Homeland Security News
MEMBER SPOTLIGHT: Jose Bautista
Volume 10, Issue 2 Summer 2012
The land of the free because of the brave
ICE: Partnering to fight crime on a global scale p.60
A Private Sector
Organizations: Part II p.15
Los Angeles County Sheriff building trust with the
Muslim Community p.56
$6.50 U.S./$9.50 CAN
2012 EXECUTIVE SUMMIT: THE NETWORKING EVENT OF THE YEAR p.33 0
7 4 4 7 0 2 5 6 8 5 4
ABCHS: America’s Largest and Most Prestigious Homeland Security Organization
The American Board for
Certification in Homeland Security
The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security (ABCHS) and its sub-boards sponsor certification programs in various homeland security-related areas. The goal of each program is to validate the professional knowledge and skills of certified individuals in a particular area related to homeland security. This is no small task. The Association employs intricate processes for establishing certification program policy, enforcing ethics, developing tests, and operating continuing education programs. These processes align with industry standards (such as those set forth by the American National Standards Institute and the National Commission for Certifying Agencies) and are driven by Subject Matter Experts. In this way, those who hold certifications from ABCHS can be confident that their credentials are credible and relevant to their area of homeland security. Join today, along with the thousands who currently carry the ABCHS credential. Together we can protect what matters most—our families, communities, country, and way of life.
Together we can make a difference.
® Register Now!
2 Inside Security Summer 2012 877.219.2519 Call theHomeland Chief Association Officer at 877. 219.2519 or go online towww.abchs.com www.abchs.com ®
www.abchs.com | 877.219.2519
volume 10, issue 2
15 Major Terrorist Organizations
Just Icons, or More? Part II
By Ardian Shajkovci
ICE: Partnering to Fight Crime on a Global Scale
James Chaparro takes Lead to Implement ICE’s Illicit Pathways Attack Strategy By Ed Peaco
40 A Private Sector Polygraph Solution
for the Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010
By Charles N. Painter
C o lu m n s
in every issue
04 Board Members 05 Announcements
24 The Active Shooter Paradigm
10 Homeland Security as a Field Why Get Certified?
By Richard J. Hughbank
14 Safety Tips During Travel
06 CAO Sign
28 Profiling: What Works
09 Member Spotlight
and What Doesn’t?
12 Homeland Security News
By David L. Johnson
Dignitary & Executive
37 Book Review 71 Provisional Members 74 Newly Credentialed
F e at u r e s
31 An Education in the Value of Value
Executive Level Education By Dave McIntyre
49 Organization Matters Organization Matters By Billy Powers
50 Keeping Secrets
By Louis Perry
27 Homeland Security Committee Homeland Security Update
By Congressman Billy Long (MO-7)
48 Meet Billy Powers
56 Los Angeles County Sheriff building trust
with the Muslim Community By Ed Peaco
69 Cage Code
A Contractor Classification System By Cazandra N. Ackvan
By Shawn J. VanDiver
54 God’s Timing Is Always Perfect
Chaplain’s Column By David J. Fair
66 How Vulnerable is Your Facility?
On the cover: ICE agents infiltrated a human smuggling organization. The operation led to the arrest of three Pakistani citizens in Miami on March 13, 2011. Read more about this operation on page 64, Case Study: Ecuador (Photo provided by ICE).
Emergency Management By Michael J. Fagel
Inside Homeland Security®
American Board For Certification in Homeland Security
ABCHS Executive Advisory Board Chair: Eric White, BS, CHS-V, FABCHS, CPS, ISMA-IV Vice-Chair: Barbara B. Citarella, RN, BSN, MS, DABCHS, CHS-V Secretary: John J. Sullivan, Jr., PhD, CHS-V E. Robert Bertolli, OD, BS, DABFE, DABCHS, CHS-V Brendalyn ‘Val’ Bilotti, RN, BS, CHS-V Jessica M. Cummins, DABCHS, CHS-V William H. Cummins, BA, CHS-V, CDP-I John W.A. Didden, CHS-III David J. Fair, PhD, CHS-V, SSI, CMC Thomas Givens, DABCHS, CHS-V David A. Goldschmitt, MD, FACEP, DABCHS, CHS-V Jeffrey S. Hatchew, JD Henry L. Homrighaus, Jr., DABCHS, CHS-V, PSNA, FABCHS David L. Johnson, DABCHS, CHS-V Steven G. King, MS, MBA, CHS-V, CPP Sean Kinney, CHS-V, CMI-III, CFC Cathi Marx, DABCHS, CHS-V Robert L. McAlister, BS, CHS-V, DABCHS Wayne M. Morris, DBA, MA, CHS-V, CPP, PSP Andrew Neal, CHS-V, CISM, CIFI, CSC/I Janet M. Schwartz, PhD, FACFEI, DABCHS, CHS-V, CDP-I In memoriam, Nick D. Bacon, Senior Advisor to the board and First Chair of ABCHS American Board for Certification in Dignitary and Executive Protection, ABCDEP Chair: David L. Johnson, DABCHS, CHS-V Vice-Chair: Edward Bailor, AA, BS, CHS-III Vern J. Abila Gerald A. Cavis, CHS-III Robert E. Colliver, CHS-III Dennis C. D’Alessio, CHS-III Jim Floyd, CDP-I, CHS-III Mark E. Garver, CHS-V Marc E. Glasser, MS, CHS-V, CPP, CEM Jeffrey D. Guidry, CHS-III Clint Hilbert, CHS-III Michael S. LoFaso, CHS-I Michael E. Nossaman, CHS-III Tony J. Scotti, CHS-III Howard L. Weisman, CIPM, CHS-V, CIPM, CMAS American Board for Certification in Infrastructure Protection, ABCIP Chair: Steven G. King, MS, MBA, CHS-V, CPP Vice Chair: John J. Sullivan, Jr., PhD, CHS-V Dale W. Cillian, DABCHS, CHS-V Sherman E. Copeland, Jr., CHS-V, SSI Robert J. Coullahan, CHS-V, CEM Patrick N. Cowan, MBCDRP, CHS-V, SSI, CDP-I, ATM W.D. Fitzgerald, CHS-III, CPP Marc E. Glasser, MS, CHS-V, CPP, CEM Michael W. Homick, PhD, EdD, CHS-V, DABCHS Kurt J. Klingenberger, CHS-V Benjamin Nieves, CHS-V, CPP Peter A. Petch, CHS-V, RPIH, CIPS, CIMT Paul E. Purcell, CHS-V Debra M. Russell, PhD, CHS-V, CMI-V Robert R. Sanders, CHS-V, CPP, CSP Shawn J. VanDiver, MS, CMAS, CHS-V, SSI, CTT+ Cecelia Wright Brown, DEng, MS, BA, CHS-V
Inside Homeland Security®
Chair, Vice Chair, Secretary
Chief Association Officer (CAO)
Working Group SME’s Security Non-government org
American Board for Certification in Infrastucture Protection (ABCIP)
government law enforcement Emergency management public health
american board for certification in homeland security (abchs)
industry academia infrastructure protection
American Board of Law Enforcement Experts (ABLEE) American Board of Information Security and Computer Forensics (ABISCF) American Board of Intelligence Analysts (ABIA) American Board for Certification in Dignitary and Executive Protection (ABCDEP) American Board for Certified Master Chaplains (ABCMC)
American Board of Intelligence Analysts, ABIA Chair: John W.A. Didden, CHS-III Vice-Chair: James C. Sartori, CHS-V, CNTA, IAC Michael E. Chesbro, CHS-III, CPO, CSS, SSI, CFC Nestor L. Colls-Senaha, MS, CHS-V Marquis L. Laude, CPP, CHS-V Rainer A. Melucci, BS, CSC, FACFE, DABFE, CHS-III Bo Mitchell, CBCP, CHS-V, CPP, CEM Anthony A. Saputo, CHS-V, MBA Janet Schwartz, PhD, FACFEI, DABCHS, CHS-V, CDP-I Jason S. Sprowl, CAS Johnie A. Sullivan, FBI (Ret), MBA, MCS, CHS-IV American Board of Information Security and Computer Forensics, ABISCF Chair: Andrew Neal, CHS-III, CISM, CIFI, CSC/I Shayne P. Bates, DABCHS, CHS-V, CPP Margaret Bond, MBA, CISM, CHS-V Rocco A. DelCarmine, CSSP, ISSPCS, CHS-III J. Clay Fielding, MCP, MCT, CHFE, RFC, GLFI Jim Kennedy, PhD, MRP, MBCI, CBRM, CHS-IV Gabriela Rosu, BS, MS, CHS-V Ron Schmittling, CPA, CITP, CISA, CIA Eric Svetcov, CISSP, CISA, CHS-III Marie Wright, PhD, CHS-V American Board for Certified Master Chaplains, ABCMC Chair: David J. Fair, PhD, CHS-V, SSI, CMC Vice-Chair: Leatha Warden, PhD, LPC, ACC-I, CMC James H. Ballard, DMin, CHS-I, CMC Mary Dobbs, CMC Rev. Robert F. Fountain, CMC Don Howe, PhD, CMC Jesus M. Huertas, PhD, CMC Joseph J. Prudhomme, PhD, ThD, CHS-II, CMC Charles V. Singletary, CHS-I, CMC William M. Sloane, PhD, JD, LLM Bruce D. Wright, PhD, CMC
American Board of Law Enforcement Experts, ABLEE Chair: Sean Kinney, CHS-V, CMI-III, CFC Vice-Chair: E. Robert Bertolli, OD, DABCHS, CHS-V, CMI-V Oscar A. Baez, Sgt. (Ret) CHS-III Donald Durbin, CHS-V Henry C. Grayson, II, CHS-III, CMI-III William R. Kushner, MS, CHS-IV Jonathan D. Rose, MD, CHS-V, CFP Stephen Russell, BS, DABLEE, CMI-II, CHS-III Warren L. Shepard, CAPT, SSI, CDP-I, CRC, CHS-V James L. Smith, JD, EdD, CHS-III Patrick E. Spoerry, PhD, CHS-V, CFC 2012 Editorial Advisory Board Scott R. Altemose, CHS-IV, CFC, SSI Chad R. Barnes, CHS-V, CDP-I, SSI Brendalyn Val Bilotti, RN, BS, CHS-V Jody Bissonnette, BA, CHS-III James D. Blair, DPA, CHS-V, DABCHS, FABCHS Robert D. Boyden, PhD, MS, FACFEI, CHS-III Kenneth Burkhalter, BS, SSI, CDP-I, CHS-V Patrick N. Cowan, MBCDRP, CHS-V, SSI, CDP-I Todd DeVoe, CHS-III Richard J. Hughbank, MA, MS, CHS-IV, CMAS Michael G. Oehler, PhD, CHS-III, CMC Irwin C. Harrington, PhD, CHS-I, CFPS, CFI Harry Risor, MS, CHS-V James L. Smith, JD, EdD, CHS-III Shawn J. VanDiver, MS, CMAS, CHS-V, SSI, CTT+ John J. Wassel, MD, CHS-V
A n n o u n ceme n t s The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security (ABCHS) has been serving the needs of homeland security professionals worldwide since 2003. Since its inception, ABCHS has striven to advance the field of homeland security in a number of ways. ABCHS has actively promoted the circulation of homeland security-related information through publishing its official journal Inside Homeland Security®, and through hosting annual conferences and numerous other networking opportunities. ABCHS has sponsored thousands of continuing education activities delivered online as well as through seminars, conference sessions, and journal learning. Advancing the field through promoting elevated standards is another endeavor ABCHS has undertaken.
ABCHS as Administrator of Credentialing Programs
Providing an established organizational structure for the development and administration of credentialing programs is another function ABCHS serves. Professional certification is a unique accomplishment that validates one’s experience and attainment of a particular skill set. It is a voluntary process that exhibits one’s dedication to the betterment of a field and commitment to proficiency and professional enhancement. Obtaining a certification can open avenues for advancement, provide financial incentives, and increase one’s credibility and personal satisfaction. ABCHS sponsors unique credentialing opportunities for various specialties in the field of homeland security. As of April 2012, ABCHS has submitted two programs for accreditation to third party accrediting bodies, Certified in Homeland Security Level IV (CHS-IV), and CHS-V. Currently the ABCHS accreditation team is working on the following certifications: Certified in Homeland Security Level III (CHS-III), Sensitive Security Information, Certified (SSI), Certified in Disaster Preparedness (CDP-I), Intelligence Analyst Certified (IAC), Certified in Infrastructure Protection (CIP), and Certified in Dignitary and Executive Protection (CDEP). ABCHS relies heavily on the involvement of subject matter experts (SMEs) to align the scopes of its credentialing programs with particular homeland security-related specialties, and awards certified status and designation only to those who meet program requirements. Homeland security professionals are not afraid to work hard, jump in to new learning experiences, and reap the benefits of knowing that their efforts are advancing their chosen field. Members should be on the look-out for opportunities to assist the Association in raising the bar for its certification arm.
B u lle t i n Member News
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Send Your Comments and Letters to Countersign E-mail IHS at firstname.lastname@example.org or address mail to: IHS, Countersign, 2750 E. Sunshine, Springfield, MO 65804. Letters become the property of the journal, and it owns all rights to their use. IHS may edit letters for content and length.
Inside Homeland Security® is published by the American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, 2750 E. Sunshine, Springfield, MO 65804. ABCHS members receive an annual subscription to IHS as part of their benefit package. Nonmembers may subscribe by calling 877.219.2519. Annual subscription rates United States: one year $29.95/ two years $49.95; includes shipping and handling. Internationally: one year $54.95 / two years $74.95; includes shipping and handling. Postmaster: Send address changes to Inside Homeland Security®, 2750 E. Sunshine, Springfield, MO 65804 877.219.2519
Inside Homeland Security® ISSN 2167-2261 (Print) ISSN 2167-227X (Online) is a publication of The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, CHS®, 2012. ABCHS is dedicated to the credentialing, networking, and continuing education of homeland security professionals. The opinions and views expressed by the authors, publishers, or interviewees are their own and do not necessarily reflect those of the ABCHS program, nor does the ABCHS program adopt such opinions or views as its own. The ABCHS program disclaims and does not assume any responsibility of liability with respect to the opinions, views, and factual statements of such authors, publishers, or interviewees, nor with respect to any actions, qualifications, or representations of its members’ or subscribers’ efforts in connection with the application or use of any information, suggestions, or recommendations made by the ABCHS program or any of its boards, committees, publications, resources, or activities thereof. For more information call toll-free 877.219.2519.
Business Office 2750 East Sunshine Street Springfield, MO 65804 877.219.2519 Fax: 417.881.1865 Chief Association Officer Marianne Schmid email@example.com
Editorial Office Senior Editor Julie Brooks firstname.lastname@example.org Art Director Brandon Alms email@example.com Graphic Designer Stephanie Lindberg firstname.lastname@example.org Web Designer Justin Casey email@example.com Advertising Eric Brown firstname.lastname@example.org
Inside Homeland Security®
Marking My Tenth Anniversary at abchs Greetings to all ABCHS Members, On February 2nd this year I celebrated my tenth anniversary here at ABCHS Headquarters. My co-workers surprised me with a cake, and several members called in to congratulate me. I began working at headquarters on February 2, 2002. In January of 2003 we began building the American Board for Certification in Homeland Security (ABCHS) program, and it was launched by spring of 2003. With great passion I worked very hard, and with the support and help of hundreds of members it kept 6
Inside Homeland Security®
moving forward. Also in 2003 we attended the Congressional Medal of Honor Society was meeting in Branson, MO. There we met Mr. Nick Bacon, Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient, who later became our first chair for ABCHS. Nick’s passion for ABCHS was unreal. He was a true American and a patriot, and did so much for our country, including always finding ways to help our veterans. He had never met a stranger. Mr. Eric White our current chair of ABCHS has also been a strong leader, working on the accreditations for ABCHS. All of our certifications, CHS-I–V, are currently undergoing the ac-
creditation process. The current Executive Board Members and the exam committee members are working long hours to finalize the process so that we can achieve the American National Standards Institute, ANSI, and the Institute of Credentialing Excellence, ICE. When we began ABCHS it started with a point system. Then, in 2004 we went to exams for CHS-IV & V. Our first two-day class to prepare for the exams was held in Chicago at our annual summit that same year. Next we went to exams for CHS-IIII, and today we have advanced CHS-I-V by moving them to accreditations. The product we delivered then is much more different today. In 2008, I began working with Navy COOLs, as they came aboard ABCHS. We are very honored to have the Navy aboard. Later that year I was accompanied by members to various naval bases around the world: Spain, Italy, Japan, Guam, Hawaii, and various bases stateside as well. Those attending were: Col. Andrew Jurchenko (Ret), Lt. Col. Herman Statum (Ret), Mark Garver, and Eric White, all of which enjoyed giving exam instructions to the sailors in these different bases around the world. We had so many great times. We all feel very blessed to have met hundreds of sailors that help protect us and our freedom. In 2008, Nick Bacon went with us to San Diego to sit for the twoday session, and the first day he spent all afternoon writing in the soon-to-be Chiefs book. When he was finished, he gave 38 sailors something they will never forget: no Congressional Medal of Honor recipient had ever sat for hours in order to sign their books. For those of us that knew Nick, he talked to each sailor as if they were his own son, and he explained how important it was for them to stay in the armed forces and to serve their country and help keep it free. We lost Nick to cancer in July of 2010, and he is greatly missed. In 2009, ABCHS was growing so fast that developed our own database and made www.abchs.com
ABCHS it’s own association. Also that year we began working heavily with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to obtain our Accreditation for CHS-V. In 2010, the ABCHS board moved to create 6 sub-boards, and at that time I formed the American Board for Certification in Infrastructure Protection (ABCIP), American Board for Certification in Dignitary and Executive Protection (ABCDEP), American Board of Information Security and Computer Forensics (ABISCF), American Board of Law Enforcement Experts (ABLEE), American Board of Intelligence Analysts (ABIA), and American Board for Certified Master Chaplains (ABCMC). Beginning in 2011, the Institute for Credentialing Excellence (ICE), became our outside accrediting body for the certifications we are seeking, including CHS-I-III, SSI, CDP, IAC, ABCDEP, and CIP. I cannot brag enough about all of the ABCHS board members and all of the sub-boards. Without their dedication to help build the ABCHS program throughout the years, and without the members who are always there when I ask them to do something, ABCHS would not be what it is today. Over the years I have been so blessed to have built long-lasting friendships with the CHS members. Each Executive Summit I look forward to seeing all of you again, even though we speak and work together by phone and e-mail throughout the year. It’s like a family reunion! My passion is for ABCHS, and I am amazed at how much it has grown. From the day we received our first member, to now when we number over 10,000 members, we are still going strong. Throughout the years I have had great support from my fellow staff members. It takes a lot of work behind the scenes to keep us up and running. A big thank you to all of them! God Bless you and God Bless our country! Marianne Schmid 877.219.2519
The Institute for Credentialing Excellence (ICE) held its 2011 Annual Educational Conference November 8-11, 2011 at The Roosevelt in New Orleans, LA. The Institute for Credentialing Excellence is an organization dedicated to providing educational, networking, and advocacy resources for the credentialing community. ICE’s accrediting body, the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA), evaluates certification organizations for compliance with the NCCA Standards for the Accreditation of Certification Programs. NCCA’s Standards exceed the requirements set forth by the American Psychological Association and the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ICE is accredited by the American National Standards Institute as a Standards Developer. The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security (ABCHS) sent six staff members to the event. One of the highlights included the Keynote Speaker of the Opening Plenary Session, David Stillman, co-founder of Bridgeworks LLC. Stillman discussed the phenomena of a multigenerational workforce, as well as the positives and negatives that it can present. Breakout sessions included The First Steps: Establishing a Development Cycle, presented by Ben Babock and Nathan Thompson, both PhDs in their respective fields, and Brave New Word: Using Social Media to Launch and Market Credentials, presented by Rory McCorkle. Both classes presented excellent ways to increase job performance as well as maximizing interaction with fellow employees and potential members.
The 2012 ICE Annual Educational Conference will be held November 6 – 9 in Rancho Mirage, California.
Inside Homeland Security®
Announcement to Readers
We’re on Kindle! If you’ve already marched into the future of reading, you know about Kindle. Now you can add Inside Homeland Security ® to your e-reading experience using Amazon’s standard-setting device.
Haven’t taken the Kindle leap yet? Here are six reasons why you should not delay: 1. Same IHS, but easier to read: Adjustable type size, high-contrast digital ink, bolder fonts. 2. Contingency planning: Read in bed with no eyestrain. Read at the beach—no glare. 3. Preparedness: Online backup archiving on Amazon. 4. Continuity: Synch your reading to your laptop and wireless devices. 5. Resiliency: Battery life of up to one month. 6. Convenience: Weighs less than a single print issue. Takes up less space in your carry-on.
Julie Brooks Editor, Inside Homeland Security®
ose Bautista works closely with ABCHS and other organizations in his mission to build credentialing opportunities for Navy security personnel. The Master-at-Arms (MA) Programs Manager at the Center for Security Forces in Virginia Beach, VA, conducts research on credentialing programs that are relevant to MA training. In his research, Bautista compares a certification’s required skills and knowledge with those of the MA occupational standards and submits his findings to the Navy Credentialing Opportunities Online program (Navy COOL). The responsibilities of those who serve as Master-at-Arms—the Navy designation for military police—include antiterrorism, force protection, physical security, and law enforcement. The Department of Defense has mandated credentialing programs for all military branches but has provided no funding, Bautista said. The Navy has reallocated funds to support the credentialing effort and is the 877.219.2519
only service that pays for certifications. This puts the Navy ahead of the other branches of military service in the effort to professionalize military personnel. “ABCHS credentialing, especially for homeland security, is the most sought-after credentials for our Master-at-Arms,” Bautista said. “It standardizes their skills and advances their knowledge in the homeland security field.” The most frequently studied programs are CHS I-V, Security Information Specialist and Certified in Disaster Preparedness. The latter certification is useful because it has a component for command and control, which is directly applicable to the MA field. Bautista enlisted in the Navy in 1974. His career includes service onboard six Navy ships, including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious assault ships, a guided missile destroyer, and an ammunition oiler, and supply ship. He served on two overseas tours, one forward deployed unit and three expeditionary campaigns. After 30 years, he retired with the rank of Master Chief Petty Officer.
CHS-V In one memorable role, he worked as an Antiterrorism Force Protection Training Solutions & Development Division Officer. He helped develop and administer new training for Navy Security Forces in safe and effective employment of small arms and non-lethal weapons to protect Navy assets and personnel after 9/11. “That is what is very satisfying, that we were able to prepare our security forces more effectively not only to protect themselves but also to carry out their missions for supporting the global war on terror.” This year, in the credentialing area, he is working with ABCHS as a subject matter expert and has volunteered in his areas of expertise including personal protection and (military) criminal investigation, as these topics apply in various certifications being pursued by the organization. Credentialing programs not only enhance the proficiency of military personnel while they are serving; they also make service members more marketable as leaders in the work force when they leave the military. Summer 2012
Inside Homeland Security®
The American Board for Certification in
HOMELAND SECURITY Homeland Security as a Field The field of homeland security arose in the wake of the incidents on the morning of September 11, 2001. The terrorist attacks on America that day gave rise to a shared understanding that our nation needed increased security to protect our homeland, and many functional areas essential to providing this security were identified soon thereafter. Today the field of homeland security is very broad, encompassing such areas as the more obvious Emergency Management and Transportation Security to those that might not instantly come to mind, like Agriculture and Environmental Science.
✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯✯ Certification Vision Statement:
The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, CHS®
Our vision is to bridge the gap between government and non-government organizations (NGOs) in facilitation of common standards of knowledge in coordinating various scale responses to homeland security and national disaster events.
Within a couple years of what has come to be known as 9/11, the American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, CHS® (ABCHS), a professional membership association was created to serve the professional needs of those working in fields related to homeland security. Since its inception, ABCHS has made significant contributions to homeland security. ABCHS has provided its membership with many Association-sponsored networking opportunities. The Association has also contributed to the homeland security knowledge base through its quarterly, peer-reviewed publication, Inside Homeland Security®, and through its development of training and continuing education activities.
Certification Mission Statement: Our mission is to provide homeland security professionals from government and non-government organizations (NGOs) with certification to assess their knowledge of the current prescribed response frameworks.
ABCHS as Developer and Administrator of Certification Programs Providing an in-place organizational structure for the development and administration of certification programs is another function ABCHS has served. The Executive Committee of the ABCHS Advisory Board has adopted the following statements to clarify the Association’s vision and mission for certification program development and administration.
ABCHS as Developer and Administrator of Certified in Homeland Security, CHS® Program The ABCHS Executive Committee has the authority and responsibility to develop the CHS program, consisting of three levels of certification which recognize the attainment of increasingly difficult homeland security-related knowledge and skills for eligible candidates who successfully complete program assessments, who complete continuing education requirements, and who act in accordance with the ABCHS Code of Conduct (to view the ABCHS Code of Conduct, go to: http://www.abchs.com/pdf/certificationResources_code.pdf). ABCHS awards to successful examinees the title “Certified in Homeland Security” followed by the level at which the individual is certified and the designation CHS followed by a dash and a Roman numeral indicating the level of certification. For example, a level 5 certificant is a CHS-V.
Inside Homeland Security®
F e at u r e : h o m e l a n d s e c u r i t y a s a f i e l d
877.219.2519 • WWW.ABCHS.COM Certification Programs Sponsored by The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, CHS® (ABCHS) and Its Sub-Boards ABCHS and its sub-boards sponsor certification programs in various homeland security-related areas. The goal of each program is to validate the professional knowledge and skills of certified individuals in a particular area related to homeland security. This is no small task. The Association employs intricate processes for establishing certification program policy, enforcing ethics, developing tests, and operating continuing education programs. These processes align with industry standards (such as those set forth by the American National Standards Institute and the National Commission for Certifying Agencies) and are driven by Subject Matter Experts. In this way, those who hold certifications from ABCHS can be confident that their credentials are credible and relevant to their area of homeland security.
WHY GET CERTIFIED? Potential Benefits to the Field:
Potential Benefits to Employers:
• Standardizes practices and/or standards within an industry
• Improves customer satisfaction
• Advances the specialty/field
• Increases competence level of employees
• Increases cooperation between organizations in the same discipline
• Useful in making employment decisions
• Provides a means for an industry to self-regulate Potential Benefits to Those with Current Certification: • Grants recognition of knowledge and skills by a third party • Enhances professional reputation • Provides personal accomplishment • Supports continued professional development • Demonstrates a high level of commitment to the field of practice • Demonstrates a specific level of knowledge and skill • Increases opportunities for career advancement and/or increased earnings • Validates skills and knowledge • Communicates credibility • Serves as a differentiator in a competitive job market • Meets employer or governmental requirements
• Provides professional development opportunities for employees • Ongoing enhancement of knowledge and skills • Increases confidence in employees’ abilities • Demonstrates employers’ commitment to competence • Provides means to establish and enforce an ethical code • Provides compliance with industry regulation/ government requirements • Increases safety Potential Benefits to the public: • Provides means to establish and enforce an ethical code • Standardizes practice and/or standards within an industry • Advances the specialty/field and increases cooperation between organizations in the same discipline • Helps in identifying qualified service providers • Increases confidence in service providers • Provides disciplinary process to follow in case of complaints
Inside Homeland Security®
NEWS Homeland Security
Partnerships are Key to Fighting
hen you sit down with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Deputy Director Kumar Kibble, he’ll tell you “bad guys don’t respect our borders, and we need international partnerships to keep up with them.” He makes this statement on the heels of a recent trip to Israel and the Palestinian Authority, where he was joined by his chief of staff, Homeland Security Investigations’ (HSI) executive associate director and HSI’s deputy director of the Office of International Affairs. The foursome spent a significant amount of time with Israeli and Palestinian law enforcement officials, all of whom are strong HSI partners. They also visited HSI offices in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. These offices are heavily involved in supporting HSI’s investigative portfolio, which covers everything from human trafficking to cybercrime. As part of their duties overseas, HSI special agents often examine visa applications for fraud, initiate investigations, coordinate with law enforcement partners, and provide training and advice to Department of State consular officers. The work performed by these special agents is vital to protecting the United States against terrorist and criminal organizations. We’ve been able to make a lot of headway,” said HSI Executive Associate Director James Dinkins. “We have become a one-stop shop. They (law enforcement) can come to us with any transnational crime.” Source: http://www.ice.gov/news/releases/1203/ 120320israel.htm. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
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AFO Leader Gets 25 Years in Prison
pril 2nd, 2012 San Diego, CA – DEA Administrator Michele M. Leonhart today announced that Benjamin Arellano-Felix, nearly 60, the former leader of the Tijuana Cartel/ArellanoFelix Organization (AFO) was sentenced today in U.S. District Court in San Diego by the Honorable Larry A. Burns to serve 25 years in federal prison. Judge Burns also ordered Arellano-Felix to forfeit $100 million in criminal proceeds. The sentence followed Arellano-Felix’s conviction for racketeering and money laundering. “The Tijuana Cartel was one of the world’s most brutal drug trafficking networks, but has now met its demise with leader Benjamin Arellano-Felix’s sentencing today,” said DEA Administrator Michele M. Leonhart. “It is a major victory for DEA and Mexico’s Calderon Administration. Together, we will continue our pressure on the Mexican Cartels whose leaders, members, and facilitators will be prosecuted and face the justice they fear.” “Today’s prison sentence virtually ensures that Arellano-Felix will spend the remainder of his life in custody.
Source: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/states/newsrel/2012/sd040212.html. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
Official Marines Facebook Page Reaches 2 Million
he official Marines Facebook Page reached 2 million fans March 3, 2012. The Page reached the milestone days after its second anniversary. The page, run by active duty Marines, is the Marine Corps’ official flagship social media outlet. It serves in telling the Marine Corps’ story and offering a platform for interaction between Marines and supporters worldwide. The Page launched its Operation 2x2 campaign at the end of January, with the intent of achieving 2 million fans by the end of February. The Page achieved 2 million fans a few days after their goal, but the Marines are grateful to supporters for helping increase their fan base in record time. “We gave our fans a mission and we were blown away by their response,” said Sgt. Priscilla Sneden, Marine Corps production social media content manger. “We received more than 270,000 new Likes in four weeks. They helped us bring our
reach to new heights and take the Marine Corps story further.” Combat correspondents and combat cameramen around the world produce the Page’s content, which includes stories, blogs, videos and imagery. This media content keeps Marines and supporters knowledgeable about what the Marine Corps is doing. “The Marines here work extremely hard at ensuring they do the best job to provide a solid forum for our community to interact,” said Gregory Reeder, Director of Marine Corps Production. “Over the past two years we looked for ways to connect people to the Corps across the social media and traditional media spectrum. We’re not done yet, though. We’re continuing the mission and look forward to finding even more opportunities and platforms to give our Marines and their community a place to share their common bonds.” Source: http://www.marines.mil/unit/ hqmc/Pages/Official-Marines-FacebookPage-reaches-2-million-fans.aspx#. T3DEKVHR1Hg. Retrieved 26 March 2012. www.abchs.com
Navy’s first alternative fuel station opening in Hawaii By Thomas Obungen, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Hawaii EARL HARBOR, Hawaii (NNS) — Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Hawaii officially opened the first of three Ethanol 85 (E85) fueling stations planned for the Navy’s fleet of flex-fuel vehicles March 22 at Joint Base Pearl HarborHickam (JBPHH). “The addition of this E85 fueling station to our fueling options directly addresses the energy mandates set forth by the Secretary of the Navy and the President,” said Capt. John Coronado, commanding officer, NAVFAC Hawaii. “We have over one thousand E85-capable vehicles at JBPHH that will be able to take full advantage of this station and the two others to be installed.” Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus has directed the Navy to reduce its consumption of petroleum by 50 percent before 2015, while the President’s Executive Order 13514 calls for a 28 percent reduction in green house gases, such as carbon dioxide, by 2020. Ethanol is environmentally friendly, produces less carbon dioxide emissions, and helps reduce Hawaii’s dependence on foreign oil. In September 2010, NAVFAC Engineering Service Center (ESC) awarded a $315,767 contract to the Honolulu office of Innovative Tech-
nical Solutions, Inc. (ITSI) to develop and construct a 10,000-gallon above ground fueling station adjacent to the existing government fueling station on Paul Hamilton Avenue, JBPHH. NAVFAC Hawaii assisted ESC in executing the project. The contractor broke ground in April 2011 and completed all mechanical and electrical work July 15, 2011. Next, Space and Naval War Systems Command (SPAWAR) installed the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Fuel Master system, owners of the E85 fuel. After further adjustments, repairs, and final checks, the station became operational in March 2012. This means all government gas cardholders and their government-owned flex-fueled vehicles are now expected to fill up with E85. “Our E85 station may not have the amenities of some commercial fueling stations; but it will provide alternative fuel for personnel at JBPHH,” said Coronado. “All passenger carrying vehicles can pull in and fill up.” The Navy is currently evaluating other potential sites across the island. For more information about NAVFAC Hawaii and/or Naval Facilities Engineering Command visit: www.navfac.navy.mil.
Deadline to Apply for Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Extended
he deadline for eligible service members, veterans, and their beneficiaries to apply for Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay (RSLSP) has been extended to Oct. 21, 2012, providing those eligible more time to apply for the pay under the program guidelines. “Even with extensive outreach efforts, and tremendous support from the President, Congress, the VA, veteran and military service organizations, and friends and family around the world, some qualified individuals have not yet applied,” said Juliet Beyler, acting director of Officer and Enlisted Personnel Management. “We highly encourage anyone who may be eligible to apply for this pay; you have earned it.” RSLSP was established to compensate for the hardships military members encountered when their service was involuntarily extended under Stop Loss authority between Sept. 11, 2001, and Sept. 30, 2009. Eligible members or their beneficiaries may submit a claim to their respective military service in order to receive the benefit of $500 for each full or partial month served in a Stop Loss status. To apply for the pay, or for more information on RSLSP, including submission requirements and service-specific links, go to http://www. defense.gov/stoploss Source: http://www.defense.gov/releases/release aspx?releaseid=15132. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
Source: http://www.navy.mil/search/display. asp?story_id=66070. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
For more information visit: http://www.defense.gov/stoploss
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F e at u r e : S a f e t y t i p s d u r i n g t r av e l
Safety Tips For more saftey tips and travel information >>> travel.state.gov
Common Sense Security Red Flags • Traveling across the border – Advise your state department of your travel destination. Give your name, social security number, and who you will be staying with on the other side of the border. Ask about crimes in the area where you will be staying. You can have a state department representative’s contact number for emergencies over the border. • Taking domestic flights – You must be alert. You must look for things that are suspicious such as bags left unattended, people acting strangely, cars parked with no one inside. You must notify law enforcement or security. If there is a bad sense on something, have it checked out. Do not assume that everything is okay. • Taking international flights – You must be alert on where you are traveling to. Advise the state department. Check with the locations you will be visiting. It is great to give the state department an itinerary of your travels. Do not wear flash jewelry. Do not bring excessive cash. Carry only what you will be using for each planned location you plan to visit. Do not drink so much you distort your better judgment.
Red Flag Items • People that may look out of place • Bags that are left unattended • Cars running with no driver inside the vehicle • Cars parked in red zone • People or persons who seem nervous
Day-to-Day Travel • It is always good to let someone know your agenda and travel plans such as work. Example: “Right now, I am going to work. After work I will go to Vons on Smith Street and to a yogurt store in a shopping center. I should be home by 8:00 pm.” Always let someone know your travel plan • Only carry the cash amount you will use for the day. Do not carry wads of cash. Keep money spread out in several pockets, not just one. • Put all purchases out of sight and in the trunk such as laptops, valuable items, bags, etc. Criminals may assume there is a valuable item to steal out of a bag, even though it may be garbage, and try to break in using your car window. The best form of security is to follow your instincts. If you feel something is not right, more than likely it isn’t. You must report it to your local law enforcement. Again, do not assume everything is okay. Communication is the key in fighting crime. The more people that are aware of these red flags, the more protection we will have in our country. People standing around with no purpose should be looked at as a red flag. We must be alert and teach our family and kids to be alert. It is not if we will be attacked, it is when they will attempt to attack us. We must know that our safety will never be the same. 9/11 changed our world forever. We must never forget that. Be safe! Very Best, Louis Perry, President Kadima Security Services, Inc.
About the Author
Louis Perry President of Kadima Security has 33 years of security experience working with high profile clients, celebrities, dignitaries, Jewish congregations, and historical locations. He has worked alongside all levels of law enforcement. Currently, he is the security expert for CBS 2, KCAL 9 News, radio, and news publications throughout the U.S. To learn more about Louis Perry feel free to check out his website at www.louisperry.net
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by Ardian Shajkovci, CHS-I
Organizations: CE at home study course: 1 CE C r e d i t
Just Icons, or More? To get credit and complete the article, please go to http://www.abchs.com/IHSSU0112 and look for course code IHSSU0112 to take the exam and complete the evaluation. If you have special needs that prevent you from taking the exam online, please contact the registrar at 800.423.9737. This article is approved by the following for 1 continuing education credit: The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, CHS® provides this continuing education opportunity for those individuals Certified in Homeland Security, who are required to obtain 30 Certification Maintenance Unit’s (CMU) per 3-year recertification cycle. After studying this article, participants should be better able to do the following: 1. Explain the current growing level of “homegrown” terrorist threats in the United States and Europe 2. Discuss the current growing level of terrorist threats worldwide 3. List possible sources of motivations of “homegrown” terrorists in the U.S. KEYWORDS: Terrorism, Al-Qaeda, Homegrown Terrorism, Jihad, “Lone Wolf ” Terrorism TARGET AUDIENCE: Members of the field of homeland security DISCLOSURE: The author has nothing to disclose PROGRAM LEVEL: Basic PREREQUISITES: Major Terrorist Organizations: Just Icons, or More? Part I
CE Ar ticle: 1 CE Credit
CE Ar ticle: 1 CE Credit
CE Ar ticle: 1 CE Credit
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This article will explore the nature of terrorism today. More specifically, the goal of this research is to answer the following questions: Is there an indication of the existence of religious groups or individuals unaffiliated with a terrorist group but adhering to a common ideology of “global jihad,” as promoted by al-Qaeda? Is there an indication that the roles of major terrorist organizations, such as that of al-Qaeda, are rather diminishing—acting as a point of reference for independent terrorist groups and individuals only? To address these questions, this research will utilize both qualitative and quantitative analytic methods, as well as current literature on the topic. In the context of our research, we will argue that: 1) al-Qaeda continues to pose a serious threat both locally and internationally; and 2) there is a growing number of radicalized individuals and groups living inside the United States and Europe ready to initiate attacks, at the direction of foreign groups or on their own.
Additionally, this research will explore the possible motivations of some of the “homegrown” terrorists in the United States. The point will be made that the possible motivations of “homegrown” terrorists should not be understood primarily within the context of “global jihad.”
Terrorist Motivations: Case Analysis USA. vs. Omar Shafik Hammami wrote, “I don’t believe war should exist. It (aka Abu Mansour al-Amriki aka Farouk)
Photo Credit: www.fbi.gov
In July 2011, it was reported that Hammami had possibly been killed in Jubba, Somalia. 16
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According to the Department of Justice press release (2010), on August 5, 2010, prosecutors unsealed a September 2009 superseding indictment against Omar Hammami, 26, a citizen of the United States and former resident of Daphne, Alabama. The indictment alleged Hammami provided material support, including himself as personnel to terrorists, conspired to provide material support to a designated terrorist organization, al-Shabaab, and provided material support to al-Shabaab (United States vs. Omar Hammami, 18 USC 2339, 2339 B9 (a)(1)(2009)). Hammami is not currently in custody. Should he be apprehended, Hammami faces a potential 15 years for each of the three counts of the indictment. In July 2011, it was reported that Hammami had possibly been killed in Jubba, Somalia. However, such claims have yet to be confirmed. Brought up as a Southern Baptist, Omar was an ordinary child with a huge appetite for reading. He also was a natural debater and fierce competitor. He hated war and violence. In one of his journals he
doesn’t have a point.” Along similar lines, Hammami spoke of the Oklahoma City Bombing, “I wish violence would vanish clear from the earth.” However, as years went by Hammami developed an internal conflict: he did not know which religion to choose. Upon his return from Damascus, Syria, which he visited for a short period of time, Hammami converted to Islam and became deeply involved in religious studies (Elliot, 2010, pp. 4-5). By his junior year, Hammami had become a spectacle in his school. In one instance, he had made a point of praying by the flagpole outside the school and refused to say the Pledge of Allegiance. Another time, he had attacked a fellow student who interrupted him while he was reciting verse from the Koran. Following his suspension from school, Hammami moved to the University of South Alabama in Mobile, Alabama, where he became the president of the Muslim Student Association (Elliot, 2010, pp. 4-5). Tony Salvatore Sylvester, a 35-year-old convert and prominent figure in the American Salafi Movement in town, introduced Salafism to Omar. Salafism gave Omar a www.abchs.com
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Omar Hammami grew up in Daphne, Alabama where he attended Daphne High School (pictured Below). Hammami moved to the University of South Alabama in Mobile, Alabama (pictured on the left), where he became the president of a religious student association.
particular understanding of Islam, along with a sense of brotherhood and discipline. By now, Omar had also become the President of the Mobile, AL mosque. In the following months, he and his friends started to distance themselves from the mosque and instead regularly attended Tony Salvatore Sylvester’s sessions on religious studies. Although highly supportive of militant Islamism in the past, Hammami now argued that the real solution to “Muslim suffering” was not to engage in war, but rather in a spiritual jihad, by practicing faith with a greater devotion. As a result, in addition to wearing a turban and thobe, as used by gulf Arabs, Hammami and his friends also ordered themselves around a strict code: they could no longer listen to music, look at women, sleep with their backside facing Mecca, or be photographed (Elliot, 2010, pp. 5-6). “Everybody looked at us as if we were Satan,” recalls Bernie Culveyhouse, one of Hammami’s friends and fellow converts. On one occasion, a group of young men in a pickup had approached Hammami and Culveyhouse while reading the Koran and exclaimed, “This is a stick I have for boys who wear dresses,” while holding a min877.219.2519
iature baseball bat. However, this did not prevent Hammami and his fellow convert Culveyhouse from pursuing their religious endeavors. Over the next few years, they traveled around the country to attend Islamic conferences and, together with fellow adherents of Salafism in Mobile, opened a small Muslim bookstore. For a time, Hammami and Culveyhouse also took inventory at Wal-Mart. Frustrated by the fact that they had to touch alcohol, pork, and Christmas cards, they both quit and moved to Toronto, Canada (Putzel, 2010). Hammami and his fellow convert and friend found Toronto, with all its mosques and Islamic bookstores, very fascinating. In Toronto, he found a job as a deliveryman for a Somali company. It is here also that his frustration with the United States and the war in Iraq grew stronger, an event highly debated and unpopular at the mosques and coffee shops he attended. One day, Hammami and Culveyhouse had dropped by an Islamic bookstore owned by an Afghan national who had instructed them to “pray for the people of Fallujah.”
He soon became consumed by the events in Iraq and Afghanistan and started to rethink his non-militant Salafi perspective: “I was finding it difficult to reconcile between having Americans attacking my brothers, at home and abroad, while I was supposed to remain neutral, without getting involved,” explained Hammami in one of his early correspondences (Elliot, 2010, p. 7). Hammami started searching for new guidance on the Internet. He found Amir Khattab, a legendary jihadist of the Chechen war, and became fascinated by him. “Once you have legitimized the jihad in Chechnya, you are compelled to legitimize the jihad in other places as well,” noted Culveyhouse. At this point, although critical of U.S. policies and the war in Iraq and Afghanistan, Hammami was not impressed by al-Qaeda (disapproving its actions for attacking civilians) and considered insurgency in Iraq as too secular—only a “pure jihad” fought against infidels and in defense of a Muslim state (or its creation). This was what Hammami yearned for (Elliot, 2010, pp. 7-8). Summer 2012
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Hammami soon started communicating with Daniel Maldonado, an American convert and paid message board moderator for the so-called Islamic Networking forum who happened to be in Egypt. They met in person and started visiting the poor neighborhoods of the country as well as underground mosques. From Egypt, Hammami closely followed the gathering of Ethiopian troops at the Somali border, which threatened an invasion with the backing of the United States. Several days later, Hammami called his apartment in Alexandria and told this wife, Sadiyo, a Somali national, that he was in Somalia (Anti-Defamation League, 2010, p.1). “Jihad had become an obligation on me,” Hammami had stated just days before departing Egypt. In 2007, now as one of al-Shabaab’s commanders, he issued the following statement: “Oh Muslims of America take into consideration the situation in Somalia. After 15 years of chaos and oppressive rule by American-backed warlords, your brothers stood up and established peace and justice in this land.” Also, in one of his last correspondences Hammami argued, “They can’t blame it on poverty or any of that stuff…they will have to realize that it’s an ideology and it’s a way of life that makes people change. They will also have to realize that their political agendas need to be fixed” (Elliot, 2010, pp. 8-11). The history of Omar Hammami suggests diaspora motivation, global motivation, and local motivation. For the most part, Omar Hammami’s story would indicate that his motivations came from religious teachings and the desire to serve Allah. We saw how he considered a number of philosophical approaches before choosing jihad as his ultimate purpose, “Jihad had become an obligation on me,” Hammami noted. Furthermore, he viewed Somalia as a place where “pure jihad” could take place; a jihad fought against infidels and in defense of Muslim state (or its creation). The promise of an Islamic state in Somalia as promised by al-Shabaab—or creation of a Muslim Caliphate—is also central to al-Qaeda’s ideology and thus could be interpreted as a source of global motivation. It is in Toronto, Canada, that we noticed the first signs of Hammami’s frustration with the United States’ foreign policy and its involvement in Iraq, suggesting global 18
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motivation. This sentiment on the part of Hammami was galvanized through the mosques and coffee shops he attended. Additionally, he also became consumed by the events in Iraq and Afghanistan after having visited an Islamic bookstore owned by an Afghan national who had instructed him to “pray for the people of Fallujah.” Moreover, Hammami did not have interest in politics and jihad until he went to college and joined the Muslim Student Association, a group associated in the 1990s with the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt. Equally important, Hammami was profoundly influenced by Salvatore’s preaching of Salafism (although there is no indication that Salvatore preached a violent form of Islam) and later decided it was in harmony with violent jihad, again indicting the early signs of global motivation. Omar Hammami and his fellow converts viewed the United States as a place that lacked respect for Islamic traditional values. The fact that they moved to Toronto, Canada, and became fascinated by all its mosques and Islamic bookstores may also be interpreted as a source of diaspora motivation. A glimpse of possible diaspora motivation was captured in one of Hammami’s early correspondences as well: “I was finding it difficult to reconcile between having Americans attacking my brothers, at home and abroad, while I was supposed to remain neutral, without getting involved.” Hammami viewed Somalia as a corrupt and authoritarian country. Moreover, he saw it as a “puppet state” of the United States and a state that had failed to establish the legal system of Shariah. Local motivation is most often prompted by political developments in Islamists’ country of origin. Although not a Somali national himself, Hammami had been married to a Somali national and had been associating with the members of Somali community. This could also be a reason that might have motivated Hammami to join al-Shabaab. In this respect, the signs of Hammami’s local motivation can be found in the following statement he issued not long ago: “Oh Muslims of America take into consideration the situation in Somalia. After 15 years of chaos and oppressive rule by American-backed warlords, your brothers stood up and established peace and justice in this land (Elliot, 2010, p.10).”
The history of Omar Hammami suggests diaspora motivation, global motivation, and local motivation. Case Analysis Conclusion The analysis utilized in this part of the research is in no way designed to scientifically assess how the motivations of homegrown Islamist terrorists in the United States were generated. Moreover, the cases examined here do not allow us to draw final conclusions about Islamist terrorists’ motivations. The cases do offer valuable insight into possible motivations of homegrown Islamist terrorists in the United States and allow us to make some generalizations. When dealing with homegrown Islamist terrorism in the United States, one must thoroughly examine significant manifestations of the radicalization process and the conditions leading to it. Such a method of analysis is utilized to survey relevant contexts more closely and to more systematically analyze the possible sources of Islamist homegrown terrorists in the United States. To simply suggest that these are the primary and only sources of homegrown Islamist terrorism in the United States would be very misleading. Such conclusions may be problematic for several reasons. For instance, the sources of local motivation may be absent in a given case because we lack sufficient information to identify such sources. Similarly, it could also be because we lack adequate information or because we have misinterpreted the existing information.
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Omar Hammami USA vs. Cromitie, et al. USA vs. Shnewer, et al. USA vs. Batiste, et al. USA vs. Michael Finton USA vs. Alkaramia, Mohammad State of Washington vs. Haq State of North Carolina vs. Taheri-Azar
Table 1: Islamist Homegrown Terrorist Motivations in the United States
Although of limited scientific utility, such analysis is designed to assess the extent to which homegrown terrorists in the United States are motivated by either socio-economic or political issues at local, diaspora, and global levels of analysis. As shown in Table 1 (above), four cases suggest that possible motivations of homegrown terrorists were drawn from one level of analysis. The remaining five came from more than one. Although five out of nine cases suggest complex motivation, the research does not fully support our hypothesis that the possible motivations of homegrown terrorists in the United States are indeed complex. In our model hypothesis we predicted that the global and local sources of motivations are more prevalent compared to diaspora sources of motivation. All nine cases examined in this research involve global motivation, supporting our hypothesis that the idea of global jihad, as promoted by al-Qaeda and its core leadership, has become increasingly important as a source of possible motivation for homegrown terrorists in the United States. More specifically, while threats from overseas also remain, the threat has morphed into one in which U.S. residents/citizens are seeking to attack their countrymen utilizing al-Qaeda and its notion of global jihad as both inspira-
tion and an ideological reference point. Both local and diaspora sources “scored” equally low, however, indicating a less significant importance of both diaspora and local sources in motivating Islamist homegrown terrorist in the United States. Specifically, local sources of motivation were present in 3 out of 9 cases. Similarly, diaspora sources of motivation could be attributed to only 3 cases. As pointed out earlier, the theoretical framework utilized in this part of the research has very limited utility. Given the lack of accessibility to more complete information and “radicalized” individuals, our research remained qualitative in nature—predominantly reliant on biographical data and unsuitable for statistical or quantitative input. The significant contribution of such a framework in the context of our research, however, is that it represents a promising point to further contextualize the problem of homegrown Islamist terrorism in the United States. More precisely, it will allow us to better understand how certain elements combine and intertwine in the lives of individuals (involved in acts of terrorism) over time. Additionally, it will allow us to better understand the pattern of radicalization in the context of homegrown terrorism in the United States. For instance, the case of Omar Hammami is
an excellent example of how one should not base threat assessment on ethnicity, citizenship, or group affiliation only. On the contrary, one must fully consider the cycle of radicalization and understand how homegrown terrorists in the United States operate beyond state borders, affiliation, and ethnicity. Additionally, such contextual and theoretical examinations, in the context of diaspora and local sources in particular, are helpful in identifying and addressing any socioeconomic issues that might be affecting radicalization of U.S. citizens. The analysis in this part of the research is also important, as it could further influence our response to the radicalization of U.S. homegrown terrorists and limit any reductionist view of the process of radicalization. For instance, contrary to the “religious conveyor belt” theory, which implies a defined path to homegrown terrorism (Patel, 2011), our research clearly indicates that the path to homegrown terrorism has no fixed trajectory. Specifically, each case is unique and not all share the same identifiable markers. Equally important, the religiosity-terrorism correlation is also not supported by our research, as the majority of the individuals in the cases examined were far from being religious devotees and lacked religious literacy.
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Conclusion The issue of terrorism is extremely complex and controversial. Our attempt to present an objective picture of the phenomenon is challenging, primarily because of the limited information available. Although more research is clearly warranted, our analyses indicate a significant decline in overall Islamist terrorist attacks and attacks by Islamist terrorist organizations such as al-Qaeda since 2005. Comparatively speaking, in spite of such terrorism trends, the ideological venom it continues to spread remains powerful. Undoubtedly, the question of newly emerging unaffiliated and homegrown terrorists is alarming. In this research, we saw how in the United States, from 2002-2010 a total of 39 cases have been brought against unaffiliated groups or individuals, groups or individuals that could not be linked to a particular terrorist organization. Seventeen such cases were brought in the last two years alone. Similarly, the proportion of homegrown terrorists during the same time period in Europe reached one-fifth of all arrested for Islamist-related terrorism. When addressing the question of possible sources of motivation of U.S. homegrown terrorists, the examination of nine cases indicates no single process that leads to extremism. Some homegrown terrorists became radicalized parallel to religious conversion. Others were receptive to indoctrination from Islamist recruiters or spiritual leaders. Also, some terrorists looked to Osama bin Laden and his concept of global jihad for inspiration. Additionally, we saw how individuals analyzed in this research do not follow any definite ethnic or socioeconomic pattern. Predominantly, they are either permanent residents or born in the United States. Although not scientifically rigorous, the analysis of our cases allows us to draw some generalizations regarding possible sources of motivations of homegrown terrorists in the United States. For instance, our research clearly indicates that the idea of global jihad, as promoted by al-Qaeda
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and its core leadership, is becoming increasingly important. More precisely, in all nine cases examined there is an indication that individuals were motivated, in part, by their interpretation of U.S. foreign policy—particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan—and al-Qaeda’s global jihad. Equally important is that some individuals seem to be motivated by socio-economic issues at the local and diaspora levels. Addressing such concerns is a key to understanding how Islamist movements interact, converge, and advance their alliances. Despite such arguments, we must be careful when addressing the question of radicalization of the U.S. Muslim population. Although there is an increase on average of 7 cases per year since 2002, we must not assume any large-scale radicalization of the U.S. Muslim community. More precisely, the cases of Muslims in the United States involved in Islamist terrorism represent a small minority of the entire Muslim community in the United States; the number of Muslims in the United States today is estimated to be between 5-8 million. However, this is not to say that the issue of U.S. domestic Islamist terrorism is non-existent or should not be regarded as a growing concern. One way to tackle the issue of U.S. homegrown Islamist terrorists is through Internet monitoring. The Internet has become an essential tool for recruitment of Islamist terrorists both in Europe and the United States. The Internet is eliminating the need for homegrown terrorists to travel to foreign countries to become extremists. It also serves as a forum for homegrown terrorists to openly share their violent goals and aspirations. In this context, although Internet monitoring policies might represent a number of civil liberties and privacy challenges—and perceived by many contrary to the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution—they might decrease the recruitment of Islamist homegrown terrorists. Another way to fight homegrown terrorism is to create programs that could
address any socio-economic concerns or reduce social isolation of individuals at risk of becoming radicalized. Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, various Muslim groups in the United States have constantly issued statements condemning terrorism. Such statements and condemnations were based on both secular and religious arguments. Additionally, they have also prevented individuals expressing radical ideology as well as banned extremist ideologues from preaching in mosques. Although important, our counterterrorism policies should also be focused on creating programs that might help identify Muslim Americans who exhibit violent reactions to controversial issues. The programs might help identify such individuals and, once identified, be used to counsel and educate them on such issues. One must point out the growing role of imams (prayer leaders at mosques) as catalysts for the radicalization of homegrown terrorism in the United States. Many imams at U.S. mosques are known to preach extreme versions of Islam, divert various charitable donations toward the facilitators, and encourage support of Islamist causes. In order to counter the presence of emerging radical imams, our policies ought to encourage the development of more local imams. The new local imams would not only speak local language, but also possess a deeper understanding of American society. This could help reduce and control the import of radical preachers from abroad (i.e. Saudi Arabia) —including radical literature utilized by them—that might incite violence. Homegrown terrorism must also be understood within a broader international context. Specifically, as our research clearly indicates, the somewhat growing product of Islamist radicalization in the United States should be attributed to radical beliefs and commands (notably al-Qaeda central and its affiliates) coming from abroad, and not necessarily the United States. In this research we saw how
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the number of U.S. homegrown Islamist terrorists, although on the rise during the last few years, remains relatively small and largely focused overseas. Overseas travel, mainly to Pakistan and Afghanistan, by many homegrown terrorists, provide both ideological reinforcement and acquisition of practical operational capabilities. Thus, training camps overseas facilitate homegrown terrorism. To counter the existence of such camps, our counterterrorism polices must continue to support military incursions. We must be cautious in this regard, however, as military actions in a foreign country may produce new incentives for the enemy. Specifically, such attacks must be well coordinated, well executed, and with as few casualties as possible, as they might exacerbate and further fuel the jihadist cause. The efforts by the international community to curb the activities of al-Qaeda central have been relatively successful, as documented by its constant retreat, from Sudan to Afghanistan and eventually to mountainous regions of Pakistan—including the recent killing of its number one leader, Osama bin Laden. Although marginalized on the physical battlefield, the seeds of its recent manifestations continue to be present in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and the hearts and minds of citizens here at home. So, the question remains: how do we deal with al-Qaeda central— and ideologically alike groups—and minimize the future risks? First, Somalia, as a critical center in the larger al-Qaeda movement remains a legitimate source of concern. In Somalia, we have a double phenomenon in which local political
conditions not only continue to influence terrorist groups, but also push them towards internationalization. Such conditions were first sparked by the invasion of Somalia by the Ethiopian troops in 2006. The internationalization of terrorist activities, on the other hand, occurred largely to al-Qaeda and its powerful ideology. Moreover, it is in Somalia that al-Qaeda central is striving to unite all Islamist forces and create a Muslim state under its hard-line interpretation of Shariah law. Given the nature of such complicated environmental and historical developments in the country, our counterterrorism policies ought not to be solely focused on elimination or imposing sanctions on al-Shabaab’s leadership. In here, we refer to military retaliation as counterterrorism policy. To illustrate this, the Russian military retaliation in Chechnya during the 1990s, although temporarily successful, has now for decades alienated the Chechen population from the Russian government and generated new recruits from Chechen terrorists. Additionally, the strong military response by the Russian government has facilitated the spread of conflict to neighboring states, including Dagestan and Ingushetiya.
The Internet has become an essential tool for recruitment of Islamist terrorists both in Europe and the United States. The Internet is eliminating the need for homegrown terrorists to travel to foreign countries to become extremists.
A recently posted mock movie poster that reads, “Al Qaeda coming soon again in New York” to a website frequented by al-Qaeda supporters. It is from a portion of the website is used to teach photoshop.
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An Egyptian man shouts his support for Osama bin Laden at a rally outside the Nour Mosque in Cairo, Egypt, on Friday, May 6, 2011. About 400 people gathered to mourn the slain terrorist mastermind and vowed revenge for his death. (Mohannad Sabry/MCT) Principally, the only way that al-Shabaab and ideologically like-minded groups operating in Somalia could be contained would be through generation of a new Islamic movement supported by clan members. More specifically, it is rather important to engage with other Islamic insurgents and clan leaders and try to identify and strengthen moderate elements of the movement they represent. In this regard, however, we must be cautious, as any attempt to solely use local allies as political or military proxies will likely produce more conflict and setbacks for Somalia’s already slow process of political reconciliation. Today, many intelligence analysts familiar with the Somali conflict argue that the Somalis care more about their clans than global jihad, as promoted by al-Qaeda and its leadership (Cohn, 2010). More precisely, the analysts argue that the Somalis are a clan-oriented culture with an aversion to foreign presence, including the Arab jihadists. In this context, funding tribal movements could be another potential solution to the al-Shabaab menace. An example of such a movement would be the “Sons of Iraq,” which has been implemented in Iraq since 2005. The counter-insurgency program, also known as the Awakening of Sunni tribal leaders, started among Sunni tribal leaders in Anbar province in 2005 and became an informal part of the armed forces across the country in less than a year. The “Sons of Iraq” not only stopped
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fighting the U.S. troops in Iraq, but also cooperated with them in taking on al-Qaeda. The United States government transferred the obligation to the Iraqi government in 2009 and the troops were eventually integrated into the Iraqi Army. Secondly, Yemen and Pakistan also remain powerful sources of both local and international terrorism. The activities of al-Qaeda and its offshoot, al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), coupled with an increasingly restless secessionist rebellion in the south of the country along with overwhelming poverty, make Yemen an extremely dangerous country. In this context, our efforts at fighting such groups should be defined in terms of a comprehensive approach that not only ensures safety, but also economic and political development. Having said that, any aid in support of the Yemeni government must be contingent upon formulation of an agenda that makes fighting al-Qaeda and its affiliates a top priority, and is not solely used by the Yemeni government to strengthen its power and fight its secessionist opponents in the south of the country. Pakistan, the physical location of alQaeda’s operations, recruitment, and dissemination of propaganda, is yet another dangerous place. It is to Pakistan and not Sudan or Afghanistan, although this is not to underestimate the role of Afghanistan and Sudan as a major source of terrorism activities, that many adherents
of al-Qaeda’s ideology, whether it be its affiliates, al-Shabaab in Somalia, al-Qaeda in Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) in Yemen or unaffiliated and homegrown terrorists, look for guidance in justifying their attacks and for theological mentoring. We must also acknowledge that no single option can solve the ominous conundrum of al-Qaeda’s presence in Pakistan, but rather some combination of measures. One such measure is to continue to emphasize our counterterrorism experience gained in Iraq and Afghanistan. Another is to more actively engage in the peace process between India and Pakistan regarding the future status of the decades-long disputed region of Kashmir. Only peace in Kashmir and stronger relationships with neighboring India could remove the current underlying rationale of Pakistan (through its Inter- Services Intelligence in particular) to mobilize unconventional allies, including al-Qaeda and ideologically similar jihadist groups, to fight in Kashmir. More precisely, because of its strained relationship with its powerful neighbor India over Kashmir, Pakistan is seeking its own national security by wooing and protecting Islamist extremists in the country. Lastly, the most difficult task is to try to decrease popular support for Islamist terrorist groups. In Europe, we have recently witnessed a declining role of mosques and radical preachers in the radicalization and recruitment of Islamist terrorists. Largely, this is due to increased anti-Islamist sentiment among Muslim communities. Similarly, if governments fighting terrorism, such as the United States in the context of its war against al-Qaeda, become more devoted to improving public diplomacy and their image in the eyes of the majority of the non-violent Muslim world, the situation might change. Although the policies of the United States and its allies in the context of its war against terrorism in the eyes of many Muslims might not be that popular at this time, it does not mean that the voices of those advocating violence are either. This way, though terrorist groups’ core elite might remain untouched, the funding and recruits they receive might diminish.
CE A r t i c l e : M a j o r t e r r o r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s
Anti-Defamation League. (2010). Profile: Omar Hammami. Retrieved January 12, 2010 from: http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/omar_hammami.htm?Multi_page_sections=sHeading_3 Cohn, J. (2010, June). Terrorism Havens: Somalia. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/publication/9366/terrorism_havens.html Elliott, A. (2010, January 27). The Jihadist Next Door. The New York Times. Retrievedfrom: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/31/ magazine/31Jihadist-t.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq= the%20jihadist%20next%20door&st=cse EUROPOL.(2010). EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report TE SAT. Retrieved from: http:// www.europol.europa.eu/publications/EU_Terrorism_Situation_and_Trend_Report_TE-SAT/ Tesat2010.pdf EUROPOL.(2009). EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report TE SAT. Retrieved from: http:// www.europol.europa.eu/publications/EU_Terrorism_Situation_and_Trend_Report_TE-SAT/ TESAT2009.pdf Find Law. (2010). Cases & Codes. Retrieved from http://www.findlaw.com/casecode/ Hasan, N. (2006). Laskar Jihad: Islam, Militancy, and the Quest for Identity in Post-New Order Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell South Southeast Asia Program Publications. Investigative Project on Terrorism (2010). Court Cases. Retrieved from: http://www.investigativeproject.org/cases.php Jenkins, B. M. (2010). Would-Be Warriors. Santa Monica: The RAND Corporation. Lechner, J. F. (2009). Globalization: The Making of World Society. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell National Counterterrorism Center. (2010). Worldwide Incidents Tracking System [Data file]. Retrieved from https://wits.nctc.gov/FederalDiscoverWITS/index.do?N=0 Nesser, P. (2004). Jihad in Europe: Exploring the Sources of Motivations for Salafi-Jihadi Terrorism in Europe Post-Millennium (Masterâ€™s thesis). The University of Oslo & Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (FFI), Oslo, Norway. Patel, F.(2011). Rethinking Radicalization. New York, NY: Brennan Center for Justice
Putzel, Ch. (Producer), (2010). American Jihadi [Video file]. United States. Current TV. RAND. (2010). Rand Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents [Data file]. Retrieved from http:// smapp.rand.org/rwtid/search_form.php Sakwa, R. (2005). Chechnya: from past to future. London: Anthem Press. Transnational Records Access Clearinghouse. (2010). Trac Reports on Terrorism. Retrieved from: http://trac.syr.edu/tracreports/terrorism/ U.S. Department of Justice.( 2010, October 18). Four men found guilty in Manhattan Federal Court of plotting to bomb synagogue and Jewish community center and to shoot military planes [Press release]. Retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov/ usao/nys/pressreleases/October10/cromitieetalverdictpr.pdf U.S. Department of Justice.(2009, April, 29). One Plotter Sentenced to Life plus 30 years; Second Gets 33 Years in Prison for Conspiring to Kill U.S. Soldiers [Press release]. Retrieved from http:// www.justice.gov/usao/nj/press/press/files/pdffiles/ shne0429%20rel.pdf U.S. Department of Justice.(2010, August, 5). Fourteen Charged with Providing Material Support to Somalia-Based Terrorist Organization Al-Shabaab [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.justice. gov/opa/pr/2010/August/10-ag-898.html United States Attorney Office, Southern District of Florida.( 2009, May 12). Leader of Liberty City six convicted on all counts, four others convicted on multiple counts, and one defendant acquitted on charges of conspiring to support Al-Qaeda attacks targets in the United States[Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/case_docs/886.pdf United States vs. Omar Hammami, 18 U.S.C 2339, 2339 B9 (a) (1) (2009). United States vs. James Cromitie, et al. 18 U.S.C 2332a and 2332g (2009). United States vs. Shnewer et al. 18 U.S.C 9229(g) (5), 922(0), 1117 & 2 (2007) United States vs. Batiste Narseal, et al. 18 U.S.C 2339A, 2339B, 844(n), 2384(2006). Yin, R. (2003). Case Study Research, 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage
I would like to express my gratitude to my thesis mentors, Dr. Michael J. Fagel and Dr. Jonathan Schachter. Without their expertise, understanding, and patience, this research paper would not have been possible.
A b o u t t h e Au t h o r Ardian Shajkovci, CHS-I, began his career in the Balkans, where he was employed as a language assistant with the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. He has also worked as a research assistant for several European TV stations and senior university researchers. He received his BA in International Relations and Diplomacy from the Dominican University in River Forest, IL, and a MA degree in Public Policy and Administration from Northwestern University in Chicago, IL. He is currently pursuing a PhD in the same field. His research interests are in the area of International Security and Conflict Resolution, specifically, issues of war and peace, nationalism, human rights, terrorism, and ethnic hostility as they impact international security. Ardian is a member of the American Board for Certification in Homeland Security. 877.219.2519
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By Richard J. Hughbank, CMAS, CHS-IV
Shooter Paradigm “You have vandalized my heart, raped my soul, and torched my conscience. You thought it was one pathetic boy’s life you were extinguishing. Thanks to you, I die like Jesus Christ, to inspire generations of the weak and the defenseless people.” – Seung-Hui Cho Active Shooter at Virginia Tech University
n the wake of two active shooter inci- The Active Shooter Seung-Hui Cho of Virginia Tech University will forever be redents occurring in early 2012 at both membered as the college student that orchestrated and executed Chardon High School, Ohio, and Oikos what is currently considered the worst active shooter incident occurring at a school in the history of the United States. This University, California, I find it interest- singular incident has forever redefined the grave concerns that ing in how we continuously give credence to any given society will have for all potential future active shootour emergency preparation and response ef- er crimes at an educational institution. Furthermore, the videos made by Cho prior to his violent attack provide a window into forts. Without a doubt, these two emergency his emotional state of mind which framed his personal vendetta response phases are extremely important in against a perceived elite social group of student peers as demonstrated through the following comments extracted from a video: minimizing the loss of life. However, I believe You had everything you wanted. Your Mercedes wasn’t the mitigation (not prevention) phase deserves enough, you brats. Your golden necklaces weren’t enough, more attention when planning for a man-made you snobs. Your trust funds wasn’t enough. Your vodka disaster in the form of active shooter and terand cognac wasn’t enough. All your debaucheries weren’t enough. Those weren’t enough to fulfill your hedonistic rorist attacks. It’s during the mitigation phase needs. You had everything. that parents, friends, teachers, and adminisCho’s words lead us to believe he felt like he was treated as a trators can identify potential psychosocial social outcast by fellow students in an environment established to changes in a student and make a difference in create and stimulate intellectual enhancement without prejudice. The higher education setting is one that fosters open knowledge the saving of lives. Learn more about Certified National Threat Analyst, CNTASM, where homeland security professionals will be able to enhance their knowledge and skills regarding the intricacies of the international terror network. Watch the ABCHS website for the latest developments as certification becomes a reality for CNTA., login to www.abchs.com, or call 877.219.2519.
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transfer, the exchange of ideas, and scholarly freedom. Did Cho’s manifested antisocial behaviors begin prior to his attending Virginia Tech University? If so, when did he begin exhibiting these psychological traits, and why were they not properly identified, treated, and passed on through his school records as he moved from one school to another? The answer is yes; he did have some noted psychological issues in high school that were not provided to university counselors due to laws in place that prohibit the sharing of such information without the student’s permission. And while several professionals www.abchs.com
Demonstrators honor the anniversary of the Virginia Tech shootings and to protest gun proliferation in front of Duke Chapel on Wednesday, April 16, 2008, in Durham, North Carolina. (Ted Richardson/Raleigh News & Observer/MCT)
and academics have gone to great length to point out this legal disconnect, the real points of discussion for our purposes are the type of childhood and family interaction he experienced growing up, and the apparent lack of meaningful peer and teacher interaction Cho received while attending Virginia Tech University. If we connect the dots and draw correlations between these two social issues, one can begin to understand the set of circumstances leading up to his final release of emotional frustration in his terminal decision to kill dozens of others and, finally, himself.
Psychosocial Aspects and Indicators
According to Dave Grossman, the reputed author who specializes in the study of the psychology of killing, “… (the) first step in the study of killing is to understand the existence, extent, and nature of the average human being’s resistance to killing his fellow human” (1995, p. 2). He goes on to say that “(k)illing is a private, intimate occurrence of tremendous intensity…” (Grossman, 1995, p. 2). As seen on home videos created by Klebold and Harris (Columbine High School), both of the teenagers verbalized and demonstrated an overwhelming interest in the killing of another human being. This pathologic behavior is completely at odds with Mr. Grossman’s accurate depiction of the average person’s lack of inclination or desire to kill, yet validates his comments on the intensity as well as the moral and psychological departure of taking another person’s life. This dramatic expression of antisocial behavior can be directly linked to Freud’s theories of hostile id impulses and the emotional state of mind directly attributed to rage. As noted by Dr. Benjamin Wolman (1999): Rage is an expression of hostile attitudes which can be temporary or lasting, offensive or defensive, directed toward others or toward oneself. Rage is an impulse to attack, hurt, torment, damage, insult, retaliate, or destroy, 877.219.2519
and it is the most frequent emotional background of impulsive, violent behavior. Not all children learn to control the hostile id impulses. …Failure to attain one’s goals and to satisfy one’s wishes creates the feeling of frustration. A quite common reaction to frustration is to attack the thwarting person or object (p. 67). It is this level of rage that pushes certain individuals to the edge of a blackened void into which most of us consciously refuse to go. Not only do they reach that edge, they take that fatal leap into emotional darkness and despair choosing to express their “frustration” in homicidal manners inconceivable by most people. This extreme, emotional reaction is precipitated and potentially triggered by sociological occurrences during the early stages of life. Beginning in infancy and carrying over into adolescence, pent-up rage could lead to a volatile outcome like those of Klebold, Harris, Cho, and Kazmierczak. In 2002, the U.S. Secret Service published a report that examined 37 U.S. school shootings. Several key findings warrant emphasizing. School incidents of targeted, focused violence were seldom random or impulsive acts. As evidenced at even the surface level of the incidents described earlier, most assailants gave little external indication in the form of direct threats or other obvious actions toward their targets prior to the violence. However, by contrast, the majority of assailants did engage in some form of indicative general behavior that created concern, or cautioned others that the individual was certainly in need of help. The fact that those who noticed such atypical behavior changes failed to act on it is an unfortunate and common issue throughout our society. It is a noted fact that Seung-Hui Cho had been in and out of mental health facilities during his adolescent years, and that teachers, students, and university counselors noted unusual and violent mood swings prior to his killing rampage. Likewise, Steven Kazmierczak’s girlfriend, Jessica Baty, told CNN during an Summer 2012
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interview that Kazmierczak voluntarily stopped taking his prescribed anti-anxiety medication – Prozac and Xanax – a few weeks before the shooting. Post-mortem toxicology reports supported her claims (Einhorn, 2008).
Cultural Surroundings and their Impact
I have already pointed to dysfunctional family and social dynamics as a root cause of the antisocial and criminal behavior shown by active shooters. As Grossman effectively terms this “virus of violence” and directly asserted, “Children don’t naturally kill; they learn it from violence in the home and... as entertainment in TV, movies, and interactive video games” (1998, p. 2). The electronic culture of mimicked murder, armed assault, and dealing death is a multi-billion dollar industry. Mr. Grossman identified a serious alarm at the influence of such games: With the advent of interactive “point-and-shoot” arcade and video games, there is significant concern that society is aping military conditioning, but without the vital safeguard of discipline. There is strong evidence to indicate that the indiscriminate civilian application of combat conditioning techniques as entertainment may be a factor in worldwide, skyrocketing violent crime rates, including a sevenfold increase in per capita aggravated assaults in America since 1956 (2000, p. 2). In an almost incomprehensive twist of irony, the incidences of active shooters—these events of wholesale bloodshed—and their 24-hour media real-time coverage, also feed into the desensitization of our children that violence is everywhere, a regular occurrence, and real-life entertainment. Other compounding factors include the social interactions, or lack thereof, with those outside the nuclear family unit. These tertiary relationships include love interests, peer interaction, and connections with a person or persons that are depended upon in a mentorship role. Certain parental interactions have been known to create varying psychological issues for their children. According to Dr. Willard Gaylin, noted theoretician and psychotherapist, “Hatred is an amalgam containing an emotion, a paranoid ideation, and an obsessive extended relationship to a perceived enemy” (2003, p. 62). This perceived enemy varies from person to person in this amalgam as we start to peel the layers back and begin a more systematic examination of the psychosocial variables that impact a person’s emotional break from reality. The kind of hatred referred to here is not developed from an isolated incident, a moment in time. It is a causal effect stemming from a lifetime of emotional events that eventually reach a point where something must give, and that breaking point is expressed in the dangerously emotional form of rage. While none of the research conducted on the previous active shooter scenarios suggest there was any one particular “isolated incident, [or] a moment in time” that caused a cognizant dissonance [a break from reality], it is not a stretch to say that some occurrence or sequence of occurrences did take place in each of their lives that sent them into a pathological state of mind that eventually led them to plan, coordinate, and commit extreme acts of violence. 26
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While the active shooter paradigm is not a new societal problem in the twenty-first century, it has quickly become a greater concern to us all as it has unfortunately spiraled up exponentially. In the words of political scientist Samuel P. Huntington (1993), “...the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural.” Our cultural morals are methodically digressing, and our children have become the unfortunate recipients thereof. The fundamental dysfunction of the average family’s conceptual framework plays a critical role in the emotional problems of their children, and until we are able to fully grasp the social dynamics of the family unit, especially the abnormal ones, adolescents and adults alike will continue to contribute to future active shooter crimes.
Portions of this column were taken from a book Richard co-authored and co-edited, titled The Dynamics of Terror and Creation of Homegrown Terrorists. You may purchase the book on Amazon. com, Barnesnandnoble.com, or receive a signed copy by purchasing it at http://www.understandterror.com.
Einhorn C. (2008, March 15). Tests Show Campus Gunman Had Stopped His Medicines. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/15/us/15dekalb. html?ex=1363233600&en= 87950134dac8e668&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt& emc=rss. Gaylin, W. (2003). Hatred: The Psychological Descent into Violence. PublicAffairs: New York, p. 62. Grossman, D. A. (1995). On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. Little, Brown and Company: Boston, p. 2. Grossman, D.A. (1998, August 10). “Trained to Kill”. Christianity Today, p. 2. Grossman, D.A. (2000). “Aggression and Violence”. Oxford Press, p. 2. Huntington, S.P. (1993, Summer). “The Clash of Civilizations?”. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19930601faessay5188/samuelp-huntington/the-clash-of-civilizations.html. Wolman, B.B. (1999). Antisocial Behavior. Prometheus Books: New York, p. 67.
a b o u t t h e au t h o r Major Richard J. Hughbank, CMAS, CHS-IV, U.S.
Army (retired) is an assistant professor in the Criminal Justice Department at Northwestern State University where he teaches graduate homeland security studies. He is also the President of Extreme Terrorism Consulting, LLC. Hughbank with over 21 years experience in the Military Police Corps, is a combat veteran in the War on Terror, and a published author in the fields of security, active shooters, terrorism, and homeland security. Hughbank is currently a doctoral candidate in management and homeland security. Richard holds graduate degrees in Mental Health Counseling and Security Management and served four years as a student counselor at the U.S. Military Academy and U.S. Air Force Academy. Additionally, he is a board certified expert in School Crisis Response, Emergency Crisis Response, and Traumatic Stress by the National Center for Crisis Management. Richard can be contacted through his company website www. understandterror.com, by email at rhughbank@understandterror. com or on his professional blog on Facebook – “Understand Terror.” www.abchs.com
F e at u r e : h o m e l a n d s e c u r i t y U p d at e
Congressman Billy Long (MO-7)
s a freshman Member of Congress, I consider myself very fortunate to serve on the House Committee on Homeland Security. It is an important committee that covers vital issues facing our country. Issues such as weapons of mass destruction, cybersecurity, transportation security, and even the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) handling of disasters are studied, debated, and voted on in the committee. The September 11th terrorists attacks changed how our country looks at securing our homeland and, as a result, in 2002 the House Select Committee on Homeland Security was established to combat these new threats. The select committee was only temporary, but was tasked with laying the groundwork to develop recommendations for the Department of Homeland Security. The committee was granted permanent status in 2005. The Committee on Homeland Security is tasked with oversight of the Department of Homeland Security and oversight of any legislation that addresses domestic security in the United States. Like other permanent committees, the Committee on Homeland Security holds hearings, conducts congressional investigations, and issues subpoenas on matters involving issues with securing the homeland. Members of the committee are also often given access to classified information. The committee consists of 19 Republicans and 13 Democrats and is currently chaired by Congressman Peter King of New York. Chairman King’s priorities include conducting effective oversight of the Department of Homeland Security operations and ensuring the intelligence community and law enforcement agencies have the tools they need to
identify and combat threats. Under the leadership of Chairman King the committee has worked to stop plans to transfer Guantanamo Bay detainees to the U.S homeland to put them on trial in civilian courts. Chairman King has also led the committee’s efforts to pass a comprehensive Department of Homeland Security authorization bill that would provide the department with the necessary guidance, tools, and resources to help protect our homeland from future terrorist threats. To better understand the threats our country faces, the Committee on Homeland Security is comprised of six subcommittees. I have the pleasure of serving on the Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence, the Subcommittee on Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies, and the Subcommittee on Oversight, Investigations, and Management. The other subcommittees are the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Communications, the Subcommittee on Transportation Security, and the Subcommittee on Border and Maritime Security each of which specializes in defined areas of the full committee’s jurisdiction. No doubt our country will face threats in the future both known and unknown, which is why we must remain vigilant in the efforts to defend our country. I will never forget that as an elected official, my first job is keeping America safe, and that is why I am proud to serve on the Committee on Homeland Security.
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Dignitary & Executive
By David L. Johnson, DABCHS, CHS-V
What Works and What Doesn’t?
An Executive Protection Perspective
rofiling – there is an on-going national debate about this subject, but it is not a new issue. The current argument often centers on a racial profiling issue, but the efforts behind profiling from the law enforcement/security perspective goes far back in history, and arises from an admirable motivation. When looking out over a crowd while working some kind of protection detail, you cannot tell the players without a program. Where might potential attacks come from, and who in this crowd will be actors in the event? The trouble is, while you bear some kind of responsibility for someone else’s safety and security, you cannot predict future trouble. Profiling efforts arose to assist with such problems. 28
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Occasionally something bad does happen themselves. To me that is an admirable moand professionals of different disciplines tivation and an end state of affairs that we review and evaluate the case study of the should all aspire to. The trouble is that, thus far, attempts adverse incident. Sometimes it is psycholoto profile individual characteristics usually gists and psychiatrists that try to help, and fail us. We develop empirical experience sometimes it is law enforcement or security with the profile not working, and it causes professionals. They all hope that something a collective disappointment and disdain will emerge from their efforts that will help for the process or law enforcement and security profes...how can we tell them apart effort. To support that hypothesis, let sionals move from a reactive state of from the average citizen when me cite some of my empirical experimind to a proactive we see them on the street? ence. Joining the state, and perhaps enable us all to get in front of problems. fray of anti and counter-terrorism efforts in The desire and goal is to help prevent crisis the early 1980s I became very interested in or to assist with early detection of poten- learning about my opposition. It is sometially hazardous incidents rather than just thing that all military schools of thought responding to them after they manifest have taught from the days of Sun Tzu’s Art www.abchs.com
of War: know your enemy. Serving in Germany and conducting protective operations for a U.S. Army General Officer who had already been a victim of a Red Army Faction assassination attempt, I was eager to learn about this thing that we call terrorism. Who were its adherents and practitioners, and how can we tell them apart from the average citizen when we see them on the street? In my discussions and research efforts, someone pointed me to a “profile” of a typical terrorist that was developed during that timeframe, and I obtained it. If memory serves me well, that profile said that a typical terrorist was a white male, between 25 and 35, was college-educated, and could speak more than one language. Wow, my potential adversaries already outclassed me. My high school diploma and inability to learn high school Spanish did not stack up well against these guys! However, the trouble was already brewing within me over this profiling thing. Our liaison activities with the German Police resulted in their sharing a book with us that they produced. In the Military Police community, we used to call these things a BOLO book. BOLO stood for Be On the Look Out for. Now this publication was really useful because it contained photographs, depictions and physical descriptive information of known, wanted Red Army Faction members. The trouble was that out of 14 wanted terrorists, ten of them were women! So much for the value of that profile… Later in life, I heard that a similar profile had been developed here in the United States pertaining to potential presidential assassins. Again, there were no women described to me as being on that list, and low and behold both Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme and Sarah Jane Moore subsequently tried to shoot former President Ford. It was now obvious that neither of these “early” efforts worked, and it was back to the drawing board. Today, as components of our national dialogue on profiling, I hear that being Middle Eastern, Arabic, or Muslim is a critical part of the terrorist profile. After all, what else did the nineteen 9/11 perpetrators, the shoe bomber, and the underwear bomber all have in common? Well, I cannot argue that being able to identify common characteristics from a selected pool of perpetrators we have already identified is not possible. Nor will I argue that members of groups that possess one or more of those characteristics direct terrorism and terrorist acts at the United States and American interests, businesses and citizens. However, this is after the fact analysis and is of little value in assisting with predicting the potential for future violent events. What I will argue is that if this is all one bases evaluation on, then there is failure in your future. The problem is that this kind of profiling simply does not work. It also leaves out whole categories of classes and characteristics of people who use violence in a manner that it fits within the definition of terrorism. Every member of the Red Army Faction in that book we were given was white. Many people who use terrorism in a group known as Harakat al-Shabaab al-Muhahideen that operates out of Somalia are black. Some of the narco-terrorists who have operated out of multiple South and Central American countries are Hispanic. Some classify the infamous Lord’s Resistance Army in Africa as a 877.219.2519
Photograph taken outside the St. Francis Hotel at about the exact same time Sara Jane Moore attempted to assassinate President Gerald R. Ford. (FordLibraryMuseum.gov / U.S. Secret Service)
Physical description in BOLO book of a Red Army Faction member. Photo provided by columnist. Translation: Wanted Persons / Personal Data / First Name: Inge / Last Name: Viett / DOB: December 1, 1944 / Place of Birth: Stemwarde / Physical and Personal Description / Noticeable / Distinctive Features: Scar on 3rd limb of her index finger; untended, scruffy big hands / Height: 163 cm (5’4”) / Build: Slim 60 kg (132 lbs) / Hair: Light Brown / Eye Color: Brown / Eyebrows: Slightly arched / Spectacles: Occasionally / Nose: Slightly curved / Mouth: Large mouth, bulging lips / Teeth: Incomplete / Job: Childcare worker, nurse, gym teacher (without qualifications) / Language Skills: English / Characteristics: Heavy smoker, loves fast motorcycles, really good car driver / Knowledge: Contact lithography, reprography / Other characteristics: Appendectomy scar Summer 2012
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Christian Fundamentalist militant group, but it seems to me they use the tactics of terror in their actions. The advent of the “homegrown” terrorist phenomenon indicates that this problem, if I may term it that, is becoming more difficult. Therefore, I would submit that profiling by appearance, race, religion, or any other individual characteristic is of severely limited value. Unless you are fighting a war, then sometimes the uniform the other combatant is wearing helps you to identify them as potentially hazardous to your health… Now, on the other side of this coin, I would submit that criminals and terrorists often profile in this manner. Three examples: 1. If you look like you are a westerner in some countries, you are at risk. 2. If you drive something made in Detroit or an SUV in Iraq or Afghanistan, you fit the profile of desired victims and you are likely going to have to fight at some point in time. 3. If you go into a bank with empty hands and come out carrying a fat envelope, then you fit the profile of what a robber is looking for when desiring to supplement his or her income by taking what you are carrying in that envelope.
Learn more about the Certified in Dignitary and Executive protection, cdepSM program for professionals, dedicated to the detection and prevention of potentially hazardous incidents, and the quest for national certification. Login on our website at www.abchs.com, or call us at 877.219.2519.
tent with the developing stages of an attack scenario. Among others, I call this kind of concept and training Attack Recognition. The focus and desire is to make protective agents familiar with what happens in the set up for and the lead-in to such attacks on their principals or motorcades. The intent is to give them the ability to recognize factors in their day-to-day environment that may develop, which would be consistent with such modus operandi so that they may focus attention on those things and catch a developing attack as early in its life cycle as possible. Among the things that we are doing with this approach is profiling the behavioral and environmental characteristics. Some old examples: In the 1977 kidnapping of Hans Martin Schleyer in Germany, the Red Army Faction used a woman dressed as a nanny pushing a baby carriage to assist them with getting his motorcade stopped. In the subsequent 1978 kidnapping of Aldo Moro in Italy, the gunmen disguised themselves as Al-Italia airline Unlike looking for something pertain- pilots. In both cases, and in multitudes of ing to race, nationality, or function such as subsequent cases the world over, the terin my first two examples in this paragraph, rorist actors used the elements of surprise the criminal in the third example is pro- and diversion in the attack plan. In both filing other characteristics. That criminal cases, the terrorists had to transition from is profiling behavior and/or activities. It being what they appeared to be, whether works for them and I think this approach nanny or airline pilots, to what they really were: terrorists planning to kill people and that can work for us as well. Conducting case study on all the same kidnap their specifically targeted victim. incidents as indicated before, when one The nanny transitioned when she reached into her baby takes account of carriage and how the incidents ... I would submit that profiling by pulled out her shape up, identifies the modus appearance, race, religion, or any weapon. The airline pilots did operandi used to other individual characteristic is the same thing. conduct these atof severely limited value. Using this aptacks, then one proach, profiling begins to understand what aspects of the environment you of activity and behavior, it matters not are operating in what might be consistent what race, religion, country of origin, age, with such modus operandi and how these education level, or any other category the things begin to shape up. You get a concept assailant fits into. However, it gives the law that certain behavioral aspects are consis- enforcement or security officer the ability 30
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to detect potential attacks as early in the development of their life cycle as possible. It also has the side benefit of assisting with their mental preparation when facing a potentially lethal situation. Though both the world and terrorism has evolved, the various modus operandi, the ability to profile attack recognition factors through behavioral and environmental characteristics, continues to pay dividends in the field. This approach to “profiling” and the associated knowledge directly leads to the potential to catch both criminals and terrorists in the transition stage of their attack. This approach is saving lives and works here in the United States, Mexico, Afghanistan, Iraq or any other place where protection professionals are practicing without having to rely on profiling characteristics that have empirically proven unreliable in the past and controversial today.
A b o u t t h e Au t h o r
David L. Johnson,
DABCHS, CHS-V, is President of ITG Consultants, Inc., providing consulting, training, and protective services. In 30 years of providing protective services, he has coordinated presidential, Cabinet, ambassadorial, and senior executive level protective programs in threat environments ranging from negligible to that of imminent assassination attempts by state-sponsored terrorist organizations, as well as conditions of conflict and coup d’etat during multiple high-threat or politically sensitive assignments including Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina; and management of contracts in Afghanistan and Iraq. He is a member of the ABCHS Executive Advisory Board and chairman of the American Board for Certification in Dignitary and Executive Protection. www.abchs.com
By Dave McIntYre, PhD
Executive Level Education
Value of Value in the
With an active storm season bearing down on us and the danger of violence from abroad remaining high, what do you think is the biggest barrier to American companies adopting viable Business Continuity Planning (BCP)?
ccording to one expert in both business and risk, one major reason that businesses are caught napping by disasters is that executives fail to understand the enterprise value of their own endeavors â€“ or how quickly that value can be destroyed if they do not take reasonable measures for preparedness and response. Peter J. Leitner is the Founder and Managing Partner at Waterford Advisors, a corporate finance advisory firm that focuses on the healthcare and technology sectors. In one chapter of the newly released text, Business Continuity and Homeland Security, he lays out his case for why managing enterprise value is the key to 877.219.2519
preparing for and weathering a corporate disaster. (Full disclosure: this author is co-editor of the volume, but receives no remuneration from sales.) While many leaders think of their firmâ€™s value purely in terms of assets, Leitner defines Enterprise Value as the sum of Debt and Shareholder Value (based on both tangible and intangible assets). This is a clever way of focusing executives on the reality that operating capital has a cost, debt must be repaid, and perceived value can disappear quickly. Hence the need for BCP. Assets, after all, may appear stable, and some businesses may run so smoothly that they give a false sense of permanence and Summer 2012
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reliability. But from the perspective of debt and capital, business is always in motion. In fact, a company can only stay in business over time by maintaining a positive cash flow despite the pressures of competition and economic realities beyond its control. Some part of every business is always dying, as equipment ages, processes become obsolete, new ideas emerge, and tastes change. Thus some part of every business must always be growing so that innovation, efficiency, and effectiveness offset these losses and create new value. This, at its core, is the business of business, regardless of the product or service produced. Ensuring and revitalizing this changing balance of value within acceptable risk is what owners, boards, executives, and managers do for a living, regardless of the type of business in which they are employed. This is a challenge in the best of times, ...how can we tell them apart as anticipated cash flows are disrupted by from the average citizen when competitors, the cost we see them the street? of capital fluctuates, and the firm’s value is assailed by changing trends. Disruptions from intentional attacks, hazards, and natural disasters may be even more sweeping, rapidly imperiling cash flow, enterprise valuation, or even survival. Additionally, according to Leitner, special considerations may include: • The Speed with which connections between customers, employees, vendors, and debt holders fray and unravel following a major event. • The Isolation business leaders will feel, as the normal support system of federal, state, and local government is interrupted, and the presence of consultants, lawyers, and lenders is reduced. • The Confusion that accompanies the absence of large numbers of employees and supervisors, as well as the unavailability of physical resources (like a building to work in). • The Interruption of the Supply Chain that connects vendors and services to the processes and production means of the firm. • The Distress of lenders who suddenly find themselves over exposed, and counter by modifying the availability of loans. • And finally the Absence of customers who provide the life blood of business, and may hold the company’s long term destiny in their hands as they make short term postevent decisions. If all these factors are included in a solid risk analysis, a sobering picture of what happens to those who ignore BCP emerges. And some interesting ideas about preserving enterprise value – different from the traditional list of planning models, frameworks, and standards – emerge. True to his argument about the importance of considering enterprise value (including debt, intangibles, and cash flow) rather than just asset value, Leitner begins his look at Business Continuity from the perspective of Value-at-Risk (VaR). That is, how much of the Enterprise Value (Debt + Shareholder Value) is actu32
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What are reasonable measures American businesses should be taking for disaster preparedness? Does your company have a Business Continuity Plan (BCP)? Learn more about Critical Infrastructure ProtectionSM from the ABCHS website at www.abchs.com, or call us at 877.219.2519.
ally at risk, given the likelihood that a particular threat, hazard, or national disaster comes to pass? This is simpler than it sounds. Leitner offers the convenient example of a Category 5 hurricane striking Long Island. Understanding how such an event would destroy facilities, interrupt cash flow, and disrupt the systems and relationships that create value, his mythical company leadership can develop a more business-like and financially sound course of action than traditional approaches to securing physical assets might suggest. Of course, none of this is to argue that traditional continuity planning, training, and exercises be ignored. Whether a company relies on the concepts of the National Infrastructure Preparedness Plan, the annexes of the National Response Framework, the structure of NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) 1600, the considerations of appropriate ISOs (International Standards for Organization), the guidance of federal Sector Specific Plans, the recommendations of industry groups, the content of FEMA training courses, or the products of contractors and subject matter experts, the detail and discipline imposed by proven BCP approaches is essential. Leitner is offering a philosophical approach, not an alternative mechanism that will build a plan, test it against reality, and make it available in an emergency. Value based perspective is intended to focus traditional BCP, not replace it. But the need for new perspectives is made evident by his final point – the impermanence of Knowledge Based business. While industrial age value was based on physical resources, Knowledge Based value is based on a constantly changing “combination of employees, vendors, customers and financiers” that fits a constantly changing niche. Significantly interrupt this connectivity and continuous evolution, and the firm may not be able to recover. Educating leaders to this fact and motivating them to actively plan for and manage through disastrous discontinuities in company value is what enterprise value planning is all about.
A b o u t t h e Au t h o r Dave McIntyre, PhD is VP for Homeland Security Programs at the National Graduate School of Quality Management, and is a Visiting Fellow at both the Homeland Security Institute and the WMD Center. He is co-editor with Bill Hancock of the book Business Continuity and Homeland Security, recently released by Edward Elgar Publishers. www.abchs.com
Register today & save! Early Registration Deadline is
This yearâ€™s summit is located at
The Rio in beautiful Las Vegas
The goal of the annual Executive Summit is to bring together top professional leaders. Hosted by the American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, the American College of Forensic Examiners International, the American Psychotherapy Association, and the American Association of Integrative Medicine, the Executive Summit is an extraordinary, multidisciplinary event that brings together professionals from homeland security, forensics, psychotherapy, and integrative medicine disciplines with the common goal of learning. Attendees have the unique opportunity to network with others in their immediate discipline, as well as be exposed to professionals who they may not normally come in contact with. The Executive Summit facilitates connections and contacts that otherwise may not be made. Presentation sessions cover a variety of topics and are lead by top industry leaders, including William F. Flynn, John Didden, John Giduck, Stephen King, William Morris, and many others, and offer valuable continuing education credits.
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Book Review | Author: Raymond W. Holcomb with Lillian S. Weiss
Enemies Inside FBI Counterterrorism Author: Raymond W. Holcomb with Lillian S. Weiss Reviewer: Jenny Leigh Davis for Inside Homeland Security® Holcomb is an expert at keeping the reader interested in the twists and turns of his remarkable, fast-paced career.
Raymond W. Holcomb’s Endless Enemies: Inside FBI Counterterrorism is a personal account of his career as an FBI agent. Holcomb is an expert storyteller with a remarkable memory. With ease, he invites his readers into the world of FBI counterterrorism—a world the American public is typically not privy to. The book showcases the intriguing, highly-skilled, and intensely chilling unseen world of an FBI agent’s career, spanning from his early days chasing moonshiners to the hunt for the ultimate enemy: modern terrorists. Holcomb takes the reader on a chronological journey, spanning nearly 23 years, through his historically significant FBI career.
olcomb is a relatable narrator and possesses an every-man quality with extraordinary focus and ability. Prior to being accepted into the FBI, Holcomb was an attorney. This detail is important, as he uses his knowledge of the law later in his career to assist in the prosecution of Zacarias Moussaoui, a French man convicted of conspiring to kill U.S. citizens on 9/11. The characters in Holcomb’s world are full of uniqueness, grit, and personality. Endless Enemies examines the lessons learned and the path to change within the FBI, under the leadership of Director Robert S. Mueller, to combat the new world of global terrorism in the years following the attacks on 9/11. The book opens at the beginning of Holcomb’s career as an FBI agent. He describes the world of 1984 Athens, Georgia, a small town near Atlanta and his first FBI assignment. He was a long way from his home in New Jersey. Holcomb explains that in those days, under a policy established by J. Edgar Hoover, new “agents were (sent) as far from home as possible, believing they would be less susceptible to corruption in an unfamiliar environment.” He quickly encountered a world of Confederate flags, Ku Klux Klan (KKK) marches, and shacks and farm houses on the verge of collapse. He was paired up with one of the most critical characters in the saga: a veteran agent named Ed, who became Holcomb’s mentor. Ed was a wise, experienced investigator who seemed to give the new agent Summer 2012
Inside Homeland Security®
the tools he would need for the extraordinary career he was about to embark upon. Within the world of Athens, Georgia, the two agents discover corruption in local law enforcement and set out to clean house. Holcomb recounts the events with vivid detail, making the reader feel present at the scene, fighting the drug war against the “southern dons,” as Holcomb perfectly labels them.
Holcomb recounts the events with vivid detail, making the reader feel present at the scene, fighting the drug war against the “southern dons”... Holcomb is an expert at keeping the reader interested in the twists and turns of his remarkable, fast-paced career. The next stop on the journey is New York City, quite a vast departure from the backwoods of Georgia. As an agent in New York City, Holcomb becomes deeply involved in Cold War surveillance. “One of my jobs was monitoring the activities of the Russian deputy secretary to the United Nations.” He often met with and protected informants who provided critical information about the Russians to the U.S. government. “In an era (when) paranoia reigned supreme,” Holcomb describes the protection efforts and the counterintelligence responsibilities he and his team managed to achieve in their missions. As the reader, you feel transported back in time to the scenes of a great spy novel, except Holcomb’s stories highlight true American courage. Holcomb’s voyage continues in the seedy world of counter-narcotics in New York City circa 1989. He became a part of a squad that he describes as “an amazing display of teamwork from a diverse group of various backgrounds: Malaysian, Philippine, Thai, Puerto Rican, Chinese, Italian, Irish, and English.” This section of the story covers intensely stressful situations as the team tracks down and captures drug dealers and their affiliates. One remarkable account involves a high-speed car chase: “we blew past cars on the interstate as if they were parked.” The result of this highoctane pursuit was “multiple arrests and multiple heroin seizures.” During this period in NYC, the team encounters the emerging world of technology. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, many agencies were using new technologies to catch criminals, but the problem Holcomb’s team ran into was the imperfect, new, and untested nature of the technology in the early days. Sure, technology glitches may not seem as sexy as a high-speed car chase or Cold War espionage, but it was a real part of the job in that era and a relevant reason for refection, considering the vast progress made in that field. Holcomb’s stories make you appreciate the efforts put forth by departments and individuals in the U.S. government to catch criminals and prevent crime and terror. Holcomb’s connection to the events and people in his world are palpable; he never seems like a disconnected narrator. The reader can sense his happiness and humor when he scores 274 out of 300 (the highest score of the day) during a SWAT training exercise on a stressful day: “I wanted to find Glen (instructor) and give him a big 38
Inside Homeland Security®
kiss, but SWAT guys don’t do that.” The reader is also exposed to Holcomb’s frustration with bureaucratic matters. After the capture of a highly sought after narcotics criminal, Holcomb shows annoyance toward the DEA officials he was forced to work with: “I hated being there, and it took every ounce of control I had to keep from busting the DEA agent who snaked me along with the others, right in the nose.” Holcomb chronicles his days in SWAT training and eventual promotion to SWAT team leader. He devotes chapters to the intergovernmental struggles during the response to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya and the attempts to track the bombers and bring them to justice. While in custody, the bombers created a shiv, jumped the guard, “and then jammed a shiv through his eye and into his brain.” Holcomb reflects: “This attack clearly highlighted the nature of the people we were dealing with.” The failed attack on the USS The Sullivans in 2000 and the successful attack on the USS Cole in 2001 are the next scene Holcomb revisits. The storytelling of the events that take place, as seen through the eyes of Holcomb, is a must-read for anyone interested in history, politics, and the changes that developed in our nation’s counterterrorism efforts. His investigation successfully uncovered intelligence that the attacks had been planned outside Yemen “and that some threat intelligence had been previously received that indicated U.S. ships entering Aden’s harbor were in danger…we would learn just how shortsighted our government institutions had become and how costly our refusal to heed the obvious warnings would be.” The book concludes with highly insightful analysis and accounting of America’s collective governmental response to the attacks on 9/11 and the recognition that major adjustments to policy and intelligence were required. Endless Enemies is a gripping read from cover to cover. Holcomb is candid with his recounting of the critical historical events he witnessed, participated in, and supervised. If you want to learn about the men and women heroes who fight the intelligence battle to keep American safe, you can’t miss Raymond W. Holcomb’s Endless Enemies: Inside FBI Counterterrorism. This book is a true depiction of the inter-workings of the everyday people who serve, protect, and passionately battle to defend the freedoms we, as Americans, are fortunate to enjoy.
References Holcomb, Raymond W. Endless Enemies: Inside FBI Counterterrorism. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books. 2011. Print.
Check out the Certified in homeland Security, CHS® levels I though III (CHS-I–III). Take an in-depth look at how the protection of our nation and its citizens has evolved since 9/11. Enroll online at www.abchs.com or call 877.219.2519 for more information. Certification exams for CHS-IV and CHS-V are available now! Find out if you qualify at www.abchs.com.
For those struggling with TBI or psychological concerns including PTSD and depression, there’s hope. The DCoE Outreach Center’s trained health resource consultants are standing by 24/7 to answer your questions and provide information. Call today, chat online at www.dcoe.health.mil/247help, or send an e-mail to email@example.com.
The DCoE Outreach Center
Free, confidential psychological health and TBI information for service members, veterans, and families 877.219.2519
866-966-1020 www.dcoe.health.mil/247help firstname.lastname@example.org Summer 2012
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Written By Charles N. Painter, PhD, PMP
A Private Sector
Solution The polygraph requirements of the Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010 mandate that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) initiate 100% polygraph testing of law enforcement applicants by January 2013. The act is designed to address significant corruption problems within the CBP and a spike in corruption cases in recent years. Challenges confronting CBP management include the small number of qualified polygraph examiners available within federal agencies, the high demand for these examiners, and the availability of finite training resources. To ensure that the act’s polygraph requirements are met within the necessary timeline, CBP should aggressively pursue federally qualified private sector polygraph examiner resources to temporarily augment its existing staff. A partnership between the government and private industry can address CBP’s corruption concerns immediately while giving the government time to increase its internal polygraph testing and training resources to address the needs of the agency in the future. 40
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CBP Border Patrol agent scans trains passing through Montana for any illegal activities. (Gerald L Nino / CBP.gov)
for the Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010
A r t i c l e : a P r i va t e S e c t o r Po ly g r a p h s o l u t i o n
In 2009, less than 15% of applicants for CBP jobs received polygraph examinations. 877.219.2519
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the anti-border corruption act of 2010 On January 4, 2011, President Obama signed Public Law 111-376, which is more widely known as the Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010. The act is designed to strengthen the ability of CBP to evaluate the suitability of applicants for employment, assess the continued suitability of existing law enforcement employees, and address increasing incidents of corruption within the CBP. Broadly considered, the act seeks to implement 100% applicant polygraph testing of CBP law enforcement applicants, and mandates that CBP clear its existing backlog of reinvestigations of current employees (Anti-Border Corruption Act, 2010). In order to meet the specific polygraph requirements of the act within the mandated timelines, CBP management faces significant challenges. Federal polygraph resources alone are insufficient to allow CBP to meet the requirements of the act. As a result, CBP should aggressively pursue the contract use of federally qualified private sector polygraph examiners through a managed services procurement to meet the goal of implementing poly-
graph testing of all CBP applicants within the required timelines. The specific requirements of the act mandate that the Secretary of Homeland Security (DHS) ensure that within two years of the act’s enactment (i.e. January 2013), all applicants for law enforcement positions with CBP be afforded preemployment polygraph testing. The law also requires that by 180 days after enactment, CBP initiate background investigations for all of its law enforcement personnel. The act requires DHS to make periodic reports on CBP’s progress to the U.S. House Committee on Homeland Security and the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (Anti-Border Corruption Act, 2010). Under the law, all CBP applicants will have to undergo polygraph testing along with a standard background investigation before they are offered employment with CBP. Current agents will not be required to undergo polygraph testing as part of the act (U.S. Border Patrol, Polygraphs, 2011).
A man suspected of smuggling drugs into the U.S. is checked on a small road near the Mexican border. (Diego Giudice / MCT)
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CBP Corruption Issues and Causes S. Rep. No. 111-338 (2010) that accompanied the legislation through Congress details the significant corruption problems encountered by CBP that the act is designed to address. It also elaborates on an exceptional spike in the number of improper conduct cases within CBP in recent years. According to this Congressional research and the DHS Inspector General, since 2003, 129 CBP officials have been arrested on breach of trust charges, and three-fourths of them were arrested for “mission-compromising acts of corruption” (McCombs 2011). In 2009 alone, CBP officials opened 576 investigations on allegations of illegal activities. CBP management attributes the increase in criminal cases to a rapid rise in the hiring of new personnel. To further illustrate this trend, the number of CBP agents has doubled between fiscal year (FY) 2002 and FY 2009. The agency reports a corresponding expansion in employee corruption cases of 42% between FY 2005 and FY 2010. For some experts, the most alarming www.abchs.com
A r t i c l e : a P r i va t e S e c t o r Po ly g r a p h s o l u t i o n
CBP Border Patrol Marine units patrol the waterways of our Nation’s borders. (Gerald L. Nino / CBP.gov)
aspect about these statistics is the increasing present and future threat posed by the attempted corruption of CBP law enforcement personnel by Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs). The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) identifies DTOs as the greatest organized crime threat to U.S. national security (DOJ, 2008). CBP management cites growing attempts by DTOs to bribe and/or intimidate CBP agents. They also note greater numbers of occurrences in which DTOs are attempting to infiltrate the CBP by directing individuals under their control to take CBP entrance examinations (New Border War, 2010). The great majority of these attempts were discovered through the use of the polygraph. McCombs (2011) quotes former CBP Commissioner Alan Bersin as stating, “The powerful Mexican drug organizations have stepped up efforts to infiltrate the agency as they become more desperate to get people and drugs across a border that has more agents, barriers, and technology.” CBP’s Assistant Commissioner for Internal Affairs James Tomsheck supported this assessment when he declared, “there is a concerted effort on 877.219.2519
the part of transnational criminal organizations to infiltrate CBP through hiring initiatives and compromise of our existing agents and officers” (New Border War, 2010). Susan Ginsberg, a member of the 9/11 Commission and nonresident fellow at the Washington DC-based Migration Policy Institute, however, discounts increased hiring as the cause for the rise in CBP corruption cases. She instead attributes the phenomenon to the reaction of DTOs to the Mexican government’s recent four-year crackdown on drug trafficking, noting, “They’ve responded by becoming more aggressive in their efforts with border officials” (Ginsburg, 2010). Regardless of the exact causes, Ginsburg (2010) states that CBP has responded intelligently and aggressively to these and other threats by increasing the number of internal affairs investigators from 5 in 2006 to 214 in 2010 and its total staff to 624 people, up from 162 in 2006. CBP’s Office of Internal Affairs (CBP-IA) has also implemented behavioral science and analytic research
methods to detect potential corruption (Ginsburg 2010).
CBP Responses to Internal Corruption Issues Within CBP-IA is the Credibility Assessment (Polygraph) Division with the stated mission to support IA’s personnel security and applicant screening functions, as well as employee integrity and misconduct investigations and corruption detection activities. CBP’s Credibility Assessment Division is considered to be one of the preeminent polygraph units in federal law enforcement. One reason for this overall
The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) identifies DTOs as the greatest organized crime threat to U.S. national security. excellence arguably stems from the experts running the division. According to Patrick Roche, a former director of the U.S. Customs Polygraph Program, the division’s management includes: a former director Summer 2012
Inside Homeland Security®
Interrogation of a man with lie detector. Electrodes attached to fingers. (Shutterstock.com)
of the National Center for Credibility Assessment’s (NCCA’s) predecessor polygraph school the Department of Defense Polygraph Institute; a former director of the DOJ Office of Inspector General Polygraph Program; and a former director of the U.S. Secret Service Polygraph Program (personal communication, November 8, 2011). Despite its excellent reputation, the CBP Polygraph Program has been unable to keep pace with the demand for applicant polygraph testing, given agency budget challenges and other polygraph testing requirements supporting IA’s criminal and corruption investigations. S. Rep. No. 111-338 (2010) makes a compelling case for the continued and even expanded use of applicant polygraph testing by CBP in the future as well. In 2009, less than 15 percent of applicants for CBP jobs received polygraph examinations. Significantly, CBP reported to Congress that of those applicants undergoing polygraph examinations, 60% were found ineligible 44
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for employment, primarily due to prior drug use or a criminal history that the applicant had not previously disclosed. Less than 1 percent of CBP applicants who successfully completed an applicant polygraph examination subsequently were disqualified in their required single scope background investigation (SSBI). By contrast, 22% of applicants who were not subjected to applicant polygraph testing were subsequently disqualified in their SSBI. Further, given that SSBI’s cost an average of $3,200, the expanded use of applicant polygraph testing offers a more cost-effective and streamlined security process for CBP applicants. The numbers demonstrate that polygraph testing of applicants before the initiation of an SSBI has significant utility and offers a cheaper and faster method for effectively vetting candidates.
Challenges Facing CBP-IA In order to meet the requirements of the act, CBP must administer approximately
how a lie detector works 26 federal agencies use lie detectors in intelligence and counterintelligence operations, personnel screening and law enforcement. The lie detector collects physiological data during a structured interview.
What a lie detector measures 1 Rubber tubes placed on chest and abdominal area record respiratory activity 2 Two small metal plates, attached to fingers, record sweat gland activity 3 A blood pressure cuff records cardiovascular activity SOURCE: MCT Adapted by The American Polygraph Association
A r t i c l e : a P r i va t e S e c t o r Po ly g r a p h s o l u t i o n
4,000 pre-employment polygraph examinations annually over the period of 2013-2015. This represents a 3,200-examination increase over existing levels by January 2013 (Anti-Border Corruption Act, 2010). McCombs (2011) states that CBP must recruit, hire, train, and mentor at least 17 new polygraph examiners to have the number necessary to conduct 100% applicant screening by January 2013. Other sources estimate that as many as 50 to 55 new CBP polygraph examiners will ultimately be necessary to meet the testing requirements of the act given CBP-IA’s Credibility Assessment Division’s staffing levels as of 2009 (E-merging Technologies Group, Inc., 2009). Several major challenges confront CBP management. There are a small number of qualified polygraph examiners available within federal agencies. These qualified examiners are in high demand, and there are finite training resources available to train new federal polygraph examiners. According to NCCA’s Deputy Director Don Kraphol, there are approximately 700 federally qualified polygraph examiners available within the government and the private sector (personal communication, November 8, 2011). He also notes that there
are currently 26 federal agencies within the intelligence and defense communities (including a handful of civilian agencies) that use the polygraph in intelligence and counterintelligence operations, applicant screening, and law enforcement. In virtually all agencies using the polygraph large testing backlogs exist, and limited polygraph examiner resources are stretched thin. Federal polygraph examiners receive their initial training through the NCCA at Fort Jackson, SC. The center serves as the sole provider of federally accepted basic polygraph training (Joint Security Commission, 1994). Graduation from NCCA’s 520-hour Psycho-physiological Detection of Deception (PDD) course is a prerequisite for examiners testing within federal programs. The basic PDD course is an academically challenging and comprehensive series of classes that prepares the polygraph examiners to conduct counterintelligence and law enforcement examinations within federal programs. NCCA’s budget, resources, and logistical limitations put a ceiling on the number of new federal polygraph examiners that can be trained annually. Available NCCA training slots are in great demand by federal agencies, and a zero-sum training equation means
...there are approximately 700 federally qualified polygraph examiners available within the government and the private sector...
that providing additional training slots to CBP to meet the requirements of the act will reduce the number of slots available to other agencies, potentially having an adverse effect on their respective intelligence and law enforcement missions. Directly hiring federally qualified polygraph examiners from other government programs also “robs from Peter to pay Paul” and again runs the risk of unfavorably affecting other critical national security activities. An additional contributing factor to the present state of affairs is the amount of time necessary for newly trained federal polygraph examiners to develop the skills and experience necessary to become fully productive and to operate independently. After completing the basic PDD course, federal polygraph examiners are required by their agencies to complete an internship in which their work is carefully monitored by more senior examiners. These multifaceted mentoring programs run from six months to one year and require that the agencies commit experienced resources to teach and advise new examiners. After the internship period is complete, additional monitoring of new polygraph examiners is required, and in most cases, newly trained federal polygraph examiners do not become fully proficient until they have two to three years of experience. In the short term, mentoring newly trained polygraph examiners serves to draw down an agency’s available testing resources. The reality is that CBP lacks the polygraph examiner resources to meet the act’s requirements of 100% law enforcement applicant polygraph testing by January 2013 (E-merging Technologies Group, Inc., 2009). To summarize, CBP cannot fully institute this critical applicant polygraph screening program using federal resources alone, because of these four factors: • a restricted federal polygraph training pipeline, • strong competition for available basic polygraph examiner training among federal agencies, • the significant learning curve for new polygraph examiners, and • the inability of other federal agencies to help.
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Customs and Border Protection officer photographs and fingerprints a visitor at the San Francisco International Airport. (MCT)
A Private Sector Polygraph Solution From the information presented so far, it appears that CBP must at least temporarily look to the private sector for federally qualified polygraph examiner resources to augment its existing staff if it is to meet the requirements and timelines of the act. Doing so will allow the agency to benefit from the experience of highly skilled retired examiners while supplementing or temporarily bridging manpower deficiencies until adequate numbers of new federal polygraph hires can be brought to bear on the problem. Various intelligence and federal law enforcement agencies employ contractor polygraph examiners who meet or exceed the federal requirements of NCCA basic polygraph training, experience, and continuing education. For the most part,
average experience of available federally qualified contractor polygraph examiners exceeds 18 years (E-merging Technologies Group, Inc., 2009). This level of experience far surpasses that of federal polygraph examiners available in the government sector (Patrick Roche, personal communication, November 8, 2011). A number of federal polygraph programs augment their staff through the use of annuitants and independent contractors. Both of these approaches have distinct disadvantages. Agencies generally severely restrict the number of annuitant positions made available for critical occupations such as polygraph examiners and limit the number of hours they are allowed to work. Also, retired federal polygraph examiners returning as annuitants can lose part of their retirement benefits under certain circumstances (Rehired Annuitants, 2011). Independent contractor polygraph examiners potentially offer greater numbers, lower cost, and more flexibility than annuitants. However, when procured individually through personal service contracts, independent contractor polygraph examiners place a significant burden on the government contracting offices managing their contracts
Polygraph support procured through a managed services contract offers distinctive advantages to CBP. these polygraph examiners are federal retirees who possess significant experience in law enforcement screening, counterintelligence, and counter-narcotics testing. The 46
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and the polygraph programs supervising their testing. Agencies that have procured independent contractor polygraph examiners have generally discontinued their use for these reasons (Patrick Roche, personal communication, November 8, 2011). The superior approach for CBP to act upon and carry out in the immediate future is to procure managed polygraph services through an individual company that has significant numbers of federally qualified polygraph examiners on staff. Several companies provide managed polygraph services to a number of federal intelligence and law enforcement agencies. Polygraph support procured through a managed services contract offers distinct advantages to CBP. These include: • Simple procurement processes: CBP’s Procurement Directorate will have one contract to manage for polygraph services rather than many, and clearly defined performance standards and objectives can be better meshed with the production goals of CBP-IA’s Credibility Assessment Division. • Strong resource and performance management: The Credibility Assessment Division will have a single point of contact for contractor polygraph examiner scheduling to support CBP hiring. At least one private sector firm can immediately provide as many as 30 federally qualified polygraph examiners with an average of 18 years of experience to augment government resources to meet the requirements of the act. As the requirements of the act are met, CBP can scale back or discontinue using contractor polygraph examiners as the government trains and hires new polygraph examiners (E-merging Technologies Group, Inc., 2009). • Qualification and training management: The Credibility Assessment Division will have a single point of contact to ensure contractor polygraph examiners continue to meet or exceed federal polygraph training and agency-specific qualification requirements throughout the life of the program. www.abchs.com
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From immigration enforcement to illegal drug interdiction to defending against terrorism, the integrity of the CBP is of vital importance to America’s national security. The polygraph requirements of the Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010 and their timely implementation are therefore critical to ensuring an effective personnel security applicant screening process for our nation’s largest law enforcement agency. As this article has attempted to demonstrate, a managed services polygraph support approach to augment current and future government resources possesses the greatest potential of ensuring CBP’s internal organizational security and overall success—in the near and medium term. This type of partnership between the U.S. government and private industry is sufficiently capable of comprehensively tackling the CBP’s corruption concerns immediately while giving the federal government adequate time to increase its polygraph testing and training resources to the point where they can fully meet the staffing needs of the agency in the future.
References The Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-376, 124 Stat. 4104-4105). E-merging Technologies Group, Inc. (2009, March 14). Polygraph support services capability statement. Paper presented to the Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Washington, DC. Ginsburg, S. (2010). Securing human mobility in the age of risk: New challenges for travel, migration and borders. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. Joint Security Commission (1994). Redefining security: A report to the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence. Washington, DC, 28 February 1994. McCombs, B. (2011, August 16). Border corruption cases grow. Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved from http://azstarnet.com/news/local/ border/article_836254a0-34aa-5298-985e9d421c4d3587.html New border war: Corruption of U.S. officials by drug cartels. Hearing before the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on State, Local and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration, 111th Congress. (2010) (Testimony of James F. Tomsheck). Rehired annuitants. (2011). Retrieved November 18, 2011, from http://federalretirement.net/ rehired_annuitant.htm. U.S. Border Patrol, polygraphs, and the anti-border corruption act of 2010. (2011). Retrieved Novem-
ber 7, 2011, from http://www.nbpc2366.org/ content/polygraphs-and-anti-border-corruptionact-2010 U.S. Department of Justice. (2008). National Drug Threat Assessment 2009. Washington, DC: National Drug Intelligence Center. W. Henderson. (2010, December 21). Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010. Web log comment. Retrieved from http://www.clearancejobsblog.com/ cleared-news/anti-border-corruption-act-of-2010
A b o u t t h e Au t h o r Charles N. Painter, PhD, PMP, is a Senior Vice President with E-merging Technologies Group, Inc., a professional services company providing support to federal intelligence and law enforcement agencies. He is an 18-year veteran of the Central Intelligence Agency and is a former polygraph director for the National Reconnaissance Office. Dr. Painter holds a PhD in Public Administration and Policy from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He is certified as a Project Management Professional (PMP) by the Project Management Institute. Dr. Painter can be contacted at email@example.com.
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Business Continuity & Emergency Preparedness
r. Powers joined the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in March, 2005 and serves as a Senior Advisor for the National Protection & Programs Directorate (NPPD) Business Continuity & Emergency Preparedness (BCEP) division. In this role, Bill manages a host of policy facets that build and promote a culture of individual and organizational preparedness among the NPPD workforce that enable individual and organizational readiness and continuity. Prior to joining BCEP, Mr. Powers served as the Chief of Staff for the NPPD Office of Risk Management and Analysis where he managed the day-to-day activities that included personnel, resource, policy, and interagency strategy formulation to enhance homeland security risk management. Mr. Powers has served as a Professional
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Staff Member with the United States Senate Homeland Security and Government Affairs Committee (110th Congress). Mr. Powers provided key legislative input and guidance on public policy matters related to DHS implementation of a comprehensive National Security Strategy to secure the United States from terrorist attacks and response to natural disasters. Additionally, Mr. Powers collaborated to co-author the successful bi-partisan sponsored United States Fire Administration Reauthorization Act of 2008. Prior to his work on Capitol Hill, Mr. Powers served as Preparedness Officer with the DHS Office of Domestic Preparedness. In this capacity, Mr. Powers worked closely with state and territorial Homeland Security Advisors on the implementation of the Homeland Security Grant Programs, managing over $225 million dollars
of active DHS grants. Mr. Powers contributed to effective state, territorial, and local implementation of the National Response Framework and National Priorities through identification, assessment, monitoring, and risk-based analysis. With extensive emergency response acumen and experience as a fire officer, Mr. Powers played an integral role in the early successes of DHS sponsored grant programs, serving as a subject matter expert to the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program; the State Homeland Security Grant Program; and the Urban Areas Security Initiative. Mr. Powers holds national certifications as a Chief Fire Officer, Fire Inspector, Master Fire Instructor, Rescue Technician, and Hazardous Materials Technician/Incident Commander. He is a veteran of the United States Air Force, where he received the Air Force Commendation Medal, Joint Service Commendation Medal, Air Force Achievement Medal, National Defense Service Medal, and Global War on Terrorism Medal, among others. Mr. Powers holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Management and a Masters Degree in Public Administration from Bellevue University where he is also an Adjunct Professor. Currently, Mr. Powers is pursuing his doctorate in human capital management with emphasis on emergency management organizational succession and resiliency. He has authored several articles in the arena of knowledge management, succession, resiliency, and organizational change. www.abchs.com
s organizational leaders we have an intrinsic responsibility to grow the next generation of leaders. The safety, security, and resiliency of our communities demand that emergency managers take painstaking efforts to capture, store, codify, and transfer organizational knowledge to the next generation – a measurable task in our knowledge-based economy where experts predict that globally, knowledge doubles every eleven seconds. This column will be dedicated to address the science of “Organizational Matters” in an effort to invoke thought and promote management action.
Talent Flight and Turnover. In a Recession? Years into a national record-setting recession, with unemployment figures still hovering at the ten percent range, is it plausible that emergency management organizations could be facing a human capital crisis of talent flight and turnover? For those managers who look at these trends and foolishly dismiss the potential of the pending crisis, they should pay heed. Retention, and arguably, succession planning begins with employee engagement. Choosing to make employee engagement a low priority could have detrimental impact in any organization, and a catastrophic impact on an emergency management agency. Those who are focused on the bottom-line expense of human capital development are a prime example of penny-wise and pound-foolish. Sectors and organizations are facing an unprecedented challenge: how best to replace the talent pipeline as baby boomers have reached retirement eligibility and the workforce available to replace them pale in comparison at an alarming 1:4 ration. The intersection of this knowledge void will be felt dramatically when organizations are not effectively managing the talent currently within their span of control in a budget-neutral environment that is unpredictable to determine when and if they can afford to replace personnel. How do we stave off this crisis? How can 877.219.2519
emergency managers and city leaders proactively avert a disaster? Invest in the resources you have. Mentorship and internal knowledge transfer practices are as important as training and development programs. As human capital measurement emerges and accounting practices begin to recognize how to truly interpret the intangible investment of human capital, top managers will realize that the yield of this data may result in a valid return on investment when that investment is planted firmly in the roots of its most valued commodity - human capital. Across the board cuts and hiring freezes can still give way to investment in your human capital through identification of top talent, training and development, mentoring, or internal reorganization that results in a merged and perhaps a clearer picture of the organization’s tactical and strategic priorities. How much can a single employee’s talent flight cost your organization? Some experts predict that turnover of one employee costs the organization as much as 60% of salary and benefits – a number that is crippling to think about and more caustic when realized, quickly spiraling upwards to hundreds of thousands of dollars a year for large municipal departments and agencies. When one analyzes turnover, recruitment, and retention costs, one quickly surmises that a highly talented worker is much like a superstar athlete whose skills open doors to opportunity. Not every employee is going to represent extraordinary market value, however. As managers, we must train to recognize how to manage top talent and to maintain the organization’s solvency through proactive application of employee investment. Some organizations are addressing this crisis by creating dynamic talent management solutions. Employees must feel like things are progressing for them, despite the organizational lull created by layoffs, budget cuts, or declining revenue generation. Managers must come out from behind the balance sheet and invest in their greatest asset: human capital. Are you? Will you? Summer 2012
Inside Homeland Security®
By Shawn j. vandiver, MS, CHS-V
Keeping Secrets H
ello and welcome to the quarterly board meeting for Corporation X. We deliver power and water to the New York Stock Exchange. Many of our valves are controlled via network interfaces indirectly connected to the Wide Area Network known as the World Wide Web (the internet, as a whole). Should our network be compromised, the NYSE and all of greater Manhattan would lose utility services, and financial markets would grind to a halt. We are a private sector company with no real obligation to the public sector (local, state, and/or federal governments). Why would I want to share any of my proprietary information with DHS? Won’t that get compromised? Is there anything in place to protect us from Corporation Y using my processes to gain the edge on me in our narrow market? This quarter, we must make a decision about sharing our proprietary critical infrastructure information, so we are going to discuss how that information is protected, who retains it, and with whom it is shared. 50
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Should I share my proprietary information with DHS?
History/Legislation Up to 85% of the nation’s critical infrastructure is owned by the private sector. Disclosure of sensitive critical infrastructure information could provide a roadmap for anyone with ill intentions. If information regarding these infrastructures is leaked, or unauthorized access is given to the pipelines or processes, this could cause serious damage to the companies, the economy, and public safety. Section 201(d)(12)(a) of the Homeland Security Act states that DHS is required to “ensure that any material received pursuant to this Act is protected from unauthorized disclosure and handled and used only for the performance of official duties.” Federal agencies, including DHS, use several programs and procedures to accomplish that task. We are going to discuss one of these programs and talk about how it affects Corporation X, law enforcement, and the general public.
Program Details The Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) program protects Corporation X’s proprietary information from public disclosure. It was established under the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002 and implemented by 6 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 29 (the Final Rule). The program delineates requirements for submitting critical infrastructure information (CII) and those that federal and governmental entities must meet for accessing and keeping PCII secure. The PCII program office manages PCII program requirements, develops protocols for handling PCII, raises awareness of the need for protected information sharing between all CI stakeholders, www.abchs.com
Photo (top left): ErickN / Shutterstock.com
and ensures that all entities receiving voluntary CII submissions validated as PCII use approved continuous safeguard procedures. Additionally, they coordinate with private sector and federal, state, local, and tribal government entities to develop and promote secure and effective information sharing processes and programs while promoting greater homeland security. The CII submission process is somewhat lengthy, but for good reason. First, individuals or collaborative groups submit information for protection to either the Program Officer or a designated Federal PCII Program Manager. If it qualifies under the CII Act, the Program Officer then validates it for protection. After validation, all PCII is stored in a secure database and critical infrastructure stakeholders follow PCII Program safeguard, handling, dissemination, and storage requirements established in 6 CFR part 29 and promulgated by the PCII Program Office. When someone needs access to the information, secure methods are used for dissemination. Only authorized PCII users who have attended PCII training (we’ll talk about this in a few paragraphs), have legitimate 877.219.2519
Okay, back to the boardroom. We homeland security duties, and a specific need-to-know can access the information. at Corporation X have decided that it Any disclosure, even if just suspected, is safe for us to share our information with the government. We have every must be promptly investigated. Of note, 6 CFR 29 allows the PCII Pro- confidence that the PCII Program Ofgram Manager to designate certain CII as fice will protect it, but what will it be presumptively valid. This means that they used for? Is DHS trying to take over the automatically assume validity by taking utility industry? Are they trying to use measures to accelerate the validation pro- our processes for some super-secret process and facilitate submission directly to gram? The answer is “no.” PCII will only the Sector Specific Agencies (SSAs) and be shared with accredited governmental other federal partners. This process, known entities. Accredited government entities as “categorical inclusion” allows the PCII include authorized federal, state, or loProgram Manager to establish categories cal government employees or contractors of information for which PCII status will supporting federal agencies, only for the automatically apply. It also allows for inIs DHS trying to take over the utility industry? direct submissions to DHS and DHS Are they trying to use our processes for some field representatives, super-secret program? The answer is “no.” as well as allowing the program office to designate DHS field representatives and purposes of securing the nation’s critifederal agencies other than DHS to receive cal infrastructure and protected systems. CII submissions indirectly and on behalf The information will be used for analyof DHS. An important caveat is that only sis, prevention, response, and recovery of the PCII Program Manager is authorized to critical infrastructure threatened by tervalidate a submission as PCII. rorism or other hazards. Summer 2012
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Sensitive security information, certified® is a certification currently in development with The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security geared towards professionals in the field of cybersecurity. For more information visit www.abchs.com or call 877.219.2519.
PCII can also be used to generate advisories, alerts, and warnings relevant to the private sector. One important factor, especially to the board at Corporation X, is that communications available to the public will not contain any protected information (PCII). The CII Act specifically authorizes disclosure of PCII without the permission of the submitting entity for 3 reasons: • To further an investigation or prosecute a criminal act. • Either House of Congress, to the extent that they address matters within their jurisdiction, or any related committee, subcommittee, or joint committee. • The Comptroller General, or any authorized representative of the Comptroller General, while working with the Government Accountability Office. So, we understand why PCII might be needed in a current investigation or prosecution, but why would Congress of the Comptroller General need to see it? The answer is that the protection of PCII is factored into budgets but not specifically mentioned. If Congress or the GAO are investigating the need for funding at one level or other, they may need to know specifics about the PCII in order to make a decision. This does not mean that Corporation X will be investigated by the GAO or Congress (unless there is suspicion of a failure on our part). Up to now, we at Corporation X have a warm What happens if Corporation fuzzy feeling that our X’s PCII is intentionally used information will be proin a manner inconsistent with tected by DHS and other Federal partners and will PCII programs and policies? be used for the greater good. We know it won’t be shared with people who are not authorized, specifically, to view that information. However, the question remains, “Who is authorized to view it?” The PCII program has policies and procedures to ensure that PCII is accessed, used, and safeguarded properly throughout its life cycle. The safeguards ensure that submitted information is: • Used appropriately for homeland security purposes only; • Accessed only by authorized and properly trained government employees and contractors with homeland security duties who have a need to know. Non-Federal government employees must sign a Non-Disclosure Agreement; • Protected from disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and similar state and local laws. Use in civil litigation and regulatory actions is also prohibited; and • Protected and handled in a secure manner. 52
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Okay, now we know who can use it, why they would use it, and how it will be protected. What happens if Corporation X’s PCII is intentionally used in a manner inconsistent with PCII programs and policies? The CII and 6 CFR 29 delineate criminal penalties for intentional, unauthorized access, distribution, and misuse of PCII. Federal employees may be subject to disciplinary action including criminal and civil penalties, as well as loss of employment. Contractors may face termination and termination of the contract. An interesting fact is that these penalties apply only to federal employees. That said, state and local participants must demonstrate that there are appropriate state and local penalties for the misuse of PCII and that they have a mechanism for enforcing them.
Technology Used The Automated Critical Asset Management System (ACAMS) is used to collect and use critical infrastructure asset information at the local, state, and federal level. ACAMS is also used to conduct vulnerability assessments, develop all-hazards response plans, and build public-private partnerships. It integrates with many DHS and NIPP tools to assist in using the NIPP Risk Management Framework. ACAMS is approved for PCII storage. This quarter’s board meeting for Corporation X has been quite productive. The end result is unanimous consent to share our sensitive and/or proprietary information with DHS using the framework prescribed by the CII Act and the PCII Program Office. It’s been a pleasure doing business with you and I look forward to our next encounter. Meeting adjourned!
ab ou t the au thor Shawn J. VanDiver, MS, CHS-V, CPP, CTT+, SSI, CDP-I, CMAS, CAS-PSM, AEM, CHSM, CCIPS, CEOCM, holds the rank of Petty Officer First Class in the United States Navy, operating in support of the Global War on Terror and the War on Drugs and providing sailors in his unit with force protection and anti-terrorism training. He previously served as the Assistant Emergency Management Coordinator for Center for Surface Combat Systems Detachment West, located in San Diego, as well as the lead CPR Instructor, Assistant Safety Officer, and HAZMAT Coordinator for his division. VanDiver spent several months working for the County of San Diego Office of Emergency Services, providing critical disaster preparedness information to and developing relationships with military families in the San Diego area. He also managed the Naval Support Activity South Potomac EOC during hurricane Irene and major flooding response activations. VanDiver attended National University and earned a Master of Science degree in Homeland Security and Safety Engineering and a Bachelor of Science degree in Domestic Security Management (with a minor in criminal justice) in 2011 and 2010, respectively. Currently, he is serving aboard USS CHANCELLORSVILLE (CG-62) as well as holding adjunct faculty positions at two universities. VanDiver is a charter member of the American Board for Certification in Infrastructure Protection and holds several homeland security and anti-terrorism certifications. He has a 3 year old son, Ryan, who would like to be a pirate or a rock star when he grows up. www.abchs.com
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Created by The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, CHS®, the ABCMC is an educational-based, multidisciplinary, professional network of chaplains who support homeland security. ABCHS’s diverse membership includes over 200 specialty fields within the local, state, federal, and private sectors of the homeland security arena. Identified and recognized as chaplains with specialized expertise and experience, these active practitioners and professionals are committed to providing critically needed ministerial, psychological, and spiritual support and intervention services to homeland security fields and victims of crisis and traumatic events.
For more information, please call: 877.219.2519 or visit u s at www.abchs.com /ce rtificat e/ cmc.php Summer 2012
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God â€™s Timing is always perfect
Dead Battery Helps Save a Life
A b o u t t h e Au t h o r David J. Fair, PhD, CHS-V, CMC, is a member of the ABCHS Executive Advisory Board and chair of the American Board for Certified Master Chaplain (ABCMC). Fair is president and CEO of Homeland Crisis Institute and has served at dozens of disasters, including Ground Zero following 9/11, hurricanes Katrina and Ike, the NASA space shuttle disaster, the Fort Hood shootings, and the Haitian earthquake.
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We never know what situations we will find ourselves in, or how those circumstances will impact the lives of others.
ome years back I flew from a north Texas airport to a convention. On my return from the trip, I discovered the battery was dead on my pickup. I was perplexed. Already tired from the trip, it was getting late and I just wanted to get home. And home was a three hour drive. Where was I going to get my truck jumped in the middle of an airport parking lot? I approached an airport parking lot attendant and told him about my dilemma. He produced from his vehicle a portable jump starter, and in almost no time my truck started and I was ready to roll. I was more than an hour late, but at least I was mobile at the time. My pickup was an emergency unit. Serving as an Emergency Medical Technician in a small community, I carried everything but the kitchen sink (and jumper cables): a medical jump kit, oxygen, a police twoway radio, and much more. I was about halfway home when I noticed a group of young girls standing in front of a house along the highway. I had just passed them and was watching in my side mirror when one of the girls darted onto the roadway into oncoming traffic. In the blink of an eye she was struck and sent tumbling down the roadway. In my mind I thought there was no way she could have possibly survived the impact. It had all happened so quickly, and if I hadn’t been there at that exact moment I would have missed it. One second earlier or later I would have missed seeing the accident. I immediately got on my police radio and called for emergency help, being careful to tell the ambulance where I thought we were. I grabbed my jump bag, sent a bystander for oxygen, and ran to where the girl was lying in the road. Her legs were doubled
under her body, but thank God she was still breathing. It happened near a lake, and a lake patrol unit arrived on the scene to assist in any way they could. A woman who identified herself as a nurse stopped to help as well. I began working on the girl as quickly as I could, making sure she had an open airway. The girl was unconscious, but overall she seemed to be in remarkably good condition for what she had just been through. In the distance I heard a siren and discovered it was an ambulance coming from a nearby community. I told the Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) about the situation and assisted with loading the girl’s limp body onto the stretcher. Although I turned the call over to the EMTs I continued to assist, climbing in the ambulance with the crew. We made a quick trip to the nearest hospital where the girl would receive a higher level of care. I later learned that her injuries necessitated a transfer to a larger hospital where she received specialized medical intervention. A bystander had driven my pickup to the hospital for me. Left feeling physically tired and emotionally exhausted, I was thrilled that the girl was alive. And thus I once again resumed my journey home. I thanked God for a dead battery on my pickup truck. It had allowed me to be in just the right place at the right time, and perhaps helped save a life. Following up later with the girl’s family, I found out that she was recovering and, despite two broken legs, healing well. Sometimes a dead battery is just that, a dead battery. But at other times, a dead battery, a flat tire, or a delay in traffic, might mean God is about to save a life. Do not despise the day of small beginnings. You just never know how God might want to use you to touch another person’s life.
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County Sheriff building trust with the
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F e a t u r e : M u s l i m Co m m u n i t y O u t r e a c h
By Ed Peaco
fter the 2005 London bombings in which four homegrown terrorists coordinated suicide attacks on the city’s public transport system, Los Angeles County Sheriff Leroy D. Baca began looking for ways to prevent such an attack in his jurisdiction. Sheriff Baca invited leaders of the Muslim community to work together to find solutions to extremism and ease tensions between Muslims and law enforcement. As part of his outreach effort, in 2007 Sheriff Baca created the
Sheriff D. D.Baca Los Angeles CountyLeroy Sheriff Leroy Baca
position of Muslim Community Liaison Officer and appointed Sergeant Mike Abdeen, a Muslim Arab-American in the department, to do the job. The initiative soon grew into the Muslim Community Affairs Unit, with Sergeant Abdeen as Officer in Charge. Since then, Sergeant Abdeen has worked to establish trust and build relationships with the Muslim community through patient and persistent engagement. The process started slowly, and it wasn’t easy, but the rewards have been enormous, he said in an interview with Inside Homeland Security®. His account of the half-decade of engagement demonstrates the delicate process that leads to a more cohesive and safer community.
Early Challenges “When we first started, seeing a police car or a sheriff’s car driving up to a mosque was a sign of trouble,” Sergeant Abdeen said. During his initial encounters, the Muslim community greeted him with suspicion; some people thought he was trying to collect intelligence. “They looked at me as a law enforcement officer, even though I was Muslim and spoke the language and was comfortable in the mosque environment.” However, Sergeant Abdeen continued to meet people, and he developed educational and youth-oriented programs to demonstrate goodwill. Over time, the sheriff ’s department held town hall meetings in the Muslim community on topics from driver’s education for teens and identity theft avoidance, to terrorism and violent extremism. 877.219.2519
Sergeant Mike abdeen
These events and programs laid the foundation for the process of building trust. An important sign of success was when the mosques reciprocated by inviting the department to their events, Sergeant Abdeen said.
“That really meant a lot to them, because they felt we resolved one of their problems,” Sergeant Abdeen said. “Now they could go without worrying about getting tickets. So that developed more relationships.” Over four years, the leadership of this mosque has become one of the department’s Solving Ordinary Problems most trusted partners, Sergeant Abdeen said, At one of the mosques where Sergeant especially one person in particular: Abdeen had encountered suspicion, mem“One of the young leaders who is a bers were in the middle of building a new board member became a true partner. We mosque, and they were having parking refer to him whenever we have questions problems. Members were getting parking about community events. He became a tickets due to the upheaval of construction. friend. He opened his door to the sheriff One of the mosque leaders contacted the and other law enforcement agencies. We sheriff ’s office about the problem, and the were able to develop a relationship not department gave the mosque a break on only with him personally, as a leader in parking during noon-2 p.m. on Fridays, the community, but we were also able to the peak time of attendance during the develop him as a future leader in the area, Muslim weekly holy day. in Southern California, representing the Summer 2012
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if Morsi praying and Deputy Sher of Sergeant Abdeen members at the Islamic Center ity un m m co th wi y. (LA Times) San Gabriel Valle
Find out more about the Muslim Outreach
and the Muslim Community Affairs Unit. Visit www.lasd.org/sites/muslimoutreach
Muslim community. And also we were able to foster a relationship with the center and the community that the center represents by working with him, attending his events, supporting their youth functions, and helping them with day-to-day qualityof-life issues.”
the mosques and the community centers, their presence discourages and eventually drives off any extremists. As community leaders recognize this dynamic, they understand the benefits of the partnership. A key element of self-policing is that community leaders monitor the teachings in the mosques to avoid any language Partnerships in Action that might encourage extremism. AnOnce the foundation of trust is established, other crucial result is that members of the members of the community will recognize community become comfortable sharing the value of partnering with law enforce- information with officers. The comfort ment, Sergeant Abdeen said. level is based not only on personal relationships but also on the trust that officers will handle information ...we are including them in the with care. “They know I’m not going to solution, and we are talking to them jump on it and open cases and deas partners rather than suspects... stroy their lives,” Sergeant Abdeen said. “But rather, I’m going to do “Once they see that we are respect- the responsible thing and look into it first, ing them, we are including them in the and identify whether it is really a problem solution, and we are talking to them as or not.” In these delicate matters, the Muslim partners rather than suspects, they will Community Affairs Unit analyzes tips start policing themselves,” he said. When within the contexts of culture, language, law enforcement officers are welcome in 58
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iff Baca, Youth group participants with Sher i. Sergeant Abdeen, and Deputy Mors (Courtesy of LA Sheriff’s Office)
and religion and responds appropriately. If the tip turned out to be serious, the unit would send it to a higher level for action. Otherwise, the matter would be addressed at the local level. If there were an immediate threat, the unit would have a swift response, Sergeant Abdeen emphasized. “We make it very clear with them. We are here to help you, but if we see something that’s not right, we have to take action,” he said. “They understand that, and they respect that.”
Custody Outreach To address the potential for the spread of radical Islam among inmates, the sheriff ’s department maintains a presence in the Los Angeles County Jail. The purpose is to counter radicalization with education, Sergeant Abdeen said. To avoid the teaching of “Prislam”—the radical version of Islam propagated in prisons—the department recruits chaplains from the community to teach a constructive message, using appropriate materials. “If you don’t provide them with the mawww.abchs.com
F e a t u r e : M u s l i m Co m m u n i t y O u t r e a c h Youth Advisory Counci Sheriff sponsored 99 l participating in a party. (Courtesy of LA9 for kids Christmas Sheriff’s Office)
the Morsi leading ic en and Deputy am Sergeant Abdegiance at an event at the Isl st pledge of alle hern California honoring fir ) Center of Sout ourtesy of LA Sheriff ’s office responders. (C
Find out more! terial, and the proper education, and the chaplain to teach them, then they’ll start teaching themselves. This is where the danger happens,” he said. Deputies also identify inmates who are about to be released to make sure they are connected with moderate mosques and a mainstream community.
The purpose is to counter radicalization with education. Training for Officers The department introduced a program to help deputies and professional staff better understand the Muslim community. The training falls squarely within the objectives of community policing. Similar training is provided for recruits, Sergeant Abdeen said. Topics that the training covers include: • How to distinguish between cultural and religious issues; • Customs and religious practices of
Muslims worldwide; and • The different cultures and ethnicities within the Muslim world, which include people of Arab, South Asian, African, and European descent. As the Muslim Community Affairs Unit gains recognition beyond Southern California, Sergeant Abdeen is working on an eight-hour training program, “Countering Violent Extremism by Outreach and Engagement.” The program will focus on all forms of extremism. Once the State of California and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security certify it, the program will be available for use nationwide. In addition, Sergeant Abdeen said he has received inquiries about the program from U.S. embassies around the world. Although education is essential, this kind of work calls for officers to come to the training with personal qualities that are necessary for success—officers who, in Sergeant Abdeen’s words, “are willing to learn and understand and accept other cultures and be open minded.”
“The Muslim American community plays a vital role in protecting the people of the United States. Their participation and our continuing effort to both educate and engage community support is essential to the entire Homeland Security endeavor.” - Sheriff Lee Baca Vision Statement from MCA Overview
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ICE: Partnering to
fight crime on a global scale
James Chaparro takes lead to implement ICEâ€™s Illicit Pathways Attack Strategy
By Ed Peaco
F or I n si de H om el a n d S ec u ri t y
Inside Homeland SecurityÂŽ
A r t i c l e : Pa r t n e r i n g t o f i g h t c r i m e
riminals in enterprises such as human trafficking, money laundering, and drug trafficking are operating increasingly on a global scale. An
organization may start in South Asia, and its financier may be based in Indonesia, with transportation and logistics people scattered through the Middle East and South America, and they may be working their way up the isthmus of Central America. In July, 2011, President Obama rolled out a new strategy called the Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime (http://www.whitehouse.gov/ administration/eop/nsc/transnational-crime). The strategy seeks to attack transnational organized crime and create conditions so that it cannot flourish.
Learn more about this photo on page 62, Case Study: Ecuador. (ICE)
James Chaparro, who offered this scenario to
demonstrate the complexity of the threat, is working with partners in the U.S. government and abroad to help implement the President’s strategy through an innovative ICE-led effort called Illicit Pathways Attack Strategy (IPAS)(http://www.ice.gov/ipas/). “We in ICE really saw an opportunity to leverage our broad authorities, our huge international footprint, and our outstanding relationships with foreign governments and other U.S. federal agencies to take a proactive approach to combat transnational crime,” said Chaparro, Assistant Director for Intelligence, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Summer 2012
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Public safety is a top priority for all of us and that is what makes these partnerships work. network would not be possible unless the targets were meaningful for all concerned, he said. “It is all about partnership,” said Assistant Director Chaparro. “If we don’t have a good methodology, if we don’t get buy-in from our partners that these are the top targets, we’re not going to get the interagency engagement that we need, and ultimately we will not be successful,” Assistant Director Chaparro said. The first steps in prioritizing are to consult a host of U.S. agencies and assemble intelligence on numerous transnational criminal organizations. Contributing agencies include the departments of State and Defense, the law enforcement and intelligence communities, and Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) special agents within ICE. For each criminal organization, officials When ICE put IPAS into motion last work through a methodical, repeatable year, it focused on human trafficking and process to develop criteria to assess threats. smuggling. Victims pay to be transported Assistant Director Chaparro listed some to the U.S. border and moved into the of the essential questions to assess the country illegally. Some face brutal forms magnitude of threat posed by a human of servitude, such as prostitution and smuggling organization: forced labor, to repay debts. • Do they have ties to terrorism? As ICE moves the IPAS approach for• Are they smuggling in people from ward, it is broadening the scope of the high threat nations? strategy to include other forms of global • Are there serious public crime, based on the agency’s process of corruption concerns? prioritizing threats. In an interview with • Humanitarian concerns? Inside Homeland Security, Assistant Di• Do they use violence against rector Chaparro discussed how he applies people they smuggle— the four strategic objectives to create netkidnapping, hostage taking? works to fight transnational crime. • What’s the volume they’re moving? Prioritizing threats • How adept are they with “There’s a million different criminal groups communications security? out there operating all around the globe. Which ones present the biggest threats to “Then we assign a ranking or score for our security, and how do we prioritize our each one of those attributes based on the work against them?” intelligence received,” Assistant Director During the interview, Assistant Direc- Chaparro said. At the end of this process, tor Chaparro often spoke in questions to officials decide which organizations to tarillustrate processes of investigation and get based on an objective assessment. enforcement. He said that, with regard to fighting human trafficking and smuggling, Investigate, identify, prioritizing was a new step in the meth- disrupt, dismantle odology. Combatting the far-flung reach To accomplish this objective, officials must of transnational organized crime would examine the systemic vulnerabilities in the require a network of partners within ICE illicit pathways that they have identified. If and other U.S. agencies, along with part- human smugglers are using a certain city ners in other nations. Assembling this as a pathway for transporting people, speThe IPAS directly supports the President’s strategy. It is designed to attack transnational organized crime along its entire continuum while at the same time address systemic vulnerabilities that allow these illicit networks to operate. The IPAS has four strategic objectives: • Prioritizing networks and pathways posing the greatest threats; • Working with counterparts to investigate, identify, disrupt, and dismantle transnational criminal organizations prior to their illicit activities reaching U.S. borders; • Maintaining robust interagency engagement; and • Coordinating a regional approach that leverages foreign partners.
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cial agents must understand the reasons why criminals prefer that city more than any other around the world. “This is where intelligence fits in,” Assistant Director Chaparro said. He posed several key questions: • Is there a high level of public corruption? • Do the nation’s police and border officials need more training? • Do they have lax visa policies? • Do they have document security issues? “Once we understand these vulnerabilities, we can then work with our substantial overseas footprint to address them,” he said. These resources include not only ICE personnel but also such agencies as the State Department Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INL). They can offer the host country training and consultation on a broad palette of issues, such as training for law enforcement and border security officials, improvements in document security, and suggestions for model legislation to shore up weaknesses in laws. In addition, officials in the host nation will receive support from overseas embedded HSI special agents. These efforts to strengthen the capacity of a nation’s government to deal with transnational crime are essential to achieving a lasting impact, Assistant Director Chaparro said.
Interagency engagement This objective comes into play at the beginning in prioritizing threats, and it continues in the form of sharing intelligence across agencies and across governments in the efforts to identify, disrupt and dismantle transnational criminal organizations. And equally important, ICE works closely with its interagency partners to bring a full range of capabilities against the illicit criminal networks. Assistant Director Chaparro described the role of intelligence, starting with the necessary questions: “Who are the logistics people? Who are their money people? Who are the ones doing the recruiting of the aliens? Who are the www.abchs.com
A r t i c l e : Pa r t n e r i n g t o f i g h t c r i m e
ones who are doing the transporting? What legitimate businesses may be involved, either wittingly or unwittingly, in the transportation? We begin to paint a whole picture of the organization, so that when we get ready to take enforcement action, we’re not just taking off the heads of the organization, but we’re really taking the thing apart from top to bottom, and going for a total dismantlement of the organization.” Assistant Director Chaparro said that when you fully understand the nature and scope of the criminal networks, you better understand how to attack them.
As trust builds through these relationships, U.S. and host-nation authorities begin to share information more readily, and the fight against transnational organized crime moves forward. “I think we have willing partners in those regards,” Assistant Director Chaparro said. “They don’t want these drug organizations or human smuggling organizations or any crime group operating in their community. Public safety is a top priority for all of us and that is what makes these partnerships work.”
Leveraging foreign partners
In the first six months of IPAS, many officials across DHS responded enthusiastically to the IPAS message, Assistant Director Chaparro said—so much so that ICE has planned two new focus areas for the strategy: illicit finance and counterproliferation. “One of the ways to go after organizations is to cut off the money,” he said. In the same way that the strategy was applied to human smuggling, the effort to attack illicit finance involves identifying the vulnerabilities that transnational criminals are exploiting. The investigation broadens beyond conventional money laundering to include emerging threats such as trade based money laundering, stored-value cards, and other sophisticated methods to launder As the strategy illicit proceeds of crime. catches hold, I think there’S ICE has an aggressive counterproliferation program. The IPAS approach leverages the broad scope of ICE’s authorities to In addition, HSI brings personnel from prevent terrorist groups and hostile host countries to the United States to train, nations from illegally obtaining U.S. in the language of the host nation, at the DHS Federal Law Enforcement Training military products and sensitive techCenter at Glynco, GA. nology, including weapons of mass “It’s not just getting people together destruction (WMD). for training, but it’s really building those “As the strategy catches hold, I think trusted relationships, getting to know the there’s no stopping us. My concern is people,” Assistant Director Chaparro said. we’re running so fast,” Assistant Di“And our special agents overseas work day rector Chaparro said. “There are so in and day out with the TCIUs to make many people who want to engage in sure we’re meeting their needs.” what we’re doing.” ICE has personnel in approximately 71 offices in 47 countries, providing a full-time presence with host-country law enforcement, border officials and customs authorities. In each nation, a State Department country team amplifies this presence with attachés serving as representatives of the U.S. government as a whole and also for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and ICE. This presence includes an on-the-ground relationship-building effort of HSI special agents working closely with foreign law enforcement agencies, and through a robust network of specialized vetted units known as Transnational Criminal Investigative Units (TCIU).
no stopping us.
James M. Chaparro
Assistant Director for Intelligence U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
DHS Career: • Deputy Under Secretary for Operations in the Office of Intelligence and Analysis • Executive Associate Director for Enforcement and Removal Operations, ICE • Director of Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center • Special Agent in charge of the ICE Denver field office • Upon creation of DHS, selected to serve as the interim director of Immigration Interior Enforcement for ICE
At Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS): • Many leadership roles there, including deputy assistant commissioner for investigations, director of anti-smuggling, and assistant district director for investigations • Began law enforcement career as a special agent in Los Angeles, CA.
Links • White House directive, Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/ eopnsc/transnational-crime The National Security Council’s presentation of the strategy leading to IPAS • Illicit Pathways Attack Strategy http://www.ice.gov/ipas/ ICE’s overview of the strategy Summer 2012
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We started small and built it into something that worked out to be
Phenomenal Case study: Ecuador Building international relationships for intelligence and law enforcement often begins with small steps. Such was the case in Ecuador, Assistant Director Chaparro said. The small steps led to big results with the arrest of three terror-related figures. “We saw Ecuador as a hub for human smuggling, for various reasons, and we began working with them, first in small ways,” Assistant Director Chaparro said. “We had an exceptionally talented attaché in Quito named Gabriel Garcia. Special Agent Garcia is a native Spanish speaker who really understood the culture and was very good at dealing with very senior-level officials in the government, as well as the local cops.” This highly respected attaché helped build the Transnational Investigative Unit in Ecuador, which led to improved trust and increasingly effective operations. Using U.S. and Ecuadoran resources, agents infiltrated a human smuggling organization 64
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that had agreed to smuggle people who they thought were terrorists into the United States, Assistant Director Chaparro said. The operation led to the arrest of three Pakistani citizens in Miami on March 13, 2011. On September 12, 2011, they pleaded guilty to conspiracy to provide material support to the Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP), often referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, a designated foreign terrorist organization. An ICE news release, citing court documents, provided details of the case. The documents indicate that law enforcement agents directed confidential sources to ask the defendants, who were residing in Ecuador at the time, for their assistance in smuggling a fictitious person from Pakistan to the United States. The defendants were told that the person to be smuggled was a member of the TTP who was blacklisted in Pakistan, according to the news release. According to the court documents, the
defendants agreed to move this person from Pakistan into the United States, despite his purported affiliation with the TTP, the news release recounted. One of the Pakistanis, according to the court documents, told the confidential sources that it was “not their concern” what the men “want to do in the United States—hard labor, sweep floor, wash dishes in a hotel, or blow up. That will be up to them.” The defendants accepted payment from the confidential sources for the smuggling operation and procured a false Pakistani passport for the purported TTP member, the news release said. The arrest of the three Pakistanis was the result of building trust through long-term relationships, Assistant Director Chaparro said. “We started small and built it into something that worked out to be phenomenal,” he said. “And the work continues. That’s just one particular instance.” www.abchs.com
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By Michael J. Fagel, PhD, CEM, CHS-IV
How Vulnerable is your Facility e often times think of our own facilities, our sites as something no one would want to harm… or would they? Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive-9 (HSPD-9) issued in 2004 (and still in effect today, it was determined at that time… “to establish a national policy to defend the food and agricultural systems against terrorist attacks, major disasters and other emergencies.” The Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report in September 2011 indicating “…strong actions still needed to improve response to potential terrorist attacks…” (GAO-11-652). Now, let’s take a look at what are some of the key elements you might wish to undertake to help evaluate your own vulnerabilities: This will not be an exhaustive list, but a starting point to help you categorize what your operations characteristics might be: Employee Screening: One of the most vulnerable aspects is the accurate screening of staff at all levels that are available to you under the law. Hiring Practices: This can be a stumbling block in the food industry, with multi-shift and less desirable work schedules, be wary of those that REALLY WANT that late night clean up shift. Security Operations: These are much more than a trained officer at the front door or gate. The security operation oftentimes includes maintenance, safety checks, and materials receiving, and can often be over-utilized for cost effectiveness, but one open gate or door can be all the difference in the world. Visitor Control: This area is often overlooked by what we classify as visitors to the site, that are not employees assigned to that shift, family, customers, and others that may bring unwanted access or diversion to the facility. Contractor Review and Security: Do we have embedded contractors that are at the site daily (do we know who they really are), or do we have transients that we may not know why they are there or if they can travel unescorted throughout the site. Inbound Cargo Transportation: What is in those trucks, rail cars, and containers that we offload for some of our ingredients? Do we have certificates of quality and independent testing of what they actually contain? Outbound Product Shipping: Do we have control of our outbound information’s bills of lading, shipping papers, and loose copies of shipping manifests (that if in the wrong hands could potentially be disastrous)? Packaging Materials (Labels-cartons-boxes): Are they all access controlled so that the name brand we have worked hard to protect is 66
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not improperly used and the product is not tampered with? Ingredient and Dry Goods Storage: Do we have adequate safeguards and protective measures applied? Is that bag of drain cleaner stored too close to the dry flavorings? Finished Product Assembly: Are there any potential places for adulterants to be accidentally or maliciously incorporated into the end product? In the concept of operational security, I will not elaborate on each of these elements in depth, but draw a few key starting points for your own in-depth review and analysis. When I do a facility audit, I begin at the beginning and work my way through the entire process, from farm to fork (as we like to say) and then examine each element with a careful eye to the interdependencies and intertwining of all facility operations. Many of the National Homeland Security National Planning scenarios began by taking several of these key components and stacking them up for review. A careful trained analyst will be able to assist you in seeing things in a much different perspective. Utilize some of these key concepts to take a 30,000 foot view of your entire operation! In our next article, we will examine the formation of an Incident Management Team for your organization! Be safe, be careful, and be vigilant! Mike
A b o u t t h e Au t h o r
Michael J. Fagel, PhD, CEM, CHS-IV is a private security consultant who teaches Homeland Security and related subjects at Northwestern University (MPPA program), Northern Illinois University, Eastern Kentucky University (SSEM program), Benedictine University (MPH program), Louisianna State University (NCBRT), and at Illinois Institute of Technology (MPA program). He also works as a critical infrastructure analyst at Argonne National Laboratory. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author alone, and do not reflect the views of any local, state or federal agency or institution. He can be reached at Michael.Fagel@gmail.com for more information on food security.
For more information please visit: http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/hspd-9.html http://www.gao.gov/assets/330/322684.pdf
Do you really know what is in that bag?
Photos provided by author ÂŠ Michael J. Fagel
The Bottle could be a flavoring, or might it be a chemical that can cause... ???
The bag is a key method to deliver ingredients, a most common delivery method
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F e a t u r e : C a g e Co d e
CAGE Code a Contractor Classification System
BCHS has recently obtained a contracts they received. It has also replaced CAGE Code. The CAGE Code most of the Reps and Certs in Section K of (the Commercial and Govern- solicitations with an internet application. ment Entity Code) is a five digit As such, ORCA has facilitated the federal code that identifies suppliers, procurement process significantly and has vendors, and/or contractors do- also been mandated by federal legislation ing business with various fed- since 2005 (FAR 52.204-8). eral government agencies (i.e. DoD, DHS, The CAGE Code is also necessary for DOE etc…). The Cage Code is assigned obtaining a Facilities Security Clearance by the Defense Logistics Information Sys- (an FCL) from the Defense Security Sertem (DLIS) in Battle Creek, Michigan vice (DSS) once an entity is eligible to do and provides for a standardized method of so either through a government contracting identifying facilities. activity (GCA) or another cleared company. With respect to the procedure required The Code can be used for an array of other to obtain a CAGE Code, an entity must functions as well, such as pay processes, aufirst complete the Department of Defense’s tomated bidders list, and sources of supply. Central Contractor Registration (CCR). Consequently, having obtained a CAGE This is because of fedCode for ABCHS is eral legislation passed A CAGE code provides for significant in that it in 2003 which has a standardized method of establishes yet another mandated CCR regis- identifying a given facility step towards streamlintration for all entities ing the organization’s at a specific location. doing business with processes for commuthe federal government under any Fed- nications and procurements in doing busieral Acquisition Regulation (FAR) based ness with federal government agencies. For contracts. As a result, the CAGE code is more on CAGE Codes, see the Defense now assigned as part of CCR’s validation Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement process. (DFARS, Subpart 204.72). The CAGE Code can then be used as part of the application process to register Sources: for the Online Representations and Certifications Application (ORCA). ORCA was http://www.gsaapplications.com/what-is-a-cage-code developed by the government to replace http://www.onvia.com/b2g-resources/article/whyyou-need-naics-and-cage-codes most paper based Representations and Certificates (Reps and Certs) processes giv- http://www.fedbidspeed.com/cage-codes en that previously; vendors had to submit https://orca.bpn.gov/miscl/faq.aspx#FAQ5 paper Reps and Certs forms for any large http://www.dss.mil/isp/fac_clear/fac_clear_check.html
A b o u t t h e Au t h o r CAZANDRA N. ACKVAN Graduated with high honors from Vanderbilt University with her BA degree in Political Science. She also holds her Juris Doctorate Law Degree (JD) from the University of Georgia with an emphasis in International Law conducted at Oxford University. Upon graduating from law school, Ms. Ackvan founded her company, Vantage, Associates LLC as a female veteran-owned small business (due to her prior active duty and her Green to Gold Officer’s Scholarship in the US Army). The company has since successfully provided support such as anti-terrorism training, Middle-East analysis, language translation and interpretation services, and an array of other professional services to support both the Federal Government and other private government contracting firms. Ms. Ackvan is also currently a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) adjunct professor providing Cross Cultural Training for the National Credibility Center for Accreditation. She can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Andrew Harris Chad Harris Stephanie Harris David Harrison John Hart Johnny Harvey Leon Harvey Jr. Marcus Harwell Roger Hawkins Sean Hawley Christopher Heffley Christopher Hegg Lisa Helman William Hendon David Hennessy Christopher Henrichson Warren Henry Sr. Andrew Hernandez Galo Hernandez IV Kelly Hernandez Walter Hernandez Yandy Hernandez Scottie Hill Todd Hill William Hill Carla Hinojosa Sam Hinson Jr. April Hippelheuser Marissa Hock April Hodge Diante Hodge Ernest Hoffman Christopher Holt Matthew Holt Matthew Homer Glenn Hopkins Carlos Horne Patrick Hosier James Hoy Jr. Chad Hubbell Michael Hughes Charles Hunt Ronald Hunter Warren Hurdle Nathan Hutter Jahmassaa Hylton Terrence Ingram Elias Inoa John Isenberg William Jackson Eric James Dennis Jarrard Kenneth Jewett Gerard Johansen Summer 2012
James Johansen Carl Johnson Daniel Johnson Joseph Johnson Merle Johnson Scott Johnson Darius Johnston Ashley Jones Gussie Jones Nathan Jones Scott Jones Anthony Joyce Anjela Jurich Jerad Kabat Lance Kalahar Edmund Karasiewicz Sean Karpinski Raymond Kauffman III Mariko Kawaguchi Jason Kelley Robert Kendall John Kennedy Llewelyn Kennedy Jonathan Kessell Jonathan Keyser Michael Kindgren Richard King Anndrea Kinzli Ian Knooihuizen Brandon Koger Jedediah Kolwyck Momodu Koroma John Kostelnik Kyle Kostreba Michael Kraft Daniel Kregstein Joshua Krider Frank Lainez John Lally Dean Lamb Amanda Lancaster Tonia Lance Stefani Landino Buck Landrum Brian Lang Faye Larkins Hewitt Lawrence Larsen Jeremy Lauer Edwin Lazo Charles Leader Jonathon Leask Robert Ledsinger Kang Lee Dean Lewis
Kenny Lewis Jr. James Linville Connie Locke Jeffrey Loiseau Lechristopher Lomax Kris Long Fidencio Lopez Thania Lopez Troy Loske Erica Love Danny Lynchard Frank Magnotta Jr. Duane Mallett Joshua Manning Gerald Marker Raymond Marquez Jr. Elizabeth Marroquin Sheila Marshall Wesley Martin Carlos Martinez Jr. Shawn Massard Chase Matson Stanley Matthews Jr. Cayce Mautino Claude May Justin McClean Shane McClennen Michael McConnell Amber McCormick Adrian McCown Cary McCraine Charles McDonald Elizabeth McElroy Brian McGowan Kaylie McGrath Leondris McGrue John McKinney III Janis Mclean Edwin Medinavincenty Steven Medrano Calan Merchlewitz Jonathon Meyers Jacob Michaels Luis Mijangos Borrayo Damian Miller Joel Miller William Mills Michael Misiak Ashley Mitchell Emily Mitchell Daniel Mohorick Sean Molina Abbey Mongosa Jamie Moore www.abchs.com
Provisional Members Steven Moores Raymar Morales Bob Morgan Orlando Morin Juan Morrobel Chloe Mozingo Robert Muccino II Antonio Mullins Shaun Murphy Brandon Naifeh Honorae Nelson Zebulon Nelson Scott Newton Renato Ngo Vincent Nguyen Marcus Nieves Aaron Nimocks Paul Noriega Thomas Norstrand Stacey Nunez Michael Obrien Tadeo O’Brien Asia Ohumba Susan Olander Geno Oliva Danielle Oliver Daniel Omlor Jr. Gregory O’Neal Amber Ortega Daniel Osterday Joshua Pace Jonathan Pancoast Eduardo Pareno II James Parker III Kyle Parkinson Mark Parks Paul Parsons Vanessa Passmore Jesus Pedron Erik Peecher Zachary Pelis Teresa Penacordova Scott Penn Zuley Pereira Jimmy Perez John Perez Virgil Perry Matthew Peter Carl Pfeffer Justin Pfeffer David Pierce II Jeremy Pilkenton Garett Pinson Carlos Pires Jr. 877.219.2519
Zachary Plumb Randolf Pono Richard Popard Norman Porter Wesley Powell Jr. Billy Powers Matthew Pradon Maritza Pratt Tamara Pratt Meaghan Presnell Grandvedour Price Roger Price Jr. Samuel Priggemeier Jermaine Profit Jason Pusch Richard Quinn Eli Quintanilla Muhammad Rafique Michael Ramble Pamela Randall Martha Rector Eli Redstone William Reed Alex Reeves Brittany Reich Megan Remme Jordan Reviczky Diego Reyes Romar Raymond Reyes James Reynolds Sr. Ryan Reynolds Jadis Rhodin Daniel Richardson Sr. Brandy Riggs Corey Ring Jonathan Rios Campos Krystie Riveramercado Conroy Roach Robert Robinson Alexis Robles Dion Rodriguez Matthew Rodriguez Roberto Rodriguez Jr. Thomas Roe Gerrena Roebuck Amanda Rogers Devoya Rollins Michelle Roman Miguel Romero Luis Rosario Vincent Rosario Thomas Ross Randi Ruble Manuel Ruiz
Alexandria Runewicz Meaghan Russell Sara Rutledge Kenneth Ryan Justin Salazar Sarah Saldana Matthew Sanchez Sara Sanders Eleuterio Santana Jason Sauerbier Virgil Savage II Howard Scales III Kenneth Schmidt Paul Schmidt Christopher Schmitt Tricia Schnare David Scott Megan Searcy Stanley Self Nicholas Sena Dennis Serrano Christopher Shaffer Darin Shaffer Brian Shear Daniel Shearer Jr. Willard Shelton Jr. Jeremy Shepard Justin Sherman Ellen Shifflett William Shirley Jason Sikora Timothy Skelton Cherrese Smith Jacob Smith Jerry Smith Kevin Smith Lou Smith William Smith Larry Snyder Matthew Solberg Charles Soliday Lydya Sollom Susana Solomon Christian Soloniewicz Paul Stallbaum Eric Starr Robert Steele Jr. Joshua Stephenson Kyle Stern David Steward Johnny Stewart Timothy Stewart Christopher Stills Kristin Stites
Richard Stonestreet Dwight Stout Christopher Stover Danny Strand Jeffrey Strauch Aaron Stricklin Erica Strong Matthew Sturgis Michael Sullivan Scott Swickard Kale Swing Carrey Switzer Timothy Switzer Jr. Leon Synder Rodney Taylor Jason Thibodeaux John Thomas Jr. Richard Thomas Tuerlandria Thomas Peter Thompson Louis Tiller III Antonio Tingco Jr. Thomas Toomey Ora Tovar Larry Tran Matthew Troupe Todd Tucker Aurora Turner Erica Turner Thomas Upchurch Matthew Urbanski Thomas Vail Clement Valot Jesus Vargas Jr. David Vass Jr. Eureka Vaughn Jr. Justin Vedder Michael Ventiere Russell VerNooy Oscar Villaman Ashley Wade Jonathan Walsh Brian Walters Celina Walton Mark Ward Matthew Warren Silas Washington Coty Watson Anthony Weaver Michael Webster Jordan Wells Ryan Wells Matthew Welsh Mark Wendell Summer 2012
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Provisional Members and Newly Credentialed Donald Whigan Bo Whitaker James White Mark White Jared Wiese Ian Wieserman Richard Wilkens Damario Willard Alfred Williams Charliea Williams Cheri Williams Nicholas Williams Willie Williams Courtney Wilson Jeremy Wilson Jordan Winding Bryan Wolfenberger Steven Woodel Howard Woodruff Stephen Wright David Yanvary Eric Yocam Erica Zeuske Thomas Zimny Manoah Zurn Newly Credentialed Cesar Abreu Patrick Adamek Doninique Adams Dylan Adams Michael Adams-Valerio Paul Adkins Guerlinz Affriany Laureen Aguado Roberto Aguilar Rufino Aguinaldo Juan Alba Virgilio Alcozar Jr. Jose Alire Matthew Allan Shane Allard Anthony Allen Joe Allen Joycelyn Allen Patrick Allison II Alfredo Alonso Christopher Altman Cody Anderson Ronald Anderson Samantha Anderson Jeffrey Anello Joanne Antoine Daniel Aponte 74
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Richard Aqui Aramis Aquino James Arcara Kendrick Armesto Ronald Armstrong Eric Arnette Lawanna Arnold Luis Arroyo Jr. Thomas Ashley Marcus Avina Jessica Axen Kerri Ayo Chandar Badger James Bailey Jason Bailey Tyler Baker Fred Baldwin Jasper Balom Alvin Balthazar Stephen Banicki David Barber Jr. Stephen Barber Jr. Trinidad Barclay Michael Barker Chad Barnes Zachary Barnes Ronnie Barnett Carly Barrett Nicholas Barron Malissa Barto Alexander Bates Robin Batton Mark Baughman Jr. Kenneth Bell Sr. Lawrence Bennett Jr. David Benson Michael Bernard Philotis Berry Eric Besserud Aaron Bienkowski Michael Bierschbach Shawn Billiot Brennen Blackwell Scott Bland Cameron Blount Jessica Boeckman John Boeglin Rachel Bohn Nicholas Bokan Brian Booyer Paul Bowdre Quentin Bowens Colin Bowles John Bowman Summer 2012
Candice Boyd Brian Boyer Charles Bradford Jr. Jonathan Brandt Guy Bratt Thomas Breitfeller Patrick Bridges Michael Brodka Danny Brooks Sr. John Brooks Kevin Brooks Kent Brown Lavetrice Brown Paris Brown Seth Brown Troy Brown Cory Brun Scot Bruyette Joseph Bryant Jr. David Buitrago Joseph Burchfield Kraig Burford Nick Burrowes Timothy Busby Robert Buxton Mark Byers Robert Cabino II Eric Caflisch Robert Calabro John Caldwell Asa Calloway David Campbell Simone Campbell Francisco Cancel Jr. David Cannon John Caole Tamela Caples Arnel Carbonell Jimmy Caritativo Kathi Carmack Jason Carpenter Jonah Carpenter Bryon Carter Edward Casares Jr. Norris Cason Jr. William Casselle Jr. Benjamin Castillo Dave Casto Darrell Caudill Varney Cauley Albert Ceja Carrie Cellilo-Garcia Adam Cerri Garret Chadek
Raymond Chamberlain Christopher Chandler Phillip Channer Brian Chase Jacob Chase Nori Chavez Antonio Chavezplata Steven Cherin Joseph Chiaffino Luke Chima Thomas Christensen Vanessa Christensen Anthonlee Clark Austin Clark David Clark III Jason Clark Kenneth Clark Jr. Benjamin Clarke Margaret Clay William Clements Michael Cobbs Joseph Coelho Keysha Cole Sheldon Colin Anthony Colosi Jimmy Combs Jennifer Conger Christine Conley Nathan Connor Denise Contreras Abraham Cook Peter Cook Timothy Cooper Douglas Cordero Yolanda Corro Steve Cortes Daniela Cossio Edmund Costigan Franklin Courtney Joel Cox Rusty Crain Kevin Crocker Richard Crowell Arturo Cruz Jr. Francis Cruz Maria Cuffe Fredrick Cuffy Silvia Cureses Corbee Curlee Wesley Cutrer Alison Czuhajewski William Dalrymple Jennifer Daniels Phillip Darity www.abchs.com
Newly Credentialed Marcus Darling James Darnell Andrew Daub Robert Davey Jr. James Louis Davis William Davis Jr. Brian Day Michael Deane Katrina Deaton David Decker Kate Decleene Maurice Deenihan David DeLaPena Brazelton DeLeon Agerneh Demissie Bruce Dennis Blaise Dento Jonathan Desena Grover DeVault Cesar Diaz Virgil Diggs Joseph Dino Jeffery Ditlevson Kevin Doby Zachery Dolan Stephen Dombroski Ferguson David Domonkos Frediller Donguines Melissa Dooley Anderson Alex Dorais Genevieve Douglas Pierre Douglas James Douglass Amie Downing Brandan Dozier Jacob Dronzin Daniel Drury Nicole DuBeck Paula Dumas Jason Dupre Prince Dykes Nicole East Brett Ebersole Christopher Eck Christopher Edge Aaron Edson Tameka Edwards Thomas Ehrenkranz Wayne Ekblad James Elgin Michael Ellis Nicholas Ellis Robert Erickson Rodney Ericson 877.219.2519
Glenn Erkenbrack Barry Esham Pablo Facun Christopher Fajkus Miguel Falcon Adam Fancher Roger Faria Kenneth Farnham Jazmine Farrior Louis Fellerman Andrew Felt Robin Ferguson Steve Fernandez Michael Ficken Devin Fields Justin Fil Juan Fimbres Jeremy Finfrock Alan Fish David Fishel Christopher Fleming Cristina Flores Richard Flurry Daniel Formichelli Randolf Foronda Jennifer Fowkes Anthony Fox Christopher Frantz Jamie Frantz Joshua Freeman Jerry Freitas Thomas Friedlander Alexander Frost Randy Gallegos Francisco Garcia Jose Garcia Colin Gardape Jonathan Garrick Jeffrey Garry Kathleen Garza Mindy Gates Brandi Gemberling Sean Gerloff Thelma Gibson Andrew Gieser James Gilligan Colby Gillis David Girten Jr. Josh Gold Brandee Goldsberry Thomas Goldsmith Sr. Andrew Gomez Mario Gomez Robert Gonzalez
Carlos Gonzalez Rivera Jarrett Gorgoni Jason Grey Jose Grijalvadeleon Donald Grothe Jr. Denise Gutierrez William Gutierrez Christopher Haas Matthew Hackett George Hadrick Jason Haka Bradley Hale Eric Hall John Hall Mionca Hall Morio Hall Samuel Hall III Steven Hall Karla Hammer Michael Hammes Andrew Harris Joshua Hartigan Johnny Harvey Leon Harvey Jr. Le Hastings Timothy Hasty Christopher Hausmann Scott Heckert Christopher Heffley Christopher Hegg Eric Heiden Lisa Helman Joseph Helmany William Hendon Nick Henley Christopher Hernandez Cruz Hernandez Gonzalo Hernandez Kelly Hernandez Yandy Hernandez Andrew Herrmann Raymond Hershey Joshua Hill Todd Hill Carla Hinojosa Sam Hinson Jr. April Hippelheuser Stephen Hippelheuser April Hodge Ryan Hodges Eric Hodgson Trevor Hoehn Derek Hogan Richard Holman
Damien Holmes Christopher Holt Matthew Holt Ernst Holzhausen Matthew Homer Glenn Hopkins Michael Hopkins James Hord III Jared Horn Mitchell Horn Patrick Hosier Jesse Houck Namon Houston Justin Howerton James Hoy Jr. Jacob Hubbard Chad Huffer Robert Hughbank Tramaine Hunden Taurean Hunt Ronald Hunter Russell Hutchins Nathan Hutter Natisha Iheanachor Phillip Ingram Jr. Terrence Ingram Steven Jacks William Jackson Eric James Terrill Jenkins Jerrod Jerrolds Adam Jerscheid Vincent Jiordano James Johansen Daniel Johnson Natasha Johnson Paul Johnson Jr. Richard Johnson Jr. Rubbie Johnson Shelita Johnson Tiffany Johnson Darius Johnston Aaron Jones Amy Jones Carson Jones Christopher Jones Derrick Jones Gussie Jones Jason Jones Kendall Jones Marc Jones Nathan Jones Norman Jones II Scott Jones Summer 2012
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Newly Credentialed Travis Jordon Aldwin Joseph Frederick Joshua Mark Jupiter Jr. Anjela Jurich Fahmi Kaddour Albert Kalber Scott Kanerva Edmund Karasiewicz Sean Karpinski Jason Kelley Ervin Kelly III Josh Kelly John Kennedy Llewelyn Kennedy Jonathan Kessell Steven Kile Jeffrey King Billy Kingry Steffen Kingsley Shiloh Kinney Wilkinson Kinyon Scott Kircher Philip Klevze Ryan Knepshield Ian Knooihuizen Brandon Koger Jedediah Kolwyck John Kostelnik Corey Kozera Michael Kraft Daniel Kregstein James Krempasky Joshua Krider Frank Kuras Nikolai Kush Justin Laferriere Miguel Laines Frank Lainez Dean Lamb James Lamb II Calvin Lambrix Vanel Lamour Amanda Lancaster Stefani Landino Buck Landrum Brittany Lano Faye Larkins Hewitt Scott Laroe Jeremy Lauer Edwin Lazo Thuyvy Le Charles Leader Jonathon Leask 76
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James Lee Jr. Tad Lefor Marlene Lemons Alexander Lennon Stacy Leverett-O’Leary Dean Lewis Jeff Lichtfuss Ernani Lindain Joseph Lisondra Jr. Lechristopher Lomax Anthony Lomboy Christopher Long Kris Long Troy Loske Erica Love Antonio Lucero David Ludlow Eric Lutz Christal Madison Kenneth Maher Jr. Jamie Makowka Duane Mallett John Malloy Jr. Jon Malone Stephen Mann Joshua Manning Robert Manyak James Marchese Gerald Marker Timothy Marks William Markson Courtney Marr Eric Marsh Sheila Marshall George Marsinko Jr. Genevie Marston Vincent Martin Wesley Martin Carlos Martinez Jr. Jeremiah Mason Shawn Massard Chase Matson Brian Matteson Cayce Mautino John Mautner Kristen Maxwell Karen May Thorson Maye Richard Mayo Jr. Brendan McAvoy Shane McClennen Amber McCormick Cary McCraine Sarrah McDonald Summer 2012
Elizabeth McElroy Brian McGowan Kaylie McGrath William Mcgrath Jr. Leondris McGrue Ruhney McGrue Alfred McGuire Patrick McKay Megan McKee John McKinney III Brandon McKnight Neil Mclean James McNellie Steven Meakins James Meares Jr. Edwin Medinavincenty Harry Medinger Steven Medrano Kevin Meeks Andres Mejia Maritza Mejia Constance Mention-Williams Alton Merricks Carol Merricks Michael Meyervanparis Jacob Michaels Luis Mijangos Borrayo Jermaine Milford David Miller Chelsea Mills Paul Minix III Michael Misiak Scott Mitchell Travis Mitchell Demetrick Mixon Daniel Mohorick Douglas Molokken Sarah Monson Raymar Morales Paul Morford Bob Morgan Orlando Morin Brian Morris Juan Morrobel Weylin Morton Colton Moser J Moua Chloe Mozingo Antonio Mullins J Murphy Lorne Murphy Shaun Murphy Benjamin Murray Brandon Naifeh
Christopher Nash Laurie Nash Nicole Nash Kuwanda Nathan Honorae Nelson Lee Neutzling Eldukl Ngiraingas Vincent Nguyen Kendal Nichols Marcus Nieves Aaron Nimocks Brian Nirdlinger Jr. John Nitti Jr. Thomas Norstrand Ratsamy Nouansacksy Shon O’Connell Michael Obrien Tadeo O’Brien Dan O’Brien Joseronaldo Ocampo Onoriode Ohwevwo John Oldham Geno Oliva Mario Olivarez Dale Oliver Danielle Oliver Jason Oliver Olga Olivo Benjamin Olney Tattianna Olvera Daniel Omlor Jr. Gregory O’Neal Paul O’neill Amber Ortega Thaddeus Osbourne Daniel Osterday Stephen Oubre Jr. Phil Owen Jeffery Owens Joshua Pace Jonathan Pancoast Eduardo Pareno II James Parker III Sean Parker Mark Parks Paul Parsons William Pate Gregory Pearce Jesus Pedron Erik Peecher John Pelazza Zachary Pelis Dwain Pemberton Jr. Tory Penfield www.abchs.com
Newly Credentialed Brian Percle Jimmy Perez John Perez Oscar Perez Jr. Jeffney Peterman Carl Pfeffer Justin Pfeffer Craig Pierce Eric Pierce Sergio Pina Jason Pingeton Garett Pinson Carlos Pires Jr. Matthew Poland Randolf Pono Richard Popard Leon Poulson IV Kim Powell Billy Powers Maritza Pratt Tamara Pratt Bobby Price Roger Price Jr. Lawrence Priester David Prieto Samuel Priggemeier James Puncel Richard Quinn Eli Quintanilla Jill Ramdeen Robert Ramirez Melvin Ramos Daniel Randall Marcus Raschke Stephen Rasmussen Shanna Read Joseph Rector Martha Rector Eli Redstone Joshua Reichard Alexandria Reid Andrew Reischauer Richard Rengifo Anthony Repice Olivia Restivo Jordan Reviczky Diego Reyes Romar Raymond Reyes Joshua Reynolds Elizabeth Reynolds-Wilkerson Ronald Richards Daniel Richardson Sr. Bryan Richey Sr. Justin Ricks 877.219.2519
Clint Riddle Corey Ring Jay Rio Nicholas Rios Lokelani Rivera Michael Rivera Emmett Roberson Jr. Teyaqua Robinson Travis Robinson Alexis Robles Dion Rodriguez Jesus Rodriguez Matthew Rodriguez Gerrena Roebuck Amanda Rogers Christina Rojo Nicolasa Roman Nelson Romeu Jonathan Rose JT Rose Ariel Rosemond Alan Ross Steve Ross Thomas Ross Jennifer Ross-Aguilar Erica Roten Andrew Rought Cecilia Rowland Michael Royster Tabatha Royston Charles Runner Sara Rutledge Arnel Salapantan Sean Paul Salas Justin Salazar Christopher Salisbury Matthew Sanchez Andria Sanders Darrick Sanders Samuel Santiago James Sartori Jason Sauerbier Virgil Savage II Terrence Savoy Keith Sawyer Tricia Scanlon Dynesha Scantling Timothy Scarbrough David Scardino Jeremiah Schexnayder Anthony Schir Kenneth Schmidt LeeAnn Schott Joshua Schultz
Justin Schultz Christopher Scott Stanley Self Nicholas Sena Frank Serio Sr. Dominic Serra Scott Sewell Christopher Shaffer Darin Shaffer Lacoe Shapiro Brandon Sharman Nicholas Sharpe Brian Shear Daniel Shearer Jr. Scott Sheldon Darrel Shelton Jerry Shenefield Jeremy Shepard Hector SierraCortes Christopher Simpson David Sitone Timothy Skelton Amber Skinner Andrea Smith Andrew Smith Jeremy Smith Kevin Smith Lorenzo Smith Lou Smith Thomas Smith Jason Snellings Jeffrey Snyder Larry Snyder Matthew Solberg Susana Solomon Christian Soloniewicz Ismael Sosa Jeremy Sosh Charles Southern Errol Spence William Spring Jr. Orlando St Louis Paul Stallbaum John Stankiewicz Kevin Steese Jonathan Stephenson Jason Sterrett Larry Stevenson Jr. Nathan Steward Deon Stewart Shawn Stewart Matthew Stidham Christopher Stills Kristin Stites
Demetrius Stitmon John Stokes Dennis Stoltz Matthew Stone Richard Stonestreet Dwight Stout Aaron Stricklin Erica Strong Matthew Sturgis Michael Sullivan Sarah Surprenant Stephen Sweatt Bradley Swetland Kale Swing Leon Synder Purcell Tabron Mohamad Tarabah Monique Tate Edison Taylor Rodney Taylor Daniel Tellez Karen Terry Jeffrey Thoennes Gregory Thomas John Thomas Jr. Kenton Thomas Sarah Thomas Walter Thomas Jessicarose Thurber Corveno Tobler Shanna Todd Thomas Toomey Justo Victorio Torres Vanessa Townsend Larry Tran Nhatnguyen Tran Todd Tucker Eric Turner Jacob Turner Robert Turner Trayvon Turner Thomas Upchurch Matthew Urbanski Jonathan Vacho Jonathan Valdez Clement Valot Paul Van Raemdonck Gary Vargas Krista Vargas David Vass Jr. Kent Vaughn Nicholas Venzke Russell VerNooy Darren Villano Summer 2012
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Newly Credentialed Ruben Villanueva Oscar Villarreal Tomas Villarreal Charles Vinson Drew Vitale Falesha Vonner Gregory Waite Jonathan Walsh Brian Walters Rick Wangen Jason Ward Mark Ward Gary Warren Matthew Warren Brandon Waters Michelle Watson Shawn Watson Gregory Waymaster II Michael Webster John Welling III Ryan Wells Mark White Jr. Mark White
Sha-Nicca White Harry Wickhorst Jared Wiese Ian Wieserman Damario Willard Alfred Williams Charliea Williams Cheri Williams James Williams Richard Williams Robert Williams Ryan Williams Willie Williams Edwin Willis Latoya Willis Courtney Wilson Jeremy Wilson Mark Wilson David Wimberly Susan Woerner Robert Wolf Jr. Christopher Wolfe Bryan Wolfenberger
Steven Wood Marita Woods Matthew Woods Dale Wright Joshua Wright Phillip Wright Krystal Yagovane David Yanvary Michael Ybarra Eric Yocam Thomas Yokoi Jerry Young Matthew Young Shelton Young Crisogono Zavalapena Teri Zehnacker Francisco Zepeda Erica Zeuske Thomas Zimny Scott Zinn II Roberto Zule Manoah Zurn
New Diplomates Barbara Burton Walter Kimble New Fellows Marc Glasser Jeffrey James New Life Members Jeffrey Lord Michael Torres
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Published on May 21, 2012
Published on May 21, 2012
Inside Homeland Security®, the official peer-reviewed, quarterly journal of the American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, is yo...