQKD DV IRUoDV GH HVTXHUGD jV GH direita. Nesta pesquisa, foi possível constatar a correção da hipótese de que o movimento de software livre superou essa dicotomia por lidar com a propriedade de


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 251

EHQVLQWDQJtYHLVRXLPDWHULDLVRTXHSHUPLWLXFRORFDURWHPDGDMXVWDGLVWULEXLomR da propriedade como uma questĂŁo de liberdade e assim reunir na defesa do comSDUWLOKDPHQWR GH FyGLJRV LQWHJUDQWHV GDV DQWLJDV IRUoDV OLEHUDLV H GD HVTXHUGD GHPRFUiWLFDHVRFLDOLVWD8PDHVWUXWXUDHFRQ{PLFRVRFLDOFUHVFHQWHPHQWHEDVHDGD HP EHQV LQWDQJtYHLV SHUPLWH VXSHUDU D SULQFLSDO REMHomR KD\HNLDQD jV SUiWLFDV distributivas. Os motivos eram distintos, mas a causa foi a mesma. Os liberais e os anarco-capitalistas mais radicais defenderam o software livre pela superioridade HFRQ{PLFD GR PRGHOR GH FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR ,VVR SRUTXH R GHVHQYROYLPHQWR FR laborativo aproveita as possibilidades interativas disponĂ­veis nas redes de alta velocidade e processamento, bem como aposta na redução dos custos de tranVDomRHQDVXSHULRULGDGHGRPRGHORÂłED]DU´SDUDDPDQXWHQomRHDWXDOL]DomRGH SURJUDPDVGHFRPSXWDGRU O compartilhamento do conhecimento maximiza o desenvolvimento de bens por aproximar-se o mĂĄximo possĂ­vel da exploração das potencialidades da rede HGDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVLQHUHQWHVDRVEHQVLQIRUPDFLRQDLV$SHVDUGHQmRJRVWDUHP GH DODUGHDU H SROLWL]DU VXD DomR HVVHV GHVHQYROYHGRUHV GH RULJHP QHROLEHUDO H capitalista, reunidos em torno da defesa do chamado Open Source, consideraram TXH R PRGHOR KHJHP{QLFR GH SURSULHGDGH LQWHOHFWXDO FHQWUDGR QR EORTXHLR GH DFHVVRDRFyGLJRIRQWHJHUDYDVRIWZDUHVGHTXDOLGDGHLQIHULRU$SUHJRDPTXHÂłR IXWXURpDEHUWR´HGHIHQGHPTXHDWHQGrQFLDGDWHFQRORJLDpVXEVWLWXLUDUHPXQHUDomR baseada na propriedade pela receita baseada nos serviços.  (ULF5D\PRQGPHPEURGD$VVRFLDomR1DFLRQDOGR5LĂ&#x20AC;H (8$ HXPGRV mais destacados lĂ­deres do movimento de Open Source escreveu que ÂłWDOYH] QR ÂżQDO D FXOWXUD GH FyGLJR DEHUWR LUi WULXQIDU QmR SRUTXH D FRRSHUDomR p PRUDOPHQWH FRUUHWD RX  D ÂľSURWHomRÂś GR VRIWZDUH p PR ralmente errada (assumindo que vocĂŞ acredita na Ăşltima, o que nĂŁo faz tanto o Linus como eu), mas simplesmente porque o mundo do software GHFyGLJRIHFKDGRQmRSRGHYHQFHUXPDFRUULGDHYROXFLRQiULDFRPDV FRPXQLGDGHV GH FyGLJR DEHUWR TXH SRGHP FRORFDU PDLV WHPSR KiELO RUGHQVGHPDJQLWXGHDFLPDHPXPSUREOHPD´ 5$<021' 

-i RV GHVHQYROYHGRUHV H LQWHJUDQWHV GR PRYLPHQWR GH VRIWZDUH OLYUH GH orientação social-liberal, anarquistas e socialistas de diversas matizes, acreditam TXHRVRIWZDUHOLYUHSRGHJHUDUPDLVLJXDOGDGHSRLVDOLEHUGDGHGHFRPSDUWLOKDUR FyGLJRpXPDGHFLVmRLQGLYLGXDOLQVSLUDGDSHODVROLGDULHGDGHYDORUGHJUDQGHGL PHQVmRFROHWLYD$DGHVmRDRFRPSDUWLOKDPHQWRpSHVVRDOPDVVHJXHDLGHLDGH que a liberdade Ê a fonte da criação e da melhoria da produção humana. O pressuposto Ê que a liberdade de trocar ideias estå na base do conhecimento e que este Ê uma produção coletiva, humana. Não deveria ser apropriado privadamente.


252 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

,VWRpSULYDUDOJXpPGRFRQKHFLPHQWRpEORTXHDUDOLEHUGDGHeUHGX]LURULWPRGH crescimento do conhecimento, pois nessa acepção, quanto mais se compartilha o conhecimento mais ele cresce.  0DV FRPR VHULD SRVVtYHO FRPELQDU OLEHUGDGH H LJXDOGDGH" (VVD SRVVLEL lidade existe exatamente porque o elemento primordial da sociedade em rede Ê a informação, em todos os seus formatos, inclusive a informação processada e YHUWLGDHPFRQKHFLPHQWR6XDFDUDFWHUtVWLFDIXQGDPHQWDOpDLQWDQJLELOLGDGHHDLPD WHULDOLGDGH6HXXVRQmRDGHVJDVWDVXDFySLDGLJLWDOQmRSRVVXLGLIHUHQoDDOJXPD GD RULJLQDO H VXD PXOWLSOLFDomR SHUPLWH TXH YiULDV SHVVRDV D XWLOL]HP DR PHVPR WHPSR6XDTXDOL¿FDomRHFRQ{PLFDpDGHXPEHPQmRULYDO(VVDVTXDOLGDGHVGD informação transformam-na em um bem completamente distinto dos bens físicos. 2 PDWHULDO GHVJDVWDVH FRP R XVR H QmR SHUPLWH UHSURGXomR LOLPLWDGD GHYLGR D sua escassez. O imaterial não conhece a escassez. Toda a teoria da propriedade KHJHP{QLFDHDWHRULDGRYDORUXWLOLGDGHSRVVXHPXPDUHODomRLQWUtQVHFDFRPDLGHLD de escassez. A era da informação e seus bens imateriais desconhecem a escassez LQHUHQWHjSURSULHGDGHPDWHULDOXPDYH]TXHHVWmRVXEPHWLGDVjDEXQGkQFLDGD FySLDGLJLWDO Como o conhecimento Ê chave da economia da sociedade em rede, o seu FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWRSRGHVHUFRQVLGHUDGRWDQWRGRSRQWRGHYLVWDHFRQ{PLFRTXDQWR GRSRQWRGHYLVWDVRFLDOHFXOWXUDO2FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWRGRFRQKHFLPHQWRSRGHJHUDU GLVWULEXLomR GH RSRUWXQLGDGHV HFRQ{PLFDV EHP FRPR SRGH VHU HQWHQGLGR FRPR YLWDODRDFHVVRjSURGXomRFRPXPGDKXPDQLGDGH$RSDFLGDGHGRFyGLJRIRQWH de um software pode ser vista como a exclusão do direito de todos conhecerem DOJRTXHIRLFRQVWLWXtGRVREUHXPDF~PXORFLHQWt¿FRGHPXLWRPDLRUYDORUHTXHIRL FRPXPDWRGRVFRPROLYUHDFHVVRJDUDQWLGR  $OpPGLVVRRVRIWZDUHFRPRLQWHUPHGLiULRGDLQWHOLJrQFLDKXPDQDQDVRFLH GDGHHPUHGHDGTXLUHRVWDWXVGHOLQJXDJHPEiVLFDGRFRQYtYLRHQWUHDVSHVVRDV $V UHODo}HV VRFLDLV UHDOL]DPVH FUHVFHQWHPHQWH SHOD FRPXQLFDomR PHGLDGD SRU FRPSXWDGRURXSRUDSDUHOKRVTXHSURFHVVDPLQIRUPDo}HV$VOLQJXDJHQVIHFKDGDV VmRRSDFDVHHVFRQGHPGHFLV}HVQmRSHUPLWHPRVHXFRQWUROHS~EOLFRHDFDEDP JHUDQGROLPLWHVGH¿QLGRVSULYDGDPHQWHSRUFRUSRUDo}HVPRQRSROLVWDV(VVDRSD cidade inviabiliza a construção no ciberespaço de uma esfera pública mundial. O movimento FLOSS (Free Libre Open Source Software), a reunião dos defensores GD DERUGDJHP OLYUH H GD DERUGDJHP DEHUWD XQHVH QD GHIHVD GD WUDQVSDUrQFLD GHVVD OLQJXDJHP EiVLFD GD VRFLHGDGH HP UHGH 2X VHMD D GHIHVD GD OLQJXDJHP EiVLFDDFLPDGHFRQWUROHVSULYDGRVLPSOLFDHPGL]HUTXHHVVDVOLQJXDJHQVGHYHP HVWDUVRERFRQWUROHS~EOLFR'LWRGHRXWURPRGRTXHGL¿FLOPHQWHDOJXpPSRGHUiVHU OLYUHXWLOL]DQGRSDGU}HVHLQWHUPHGLiULRVGDLQWHOLJrQFLDHGDFRPXQLFDomRKXPDQDV


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 253

que sĂŁo propriedade de uma corporação privada.  $ OLEHUGDGH GD LQIRUPDomR H GR DFHVVR j LQIRUPDomR QXPD HFRQRPLD GH EHQV LQWDQJtYHLV HQFRQWUDVH HP FRQĂ&#x20AC;LWR FRP D SURSULHGDGH SDUWLFXODU 6WDOOPDQ DÂżUPRXÂłVRIWZDUHOLYUHQmRpTXHVWmRGHSUHoRPDVGHOLEHUGDGH´H[DWDPHQWHSRU que defende que o conhecimento ĂŠ uma produção coletiva e social. AlĂŠm disso, QRWH[WR3RUTXHR6RIWZDUH1mR'HYHULD7HU'RQRVH[LVWHXPDSDVVDJHPHPTXH 6WDOOPDQ FRPEDWH R DUJXPHQWR GH TXH KDYHULD XP GLUHLWR QDWXUDO UHODFLRQDGR j SURSULHGDGHGDVLGHLDV Âł8PD UD]mR p D IRUoDGD DQDORJLD FRP REMHWRV PDWHULDLV 4XDQGR HX IDoR VSDJKHWWL UHDOPHQWH HX IDoR REMHomR VH DOJXpP TXHU FRPr lo, porque aĂ­ nĂŁo poderei mais comĂŞ-lo eu mesmo. A ação dele me DWLQJHH[DWDPHQWHQDPHVPDPHGLGDHPTXHREHQHÂżFLDDSHQDVXP GH QyV SRGH FRPHU R VSDJKHWWL HQWmR D TXHVWmR p TXHP"$ PHQRU GLVWLQomRHQWUHQyVpVXÂżFLHQWHSDUDID]HUSHQGHUDEDODQoDpWLFD0DV VHYRFrH[HFXWDRXPRGLÂżFDXPSURJUDPDTXHHXHVFUHYLLVVRDIHWD a vocĂŞ diretamente e a mim, apenas indiretamente. Se vocĂŞ dĂĄ uma FySLDDRVHXDPLJRLVVRDIHWDDYRFrHDRVHXDPLJRPXLWRPDLVGR que me afeta. Eu nĂŁo devo ter o poder de dizer a vocĂŞ para nĂŁo fazer LVVR1LQJXpPGHYH$VHJXQGDUD]mRpTXHVHGL]jVSHVVRDVTXHRV direitos naturais dos autores sĂŁo uma tradição aceita e inquestionĂĄvel da nossa sociedade. Historicamente, a verdade ĂŠ o oposto. A ideia de direitos naturais dos autores foi proposta e decisivamente rejeitada TXDQGRD&RQVWLWXLomRGRV(VWDGRV8QLGRVIRLUHGLJLGDeSRULVVRTXH a Constituição apenas permite um sistema de direitos autorais e nĂŁo R UHTXHU p SRU LVVR TXH HOD HVWDEHOHFH TXH GLUHLWR DXWRUDO WHP TXH ser temporĂĄrio. A Constituição tambĂŠm estabelece que o propĂłsito do GLUHLWRDXWRUDOpSURPRYHURSURJUHVVRQmRUHFRPSHQVDURDXWRU'H DOJXPDPDQHLUDRVGLUHLWRVDXWRUDLVUHFRPSHQVDPRVDXWRUHVHPDLV ainda os editores, mas isso foi pensado como uma maneira de mudar VXDDWLWXGH´10

A liberdade de compartilhar o conhecimento e a liberdade de acessĂĄ-lo nĂŁo SRGHVHUEDUUDGDGHPRGROHJtWLPRFRPEDVHHPDOHJDomRTXHHYRTXHTXDOTXHU GLUHLWRQDWXUDORXTXDOTXHUUHODomRLQHUHQWHjFULDomRTXHH[LMDVXDDSURSULDomRH[ clusiva por um autor. Esse ĂŠ outro ponto que permite constatar que, na sociedade informacional, a defesa da liberdade para o conhecimento tem reunido em um QRYRFDPSRSROtWLFRIRUoDVSROtWLFDVjHVTXHUGDHjGLUHLWDPHVPRWUDWDQGRVHGH um tema relacionado ao nĂşcleo duro do tradicional pensamento da direita polĂ­tica IXQGDGR QD GHIHVD LQWUDQVLJHQWH GD SURSULHGDGH &RPR Mi KDYLD HVFULWR QD VR FLHGDGH LQIRUPDFLRQDO DV UHODo}HV KHJHP{QLFRWUDGLFLRQDLV GH SURSULHGDGH FDSL talista chocam-se com a liberdade para poderem existir e se manter. 'LVSRQtYHOKWWSZZZJQXRUJSKLORVRSK\ZK\IUHHSWKWPO$FHVVRHP


254 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

 4XDQGR D OLEHUGDGH GH DJLU H FRPSDUWLOKDU DFDED YLDELOL]DQGR FXVWRV GH WUDQVDomRPHQRUHVSDUDYiULRVVHJPHQWRVHFRQ{PLFRVEHPFRPRTXDQGRDFROD ERUDomR D SDUWLU GD GRDomR GH FyGLJRV WRUQDVH XP PRGR PXLWR PDLV HÂżFLHQWH GH SURGXomR GH ULTXH]D LQWDQJtYHO HVWD DWUDL HP VXD GHIHVD IRUoDV SROtWLFDV GR espectro da chamada livre iniciativa, liberais, libertĂĄrios e neoliberais. Ocorre que a prĂĄtica livre do compartilhamento e da colaboração baseada no conhecimento aberto e transparente viabiliza o caminho da equalização real, da LJXDOGDGHGHRSRUWXQLGDGHVHGDUHGLVWULEXLomRGHULTXH]DV$OLEHUGDGHQRFRQWH[WR GRVEHQVLQWDQJtYHLVYLDELOL]DDLJXDOGDGH$PDUW\D6HQKDYLDFRQFHELGRRGHVHQ YROYLPHQWRWHUPRSUySULRGRWHUUHQRHFRQ{PLFRFRPROLEHUGDGHWHUPRDGHTXDGR ao campo polĂ­tico. Sua preocupação com as capacidades humanas pode ser aqui UHVJDWDGDSDUDGHPRQVWUDUTXHDOLEHUGDGHGHFRPSDUWLOKDUXPEHPQmRULYDOJHUD um desenvolvimento mais equitativo. Sen retoma Adam Smith para defender as SRVVLELOLGDGHVHTXDOL]DGRUDVGDFDSDFLWDomR Âł$IpGH6PLWKQRSRGHUGDHGXFDomRHGRDSUHQGL]DGRHUDVLQJXODUPHQWH IRUWH 1R GHEDWH DLQGD KRMH HP YRJD VREUH RV SDSpLV UHVSHFWLYRV GR ÂłLQDWR´ H GR ÂłDGTXLULGR´ 6PLWK S{VVH LQĂ&#x20AC;H[LYHOPHQWH  H DWp PHVPR GRJPDWLFDPHQWHGRODGRGRÂłDGTXLULGR´&RPHIHLWRLVVRFRQGL]SHUIHL WDPHQWH FRP VXD LPHQVD FRQÂżDQoD QD SRVVLELOLGDGH GH PHOKRUDU DV FDSDFLGDGHVKXPDQDV A disparidade de talentos naturais em homens diferentes ĂŠ, na realidade, EHPPHQRUGRTXHQRVGDPRVFRQWDHRWDOHQWRPXLWRGLYHUVRTXHSD UHFHGLVWLQJXLURVKRPHQVGHGLIHUHQWHVSURÂżVV}HVTXDQGRDWLQJHPD PDWXULGDGH FRP JUDQGH IUHTXrQFLD QmR p WDQWR D FDXVD PDV R HIHL to da divisĂŁo do trabalho. A diferença entre os caracteres mais dessePHOKDQWHV HQWUH XP ÂżOyVRIR H XP FDUUHJDGRU SRU H[HPSOR SDUHFH HPHUJLUQmRWDQWRGDQDWXUH]DTXDQWRGRKiELWRFRVWXPHHHGXFDomR Quando vĂŞm ao mundo, e durante os primeiros seis ou oito anos de sua vida, eles terĂŁo sido, talvez, muito parecidos, e nem seus pais nem VHXVFROHJDVGHEULQFDGHLUDVFRQVHJXLULDPSHUFHEHUDOJXPDGLIHUHQoD notĂĄvel. NĂŁo ĂŠ meu propĂłsito aqui examinar se sĂŁo corretas as ideias de Smith HQIDWLFDPHQWH IDYRUiYHLV j LQĂ&#x20AC;XrQFLD GD FULDomR PDV p ~WLO SHUFHEHU RTXDQWRHOHDVVRFLDDVKDELOLGDGHVSURGXWLYDVHRVHVWLORVGHYLGDj HGXFDomRHjTXDOLÂżFDomRSURÂżVVLRQDOHFRPRHOHVXS}HDSRVVLELOLGDGH de melhora de cada um desses elementos. Essa relação ĂŠ essencial SDUDDDEUDQJrQFLDGDSHUVSHFWLYDGDFDSDFLGDGH´ 6(1 

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Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 255

que muitos possam ser não somente consumidores, mas tambÊm desenvolvedores GHEHQVLQWDQJtYHLV1HVVHVHQWLGRHPXPFHQiULRHPTXHDLQIRUPDomRpRHOH mento constitutivo dos bens imateriais, seria possível pensar que a escassez resiGLULDH[DWDPHQWHQDFULDomRGDLQIRUPDomR$VVLPFDVRDLQWHOLJrQFLDFULDWLYDIRVVH escassa, ela poderia viabilizar o modelo de propriedade tradicional sobre a mesma, tal como no cenårio de bens materiais. Por outro lado, Ê exatamente o fato de D LQWHOLJrQFLD FULDWLYD VHU GLVWULEXtGD GH PRGR HTXLWDWLYR HQWUH RV SRYRV TXH WHP DOJXP VHQWLGR QR EORTXHLR GR FyGLJR IRQWH GRV VRIWZDUHV 6y WHP VHQWLGR UHWLUDU D WUDQVSDUrQFLD VREUH R FRQKHFLPHQWR GRV FyGLJRV H H[FOXLU DV SHVVRDV GR VHX DFHVVRVHDLQWHOLJrQFLDFULDWLYDQmRIRUHVFDVVDVHDVSHVVRDVFRPEDVHQDTXHOHV FyGLJRV IRQWH SXGHUHP UHFULiORV H QmR VLPSOHVPHQWH FRSLiORV 3DUD FRSLDU XP VRIWZDUHQmRpQHFHVViULRSRVVXLUVHXFyGLJRIRQWH$GHQRPLQDGD³SLUDWDULD´GiVH UHSURGX]LQGRDSHQDVRFyGLJRH[HFXWiYHO  3DUD DV FRPXQLGDGHV GH VRIWZDUH OLYUH H DEHUWR D LQWHOLJrQFLD FULDWLYD p VHPSUHXPDLQWHOLJrQFLD UHFULDWLYDSRLVDFULDomRHVWiIXQGDGDQRFRQKHFLPHQWR socialmente acumulado. Como a recriação e o impulso ao novo necessita do acúmulo e do estoque de conhecimento, distribuir o próprio conhecimento abre caminho para que se redistribuam as possibilidades de criar e, portanto, tambÊm para que se UHGLVWULEXDPRVJDQKRVGDFULDomR$VVLPRVPLOLWDQWHVGDWUDGLomRVRFLDOLVWDHGD tradição democråtica acabam podendo se aproximar da defesa da liberdade como valor prioritårio, pois na era informacional Ê tambÊm da liberdade que podemos GHULYDUDMXVWDUHGLVWULEXLomR GRVEHQHItFLRVGDFULDomRGHDOJRULWPRVSURWRFRORV sistemas e softwares. Nesse sentido, temos um novo tipo de situação que necessita de uma nova FODVVL¿FDomRGDVIRUoDVSROtWLFDVHPUHODomRjSURSULHGDGHGRVEHQVLQWDQJtYHLV$ sociedade da informação afeta um dos principais elementos da doutrina política das forças da direita e da esquerda, ou seja, o posicionamento sobre a propriedade e sobre a liberdade. A alteração profunda do tipo de propriedade de bens materiais para RWLSRGHSURSULHGDGHGHLGHLDVFRQKHFLPHQWRVHLQIRUPDo}HVFRORFDQRVGLDQWHGD QHFHVVLGDGHGHXOWUDSDVVDJHPGRVPRGHORVH[SOLFDWLYRVFDOFDGRVQDDQWLJDGLYLVmR GRHVSHFWURSROtWLFRTXHGH¿QLDDGLUHLWDFRPRGHIHQVRUDGDSURSULHGDGHSULYDGDHD esquerda como defensora da distribuição equitativa da propriedade sobre a riqueza socialmente produzida. Temos um cenårio de superação da divisão política tradicional. O contraponto GDHVTXHUGDFRPRGHIHQVRUDGDLJXDOGDGHGDVROLGDULHGDGHHGDFRRSHUDomRFRQWUD XPD GLUHLWD TXH VH FRORFDULD ¿HO DRV SULQFtSLRV GD OLEHUGDGH H GD OLYUH LQLFLDWLYD como melhor maneira de maximizar a produção social parece dissolver-se diante da H¿FLrQFLDGRPRGHORFRODERUDWLYRSDUDDSURGXomRGHEHQVLQWDQJtYHLVFRPSOH[RV


256 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

cuja característica não rival pode ser explorada ao extremo. A sociedade em rede e a comunicação mediada por computador viabilizaram, por meio da liberdade de sujeitos dispostos a partilhar sua iniciativa, um modelo HFRQ{PLFRHFXOWXUDOTXHH[LJHRPi[LPRGHOLEHUGDGHVREUHRFRQKHFLPHQWRWHF QROyJLFRSDUDFRQWLQXDUH[LVWLQGR4XDOTXHUUHVWULomRDRFRPSDUWLOKDPHQWRGRFyGLJR IRQWH GRV VRIWZDUHV p H[WUHPDPHQWH SUHMXGLFLDO j H¿FLrQFLD GR GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH SURGXWRV GH PHOKRU TXDOLGDGH H DR PHVPR WHPSR WDPEpP p SUHMXGLFLDO j redistribuição mais equitativa da riqueza, uma vez que a distribuição dos fontes SHUPLWHTXHRJDQKRFRPDYHQGDGHGHVHQYROYLPHQWRVGRSURGXWRWDPEpPVHMD distribuída.  3RUHVVDVUD]}HVRVRIWZDUHHTXDOTXHUSURGXWRLQWDQJtYHOFRPSOH[RWHUmR maior valor se tiverem uma comunidade de desenvolvedores e mantenedores nuPHURVD 4XDQWR PDLV XP GHWHUPLQDGR FyGLJR IRQWH IRU GLVWULEXtGR PDLRU VHUi D possibilidade de atrair o interesse de pessoas para mantê-lo e melhorå-lo. Assim, PDLRUSRGHUiVHUVXDTXDOLGDGHVHJXUDQoDHVWDELOLGDGHHFRQWLQXLGDGH3RULVVR Ê possível falar que o software e os protocolos são anti-rivais (na concepção de :HEHU  2 IHFKDPHQWR GH VHX FyGLJR IRQWH H R GHVHQYROYLPHQWR KLHUDUTXL]DGR H PDQWLGRGHQWURGHXPDHPSUHVDSDUHFHQmRJHUDUPDLVDJUHJDomRGHYDORUGRTXH o desenvolvimento em rede e baseado na colaboração crescente. AndrÊ Gorz escreveu que ³RFDSLWDOLVPRGRVDEHUJHUDHPVLHSDUDDOpPGHVLDSHUVSHFWLYDGHVXD SRVVtYHOVXSUHVVmR(PVHXkPDJRJHUPLQDXPDVHPHQWHFRPXQLVWD QDVSDODYUDVGH5LFKDUG%DUEURRNXPD¾HFRQRPLDGHGRDomRDQDUFR FRPXQLVWDœ TXH GLVSXWD FRP R FDSLWDO D HVIHUD HVWUDWHJLFDPHQWH sensível de transmissão e acessibilidade do saber. Não se trata de uma mera visão. Trata-se de uma pråxis que, no mais alto nível tÊcnico, foi desenvolvida por homens, sem cujo comunismo criativo o capitalismo QmRSRGHULDPDLVDYDQoDU´ *25= 

$SHVDUGHHPSUHJDUDWHUPLQRORJLDHDIRUPDGHFODVVL¿FDomRGDHVTXHUGD WUDGLFLRQDOSRGHPRVQRWDUTXHDDQiOLVHGH*RU]H%DUEURRNUHFRQKHFHTXHRPRGHOR colaborativo Ê incorporado como elemento importante para a própria reprodução do FDSLWDO3RULVVRSHUVRQDJHQVHIRUoDVSROtWLFDVWUDGLFLRQDOPHQWHOLJDGDVjGLUHLWD SDVVDPDDGRWDURPRGHORGHFyGLJRDEHUWRHDFRODERUDomRHPUHGHFRPRIRUPD PDLVH¿FD]SDUDVHREWHUVXDV¿QDOLGDGHV  4XHVWLRQDGRHPVHRVRIWZDUHOLYUHHVWDULDPXGDQGRRUHODFLRQDPHQWR HQWUHDGLUHLWDHDHVTXHUGD5LFKDUG6WDOOPDQD¿UPRX³3HUWHQFHQGRjHVTXHUGD HXJRVWDULDGHGL]HUTXHDLGHLDpGDHVTXHUGDPDVQRV(8$DPDLRULDGDTXHOHV


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração â&#x20AC;˘ 257

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258 โ€ข Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboraรงรฃo

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260 â&#x20AC;˘ Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração

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270 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração


Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração • 271

Debate e discussões interativas

Com intuito de permitir um diálogo aberto que proporcione o amadurecimento da temática abordada nesse livro, convidamos você - leitor(a) - para acessar e participar da construção do site interativo desse livro, por meio endereço eletrônico:

http://softwarelivre.org/livro Nesse ambiente de interação on-line você pode colaborar na continuação das pesquisas sobre essa temática, acrescentar novas informações e resultados de outras pesquisas, como também participar de debates (assíncronos) com os autores sobre o conteúdo apresentado ao longo de todos os capítulos e sessões desse livro. Nos encontramos por lá.


272 • Software livre, cultura hacker e o ecossistema da colaboração


Software livre, cultura hacker e ecossistema da colaboração.