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Web-based wind prospecting application Created by AWS Truewind’s MesoMap system, windNavigator is an interactive tool that allows for exploration and purchase via the Internet of highly accurate and detailed wind resource maps, and data for the conterminous US. Along with an unprecedented level of accuracy, windNavigator provides flexible purchasing options geared toward diverse end-users and various phases of project development. Unlike previously published maps, the program also covers all the lower 48 states – with Alaska and Hawaii soon to follow, along with other countries. Explains the company’s chief technical officer, Michael Brower: “These are not the same maps the public has seen before. In creating windNavigator, we applied a sophisticated errorcorrection procedure using data from over 1,000 wind-monitoring towers across the country.” AWS Truewind, LLC |

Pneumatic wrench with sealed housing The Raptor pneumatic wrench runs fastest when it counts – during actual torque. Accommodating torque needs from 120 ft/lbs to 6,000 ft/lbs with an accuracy of +/- 5%, the Raptor works with a variety of applications, and ranges in five sizes from the RP-500 to the RP-6000. After studying issues with typical pneumatic wrenches, the Raptor’s manufacturers saw that other pneumatics allow water into the body, which creates rust, friction, and eventual failure. To prevent water damage, the Raptor is designed with a sealed housing that ensures reliability, less downtime, and fewer repairs. It also comes with a patented gear technology and a custom-designed motor for the heavy industrial sector, allowing for greater durability, lower operational temperatures, and increased efficiency. TorcUP |

Safeguarding wind energy products during storage and transit



During storage and in transit, Dr. Shrink’s premium shrinkwrap provides protection from weather damage to ensure hubs, gearboxes, and blades are in proper working condition when arriving at their final destination. Unlike tarps which can move and chafe, shrinkwrap stays in place and won’t damage the covered products. Thoroughly waterproof, it can be sealed around entire equipment units to help prevent weather-related losses, and is available in widths of 12' to 40', and thicknesses of 6-10mils and 12mil.



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wind energy

Get blown away by the Power of One. Composites One. Kvtu!pof!dbmm!up!Dpnqptjuft!Pof!qvut!zpv!jo! upvdi!xjui!xjoe!fofshz!fyqfsut!xip!dbo!ifmq! dpnqpofout/!Boe!jg!zpv!bsf!jo!offe!pg!hmbtt!

C3 Anemometer with Measnetcertified calibration Designed to provide exceptionally accurate wind-speed measurements, the Measnet Calibrated C3 anemometer from Second Wind is calibrated at the Svend Ole Hansen ApS wind tunnel in Denmark – one of only seven facilities in the world approved to calibrate to Measnet standards. Previously, customers who required this assurance have had to place special orders, or purchase the anemometer and send it to a Measnet facility. Second Wind is the only US supplier to offer a standard calibration option, according to the company. Second Wind |

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Liquid-cooled frequency converter for harsh wind conditions



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ABB’s AC drive combines advanced technology and enclosed cabinet design while featuring a compact size, modular construction, high output quality, and remote diagnostics and control. The active and passive power-converting components and controlling electronics are liquidcooled, and completely enclosed with no air inlet or outlet openings. This ensures that harsh ambient conditions do not infiltrate the cabinet, that the environment inside remains free of dust, salt, and extreme temperatures, and that the electronics remain stabilized. From 1.5 MW upwards, a full converter system can also be configured from two or three individual subsystems, which can be operated together, or one at a time. This approach not only provides redundancy, but also the freedom to choose the optimum location of the frequency converter within a turbine system. ABB |

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wind news briefs Barriers to US wind energy Transmission issues and federal policy are the greatest barriers to the development of wind energy in the United States, according to a poll conducted by NRG Systems, Inc., a wind measurement equipment manufacturer, at the American Wind Energy Association’s WINDPOWER 2008 Conference and Exhibition held in June. More than 400 conference attendees participated in the poll, and 37% of respondents believe that transmission or interconnection issues pose the greatest barrier to wind development in the US; 34% see US policy as the next greatest barrier. Financing issues, supply chain constraints, and public attitudes toward wind energy were of much less concern. Nearly all of those asked (92%) expect their company sales to increase in the next year, with 36% expecting to see sales grow by 25% to 50%. These projections come on the heels of a US Department of Energy report stating that wind energy can provide 20% of the nation’s electricity by 2030, which would require unprecedented growth in the industry.

NaREC to develop wind energy campus UK-based New and Renewable Energy Centre (NaREC) announced that it will spearhead an aggressive initiative for developing sustainable and renewable energy by building the world’s largest wind energy research and development facilities. By dedicating a comprehensive range of independent facilities for wind R&D, the campus will provide the world’s only confidential platform for developing wind turbines above the current 5MW benchmark. NaREC’s progressive proposition also includes the world’s largest blade testing facility, which will be capable of testing wind turbine blades up to 100m in length. Engineering teams, manufacturers, and operators will have the opportunity to utilize all of NaREC’s facilities and resident team of wind technology specialists. These plans are synergistic with the UK government’s ambitious efforts to generate 15% of the country’s electricity from renewable resources by 2020.

Wire and cable acquisition cost management program American Wire Group, Inc. (AWG) officially opened enrollment to their wire and cable cost savings, and product management program. The Best

Alliance to a Negotiated Agreement, or BANA program, reduces costs in the wire and cable spend by combining several companies purchases of the same product and size, and passing on the volume cost efficiencies. “We see the industry segment needs real solutions to help contain copper and aluminum price volatility, and help to develop contingencies of supply in a volatile market,” commented Michael Dorfman, vice president of American Wire Group. Offered on a membership basis, members are targeted to save 5-15% on the wire and cable spend in the first year of participation, and an additional 5% each year thereafter. There is no annual fee, but members must first qualify to join.

partners of the wind sector (including CanWEA and the CORUS Centre), as well as Helimax as representative of the private sector. WESNet’s research objective is to affirm and reinforce Canadian wind energy expertise on the international

level. In the context of its five-year mandate, the network will complete R&D activities falling under four themes: wind resource assessment; harvesting of wind energy; wind energy in electrical power systems; and technoeconomic models and optimization.

Wind turbine industry steps up to global demand The wind turbine industry finds itself in a crucial transition period as it races to catch up with booming global demand for wind power (which surged to nearly 20 GW in annual installations during 2007), and is on track to more than double within a decade, led by rapid growth in the US and China. Emerging Energy Research (EER) expects global installed wind base to grow more than fivefold from its 2007 total of 94 GW, to more than 576 GW by 2020. As a result of this booming demand, competition for wind turbine orders has moved from project-driven, national agreements, to multi-year frame agreements spanning several regions. These orders increasingly focus on supply of multi-megawatt turbines as the global wind market has made a steady shift toward 1.5 MW and larger turbines, encouraging a number of new suppliers to enter, according to EER’s just-released market study, Global Wind Turbine Markets and Strategies 2008-2020.

Canada’s Wind Energy Strategic Network (WESNet) research fund A strategic wind energy research and development network has recently been created with the financial support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC). With financing of $5M over five years, Wind Energy Strategic Network (WESNet) brings together 16 Canadian universities, federal (including NRCan and EC) and provincial (including Hydro-Québec and Manitoba Hydro) agencies, institutional North American Clean Energy

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investing in clean energy

Power purchase agreements the driving force behind the commercial solar market

Philip H. Spector is a tax partner in the New York office of Troutman Sanders LLP where he and the firm’s renewable energy team regularly advise developers, utilities, lenders and equity investors in a wide variety of asset finance transactions in the energy industry.

by Philip H. Spector

s America’s love affair with renewable energy begins to blossom, the ordinary homeowner can legitimately consider installing solar panels on his rooftop to reduce energy costs, and his personal “carbon footprint.” While many have taken the step or are working energy efficiencies into the design of new homes, most homeowners still find the costs of solar rooftop projects too high to justify the longterm economic and moral benefits. Why, then, have numerous big corporations like Wal-Mart, Kohl’s, Macy’s, Walgreens and Staples embraced solar PV rooftop installations for their retail stores, warehouses and distribution centers? And why have so many municipalities and school districts decided to have solar PV installed on the rooftops of their administrative buildings and schools? What makes solar economical for them? A good part of the answer is the “power purchase agreement.” Unlike homeowners, big box retailers and municipalities are not buying and installing their solar energy panels. Instead, they are merely buying the power generated by the panels. Under the financing model that has emerged as a predominant method for commercial installations, the building owner lays out no capital expenditure for the solar sys-


tem. Instead, owners agree to purchase the power generated by the system under a long-term “power purchase agreement” or “PPA.” The PPA requires a service provider to design, procure, install and maintain a solar PV panel system on the owner’s rooftop. The owner agrees to purchase the power generated by the system for a period of years (typically 10 to 25 years) at a scheduled rate that is less than the rate charged by the local utility. Typically, the system will produce 30 to 60 percent of a particular building’s power requirements. Aside from the obligation to purchase the power delivered, the owner is obligated to give the service provider access to the premises for installation and maintenance, and is required to cooperate in obtaining available grants, subsidies, and interconnection with the local utility. From the owner’s perspective, the benefits of the PPA model are clear: the owner has no capital outlay for the system; the owner locks in a fixed rate (or a rate with an inflation or other agreed adjuster) for a defined portion of its power requirements for a long period of time; the owner can look to the service provider to provide all maintenance and operations for the system; and the owner achieves positive “green” public relations.

Largely because of the Power Purchase Agreement, big corporations like Wal-Mart, Kohl’s, Macy’s, Walgreens and Staples have all embraced the benefits of solar PV rooftop installations for their retail stores, warehouses and distribution centres. 30

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The owner in effect “goes green” with no upfront cost and achieves a long-term hedge against rising energy costs. Many retailers and other owners of suitable buildings have found this combination of benefits quite attractive. And owners with a volume of properties can readily achieve economies of scale by replicating the model over hundreds of properties. Various service providers (or “developers”) have emerged as popular choices for commercial end-users, including companies such as SunEdison and SunPower. By focusing on creditworthy endusers with a large volume of suitable flatroofed properties, such providers achieve volume and economies of scale that allow them to obtain third-party financing for their projects. The PPA serves as the backbone of this financing, constituting a long-term predictable stream of revenue (power sales) from a credit-worthy entity (the end-user). As long as the underlying PPA credit is good and the bank is comfortable that the project will be operated and maintained properly, banks and other financiers will finance projects that produce such a revenue stream. While a single project on a single residential rooftop will not get the attention of financiers, multiple projects aggregated into a single program do find an audience. This is why some developers have sought to enter into PPA contracts with high-quality credits and a high volume of rooftop space. By aggregating many rooftop projects into a single fund, the transaction becomes large enough to justify the resources required to complete it. Better still, the combination of a high volume of transactions and multiple quality credit end-users provides the financiers with a diversification of credit they find attractive. Even in the currently tight credit market, many large national and regional banks have evaluated and financed aggregated commercial rooftop PV programs for major developers. Investment in and financing of solar projects (and other renewables) has withstood the pressure of the current credit environment for several reasons. Some investors and banks are under pressure to achieve internal benchmarks for reduction of their “carbon footprint” and investment in renewable energy.

Equally important, various federal and state incentives allow these transactions to generate attractive returns. Under the typical PPA, the end-user cedes these incentives to the service provider and/or its financiers. Another reason why this market is thriving: some states now offer outright grants and subsidies for qualified investments. The majority of states have enacted “renewable portfolio standards” (“RPS”) requiring regulated utilities to derive a specified portion of their energy from renewable sources. This has created a market for “renewable energy credits or certificates” (or “RECs”) – commodities that reflect the environmental attributes associated with renewable energy generation. RECs allow electric consumers, wholesalers and utilities to purchase “green power” on a notional basis without regard to the specific source of the generation. Many states also permit utilities to use REC purchases to satisfy RPS requirements. Commercial solar PV projects generate RECs that add a valuable source of revenue for repayment of financing. At the federal level, the owner of a qualifying solar facility is eligible for a 30 percent investment tax credit. The ability of the developer or financier to claim the credit effectively provides another source of cash flow from a commercial PV solar project. Without these incentives, financing solar projects might not be feasible. Presently, the 30 percent investment tax credit will expire at the end of 2008, and Congress is under considerable pressure to enact legislation to extend it. The PPA model has found a home in the commercial and municipal sector, which provides a combination of large volume rooftops and creditworthy power-purchasers. For developers, financing from major institutions most often results from the ability to aggregate projects to achieve transaction size and economies of scale, as well as attract high-quality end-users. When and how will this model find application in the residential sector? Many believe the utilities will have a hand in this development. Stay tuned. Troutman Sanders LLP

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Geothermal show 2008

GEA Geothermal Trade Show 2008 October 5-8, 2008 Peppermill Hotel & Casino Reno, Nevada Show in Print Features just some of the companies and technologies attendees will see at this year’s show. In cooperation with the GEA, The Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) will host their Annual Meeting during this year's show. Visit for more information about the GRC. Every year, the Geothermal Energy Association’s Trade Show hosts a wide range of companies from the US and abroad within the geothermal power industry. With dramatic growth underway in geothermal power projects nationally and internationally, the 2008 GEA Geothermal Trade Show is expected to be the largest event to date.

Cryogenic equipment Part of the Linde group, Cryostar specializes in cryogenic rotating machinery equipment for applications in industrial and natural gas, and for biogas liquefaction plants. The company recently expanded its activities with the development of its Lo-C (low carbon) products line, and is now offering expertise for CO2free power generation (pressure-let-down, geothermal, waste heat recovery, etc.) with a full range of turbo expanders. Cryostar’s installed base comprises over 130 radial inow turbines and more than 60 MW installed globally, including 20 machines on natural gas distribution networks. Recently, at the Unterhaching geothermal project (in Germany), Cryostar played a crucial role by supplying a TG-500 expansion turbine – capable of producing up to 3.7 MW electricity – and which is adapted to the Kalina-based power plant cycle. In Soultz-sous-Forêts (France), Cryostar supplied a TG-400 unit for the Hot Dry Rock ORC project, which is capable of producing 2.5 MW electricity. Both of these turbines were adapted from the existing Cryostar range of turbogenerators. Cryostar |

Vaccuum pumps, compressors, and steam jet ejectors Downhole cameras and calipers

Gardner Denver Nash is a global, preeminent supplier of gas removal systems for geothermal power plants, with over 100 years of experience designing and manufacturing liquid ring vacuum pumps, compressors, and steam jet ejectors. As every geothermal resource and plant site is unique, each system is engineered for maximized performance and prolonged resource life. The company has over 90 geothermal installations operating around the world, many for over 20 years. Gardner Denver Nash |

Expro America’s Wireline Intervention portfolio includes a range of downhole camera systems and Kinley calipers. The camera systems offer operators a cost-effective way to see downhole. Downhole video is a proven technology, and over 5,000 video surveys have been successfully run in a wide range of oil and gas well conditions. Kinley calipers, which have been providing the oil industry with caliper data since 1913, are cost-effective and 100% mechanical – making them the only tool available for high temperature (600°F) high pressure (20,000psi) work. Expro Americas LLC

See Expro’s innovation in a new light The 6IEW-AX sideview camera is Expro’s latest development in high resolution downhole video technology. ViewMax’s ground-breaking technology provides the capability to view either straight down the well or to the side with a full 360-degree rotation view. It can be used in openhole or cased hole conditions and provides operators with rapid diagnosis of their problems. Find out more from EXPROGROUPCOM

The Viewmax downview image shows the position of three holes in a foggy gas environment.

The sideview images reveal much more and allow a rapid diagnosis.

Solutions for well-field and cooling systems Nalco is a global leader in water and process chemical treatment services, creating value for customers by offering differentiated solutions that are ďŹ nancially, technically, and environmentally sustainable. For the geothermal industry, Nalco provides solutions for well-ďŹ eld, process, and cooling system problems associated with deposits, corrosion, and emission problems. Nalco |


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show in print Geothermal pump column and thread 101 Pipe & Casing, Inc. has adapted a classic oil field 8 round thread to work on standard line pipe, as geothermal wells often operate at lower depths and in more aggressive conditions than standard water wells. Stronger and more forgiving than comparable 8V thread, the 8 round thread keeps costs down and allows for seamless integration between all other equipment. As the outside diameters of oil field pipe differ from standard line pipe, using oil field pipe can become problematic when water well pumps and heads come in standard line pipe sizes. Pipe length is another critical dimension that differs between water well and oil field pipes. Designed to meet each of these criteria, 101 Pipe & Casting has perfected the length of thread as well as the length of pipe, and their Geothermal Pump Column is engineered to be made up to very specific lengths to match the oil lubricated Tube & Shaft, which drives the pumps. 101 Pipe & Casing, Inc.

Engineering solutions for geothermal

Valve actuators for asset management Rotork’s IQ Pro electric, non-intrusive valve actuators include a powerful data-logging feature that monitors valve performance so users can forecast when valve maintenance might be required, and manage assets for maximum productivity. IQ Pro actuators are particularly useful in harsh, geothermal steam and hot water environments where valves become sticky due to seat wear and bearing contamination caused by corrosion and erosion. IQ Pro allows users to track valve characteristics over time, and store historical and current operating data including valve torque profiles, number of operations, valve and actuator positions, as well as performance and operational statistics. Users can download data wirelessly by pointing an intrinsically safe Rotork IQ Pro setting tool at the actuator, and can upload data to virtually any laptop PC or desktop computer. Rotork |


WELL. 101 is Second to None. 101 Pipe & Casing has been an industry leader in stocking, manufacturing and fabricating prime carbon and stainless steel pipe products since 1986. Find out what our customers already know – 101 puts it all together and keeps water wells flowing. Designed Specifically for Geothermal Wells: • Pump column

As an engineering firm with expertise in geothermal power, as well as wind, solar and various other kinds of electrical power projects, the POWER Engineers team can provide a range of solutions including conceptual and detailed design, capital cost estimates, generation feasibility assessments, site assessments, advanced controls and communications systems, as well as field engineering. Recent projects include the Kalina cycle geothermal plant in Iceland and the Las Pailas geothermal project in Costa Rica, as well as a recently completed 12 MW turnkey wind farm project in Ireland. POWER Engineer’s additional geothermal capacity credits include more than 400 MW of efficient, clean new generation in countries including Turkey, Mexico, Kenya, the U.S., Indonesia, and the Philippines.

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800.332.9101 •

POWER Engineers

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geothermal energy

Western States Lead the World in Geothermal Electricity Production Geothermal hot spots paving the way for US to become energy independent By Leslie Blodgett Desert Peak 2 in Churchill County, Nevada, has a total of 11 MW generating capacity. Photo courtesy of Ormat Nevada Inc.

olcanoes in Washington, hot springs in Alaska, deserts in Nevada…what do they all have in common? Each of these features of nature


veils the power of geothermal energy beneath the surface. In a time when communities, individuals, investors, and governments are beginning to recognize the life-saving merits of renewable energy and are seeking out ways to offset the effects of climate change – with this save-the-earth mentality – what better source to turn to than the earth itself? With strong state policies promoting renewable energy production, growing concerns about global warming, and higher energy prices, this year has seen a surge of new development. There are projects underway in over a dozen states, including those that have had no previous geothermal power production. Technology advancement has paved the way for a range of new projects, from small-scale lower temperature power to enhanced geothermal system (EGS) demo projects. Together, projects now under development will represent over $11 billion in new investment. A strong starting base

Across the west, geothermal hot spots sprinkle the map. Though much of the potential resource has, as of yet, remained untapped, some states, like California and Nevada, have gained reputations as the largest suppliers of geothermal energy in the country, and in the world. A giant in the US geothermal energy world is The Geysers field in northern California. The largest geothermal development in the world, it has been in operation since 1960 and provides power to several counties. Calpine Corporation operates the majority of the power plants at The Geysers today. Near Reno, Nevada, is another firmly established crossroads in the geothermal world. Ormat Nevada Inc. operates the Steamboat complex, which added a new plant, Galena III, in May. Strong, stable geothermal fields, like The Geysers and Steamboat, are important models for the development and enhancement of new projects, showing the clear benefits of geothermal energy. Geothermal energy does not disrupt ecosystems and it is one of the only renewables considered to be a base-load power. It is economical in the long run, providing reliable electricity for consumers, and it is homegrown, which reduces dependence on foreign oil. “Tapping into the earth’s geothermal energy resources is a clean, green, renewable process that does not produce greenhouse gas emissions and does not consume a product on the earth,” says Dan Kunz, president and chief executive officer of US Geothermal, Inc., who is currently operating, developing, or exploring geothermal potential in three western states. 34

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projects under development in a dozen states across the west. Although technological advancements are providing opportunities for expansion in new areas, this would still be tapping only a fraction of what’s possible. As far back as 1978, a US Geological study found that US capacity for geothermal energy was between 95-100 GW. More recent studies by NREL and MIT estimate even

greater potential contributions from geothermal resources. “We are in the midst of a renaissance for developing geothermal power,” says Kunz. “The industry has gone through a lot of changes in recent years as the power production process has been refined and improved with new technology. Twenty years ago a number of geothermal plants were built, and then there was a

slowdown as years passed. Now, we are seeing resurgence in geothermal power production and the timing couldn’t be better. Meeting growing energy demands using cost-effective, renewable methods has never been more important.” Geothermal energy, the power of the earth, is here to stay. Geothermal Energy Association

The Galina III plant is the newest addition to the Steamboat geothermal complex near Reno, Nevada. Photo courtesy of the Geothermal Energy Association. Celeste Eisenberg of Ormat says, “The technology is established and is environmentally sound. As global demand increases and nations move toward cleaner, more cost-effective energy sources, the market opportunity becomes greater.” It’s with this in mind that investors are looking at the geothermal industry as the country’s new gold mine. “I think the real story is the way development companies are involved in a boom of investment and activity in conventional geothermal,” says Mark Taylor, an associate at New Energy Finance, who provides research for investors in renewable energy markets.


Off the beaten path: new regions and new technology

Other projects are springing up in areas that have not historically had a lot of geothermal development. These projects show that geothermal is a credible option in more areas than ever before. In Beaver, Utah, Raser Technologies just broke ground for the first geothermal power plant in Utah in 20 years. The planned geothermal power plant is anticipated to produce up to 11 MW of clean renewable energy this year alone. In Oregon, there are currently no electricity-producing plants, so the projects that have sprung up will be the first to win Oregon a place in geothermal history. The volcanic power underneath Newberry Crater is being drilled by Davenport Power and, in eastern Oregon, US Geothermal is drilling on the first full-size production well at the Neal Hot Springs Project. At Desert Peak, Nevada, the Department of Energy has invested over $5 million in the first application of EGS technology. The system applies high-pressure water to allow resources to be accessed at lower temperatures. Lastly, at Chena Hot Springs in Alaska, the Department of Energy is part of an effort to explore low temperature system possibilities. Blowing the top off

As of January 2008, the total online geothermal power capacity in the US was 2936.5 MW, according to the “Update on US Geothermal Power Production and Development” released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA). This same survey found over 3,000 MW of new power

Looking for green solutions? Look no further. POWER Engineers is just what the doctor ordered for relief from the anxiety of going green. Our plant design specialists have more than two decades of experience with green power; efficient, profitable, renewable and sustainable plants including geothermal, wind, solar thermal and CHP. Fast, effective and resourceful help is simply a phone call away. l 208.788.3456

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geothermal energy

Geothermal is the Future of Renewable Energy By Nicole Robson

s the world faces energy shortages and increasing demands for electricity from renewable resources versus the traditional coal, oil, and gas, geothermal energy is a valuable, largely untapped resource. Geothermal literally means, “Earth’s heat.” The earth’s heat naturally moves from hotter to cooler regions along a geothermal gradient, from the centre of the earth to the surface. Some of this heat is concentrated in the form of steam or hot water at temperatures and depths favorable to commercial extraction for the production of electricity. A geothermal plant simply converts the hot water to steam, and uses it to power a turbine. There are many benefits to geothermal energy because it is a base-load power – meaning that it is producing 24 hours a day, and unlike wind or solar energy, it has the ability to be turned on or shut down when needed. Geothermal power sources produce long-term revenues with no fuel costs and no dependency on outside factors such as oil and gas supply, and prices. Leaving only a small, ecological footprint, geothermal energy has minimal impact on the environment, and requires a relatively small area


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Harnessed vs Available – Source: Bertani, R “What is Prince Piero Ginori Geothermal Potential”, International Geothermal Association, Conti and the worlds first at geothermal power station of land for production. Plus, it produces virtually no air emissions compared to other renewables, which allows the land surrounding a geothermal plant to be used for agriculture, livestock, and hunting. Geothermal energy is a clean, renewable, and reliable resource that can be tapped by many countries around the world. It has been produced as far back as 1904 in Larderello, Italy, where, at present, they produce 10% of the geothermal energy worldwide. As of 2005, there was an installed capacity worldwide of 8,933.20 MW of electricity from geothermal, and a 2007 report issued by Glitnir Bank estimated geothermal potential worldwide at 148,800 MW – this would be enough energy to power over 119 million homes. Commercial scale projects are typically found along the Pacific Rim, and are common in areas such as Mexico, Japan, Western United States, and Chile. Currently, geothermal production in the US exceeds all other countries, and is concentrated mainly within the western states. Production can be found in six states including Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Utah, and Idaho, with New Mexico, Wyoming, and Oregon soon to be added to the list. As of January 2008, there was 2,936.5 MW of production operating online in the US, where California alone accounts for 2,541.3 MW. California has long been a supporter of renewable energies, driven by the State’s legislated Renewables Portfolio Standard Program (RPS), which requires a retail seller of electricity to purchase at least 20% of that electricity from renewable energy resources by the year 2010. The State government is actively considering increasing the RPS percentage to 33% by 2020. In 2006, approximately 15% of all electricity consumed in California came from renewables such as geothermal, wind, and small hydro. Geothermal is the largest non-hydro renewable energy source in California, and the state is home to the largest dry steam field in the world, The Geysers Field. With 21 geothermal power plants producing approximately 900 MW of electricity, current operators include Calpine, Ormat, CalEnergy, and Northern California Power Agency. New projects are being developed in The Geysers Field by Western GeoPower Inc. and Calpine, which could add up to an additional 100 MW of production. Another area on the Pacific Rim of fire with geothermal potential is in British Columbia. BC has not yet developed its potential for geothermal production; however, there is ongoing exploration at several locations. The Geological Survey of Canada has identified the Meager Volcanic Complex in BC as the best geothermal prospect in Canada. BC Hydro, British Columbia’s public power utility, recently completed an updated Resource Options Report of renewable energy potential in the province, which incorporated details on just four “conceptual” geothermal prospects. Subsequent to release of the report, an additional project was publicized and could be added to the conceptual category. Together, these geothermal projects total a maximum geothermal potential of some 1,550 MW according to resource estimates from BC Hydro and the project developers. Although British Columbia is a province rich in hydroelectric power resources, current power demand exceeds supply. As a result BC Hydro has been a net importer of energy for the past seven years. The province will require 1,200 MW of new capacity by 2010, increasing to over 4,000 MW by 2023. BC Hydro recently announced a call to the independent power producers (IPP’s) for 5,000 gigawatt hours of electricity from proven renewables such as geothermal, wind, solar, and hydro. This is the largest call for power since 2006 in the province, and marks further evidence of rising power demands. As the world focuses on how to lessen the impacts of global warming and combat the rising costs of oil, and gas, the tremendous untapped potential of geothermal energy will prove to play a significant role in finding an answer to the worldwide call for cleaner, sustainable energy sources. Western GeoPower Corp. |

CanGEA website change The Canadian Geothermal Energy Association’s website has changed, and is no longer Going forward, CanGEA’s website is

7/21/08 9:53:30 PM

waste to energy

Biogas-anaerobic digester system Synergy Biopower is a range of containerized, closed-loop turnkey power plant systems (150 kW to 500 kW) which run on biogas. These power plants use biogas created from manure and other farm by-products and waste in an anaerobic digester, generating electricity 24 hours a day, seven days a week for supply to a local power grid or farm operation, or both. Powerbase systems also recover valuable waste heat which can be utilized for various on farm-heating requirements. In farming applications, a Powerbase Biogas - Anaerobic Digester system will create a second stream of income, simplify manure handling, decrease electricity costs, reduce heating fuel costs, as well as reduce manure odor, water pollution, pathogens, weed seeds, and greenhouse gas emissions. The power generator site can be monitored and controlled remotely via interactive high-speed internet (ethernet, or wireless /satellite) connection. Plus, from its corporate headquarters, Powerbase can upload software revisions, download data streams of information, and control a vast array of switches, valves, contacts and equipment functions - enabling and disabling as

Nexterra wins multiple awards Nexterra Energy Corp., the Vancouver-based biomass gasification company whose technology converts waste biomass into clean burning “syngas”, recently received both the2008 Gowlings Clean Tech Award and the 2008 GLOBE Award for Technology Innovation and Application. The Gowlings award was presented at the 23rd annual CATA Alliance Innovation and Leadership Awards Gala held in Ottawa. (, and the Globe award was presented at GLOBE 2008, held this past spring in Vancouver ( Among Nexterra’s current projects, the company in partnership with Johnson Controls, recently completed construction of a cogeneration plant at the University of South Carolina. When fully operational later this year, the $20 million USC plant will provide 85% of the Columbia campus’ energy requirements using renewable, locally sourced wood residue. Nexterra Energy Corp.

required. From the site, field service personnel can access Powerbase’s main terminal and perform various systems diagnostics. Powerbase Energy Systems Inc. |

A “farm-placed” Synergy Biopower containerized system takes biogas produced in a digester to run engine generators for electricity production.

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VECOPLAN is a leading global manufacturer of preparation systems designed specifically for biomass feedstock pretreatment solutions. Size reduction is our specialty and we have designed and installed many systems worldwide, including thousands of shredding systems in North America. We are the preferred solution in many biofuel, bioenergy, fiber recovery and recycling applications. While shredding and size reduction is our focus, our systems approach enables us to provide complete, turnkey systems including automated sorting, conveying and separation technologies.

VECOPLAN systems can be found in sophisticated, commercial-scale RDF plants to lower-volume W-T-E pilot systems. Vecoplan is experienced in both American and European methods of biomass preparation, and is known for its rugged, unique, and proven shredding technology. Vecoplan pre-shredders and re-shredders offer a unique, patented cutting geometry which results in extremely low operational costs and produces a very homogenous particle consistency. Award-winning energy saving HiTorc™ drives provide more throughput per kilowatt than conventional shredders - maximizing net energy gains.

VECOPLAN designs pre-treatment shredders and systems for: Agricultural Crop Residues – stover and other cellulosic matter • Trees, Wood Residue and Green Wastes Energy Crops • MSW, Food Residue and Other Organics • Other Renewables ;dgBdgZ>c[dK^h^i

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waste to energy

Electro-reduction of carbon:

a new approach to CO2 arbon dioxide levels in the Earth’s atmosphere are currently registering as high as 395 parts per million. This is a full 40% higher than preindustrial levels of about 280 ppm (, February 23, 2008). Governments and industry are now scrambling to respond to the enormous output of CO2, which is pegged at about 80 million tonnes per day, worldwide. Carbon capture and storage technologies, which would allow us to continue relying on the smokestack model of industry, are being invested in heavily, despite criticism that it may prove ultimately impractical and prohibitively expensive. There may be another method for dealing with carbon dioxide however – one that creates resource by-products. At UBC’s Clean Energy Research Centre, professor emeritus Colin Oloman and his research partner Dr. Hui Li, have discovered a process – dubbed the Electro-chemical Reduction of Carbon – that essentially electrolyses carbon dioxide gas, converting it into a formic acid. This chemical can then be used in industrial applications, or potentially in fuel cells. “Recent laboratory work has shown that reduction of CO2 to formate (HCO2), may be carried out in a tricklebed continuous electro-chemical reactor under industrially viable conditions,” explains Oloman. “Presuming the problems of cathode stability and formate cross-over can be overcome, this type of reactor is proposed for the basis of commercial operation. In particular, the


Mantra principals, at their new lab space. From left to right, Larry Kristof and John Russel of Mantra, and Norman Chow and Joey Jung of Kemetco Research.

A bench-scale unit for the Electroreduction of carbon.

potential use of CO2 -derived fuels in so-called regenerative fuel cells holds interesting prospects for future energy systems.” The Electro-chemical Reduction of Carbon (ERC) is a patent pending process, and the license to the process has recently been acquired by Mantra Venture Group, a cleantech venture capital firm out of Vancouver, BC. In April 2008 Mantra leased laboratory space to develop and scale up the ERC process, alongside other sustainability-based technology projects. Oloman continues to be involved with the research and development of ERC, which at the end of its optimization phase, is aiming to process about 100 tonnes of CO2 per day, according to recently published

By Randyn Seibold

Formic acid is a basic element of many different industrial products and processes, and is one of the most potent organic acid bases. A future Mantra project could see fuel cells re-tooled to utilize formic acid as an energy carrier, and the company has recently acquired its own research facility in which to further R&D on what they are calling a potentially “game-changing” technology. “The ERC process is a significant shift from the idea of CCS (carbon capture and storage), which instead of trying to bury CO2, actually harnesses its useful properties,” says John Russell, Mantra’s VP of technology evaluation. “The ERC process essentially turns the current carbon dioxide management scenario from a very expensive waste to

Instead of trying to bury CO2, the ERC process harnesses its useful properties… report in a European industry journal, ChemSusChem, written by Oloman. The complete term for the process is “The Continuous Co-current Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide”. The basic premise of ERC is the treatment of carbon dioxide gas with electrical currents and water, reducing it to a solid formate, or liquid formic acid.

a productive, economical resource.” The research paper exploring the ERC process which was recently published in Europe’s ChemSusChem industry journal, notes that the electrochemical conversion of CO2 has been studied for over 100 years, with reference to the paper – Carbon Dioxide Chemistry: Environmental Issues, by W.M. Ayers, published in 1994. However, it is only recently that this research has been applied to the capture and control of the gas for the purposes of climate change mitigation. Mantra Venture Group hopes to have a commercial demonstration model of the ERC technology by the first quarter of 2009. Other projects the company is involved in include a process which would convert wood waste into cellulosic ethanol, as well as several projects in hydrogen and windpower, and a signal smoothing technology being developed at the University of Toronto, which converts raw power into “grid standard” electricity from various renewable energy sources, including at wind farms, tidal and geothermal installations. Mantra Venture Group


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Process creates mineral diesel from MSW

Rotary waste shredder The RG 70-XL industrial shredder is designed speciďŹ cally for processing waste materials for waste-to-energy, reclamation and recycling applications. These rotary waste shredders will handle paper and plastic waste, large extruder purgings and reject parts, trim scraps, baled or loose ďŹ lm, synthetic ďŹ bre, carpet, wood processing scrap, medical waste, and cardboard. The RG 70-XL features a larger rotor diameter and taller feed ram which dramatically improves the throughput and overall processing efďŹ ciency of bulky scrap materials, and other large dimension waste products. Units feature true dump and run operation, so entire containers of waste can be fed into its hopper. The hopper has a volume capacity of 10.25 cubic yards and a 70â€?x82â€? infeed opening, and its 25â€? diameter rotor has 84-126 cutting inserts. The RG 70-XL is powered by a 150-200 hp motor, turns at 125 rpms, and is fed by a 10-hp two speed hydraulic feed ram. VECOPLAN |

Using a proprietary technology called KDV, Israel-based Global Energy is currently commercializing a process which produces high-quality mineral diesel from Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW), including plastic, rubber, paper and cardboard. According to the company, the end product is a high-quality diesel fuel suitable for any of today’s engines. Besides MSW, the process can be applied to other industrial waste feedstocks including reďŹ nery residuals such as petcock, tar and parafďŹ n, used oil from engines, organic wastes, sewerage sludge, animal manures, and glycerin. Additionally, the process works for all types of waste biomass, including such items as the body plant of corn, sunowers and any other crop where signiďŹ cant amounts of biomass remain in the ďŹ eld after harvesting. The KDV process utilizes proprietary technologies developed by the German company, Alphakat Gmbh and its owner, Dr. Christian Koch. The diesel fuel end-product has cetane of over 60, as compared to normal diesel oil (52) and super diesel (56), which gives engines greater power and a quieter operation. And according to this company, because the end product is a mineral, the diesel does not require certiďŹ cation from car and engine manufacturers in Europe, provided it fulďŹ lls the EU Norm. Also, because the KDV-process-produced diesel is a biodiesel it is therefore eligible for tax beneďŹ ts in certain countries. KDV is processed using closed circulation, in which the added basic materials are mixed with a catalytic converter. The catalytic converter splits the molecular chains, and diesel fuel (steam) is released. Global Energy Inc. |



Waste heat recovery installed on dissolving tank exhausts Thermal Energy International Inc. (TEI) has announced that the company has begun installation at one location and entered into the ďŹ rst phase at another, of its FLU-ACE waste heat recovery technology on a dissolving tank exhaust. The Thermal Energy FLU-ACE system was recently installed in Quebec on the Thurso Mill’s dissolving tank exhaust, and according to the company, is recovering waste heat at an average rate in excess of 12 mmBTU/hr. At the second installation, the ďŹ rst phase has begun on the dissolving tank exhaust at a ďŹ ne paper mill in the northeastern US. According to TEI, a preliminarily study for the customer in 2007 estimated the capital investment of a FLUACEenergy recovery solution at approximately $3 million, with a simple payback of less than 1.5 years. “[The] successful FLU-ACE application on a dissolving tank exhaust opens a tremendous market for Thermal Energy, as hundreds of mills across North America have similar exhaust sources and can beneďŹ t from this solution,â€? said TEI President and CEO Tim Angus. Thermal Energy International Inc. |



Call toll-free: (877) 582-7800 201 East Shady Grove Road Grand Prairie, Texas 75050

Phone: (972) 790-7800 Fax: (972) 790-8733 North American Clean Energy

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waste to energy “Green Machine” for energy recovery from low temperature waste heat

ElectraTherm, Inc. recently announced the successful installation of its first commercial waste heat generator. The Elec-

traTherm Green Machine makes electricity from residual industrial heat that has, until now, gone to waste. Using patented heat and pressure recovery technology, ElectraTherm employs minimal heat (200 degrees F liquid) to generate fuel-free, emissions-free electricity at a very low cost: three to four cents per kW/hr during payback period, and under a penny/ kW hour thereafter. Testing of the 50kW ElectraTherm Green Machine, installed at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, by Gulf Coast Green Energy and ElectraTherm has exceeded expectations, reaching output well beyond its 50kW rating. “ElectraTherm has unlocked the power of recycling the largest source of renewa-

ble energy in the US – waste heat,” stated Richard Langson, CEO of ElectraTherm. “This technology has the power to increase electrical output at every fossil fuel burning power plant without burning oil, gas or coal, and without further pollution or damage to the environment.” The US Department of Energy reports that available waste heat sources exceed the current production of all other US renewable power sources combined – seven quadrillion Btu. With a subsidy-free payback period of three years or less, the implications on the world stage of a modular, scalable (50-500kW output) unit making electricity from unused, accessible heat are huge. ElectraTherm’s patented Twin Screw

Laser-based sensor for moisture detection Ideal for use in applications where methane is being extracted for transportation through pipelines and for conversion to biogas, such as from landfill applications, oil pipelines, pasturelands, forests and waste treatment plants, SpectraSensors TDL-based gas analyzer uses laser (light) absorption spectroscopy to

identify and measure one or more gases in a flow of mixed gases. According to the company, the ability of advanced, laserbased sensors to detect moisture, hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants in gases can help smooth the way for biogas as a resource for electric utilities. The SpectraSensors’ gas analyzer line is designed to provide extremely fast and accurate readings without expensive labor and replacement costs. This is because the gas is analyzed away from the stream in a sample cell. As the laser light passes

through the gas sample in the cell, the presence of any target gas is detected and its concentration measured. The patented technology that SpectraSensors employs in its gas analyzers is tunable diode laser (TDL) based absorption spectroscopy. This is an optical measurement technology used to detect moisture (H2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), Ammonia (NH3), Oxygen (O2) and others. SpectraSensors, Inc.

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Expander enables the Green Machine. According to the company, the expander is 1/10th the cost of a turbine as the energy block. And because the energy block generally constitutes 30 to 40 percent of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system cost, the ElectraTherm Green Machine costs approximately 30 percent less than any turbine ORC system. The unit operates without gearboxes or high end electronics required to synchronize a turbine to a generator. Plus, inline process lubrication eliminates oil pumps, filters, separator tanks, parasitic loads and maintenance issues usually associated with lubrication. ElectraTherm, Inc.

Plasma Gasification project potentially first of its kind in the US In May, Koochiching County, Minnesota announced the start of an extensive feasibility study for a Waste-To-Energy Plasma Gasification Project. The project is named the Renewable Energy Clean Air Project (RECAP), and its goal is to convert municipal solid wastes (MSW) to a renewable energy source in an environmentally sound manner. Plasma Gasification will be used to convert the organic materials in the MSW into a synthetic gas that can be used for energy use. And unlike other waste-to-energy solutions, this project would not produce byproducts that would need to be landfilled. If the project proceeds, it will be one of the first of its kind in the United States. The feasibility study will independently review all aspects of the project including environmental impacts and emissions, operational performance, and economic viability. If the county decides to proceed, the demonstration project will process over 100 tons per day of MSW using all of Koochiching County’s waste, and waste from neighboring counties in northern Minnesota. One possible user of the synthetic gas produced is a nearby paper mill located in International Falls. Heading the preliminary design work for the gasification reactor and torch design is Westinghouse Plasma Corporation, who is owned by Alter Nrg, a firm based in Calgary. The developer and project manager, Coronal, LLC anticipates taking the knowledge and system efficiencies learned from this demonstration project to build other new and larger projects in the US and internationally. According to the EPA, the US alone dumps over 140 million tons of MSW, consisting largely of organic materials, into landfills each year. Coronal, LLC | Westinghouse Plasma Corp.

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biomass & biofuels High capacity grain processor Haybuster recently debuted their new high capacity GP-50 Grain Processor, which has been built with the proven grinding technology of the Haybuster H-1100 tub grinder, but with added capacity. According to Haybuster, the GP-50 has just completed three years of testing and will be available in limited quantities for the remainder of 2008. Al Goehring, Marketing Manager for Haybuster, stated: “It is the result of many modifications to existing technology specifically designed around the demands, desires, and requests of those

that will be using the equipment on a daily basis.” The GP-50 is standard as a PTOdriven machine, but can easily be converted to electric motor drive. Units will grind all types of grain, and can be used in applications such as grinding corn for ethanol production. The GP-50 utilizes hammermill technology to provide a finer product as opposed to a rollermill. The unit’s recommended horsepower requirement is 200 to 300 hp, and a 50-inch (127cm) hammermill is fitted with triple ham-

mers (132 hammers) placed in a spiral V pattern for increased grinding capacity. A variable speed hydraulic folding stacking conveyor carries product away from the hammermill and belly auger. Haybuster / DuraTech Industries

Tractor-pulled mobile chipping machine Designed for the treatment of forest wood residue, the tractor-pulled CHIPPO 500 is the first in a new generation of mobile chipping machines from Komptech and the very first one designed for drive power up to 500 hp (370 kW). The CHIPPO uses a gripper for grabbing material, two horizontal and two vertical rollers, together with a steel element belt, all of which work to reliably transport pre-compressed material to the unit’s rotor. A load-dependent controller regulates feed proportional to the drum speed and minimizes stop and start phases. Shrubbery as well as branch and tree-top material is pulled in continuously, without a noticable drop in rotation speed. The high rotation speed of the drum (560 rpm) ensures high throughput, and a fill volume of 120 cubic metres per hour is possible. These machines also handle wood trunks, and with the press of a button, switch to conveyor belt discharge, making more power available to the chipping process. At the same time, the drum rotation speed can be set to 400 rpm, maximizing shredding power. The entire chipping process is geared towards the production of high-quality wood chippings that conform to the norm. Komptech GmbH |

Algae technology recycles smokestack CO2 GreenFuel’s algae farms are designed to profitably recycle the GHG carbon dioxide found in industrial smokestack emissions. Algae that are cultured, grown, harvested, dewatered, dried, and extracted using the company’s methods can be a valuable ingredient in feeds, foods, and fuels, and especially in algae biodiesel. According to GreenFuel, unlike other energy crops,100% of algae biomass can be converted into valuable products, and it can be at least 20 times as productive as corn or soy, growing year round and harvested daily. Although algae farms need hundreds to thousands of hectares of land adjacent to their CO2 sources, they do not need agricultural land or clean water. GreenFuel recently closed a $13.9M venture capital round led by Access Private Equity, Draper Fisher Jurvetson, and Polaris Venture Partners. The company intends to use these funds to prepare for algae farm technology development and scaling projects during 2008. “GreenFuel’s algae farming technologies are advancing in our 100m2 bioreactors, but they are not yet fully developed or scaled. ...we expect to announce signed development and scaling projects, the arrival of our scaling CEO, and the raising of a strategic C round. These announcements will mark successful completion of our seven-step Interim Plan, begun in June 2007. GreenFuel Technologies Corporation |

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biomass & biofuels

The impact of ethanol on world oil prices by John M. Urbanchuk, Director, LECG LLC

iofuels have come under withering attack in recent months. Critics contend that federal government-mandated use of ethanol and biodiesel made from grain and vegetable oil is driving up commodity prices, damaging the livestock, dairy and poultry industries, and prompting sharp increases in domestic and world food prices. Critics also charge that biofuels damage the environment and do little to ease dependence on foreign petroleum.


The reality is something altogether different. Commodity prices have indeed reached record levels, and retail level food prices have been increasing faster than the inflation rate. But ethanol is only one of the many factors behind high commodity prices, which include record world oil prices, strong demand for food and energy from China and India, a weak US dollar, bad weather in major commodity-producing and exporting countries, and speculation. In short, biofuels play a relatively minor role in the spike in commodity prices.

World Ethanol Production (Million Gallons) 2004 2005 3,403.9 3,905.1 3,874.0 4,244.9 658.0 747.1 924.7 924.7 325.5 290.6 1,560.3 1,599.9 10,746.4 11,712.2

US Brazil EU-27 China India All Others WORLD

2006 4,857.2 4,710.4 898.2 937.9 435.9 1,750.2 13,589.8

2007 6,487.7 5,958.1 951.1 990.8 647.3 1,907.1 16,942.1

Source: F.O. Licht, EIA

2008 8,926.0 6,895.6 1,195.1 1,017.2 607.7 1,727.2 20,368.7

2008 Share 43.8% 33.9% 5.9% 5.0% 3.0% 8.5% 100.0%

Cumulative Share 43.8% 77.7% 83.5% 88.5% 91.5% 100.0%

Critics generally fail to recognize that biofuels are increasingly important to enlarging the supply of motor fuel and reducing pressure on world crude oil supplies. The increasing global demand for oil, combined with constrained global production, means that a relatively small shortfall in the oil supply can translate into significant short-term price increases. According to the UK research firm F.O. Licht, global production of ethanol is projected to reach 20.4 billion gallons (485 million barrels) this year. In terms of energy content, 485 million barrels of ethanol are the equivalent of 320 million barrels of gasoline. So, if this ethanol were not available for use, the world’s refiners would need an additional 1.9 million barrels of crude oil per day (700 million barrels), or 2.2 percent of current world production. A gap of even this small magnitude would likely result in a short-term price increase of about 27.5 percent, which would push crude oil prices up as much as $36 per barrel to more than $167 per barrel.

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World ethanol production has nearly doubled in just the last five years. The two largest producers – the US and Brazil – account for nearly 78 percent of global ethanol production. A large share of the growth in global ethanol production is attributable to government policies aimed at improving energy security and combatting rising oil and gasoline prices, which have displeased consumers and bloated trade deficits. And global ethanol production is expected to continue growing as world crude oil prices remain high. The market for ethanol in the US has benefitted from the decision made by refiners to voluntarily remove MTBE (an oxygenate found to contaminate ground water supplies) from the market, and from the Renewable Fuels Standard provisions of recent federal energy legislation. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires that 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels – largely ethanol – be used in the nation’s motor fuel supply by 2022. This will amount to nearly 30 percent of motor fuel use. The Renewable Fuels Association says the US ethanol industry currently has the capacity to produce more than 8.5 billion gallons of ethanol annually. Plants that would account for an additional 5.1 billion gallons are currently under construction and will be producing within a few years. Ethanol does expand the quantity of gasoline available to consumers around the world. However, since ethanol has a lower energy content than gasoline, there is not a one-to-one substitution of one for the other. The btu content of ethanol is about two-thirds that of gasoline (76,330 btu/gal for ethanol compared to 116,090 for gasoline). It seems clear that the only realistic avenue available, for consuming nations that have to reduce the impact of skyrocketing oil and motor fuel prices, is to increase supply. Since the American Congress continues to refuse to authorize drilling in domestic crude oil reserves such as the Arctic National Wildlife Reserve (ANWR), or offshore, biofuels represent an increasingly important tool for expanding fuel supplies and moderating prices. LECG, LLC |

7/21/08 9:53:46 PM

Commissioning begins on first cellulosic ethanol demonstration-scale plant in US

Whole tree chipper geared for biomass

Verenium Corporation, a company involved in the development of next-generation cellulosic ethanol and high-performance specialty enzymes, announced recently that it has begun the commissioning phase at its demonstration-scale cellulosic ethanol facility in Jennings, Louisiana. “This is a first for the US and as we take the next step Verenium employee handling toward commercialization, we are breaking sugar cane bagasse biomass at new ground and setting new standards for our Verenium’s cellulosic ethanol industry,” said Carlos A. Riva, President and facilities in Jennings, LA. CEO of Verenium. Start-up activities will continue as the facility transitions into a comprehensive commissioning phase which will allow Verenium to evaluate its process for making ethanol at scale and validate cost and performance assumptions to prepare for the development of its first series of commercial plants. This phase puts Verenium on track for its goal of beginning construction in the middle of next year on a 30 million-gallon-per-year commercial plant, which according to the company, will be the first of its kind located in the southeastern United States. Verenium’s demonstration-scale plant in Jennings is rated to produce 1.4 million-gallons-per-year of next-generation ethanol that uses specialty enzymes and the Company’s proprietary technology to convert non-food biomass.

Morbark’s all-new Model 40/36 Whole Tree Chipper is designed as a compact, affordable and productive drum chipper, and is specifically geared for high volume fuel production in the biomass industry. Equipped with the same internal drive as used on the company’s horizontal grinders, along with an extra wide feed opening, the Model 40/36 aggressively feeds brushy tops and limbs. This whole tree chipper effortlessly fills a chip van to maximum legal load capacity, and at 8’6” wide, is easily transportable and requires no permits to move. Units offer low fuel consumption per ton of chips produced, and a 36” diameter by 40” wide drum holds eight knives in a staggered configuration. Additionally, Morbark’s unique IQAN system monitors engine parameters as well as hydraulic pressures and temperatures and also allows for utilization of remote diagnostics. Power options are available in CAT or John Deere, and up to 700 hp. Wireless remote control and four hydraulic stabilizers complete the package. Morbark |

Verenium Corporation |

Project to demonstrate that gasification can convert any biomass component One of the primary difficulties with creating biofuels from wood products is the glue-like substance called lignin found in wood. According to Steve Peretti from North Carolina State University’s Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, lignin is not a sugar, so fermentation methods - like those used in creating ethanol from corn, for example - don’t work. Peretti is currently involved in a three-year, $3.2 M research project, in partnership with RTI International and the University of Utah, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Even though it’s harder to work with, Peretti calls lignin a “higher-energy feedstock almost like crude oil” that is lower in oxygen. Less oxygen, he says, translates to higher energy value per gallon. “Demonstrating that a gasification process can be used to convert any biomass component - sugars, lignin, bark and different process residues - in any combination into liquid fuels” is a major goal of the project,” says Steve Kelley from NC State’s Department of Wood and Paper Science. Unlike the common methods used to ferment sugars into ethanol, gasification processes can use almost any biomass feedstock, circumventing the issues with decay of stored biomass. Gasification processes can convert any biomass or hydrocarbon feedstock to a synthesis gas, or syngas, a reactive mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The process requires chemical catalysts to convert the syngas to the liquid fuels. During this project, Lignin will be combined with forest residues to serve as a lignin-rich feedstock for gasification and will be sent to the University of Utah, which has a pilot-scale gasifier. In the device, the material will be incinerated in little to no oxygen, producing the reactive syngas. The syngas will then be cleansed of any remaining impurities - like soot - using technology developed by RTI. The cleansed material can then be converted at high pressure into ethanol or other fuels using the RTI catalysts. “Anything that has organic molecules in it - clean wood, dirty wood, forest thinnings, bark, waste paper, solid waste, even plastics - can be used in this process,” says Peretti, and adds; “Diverting these materials from landfills to cranking out ethanol would help displace petroleum streams.”

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biomass & biofuels

First large-scale Jatophra for biofuel project is underway fter two years of meticulously researching new biodiesel fuel sources of clean energy, Global Energy Trading Company (GETCO) is ready to roll. The source: Jatropha curcas L. Call it “the little tree that could”. As many in the alternative energy industry already know, Jatropha is a weed-like shrub or small tree that can grow nearly anywhere frost doesn’t occur, has a 40-year fruit production life-cycle, is not part of the food chain supply, and requires few pesticides or fungicides. Its golf ball-sized fruit contains seeds that are pressed to extract the oil that has been used as a lighting and heating energy source for decades in communities throughout the world. With Jatropha as its designated biofuel feedstock, GETCO is now “at the point of execution in creating a capital market”, according to a recent announcement by chairman and CEO, James Fanning. To reach that goal, the company is currently working with international scientist, Dr. Esperanza Morales, and is involved in the daunting task of acquiring large tracts of land in Colombia and Peru for the first successful large-scale propagation of Jatropha.


Through her company and other scientists under her direction, Dr. Morales, who is CEO of Live Systems Technology (LST) in Bogota, is in charge of all research, development and propagation for GETCO. She employs experienced scientific and technical teams dedicated to the study and production of microbiological products and their use in integrated pest and crop management. Dr. Morales purchased LST, formerly a division of Agrobiologicals of AgrEvo, from Bayer Crop-Sciences. LST isn’t just going to grow the designated biofuel feedstock for GETCO, it’s studying what, if any possible ill effects might befall Jatropha when planted as a monoculture on a potential 25,000 acres. “The idea is to create from seed, Jatropha curcas cultivars that will result in optimal productivity and yield,” she explained. Though used in India, Africa and other countries for many decades as fuel and for medicinal purposes, Jatropha surprisingly has never been mass cultivated. And GETCO plans to plant a lot of Jatropha. For starters, the company is in the process of purchasing 15,000 hectares (approximately 60 square miles)

for a plantation to be established in Colombia, and finalizing negotiations on a 10,000-hectare (approximately 40-square-mile) parcel in Peru.

Fields of Jatophra curcas L, a weed-like shrub that can grow anywhere frost does not occur, and which does not need agricultural land to grow.

Sustainable growth

Without the need for farming machinery, carbon emissions and land degradation are kept to a minimum. Fanning said that his company’s selfestablished environmental ethical code prohibits them from destroying any forests. So they will plant only in clusters around any existing forested areas on their properties. An added environmental benefit is that Jatropha doesn’t remove any land suitable for food crop production. And its decaying leaves enrich poor quality soils so well that the plant is already used extensively to restore vitality to barren lands. Several years ago, Fanning’s sister, an environmental chemist, introduced him to the then-new Kyoto Protocol, which created emission credits as a financial incentive for industries and governments to reduce their fossil fuel use, as well as an opportunity for savvy businesspeople like him to become energy trading brokers. It was at an Amsterdam trading conference that he discovered his new career as a broker was only a partial calling. “After that conference, I realized how serious global warming is. I thought, ‘how can we help make an impact on the threat of global warming and make money?’ GETCO partners focused on biodiesel fuel for several obvious reasons: diesel fuel’s probable long term demand, its simplistic nature to produce, and the fact that diesel engines run on biodiesel without any modifications needed. After investigation, GETCO chose Jatropha because of its many attributes. Though experts project a strong global demand for alternative feedstock from Jatropha and other sources such as waste vegetable oil, and algae (“Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market Survey,” by Will Thurmond, Emerging Markets Online Global Energy & Biofuels Intelligence), Fanning and his investors are realistic about the timing of their venture’s profitability. “We believe that to address the long-

Jatropha fruit must be hand-picked, because though it grows in clusters, each fruit ripens variably. GETCO sees this as advantageous because it can help empower poor communities with capitalistic self-determination, effectively enabling local populations to improve their standard of living, instead of eroding it due to the degradation of the surrounding environment. “Our corporate core policy is to strive to protect the local environment and at the same time, improve the living standards of the rural communities where we purchase land for Jatropha production,” says Fanning. Hand harvesting also decreases the company’s potential carbon footprint.

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term sustainability of biodiesel it’s essential not only to produce it economically – at less than the price of crude fossil oil – but also help create micro-capitalism in impoverished villages,” said Fanning. “We’re not another big corporation Jatophra seeds have been pressed to extract oil for use as a lighting and heating energy source for decades, but have never been mass cultivated.

with a feudal system that’s going to come in, take, and leave. We will improve the villages’ quality of life.” He also compares GETCO’s long-term investment thinking to the American automobile industry’s beginnings. “Henry Ford created communities for his workers with benefit packages for their families. He used technological innovation and made the automobile economically viable so people could afford it.”

He added: “Our projections are based on 40-year commitments to each project. There’s no quick fix answer to our growing global energy demands and our response to solving them. We know Jatropha oil is going to be one of the world’s future fuel options – if we take our time and do this right.” Global Energy Trading Company (GETCO)

biomass & biofuels news briefs Green Plains Renewable Energy, Inc. and VBV LLC, together with subsidiaries, announced in May that they have entered into a definitive merger agreement. Upon closing, the companies will combine, creating a verticallyintegrated ethanol company with expected operating capacity of 330 million gallons of ethanol per year. The transaction is anticipated to close by late summer.

Blackhawk Biofuels, LLC recently announced it has completed the acquisition of assets of a 45-million-gallonper-year biodiesel production facility under construction in Danville, Illinois, from Biofuels Company of America, LLC. As part of the signed agreement, Renewable Energy Group, Inc. (REG) is providing financing, and will manage operations and staff at the Danville facility, procure feedstocks, and market the biodiesel. REG has also announced that in a recently signed purchase agreement, U.S. Biodiesel Group will invest cash and merge its largest assets into REG, including the company’s biodiesel production facility near Houston, and an existing liquid storage terminal in California. The Canadian House of Commons overwhelmingly passed a “Milestone” bill in May that will implement a national Renewable Fuel Standard, requiring ethanol and biodiesel blended transportation fuels in Canada. It is the first legislation of its kind in the country. “Today, the House of Commons voted to grow beyond oil,” said Gordon Quaiattini, President of the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association. “Thanks to this vote, we will lower greenhouse gas emissions, provide new opportunities for Canadian farmers, and bring about competition at the pump.”

Dynamotive Energy Systems Corporation and its subsidiary Dynamotive Latinoamericana S.A. recently announced the execution of contracts for the provision of biomass for two of its proposed plants in the Province of Corrientes in Argentina. The contract envisages the delivery by the Municipality of Virasoro, Corrientes, of 250,000 wet tonnes of biomass per year for 10 years.

The development plan envisages up to six plants with further potential within the Province of Corrientes. Dynamotive also recently signed a cooperation agreement with Marketech International Corporation (MIC) to jointly review the commercial feasibility and, if warranted, develop and construct the first two commercial BioOil plants in Taiwan. The Companies also entered into a memorandum to explore further cooperation to develop BioOil projects in the Greater China area.

Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has launched Phase 2 of its biomass testing at Nanticoke Generating Station. OPG is currently testing the use of biomass as a new energy source for the province. Biomass used in OPG’s program consists primarily of wood pellets and agricultural by-products such as grain screenings and milling spoils that can be burned to generate electricity.

To date, OPG’s Nanticoke Generating Station has successfully co-fired milling byproducts with coal to produce over 1.3 million kilowatt-hours of electricity; enough power to meet the energy needs of 1,300 Ontario homes for one month.

At the beginning of June, leaders from the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association, the European Bioethanol Fuel Association, and the Renewable Fuels Association welcomed the approach world leaders took in assessing biofuels’ role in the current world food crisis. An excerpt from their joint statement follows here: “We welcome today’s UN FAO proposal to undertake further study of biofuels in agriculture. We are confident it will underscore the valuable contribution biofuels can make to ease the energy and agriculture challenges confronting all nations. “Faced with record high oil prices and a variety of other challenges to the ready

and equitable supply of food to all peoples, it is now time to move toward sustainable solutions. Our industry recognizes that the production of biofuels provides both opportunities and challenges. We are eager to play our full part in securing a comprehensive, coordinated and, most effective strategy to ensuring both food and energy security around the world. “The growing recognition that increased use of biofuels is helping world economies address the dire impacts of record oil prices by reducing oil consumption over a million barrels of oil a day and by lessening global warming emissions is also welcome. But the industry believes that even more can be achieved. “Moving forward, we hope that the leaders of the G8 summit meeting in Japan [in July] will seriously consider the World Food Summit’s measured approach to biofuels and agree on the continued need to advance the world’s biofuels industry”

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hydro & marine energy

Marine and river energy focus of new interest group The Marine Technology Society (MTS) has created a technical interest group for individuals, businesses, and government entities interested in renewable marine and river energy. With “blue energy� gaining the attention of businesses and governments worldwide, the MTS

Renewable Energy Professional Committee is meant to provide a home for the engineers and visionaries who are working on these technologies. According to the chair of the new committee, Burton Hamner, founder and President of Hydrovolts, Inc. of Seattle,

over 100 companies around the world are currently working on blue energy technologies. The industry’s buoys, turbines, and other devices require a broad range of skills (such as mechanical and electrical engineering) and technologies (such as data sensing and transmission, structures

and moorings, ship design and construction, and subsea power-cable production and installation) which are already wellrepresented by MTS members. “This new committee will add underwater power generation and turbine design to the mix of MTS members’ interests,� notes Hamner. He envisions the committee helping to accelerate the production of blue energy through a diverse membership, task forces and subcommittees, as well as strategic alliances with other organizations and associations. The Marine Technology Society

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Hydropower industry primed to contribute to energy future The hydropower industry is primed to make a substantial contribution to the clean energy future of the US, according to a recent message to Congress at a June hearing. The hearing was held by the Water and Power Subcommittee of the House Natural Resources Committee, who has been examining the growth potential of hydropower resources. A report by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) found 90,000 MW of untapped generation potential from hydropower and new waterpower technologies across the US. “This could produce enough energy to serve the needs of 22 cities the size of Washington, DC,â€? stated Tim Culbertson, general manager of Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, in testimony before the Subcommittee. For conventional hydropower, opportunities include capacity gains and efďŹ ciency improvements at existing facilities, new small hydropower projects, and new facilities installed on existing non-powered dams. Recent statistics by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) further demonstrate growth of the industry. Currently pending before the Commission are license applications for 430 megawatts of conventional hydropower capacity, and 900 megawatts of pumped storage capacity. Another 448 megawatts of conventional hydropower and 2,783 megawatts of pumped storage are in the pre-ďŹ ling stage. National Hydropower Association

7/21/08 9:53:56 PM

Energy Tide I Turbine-Generator Unit prototype testing complete

Innovative battery inverter for various sources

Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) has successfully completed the at-sea testing of its proEastport Maine’s Western Passage. totype turbine-generator unit (TGU) with results that positively demonstrate the technical feasibility of the TGU. The testing was conducted at ORPC’s Cobscook Bay and Western Passage tidal energy sites in Eastport, ME. The $1.2 million prototype TGU demonstration project commenced last summer, and the prototype TGU and deployment barge (the ORPC “Energy Tide I”) were launched on December 8th, 2007. The initial at-sea testing involved a series of push and tow tests of the Energy Tide I while the prototype TGU was deployed 30-feet below a barge, and a full range of current flow speeds up to 8+ knots were achieved using this series of tests. The testing was concluded by securing the Energy Tide I to stationary moorings near Dog Island in Western Passage, and allowing the natural flow of tidal currents to power the TGU for a period of six consecutive days. The TGU’s testing in Western Passage confirmed the basic TGU design feasibility, including its unique horizontal configuration, and showed various very positive results with respect to the TGU’s operation. Positive results included the fact that the unit’s underwater proprietary permanent magnet generator performed flawlessly as the TGU generated electricity continuously, and in direct proportion to current speeds, throughout the range of current speeds, between cut-in and cut-out points. Plus, the TGU and its support frame was stress-tested in current speeds of over 8 knots with no excessive vibration or deformation. The sole disappointment in the testing, according to ORPC, was the output of the TGU, which was below expectations due to less than expected efficiency of the advanced design cross flow (ADCF) turbine.

SMA America, Inc. recently announced their latest battery-based inverter: the Sunny Island 5048U. Units are designed to provide continuous, reliable off-grid power from renewable sources such as solar, wind, and hydro, with the ability to handle grid input for backup applications. The new model has the added capacity of 20% more wattage, plus a new, more intuitive, user-friendly interface. The 5048U provides continuous power of 5,000 watts at 120VAC at 25°C (or 77°F) – a significant boost over the Sunny Island 4248U’s 4,200 watts. This makes it ideal for starting large loads such as water pumps and refrigerators. Operation is silent and virtually maintenancefree, and units can be remotely monitored. In charge mode, the 5048U can supply a connected battery with up to 100 amps of electricity. When the battery’s stored power is needed, units change to invert mode in 0.02 seconds – turning its DC input into clean AC output. SMA America, Inc. |

Ocean Renewable Power Company |

Zinc energy storage system ZESS is a green energy storage system that is highly compatible with wind and solar for the storage and re-supply of generated power during high demand periods, and can be used to eliminate damage to utility infrastructure during peak demand periods. ZESS is manufactured from plastics that are recyclable and is available in a 50 kWh ZESS 50 model, or a 500 kWh ZESS 500 model. “The zinc energy storage system is the future of energy storage,” said Rob Parry, ZBB’s CEO. According to Parry, ZESS 50 and ZESS 500 units are designed to provide superior technical performance at a significantly lower overall cost than batteries such as traditional lead-acid, and other energy storage sources. ZBB’s core module is an aqueous flow system using a circulation loop to continuously feed reactants to the module’s three cell stacks. The ZESS 500 unit consists of ten 50kWh modules electrically configured in two series strings to achieve 500kWh of energy storage, and both the ZESS 500 and ZESS 50 models include a Power Conversion System (PCS) and an overall system control package. Units can be configured for applications in fully grid interactive systems (AC), fully grid independent systems (AC) (AC or DC for the ZESS 50), or as a chargeable system for operation with a variety of power generation sources from solar and wind to biomass and ocean power. ZESS units feature ‘plug n play’ product design, turnkey capabilities, quick installation, ambient temperature operation, and require no fuel-handling, fuel-scheduling or air permitting. Units are fully containerized, portable, accessible and space compatible for residential, commercial and industrial applications, and a modular concept allows for customization of scalable systems. ZBB Energy Corporation | North American Clean Energy

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eventscalendar AUGUST 2008 20-22

33rd Annual Conference Of The Solar Energy Society Of Canada & 3rd Canadian Solar Buildings Research Network Conference

Fredericton, NB – Delta Fredericton; 25-28

Power Plant Air Pollution Control “Mega” Symposium Baltimore, MD – Baltimore Marriott Waterfront;

SEPTEMBER 2008 5-6

2008 GreenSummit Pheonix, AZ – Pheonix Convention Centre;


Green Fuels Summit & Expo Toronto, ON – Metro Convention Centre; or


HUSUM WindEnergy 2008 Husum, Germany ;


Inaugural International Summit on Algae Biofuels New Delhi, India – ICAR Conference Facilities;


US Carbon Finance Forum New York New York City, NY – The Metropolitan Club;

Compact power unit for various applications Ideal for use in solar, wind, hydro and marine applications, HAWE Hydraulics newly redesigned KA compact power unit for intermittent service is designed for a wide range of machine tool, high pressure and clamping applications. The KA serves as a compact power supply that delivers operating pressures up to 10,000 psi (700 bar), and combines a pump, electric motor and tank in one unit, offering both minimal use of space and easy mobility. This low-expense unit has reservoir capacities up to two gallons, uses less fluid, and creates less waste. The modular KA is available with single and 3-phase motors, in single or dual stage pump versions, and can work with an array of valves (directly mountable) and accessories. Vertical and horizontal installation is possible, and turnkey solutions and customized versions are available. HAWE Hydraulics |

OCTOBER 2008 5-8

Geothermal Energy Association Trade Show 2008 and GRC 2008 Annual Meeting Reno, NV – Peppermill Resort Hotel;


CSP & CPV Investment & Finance Summit 08 Madrid, Spain – Mirasierra Suites Hotel;


Solar Power 2008 San Diego, CA – San Diego Convention Center;


Energy from Biomass & Waste 2008 Pittsburgh, PA – David L. Lawrence Convention Center;


CanWEA 2008: Fast Forward to Wind Vancouver, BC – Vancouver Convention Centre;


US - Mexico Border Energy Forum XV Monterrey, Nuevo León – Crowne Plaza Hotel;


Renewable Energy Finance Forum - West Seattle, WA – Grand Hyatt;


Global WindPower 2008 Beijing, China – China International Exhibition Center;

NOVEMBER 2008 4-5

Canadian Hydropower Association’s Forum on Hydropower: Past, Present, and Future Ottawa, ON – Fairmont Château Laurier;


APPrO 2008 - 20th Annual Canadian Power Conference Toronto, ON – Metro Toronto Convention Centre;

DECEMBER 2008 2-4

Power-Gen International 2008 Orlando, FL – Orange County Convention Center;


CanSIA Solar Conference 2008 Toronto, ON – The Westin Harbour Castle;

Send us your clean energy show and event listings. Email information to the Editor at


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Remote power management system DCL energy management technology is designed to provide immediate, wireless control of every lighting fixture in a building or multiple buildings. This product is designed to give building owners and managers the power to slash energy use during peak hours, and according to Universal Lighting Technologies, the product’s manufacturer, the first DCL customers in California have already reduced utility bills by 25 percent to 30 percent. DCL (or Demand Control Lighting) allows company’s to reduce lighting levels throughout a building with a single command. A control unit communicates with the building’s lighting ballasts at the circuit level in order to reduce power anywhere from 1 to 50 percent. DCL Systems communicate with DemandFlex ballasts on varying circuits (such as120V and 277V), and there is no need for additional two-wire low voltage control wiring, as required by many lighting control systems, making DCL an ideal fit for retrofit projects. “We’re proud to be the first lighting manufacturer to offer business owners and building managers this level of remote power management,” said Chris Dimino, Senior Vice President of Marketing and Product Development for Universal Lighting Technologies. “Between incentives from utility companies and the financial rewards of reducing power consumption, DCL can provide forward-thinking companies with a rapid return on investment – in addition to other practical and environmental benefits.”

Differential temperature controller ART•TEC LLC recently released a design revision of its Solar Differential Temperature Controller - model DTC-1. This unit now has the capacity to switch 24 Volt DC pumps in addition to 12 Volt pumps, and is designed specifically for closed loop solar heating systems in which the pump is powered by a solar panel. The DTC-1 is rated to operate from 3.5 to 30 Volts DC and can switch pump loads of up to 6 Amps. Designed to control solar powered pumps in closed loop solar heating systems, this controller will improve performance by preventing the pump from running if the collectors become cooler than the storage tank. This typically occurs on overcast days and early and late on cold days when there is enough sunlight on the solar panel to power the pump, but the collectors are not hotter than the storage tank. ART•TEC LLC |

Universal Lighting Technologies, Inc. |

Italian and German merger creates ALMECO - TiNOX GmbH At this year’s InterSolar 2008 in Munich, German-based MAGE Group and the Italian-based ALMECO Group announced the merger of their Coating Activities in the Solar Thermal business field. The Chairman and CEO of the Italian Almeco Group, Onorato Fiorentini, and the Managing Director of the German MAGE Industrial Group, Markus Feil, signed an agreement to integrate their activities in the Solar Thermal Industry. MAGE Group will transfer 50% of the shares of their Munich-based company TiNOX GmbH, to ALMECO Group. While the Italian firm will transfer a minority share of ALMECO GmbH, established in Bernburg, Germany, to the MAGE Group. Since 2003 TiNOX GmbH has been part of the Energy Technology Division of the MAGE Group. ALMECO recently invested in a modern production plant for high quality coatings. Due to this agreement, TiNOX GmbH will change their name to ALMECO – TiNOX GmbH and will serve as the basis for all sales and marketing activities of both groups in the Solar Thermal field. Production sites will remain based in Munich and Bernburg, and all commercial and marketing activities will be carried out in Munich, and in San Giuliano Milanese for the Italian market. After transferring the Reflective Solar Coatings (Speculars) from ALMECO, the Joint Venture is now offering two comprehensive product lines; VEGA energy – high reflectance materials for thermodynamics (e.g. solar power plants), and TiNOX-energy – highly selective absorber coatings on copper and aluminium substrates for high quality solar thermo applications. “Integrating the two group’s solar thermal activities, we plan to go far beyond the current product portfolio,” said Dr. Markus Feil, CEO of MAGE Industrie Holding AG. “The global sales and distribution networks as well as the joint R&D competences and knowledge promise interesting synergies for the development of future business opportunities of the Joint Venture ALMECOTiNOX GmbH.” Onorato Fiorentini, Almeco’s Chairman said; “In our plant in Bernburg, Germany, we have one of the world’s most technologically advanced production lines using metal-coating systems. The acquisition of 50% of TiNOX by Almeco represents a very important step for our company.”

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First natural gas conversion of two stroke engine for commercial use Energtek Inc. announced recently that in the Phillipines, a three-wheeler with a two-stroke engine has been successfully converted to operate on natural gas. Over the next year, thousands of similar small vehicles with two-stroke engines are scheduled for identical conversions as part of the company’s commercial project there. The first converted vehicle, a Yamaha RS100T motorcycle with a locally-produced sidecar, is now operating on natural gas, utilizing Energtek’s proprietary Adsorbed Natural Gas technology. The conversion of a two-stroke vehicle engine

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47 Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP

43 WEIMA 33 Western GeoPower Corp.

to natural gas fuel is the first recorded success of its kind for a large-scale commercial project, and the company says its natural gas tanks can be replaced in local garages in less than a minute. Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology enables hi-tech and cost-effective storage of natural gas, by maximizing the quantities of gas stored in a tank. It greatly reduces the infrastructure, fuelling, and energy costs of supply solutions to consumers where no pipeline or refuelling infrastructure is present, and according to Energtek, ANG enables new markets for motor vehicle fleets and large commercial consumers to benefit from natural gas. According to Energtek, natural gas is an available resource that can serve as an alternative to tradition fuel sources, and is the world’s cleanest fossil fuel (and arguably cleaner than many renewable fuels). Additionally, natural gas is much cheaper than oil and does not need to be refined. Drivers have long been attracted to two-stroke vehicles due to their relatively low purchase price, but many governments, including in the Philippines, because of the high pollution levels from two-stroke engines powered by gas, are now attempting to limit or completely ban their use. The Phillipines government feels the engines are so bad for the environment that they were on the verge of a complete ban.

“Energtek’s technology provides a solution for the [Phillipine’s] more than two million tricycle drivers to continue to operate their vehicles, preventing them from suffering a significant loss of livelihood that would have been brought on had they been forced to stop using them,” said Ariel P. Lim, the Philippine President’s Special Advisor for Public Transport Affairs. “We are very excited about the conversion to natural gas of many of the country’s two-stroke engine vehicles and expect that it will drastically reduce the Philippines’ high pollution levels.” Energtek also recently announced the signing of a $25 M Joint Venture with DML PTE to commercialize and market ANG technology for use in vehicles and at factories in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Several Natural Gas bulk transportation projects utilizing Energtek’s proprietary Low-pressure Mobile Pipeline (LMP) technology have already been planned following extensive feasibility studies and will proceed to commercial stages in the coming months. Other projects will focus on the conversion and subsequent ongoing supply of Natural Gas to both large and small vehicles. Future projects will focus on the production of Natural Gas directly from refuse, which can then be supplied to industrial businesses as an energy source, and on the manufacture of special ANG ships. Energtek |

Net metering legislation to help future of wind energy in NY state Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc. (SED) continues to make renewable energy education and growth its goal in the northeastern US. The most recent step in doing so was the company’s part in the passing of net metering bills in the state of New York. According to SED, these bills will not only generate more interest in renewable energy, but will give those pioneers who have already taken the bold step to use wind energy a reward for their choice to go green. Net metering allows electricity customers who have installed renewable energy generating systems, such as a wind turbine, to receive retail credit when they produce more electricity than they use. The old policy only allowed electricity customers to receive wholesale credit, which is typically half the value of retail credit. This policy ensures a fair return for customers who choose to invest in renewable energy. Specifically this legislation would allow non-residential customers with generators of up to 2 Megawatts and farmers with generators up to 500 Kilowatts to receive these benefits. Currently full retail net metering is only provided to residential and farm projects up to 10kW. This new net metering legislation allows a larger portion of the State’s ratepayers to harvest the financial benefits of wind energy projects and to contribute to the State’s growing renewable energy industry. NY Senator George Maziarz, Chairman of the Senate Energy and Telecommunications Committee, was the voice and driving force behind the passing of the net metering bills. According to SED, Maziarz along with fellow NY Senator Mike Nozzolio and his staff, relied on the knowledge that their company has earned in over six years of working with successful renewable energy policies in states like Massachusetts. Kevin Schulte, SED’s VP for Business Development, and one who played a significant role in helping the Senator’s efforts to pass the net metering bills said; “I believe that net metering can be the tip of the spear to a vibrant on site wind energy market here in New York State. This policy can increase the economic benefits of onsite wind power by 30% or more for schools, industry, farms, government facilities and more.” Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc. |

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North American Clean Energy - Jul \ Aug 2008