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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Irvington  Urban  and  Community  Forestry  Grant  Application     NYS  DEC  Round  10  Urban  and  Community  Forestry  Grant  Program  

Irvington  Main  Street  Tree-­‐Planting  Pilot  Project   Addressing  the  issues  of  Irvington’s  Main  Street  “Treescape”  One  Block  at  a  Time  

Summary   Main   Street   life   is   hard   on   trees.   Their   roots   are   smothered   in   cement,   their   branches   snarled   by   overhead  wires,  they’re  planted  in  a  tiny  plot  of  dead  soil,  bathed  in  salt,  and  bashed  by  cars.    We’re   going   to   change   all   that!     We’ll   install   large   above   ground   planters   containing   a   custom   growth   substrate   designed   to   provide   good   drainage,   air   space   for   roots,   nutrients   and   beneficial   microorganisms  to  allow  the  trees  to  thrive.    We’ll  plant  five  different  species  of  small  ornamental  trees   with  spring  flowers,  berries,  colored  leaves,  beautiful  fall  foliage  and  interesting  silhouettes.    The  new   treescape  will  convey  a  strong  sense  of  visual  uniformity  while  still  including  a  diversity  of  species.  


Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Existing  Conditions:  The  Situation  of  the  Site   Irvington’s   Main   Street   is   on   a   hill,   with   the   Hudson   River   at   the   bottom.     The   view   from   the   top   is   breathtaking   –   your   eye   is   drawn   down   the   street   to   the   river,   where   an   open   view   across   the   water   is   captivating  in  all  seasons.    You  may  even  see  a  boat  sailing  by.    The  visitor  and  resident  alike  are  drawn   down   Main   Street   to   explore   this   beautiful   village   –   the   “Best   Place   to   Live   in   Westchester”   in   2010.       The  “treescape”  along  Main  Street  should  complement  this  view  –  the  trees  should  form  a  procession   that  leads  you  down  (or  up)  the  hill.    Trees  should  be  healthy  and  beautiful  and  easy  to  maintain.    They   should   add   to   our   urban   forest   without   inhibiting   the   ability   of   people   to   walk   on   the   sidewalks  or   park   their  cars.    The  street  trees  should  not  encroach  on  the  buildings  or  the  overhead  wires.   The  history  of  Irvington’s  Main  Street  trees  begins  in  the  early  1900’s  with  stately  elm  trees  planted  in   allées  on  both  sides  of  the  street.    When  Dutch  elm  disease  devastated  these  trees,  they  were  replaced   with   ‘Bradford’   Callery   Pears,   trees   that   seemed   to   have   some   desirable   characteristics   -­‐   an   upright   vase-­‐shaped   habit,   white   flowers   in   spring,   resistance   to   pollution   and   salt   damage,   easy   availability   and  relatively  low  cost.    What  municipal  arborists  didn’t  realize  was  that  the  Callery  Pears  would  start   to  fall  apart  with  age  because  of  their  weak  branching  structure.       The  gradual  demise  of  the  Callery  pear  has  led  to  a  number  of  different  species  and  sizes  of  trees  being   planted   along   Main   Street   with   no   particular   plan.     Many   of   the   newer   trees   are   already   in   decline   and   some   are   actually   dead.     Most   of   the   older   trees   and   the   remaining   Callery   pears   have   been   poorly   pruned  and  exhibit  wounds  from  broken  branches.     These   problems   are   not   unexpected   –   studies   have   shown   that   urban   street   trees   have   a   “life   expectancy”   of   only   5   -­‐   10   years.     The   number   one   issue   for   urban   trees   is   soil   (both   quality   and   quantity),  followed  by  selection  of  a  quality  tree  to  start  with,  proper  planting  and  adequate  watering   as  it  gets  established.     We   have   two   additional   threats   to   street   trees   nowadays   that   were   not   so   problematic   a   decade   ago  –  SUVs  and  Con  Ed.    Angle  parking  on  the  North   side   of   Main   Street   results   in   conflict   between   SUV/van/pickup   truck   bumpers   and   tree   trunks.     The   resulting   bark   tears   are   among   the   most   difficult   wounds   for   a   tree   to   heal.     There   are   overhead   wires   on   both   sides   of   the   street   that   belong   to   the   public   utilities,   and   any   tree   that   grows   into   these   wires   is   “pruned”   by   their   contractors   without   regard   to   aesthetics   or   tree   health.     Main   Street   is   a   very   constrained   space   –   neither  the  street  nor  the  sidewalks  are  very  wide,   and   there’s   not   much   room   for   a   tree   to   grow   before   it   encroaches   on   a   building,   wires,   signs   or   pedestrians.     The   existing   tree   wells   are   bounded   on   all   sides   with   concrete   and   asphalt,   with   no   other  open  soil  for  root  zone  health.      

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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Project   Rationale:   Why   focus   time,   energy   and   resources   on   the   treescape   of   Main  Street?   Our  idea  is  to  put  people  first.    By  having  an  aesthetically  pleasing  streetscape,  people  will  want  to  walk   more,   the   unique   and   historic   architecture   of   the   buildings   along   Main   Street   won’t   be   hidden,   and   signs  will  be  more  visible.         The   element   of   visual   uniformity   for   the   Main   Street   treescape   is   a   long-­‐standing   tradition,   both   in   Irvington  and  in  towns  across  America,  and  it  should  be  restored.    Visual  uniformity  brings  a  sense  of   order  and  tranquility.    It  ties  together  diverse  elements  and  creates  a  sense  of  neighborhood  identity.     Because   the   repetition   of   uniform   elements   is   predictable,   it’s   calming.     Because   the   repeating   elements   are   trees,   people   feel   connected   to   nature.     Because   healthy   trees   have   flowers,   berries,   beautiful  fall  foliage  and  interesting  bark  they  engage  the  human  senses.    Healthy  trees  also  benefit  the   environment   by   decreasing   carbon   dioxide,   providing   evaporative   cooling,   and   capturing   stormwater   that  would  otherwise  run  off  into  storm  sewers.   The  special  added  challenge  that  planners  for  Irvington’s  Main  Street  face  is  the  need  to  keep  the  trees   from  growing  into  the  overhead  wires.    We  see  examples  of  how  the  local  utility  companies  “prune”   street   trees   to   provide   sufficient   line   clearance,   and   recognize   that   this   kind   of   pruning   is   unnatural,   unhealthy   and   downright   ugly.     Our   best   treescape   will   be   achieved   if   we   use   small   trees   that   won’t   need  to  be  pruned  or  topped.    

Project  Description   For  this  Pilot  Project  we  will  install  large  above  ground  planters  with  five  different  species  of  small  trees   planted  in  them.    The  trees,  most  of  them  native,  have  been  selected  for  their  relatively  slow  growth   rate  and  their  ornamental  qualities.     The   project   is   focused   on   one   centrally   located   block   in   the   middle   of   Main   Street,   between   Eckar   Street  on  the  east  and  Dutcher  Street  on  the  west,  seen  in  an  aerial  view  below.

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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

The  north  side  of  the  street  has  7  tree  wells.    In  this  photo,  trees  occupy  all  7,  but  recently  a  Callery  Pear   was  removed  (third  from  R).    The  south  side  of  the  street  has  4  tree  wells.    Three  currently  contain  trees,   and  one  is  empty  (near  SE  corner  by  loading  zone).       Our  Plan  proposes  to  remove  all  the  existing  trees  from  both  sides  of  this  block,  none  of  which  are  in   particularly  good  shape  (see  below).    We  will  install  4  aboveground  planters  on  each  side  of  the  street,   placing  them  on  top  of  the  existing  tree  well  spaces  for  good  drainage.    The  4  planters  on  the  south  side   will  be  located  exactly  where  the  existing  wells  are.    The  4  planters  on  the  north  side  will  be  placed  over   existing  wells  located  as  directly  across  from  those  on  the  south  side  as  is  possible.    Three  wells  on  the   north  side  will  be  filled  in.       To  emphasize  the  visual  uniformity  of  the  design,  and  bearing  in  mind  that  we  have  chosen  five  different   kinds  of  trees,  we  will  extend  the  planter  placement  by  adding  two  additional  planters  on  the  west  side   of  the  corner  of  Dutcher  Street  and  two  more  to  the  east  side  of  the  corner  of  Eckar  Street.    The  tree   wells   on   the   south   side   of   Main   Street   in   both   of   these   locations   are   empty.     The   trees   on   the   north   corners  will  be  removed.   Placement   of   planters   and   trees   along   the   Pilot   Project   block   between   Eckar   and   Dutcher   Streets,   including  the  opposite  corners:    The  purple-­‐leaved  ‘Canada  Red’  chokecherry  will  flank  the  two  ends  of   the   design,   with   the   other   trees   alternating   between   multi-­‐stemmed   and   single-­‐stemmed   habits.     The   other  side  of  the  street  will  have  the  same  design  –  i.e.  like  trees  across  the  street  from  each  other.  

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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

The   above   ground   planters   will   be   large   enough   to   provide   an   adequate   root   zone   for   small   trees.       They’ll   be   sturdy,   weatherproof   and   attractive.     The   growth   substrate   used   in   them   will   be   a   custom   blend   that   provides   adequate   drainage,   air   space   for   roots,   nutrients   and   beneficial   organisms.     Components  of  the  growth  substrate  will  be  locally  sourced.    The  choice  of  which  planter  to  use  will  be   decided  with  input  from  a  variety  of  stakeholders,  including  the   Tree  Commission,  Architectural  Review   Board,  Beautification  Committee,  Dept.  of  Public  Works  and  Chamber  of  Commerce.      

Role  of  Those  Involved  in  the  Project     The   project   was   conceptualized   by   the   Irvington   Tree   Commission;   the   design   and   project   management   will  be  done  by  a  Tree  Commissioner  who  is  a  Landscape  Designer/ISA  Certified  Arborist.    Planting  will   be  by  professional  landscape  crews;  the  growth  substrate  will  be  sourced  locally  from  the  Stone  Barns   Center   for   Food   and   Agriculture;   maintenance   for   the   first   two   years   after   planting   will   be   by   the   Irvington  DPW.    Publicity  and  fundraising  will  take  advantage  of  two  ongoing  village-­‐wide  activities  –  our   Earth  Day  celebration  in  spring  and  our  Farmer’s  Market  in  summer  and  fall.    The  Village  of  Irvington  has   sufficient  financial  resources  to  purchase  the  materials  needed  to  do  the  project.      

Conclusion   This  plan  has  advantages  for  the  people,  the  merchants,  the  trees,  and  for  the  Village.    The  people  will   be   able   to   enjoy   aesthetically   pleasing   healthy   trees   with   multi-­‐season   interest.     The   new   design   recaptures  the  long-­‐standing  tradition  of  a  procession  of  trees  marching  down  the  hill.    The  merchants   won’t  have  trees  encroaching  on  their  facades  or  obscuring  their  signs.    There’s  likely  to  be  improved   business   potential   because   of   increased   pedestrian   traffic.     The   trees   will   have   the   best   possible   chance   of  thriving  and  contributing  to  a  healthy  environment.    The  small  trees  we’ve  chosen  won’t  encroach  on   overhead  wires,  so  they  can  grow  according  to  their  natural  habits  and  won’t  need  to  be  topped.    And   even  though  they’re  small  trees,  the  planters  will  raise  them  up  high  enough  that  their  branches  won’t   interfere   with   pedestrians.     They’ll   have   an   optimal   growth   substrate   and   will   be   protected   from   conflicts  with  bumpers.    The  Village  will  have  healthy  street  trees  with  a  diversity  of  species  and  much   less   expense   for   pruning.     Village   workers   will   be   able   to   move   the   containers   with   a   machine   if   they   need  to  dig  up  or  repair  the  sidewalk,  then  easily  put  them  back  again.    If  a  problem  arises,  new  trees   that  match  the  others  can  be  easily  sourced.    The  Village  of  Irvington  is  committed  to  the  principles  of   Environmental   Justice.     We   believe   that   our   project   will   engage   and   benefit   all   members   of   our   community.    

The  Vision   Our  pilot  project  will  revitalize  the  appearance  of  the  chosen  block  so  dramatically  that  it  will  be  easy  to   use  as  a  precedent.    The  photographic  diary  of  this  project  will  be  used  to  raise  funds  to  complete  the   streetscape  along  the  whole  of  Main  Street.    It  will  also  be  used  to  inspire  other  villages  and  towns  to  try   this   solution   for   their   trees.     Birds   will   makes   nests   in   the   Main   Street   trees   and   we   will   hear   them   singing   in   the   morning   as   we   walk   to   the   train   station.     Irvington   residents   will   realize   the   practicality   and   beauty   of   using   small   ornamental   trees   as   street   trees,   leading   to   a   complete   renovation   of   the   street  trees  along  the  side  streets,  a  project  for  the  future  that  can  also  include  street-­‐side  gardens.       5 5


Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Project  Timeline   Phase  1:    Final  Planning  (3  –  6  months)   • Finalize  choice  of  planters,  trees  and  placement   of   trees   within   the   design   in   consultation   with   various  stakeholders.   • Publicize   the   plan   to   residents   and   affected   merchants   using   flyers,   the   Farmer’s   Market,   the  Village  website  and  one-­‐on-­‐one  meetings.   • Use   Earth   Day   as   an   opportunity   to   raise   contributions  for  the  Matching  Fund.   • Meet   with   merchants   and   landlords   who   will   be   affected   to   explain   the   project   and   answer   questions.   • Source   planters,   trees   and   growth   substrate,   determine  exact  costs  and  approve  spending.     • Finalize  maintenance  plan  for  care  and  watering   of  newly  planted  trees.   • Approve   spending   for   materials   (Village   Board)   and  order  planters.  

Phase   2:   Removing   existing   trees   and   placing   and   planting   the   above   ground   planters   (2-­‐3   weeks):   • The   trees   should   be   planted   in   spring   to   allow   them  to  adjust  and  add  new  root  growth  before   they  go  dormant  in  the  fall  (no  later  than  June).     If   the   logistics   of   obtaining   funding   and   containers   pushes   the   timeline   into   summer   or   fall,   the   trees   will   be   planted   the   following   spring.       Phase  3:  Follow-­‐up  (first  2  years  after  planting):   • Photograph   the   plantings   through   the   seasons   to   show   the   success   of   the   project,   and   for   documentation  of  how  grant  funds  were  used.   • Hand-­‐prune   trees   as   needed   to   give   them   the   best   possible   shape   and   remove   any   dead   or   broken   branches   (once   in   spring   and   once   in   fall).   • Monitor  health  of  trees  and  obtain  appropriate   replacements   if   anything   should   befall   one   of   them.   • Publicize   the   project   to   raise   money   for   additional   aboveground   planters   along   other   blocks  of  Main  Street.  

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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

‘Canada  Red’  Chokecherry   Prunus  virginiana  ‘Canada  Red’   This  small  native  tree  has  an  upright  oval  habit  with  dense  foliage.    Cornell  recommends  the   ‘Canada  Red’  cultivar  as  a  street  tree.    Its  leaves  emerge  green  in  spring  then  change  to  reddish-­‐ purple,  as  seen  in  these  photos.    White  flowers  in  late  April-­‐early  May.    Red  fruit  in  late  summer   turns  deep  purple  as  it  ripens.    The  fruit  is  edible  and  delicious,  but  berry-­‐eating  birds  will  likely   get  there  first!    The  leaves  turn  a  russet-­‐red  shade  in  fall.       “…the  species  grows  in  rock  crevices,  sandy  soil  and  no  soil…Remarkable  dry  soil  tolerance…”    -­‐  Dirr’s   Manual  of  Woody  Landscape  Plants.  

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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

‘Autumn  Brilliance’  Serviceberry   Amelanchier  X  grandiflora  ‘Autumn  Brilliance’  

A  hybrid  of  A.  arborea  and  A.  laevis,  this  small  native  tree  has  it  all  –  beautiful  white  flowers  that   bloom   in   late   March   –   early   April,   edible   fruits,   clean   summer   foliage,   persistent   leaves   and   brilliant   red   fall   color.     It   has   a   multi-­‐stemmed   habit,   with   light   gray   bark   that’s   attractive   in   winter.    Very  winter  hardy  (to  -­‐35˚  F).  The  fruit  ripens  in  June  and  is  beloved  by  birds.      “I  have  had  serviceberry  pie  and  it  ranks  in  the  first  order  of  desserts”    –  Dirr’s  Manual  of  Woody  Landscape  Plants.  

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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Corneliancherry  Dogwood   Cornus  mas   This   small   tree   has   a   multi-­‐stemmed   habit   with   an   oval-­‐rounded   outline.     It   flowers   yellow   in   March   before   it   leafs   out,   with   flowers   persisting   for   3   weeks   or   longer.     Its   leaves   are   glossy   dark   green,   attractive   in   summer,   and   turning   purplish-­‐red   in   fall.     The   bright   cherry-­‐red   fruit   ripens  in  July  and  is  another  favorite  of  berry-­‐eating  birds.    It’s  adaptable  to  a  wide  range  of  soil   types  and  very  pest-­‐free.       “Cornus   mas   was   one   of   the   first   shrubs   (way   ahead   of   Forsythia)   to   flower   in   the   …Northeast….it   is   a   star.”  –Dirr’s  Manual  of  Woody  Landscape  Plants.  

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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Rutgers  Hybrid  Dogwood  ‘Stellar  Pink’   Cornus  florida  X  C.  kousa  ‘Stellar  Pink’   Rutgers   hybrid   dogwoods   have   some   of   the   best   qualities   of   both   of   their   parents.     They   are   more  vigorous  and  are  highly  resistant  to  dogwood  anthracnose  and  borer  –  two  diseases  that   have  plagued  our  native  American  dogwood  trees.    The  trees  have  excellent  cold  hardiness,  with   clean  dark  green  leaves  in  summer  and  reddish-­‐purple  fall  color.    ‘Stellar  Pink’  is  low-­‐branched   but  uniformly  wide  –  an  oval  silhouette  that  reminds  us  of  the  native  tree–  with  pink  bracts  in   late  April  –  early  May.    The  small  orange-­‐red  fruits  ripen  in  fall  and  are  immediately  devoured  by   birds.  

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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

‘Winter  King’  Hawthorne     Crataegus  viridis  ‘Winter  King’  

This  native  tree  has  a  rounded  silhouette  with  a  dense  branching  and  lustrous  green  leaves  in   summer.     It   flowers   white   in   mid-­‐May.     Its   fruits   are   bright   red,   ripening   in   September   –   October  and  persisting  into  winter.    Fall  foliage  color  ranges  from  gold  to  purple  to  scarlet.      “’Winter   King’   is   a   selection   with   a   lovely   rounded   habit,   almost   vase-­‐shaped   branching   structure   and   distinct   gray-­‐green   bloomy   stems….   Fruits   persist   into   winter   and   are   the   handsomest   of   all   hawthorns.”   –Dirr’s  Manual  of  Woody  Landscape  Plants.  

11 11


Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011   The   choice   of   which   planter   to   use   will   be   decided   with   input   from   a   variety   of   stakeholders,   including   the   Tree   Commission,   Architectural   Review   Board,   Beautification  Committee,  Dept.  of  Public  Works  and   Chamber  of  Commerce.      

Some  examples  of  possible  planters:  

General  Requirements:  large  enough  to  provide  root   space  for  the  small  trees  to  thrive,  sturdy  enough  to   withstand   conflict   with   car   bumpers   and   weatherproof,  with  supporting  data.  

12 12


Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Planting  Specifications  for  Ornamental  Trees  in  Above  Ground  Containers   Tree  Selection   • Hand-­‐select   trees   from   the   wholesale   supplier   with   good   branching   structure   and   symmetrical   shape  so  as  to  be  able  to  be  viewed  from  all  sides.      Check  the  root  zone  to  make  sure  that  the  root   structure  is  adequate  and  that  the  trunk  of  the  tree  is  not  loose.    Make  sure  there  are  no  bark  tears   or  sign  of  rot  or  insect  damage  at  the  trunk  flare.    If  there  is  excess  soil  above  the  level  of  the  trunk   flare,   move   some   of   it   aside   at   the   Nursery   to   permit   examination   of   the   structure   as   well   as   to   get   an  idea  of  how  much  soil  will  have  to  be  removed  when  the  tree  is  planted.   • If  possible,  use  pot-­‐in-­‐pot  grown  trees.    This  relatively  new  practice  for  growers  is  considered  to  be   superior  to  the  ball  and  burlap  method  because:   o The  tree’s  root  system  is  fully  developed  in  the  container  and  roots  are  not  cut  when  the   tree  is  prepared  for  sale.   o The  system  is  designed  to  eliminate  the  problem  of  girdling  roots.   o The  soil  in  the  pot  is  a  custom  mix  that  is  more  porous  and  higher  in  organic  matter  than   the   usual   field   soil   composition   (since   the   need   for   a   cohesive   root   ball   upon   digging   is   eliminated).   o The  practice  is  better  for  soil  conservation,  since  digging  trees  from  growing  fields  removes   large  volumes  of  soil  each  season.     Container  Substrate   The   key   qualities   of   the   container   substrate   to   maintain   optimal   tree   health   include   good   drainage,   adequate   air   space   for   the   roots   to   obtain   oxygen   and   the   presence   of   nutrients   and   beneficial   organisms.       • The  components  of  the  growth  substrate  for  container-­‐grown  trees  include:   o 55%  Aged  composted  pine  bark   o 3%  Sharp  silica  sand  (“Builder’s  sand”)   o 5%  Expanded  shale  soil  conditioner   o 25%  Compost   o 12%  Fibrous  light  Sphagnum  peat     • Aged   composted   pine   bark   is   high   in   lignin,   making   it   slow   to   degrade.   Bark   lightens   the   mix   for   better  drainage,  increases  air  space,  and  decreases  water-­‐holding  capacity.  Composted  pine  bark  is   specifically   recommended   as   a   component   in   blends   for   potted   woody   ornamentals.   Composted   pine  bark  imparts  some  disease  resistance  because  of  its  beneficial  organism  content.  It  has  a  pH  of   5.0  -­‐  6.5  and  is  low  in  soluble  salts.   •

Sand  adds  air  spaces  to  the  container  mix.    It  has  a  near-­‐neutral  pH  and  is  the  heaviest  ingredient  in   the  mix,  so  it  adds  weight  for  stability  as  well.  

Expanded   shale   is   a   component   of   engineered   soils   that   provides   nutrient   and   water   holding   capacity,  taking  over  the  role  that  clay  plays  in  natural  soil.    The  expanded  shale  granules  absorb   nutrients  and  water  then  release  them  back  into  the  growth  substrate  slowly  over  time.  

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Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Compost   holds   water   well,   and   provides   nutrients   and   beneficial   organisms.     We   will   obtain   compost   from   the   Stone   Barns   Center   for   Food   and   Agriculture   that   has   been   fully   analyzed   and   shown   to   have   the   proper   pH,   soluble   salt   concentration   and   so   forth.     The   Stone   Barns   Center   is   a   local  facility  that  is  within  10  miles  of  Irvington.  

Compost   naturally   suppresses   plant   diseases   like   pythium   and   phytophthora   root   rots.     To   understand   how   compost   suppresses   disease,   it   is   helpful   to   know   how   plant   substances   are   broken  down  during  the  composting  process.  Compost  goes  through  three  phases.    During  the  first   phase,  temperatures  rise  to  104  -­‐  122  °F  and  materials  that  degrade  easily  are  broken  down.    In  the   second  phase,  temperatures  are  between  104  -­‐  149  °F,  and  substances  like  cellulose  are  destroyed.     Also   destroyed   in   this   phase   are   plant   pathogens   and   weed   seeds.     The   third   stage   is   the   curing   phase,  when  temperatures  begin  to  fall.  It  is  during  this  phase  that  humus  content  increases  and   some   beneficial   organisms   —   like   Streptomyces,   Gliocladium,   and   Trichoderma,   which   serve   as   biocontrol   agents,   re-­‐colonize   the   compost.     This   re-­‐colonization   occurs   best   and   most   consistently   in   compost   produced   in   the   open   near   a   forest   because   of   the   abundance   of   microbial   species   found   in   the   natural   environment.     Stone   Barns   compost   is   produced   in   an   outdoor   facility   in   a   managed  forest  setting  using  materials  from  the  organic  Stone  Barns  farm.  

Light   Sphagnum   peat   Is   an   additional   source   of   organic   matter   that   is   very   stable,   holds   a   great   deal  of  water  and  air  and  does  not  decompose  quickly.    Younger,  lighter-­‐colored  peat  moss  does  a   better  job  of  providing  air  space  than  older,  darker  peat  that  has  fewer  large  pores.      

A   5   to   6-­‐month   controlled   release   granular   fertilizer   20–   5–8   (N–P–K)   (The   Scotts   Company,   Marysville,  OH)  will  be  applied  on  the  top  of  substrate  at  a  rate  of  119  grams  (4.2  oz)  per  tree  upon   planting.    

Triple-­‐shredded  hardwood  bark  mulch  will  be  added  as  a  top  dressing  in  a  layer  2-­‐3”  thick.    The   mulch  will  help  with  moisture  retention  after  watering,  as   well  as  modulating  soil  temperature  and   providing   an   attractive,   groomed   appearance.     We   will   obtain   the   mulch   from   the   Stone   Barns   Center  for  Food  and  Agriculture.  

References:   o H.  Zhu,  C.R.  Krause,  R.H.  Zondag,  R.D.  Brazee,  R.C.  Derksen,  M.E.  Reding  and  N.R.  Fausey.    A   New  System  to  Monitor  Water  and  Nutrient  Use  in  Pot-­‐in-­‐pot  Nursery  Production  Systems.     USDA-­‐ARS,   Application   Technology   Research   Unit   Ohio   Agricultural   Research   and   Development  Center,  Wooster,  OH  44691.  J.  Environ.  Hort.  23(1):47-­‐53,  March  2005.   o Penn  State  Cooperative  Extension  publications   o Cornell  Cooperative  Extension  publications   o National   Sustainable   Agriculture   Information   Service   publications   (a   project   of   the   National   Center  for  Appropriate  Technology).   o American  Society  of  Landscape  Architects  publications.  

14 14


Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Tree  Planting   The  trees  will  be  planted  in  the  containers  such  that  their  trunk  flare  is  about  5”  below  the  top  of  the   container.    This  will  allow  the  addition  of  2-­‐3”  of  mulch  and  still  keep  the  overall  level  a  couple  of  inches   below  the  top  (making  it  easier  to  water  and  eliminating  overspill  of  mulch).    A  1.5  -­‐  2”  layer  of  native   washed  gravel  will  be  added  first  to  the  bottom  of  each  container,  to  ensure  that  drainage  holes  won’t   become   clogged.     The   container   substrate   will   be   custom-­‐mixed   for   us   by   the   Stone   Barns   Center   for   Food   and   Agriculture   according   to   the   specifications   described   above.     During   planting,   the   growth   substrate  will  be  added  in  lifts,  with  each  lift  being  watered  in  thoroughly  to  ensure  that  there  are  no  air   pockets.   Tree  Maintenance   During  the  first  growing  season,  the  trees  will  be  hand-­‐pruned  as  needed  to  ensure  that  they  have  the   best   possible   shape   going   forward.     Trees   will   be   watered   regularly   by   the   Irvington   Dept.   of   Public   Works.     Controlled-­‐release   granular   fertilizer   and   fresh   mulch   will   be   added   to   the   containers   each   spring.    The  Irvington  Consulting  Arborist,  Guy  Pardee  from  The  Care  of  Trees,  will  determine  the  best   time  to  apply  compost  tea  for  addition  of  beneficial  organisms  and  nutrients,  which  will  be  done  on  a   yearly  basis  starting  in  the  second  year  after  planting.     Trees  to  be  removed  in  order  to  implement  this  project  are:   North  Side  of  Main  Street:     •

A  large  Pin  Oak  tree  growing  into  the  wires  and  encroaching  on  the  Bank  façade,  but  otherwise  in   good  health.    This  is  the  one  that’s  in  the  best  condition  of  all  of  those  we’re  planning  to  remove,   but  realistically  the  small  tree  well  space  it’s  planted  in  will  not  accommodate  long-­‐term  healthy   growth  of  a  tree  this  large.  

Four  mature  Callery  Pear  trees,  all  poorly  pruned  with  evidence  of  having  lost  major  leaders,  all   growing  in  the  wires,  and  several  with  trunk  damage  from  conflicts  with  cars.    All  of  these  trees   would  have  to  be  removed  by  the  Village  anyway  over  a  fairly  short  time  horizon  since  they’re  all  in   decline.  

Two  relatively  small  oak  trees  planted  more  recently.    Both  are  in  poor  shape,  one  has  already  been   topped,  and  bark  tears  are  evident  on  both.    Neither  have  good  prospects  for  surviving  even  to  the   10-­‐year  mark.  

A  medium-­‐sized  cherry  tree  in  decline,  with  broken  branches,  evidence  of  poor  pruning,  rot  at  the   base  and  a  significant  lean  towards  the  adjacent  building.    

South  Side  of  Main  Street:   •

One  medium-­‐sized  Littleleaf  Linden  tree  that  is  just  beginning  to  grow  into  the  wires,  with  a   significant  and  unhealed  bark  split  extending  for  about  3  feet  along  the  trunk.  

One  mature  Callery  Pear  with  a  recent  wound  from  a  broken  branch  that  was  never  properly   cleaned.    Evidence  of  improper  pruning  cuts  and  removal  of  leaders  in  the  past.    This  tree  would   have  to  be  removed  by  the  Village  in  a  relatively  short  time  horizon  because  it’s  in  visible  decline.  

One  medium-­‐sized  Maple  tree  that  has  been  topped  and  even  so  is  growing  into  the  wires.    Bark   damage  at  the  base.    Maples  cannot  survive  being  topped,  and  this  species  of  tree  is  too  large  to  be   able  to  sustain  healthy  growth  in  the  restricted  space  it’s  been  planted  in.  

 

15 15


Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Project  Budget:  Reimbursement  from  NYS  DEC   MATERIALS   •

12  small  ornamental  trees,  approximately  1.5  –  2”  caliper  or  about  6’  tall,  including  two   ‘Stellar  Pink’  Rutgers  Hybrid  dogwood,  two  multistemmed  Serviceberry,  two  multistemmed   Cornelian  cherry  dogwood,  two  ‘Winter  King’  Hawthorne  and  four  ‘Canada  Red’   chokecherry.  

12  aboveground  planters,  exact  style  and  supplier  TBD,  sufficiently  large  to  accommodate  a   small  tree,  weatherproof,  and  sturdy  enough  to  withstand  the  occasional  conflict  with   bumpers  

1  cu  yd  of  custom  soil  mix  for  each  planter,  for  a  total  of  12  cu  yd.    This  soil  mix  should  be   sourced  locally  and  include  compost  with  documented  composition.  

2  cu  yd  of  triple  shredded  composted  hardwood  mulch  in  total,  a  2-­‐3”  layer  of  which  will  be   added  to  each  planter  to  facilitate  moisture  retention  and  foster  overall  soil  health.  

 

MATERIALS  TOTAL:  

 

 

 

Trees    

 

$2,340  

 

Planters  

 

$10,800  

 

Soil  

 

 

$1,080  

 

Mulch    

 

$    120  

 

 

 

 

Paid  Labor  Costs  

 

 

 

 

 

$14,340  

 

 

 

 

$5,500  

 

 

 

Village  Tree  Care  Contractor  to  remove  and  dispose  of  existing  trees    

  Transportation  Costs     •

 

 

Shipping  and  delivery  costs  for  planters  

 

 

 

 

$  300  

 

 

$20,140  

 

   

 

 

 

REIMBURSEMENT  TOTAL:  

16 16


Irvington  Main  Street  Trees  –  Pilot  Project  

February  2011  

Project  Budget:  Matching  Funds   Paid  Labor  Costs  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Village  DPW  employees  to  receive,  store  and  move  containers  as  needed.  

Village  DPW  workers  to  prepare  the  tree  well  sites  for  planter  placement.  

Village  DPW  employees  to  water  trees  during  the  first  2  years  after  planting.  

Transportation ��Costs     •

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$  380  

 

 

 

 

 $1,470  

 

 

$3,600  

Shipping  and  delivery  costs  for  soil,  mulch  and  trees  

Professional  Services  for  Tree  Planting    

 

Landscape  Designer/Arborist  to  select  trees  at  wholesale  Nursery  

Professional  landscaping  crews  to  plant  and  mulch  trees  

Professional  Services  for  Site  Landscape  Design  and  Planning     •

$7,280  

Landscape  Designer/Arborist  to  act  as  Project  Manager,  including  site  design,  scheduling,   supervising  the  planting  and  putting  together  informational  flyers  

Grant  Administration    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$3,010  

Costs  for  Educational  Resources     to  enable  the  Tree  Commission  to  enhance  the  spread  of  knowledge    

 

$  400  

Photo  diary  that  tracks  the  project  from  its  beginning  through  the  first  two  years  of  planting   with  accompanying  text.  

Printing  informational  flyers  for  fundraising.  

Cash  Contributions  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From  residents  and/or  merchants  

Tree  fund:  fines  assessed  in  the  last  year  for  violations  of  the  Tree  Code   MATCHING  FUNDS  TOTAL:  

 

 

$4,000  

 

$20,140  

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Irvington Urban Forestry Grant Application