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Vol 2 Issue 8 • Pages 52 • June 1, 2014 • `100/- • www.eprmagazine.com

THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS ON ELECTRICAL & POWER

Industry Analysis Demand for transformer surge despite setbacks Feature Concentrating solar power in canebased sugar cogen plants: a strategic energy option for India Green Zone Top 5 destinations for wind energy in India

Power Sector wishlist

transformer special An I-Tech Media Publication


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Integrated Substation Condition Monitoring (ISCM) Smart Grid Services A wealth of information and recommended actions for reliable decision-making Siemens ISCM provides comprehensive solutions regarding strategic asset management. One of the main elements is the use of online condition data of complete substations and grids for maintenance planning, risk determination and asset optimization. Siemens ISCM collects sensor data from all assets, evaluating the data and performing the visualization and alarming. The condition can not only be displayed at the substation, but can also be integrated in centralized systems. It is an important element of asset management and operation support – beneficial for both the environment and the business. ISCM Modules  Transformer Monitoring  GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear Monitoring)

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Answers for infrastructure and cities.


editorial Make India self-sufficient in power At a time when I am writing this column, the Modi-led new government is swearing-in in New Delhi. And by the time a copy of this issue reaches your hand, India will have a government with majority in parliament house. www.eprmagazine.com

I-Tech Media Pvt Ltd, 15/2, 2nd Floor, Chandroday Co-Op Society, Swastik Park, CST Road, Chembur, Mumbai - 400071. (India) Tel.: +91-22-32682214 / 15 EDITOR* Subhajit Roy Email: editor@eprmagazine.com EDITORIAL Afreen Sayed ADVERTISING Leeyen Francis Email: leeyen@i-techmedia.com Call: +91-9987375673 SUBSCRIPTION subscribe@eprmagazine.com Telephone: +91-22-3268 2214/15 *responsible for selection of news under PRB Act

As the country gave a clear mandate in choosing its ruling party, it has lots of expectation too! Most importantly, the country expects strong policy reforms with equally strong implementation without any coalition compulsion. Increasing inflation, growing current account deficit, and negative growth in industrial productivity are some of the major issues that need immediate attention. Power is the backbone of any economy and per capita consumption of power determines the prosperity of an economy. However, the per capita total consumption in India is far lower than the global average. Here is the challenge. India’s power requirement is still largely being met by thermal power plants primarily fired using coal. Though India has got the fifth-largest reserves of coal, it is the world’s third largest importer due to the problems within coal sector. So, the coal sector in India is in need of major policy reforms to meet energy requirement. Apart from abolishing red tapism, hurdles related to land acquisition, and delays in environmental approvals, the new government may inject fresh impetus through encouraging foreign investments in coal sector. Productivity in mines can be increased using modern technologies. Coal India, the world’s largest coal mining company, accounts for 80 per cent of India’s total coal output. It has failed to meet its output targets for years. Therefore, any reform in the coal sector should begin with Coal India. The new government is also likely to give the much-needed thrust to green energy and enable increase in implementation of solar and wind power projects. We hope that this government will be able to make India self-sufficient in power. EPR, being the voice of electrical and power sector, wishes to partner with the country in providing power to all. Hope you will enjoy reading this issue as always. Please do send me your comments at editor@eprmagazine.com

Printed and published by Subhajit Roy on behalf of I-Tech Media Pvt Ltd. and printed at Print, Process Offset Printers, B-23, Royal Industrial Estate, 5-B, Wadala, Mumbai-400031 and published from I-Tech Media Pvt Ltd. 1, Gayatri, Karumari Amman, Chheda Nagar, Chembur (West), Mumbai - 400089. Editor: Subhajit Roy All rights reserved. While all efforts are made to ensure that the information published is correct, Electrical & Power Review holds no responsibility for any unlikely errors that might occur. The information on products and services / technology on offer is being provided for the reference of readers. However, readers are cautioned to make inquiries and take their decisions on purchase or investment after consulting experts on the subject. Electrical & Power Review holds no responsibility for any decision taken by readers on the basis of information provided herein. Tel.: +91-22-32682214/15, +91-9821667357

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Electrical & Power Review


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Cover Story

POWER SECTOR WISHLIST

The article puts forward four-point agenda the power sector expects from the new govt.

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Industry Analysis

Demand for transformer surge despite setbacks

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EPR Personality

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An in-depth exploration of Indian transformer industry: market status, demand-supply scenario and other challenges

Transformer industry in India faces CRGO bottlenecks

Anil Kumar Aggarwal, Chairman and Managing Director, PME Power Solutions (India) Ltd. outlines the industry trends and future outlook. He suggests that Indian steel producers should be forced to set up CRGO plant to meet the demand.

GUEST COLUMN

SCOPE T&M aims to be a major global player

Balasaheb Doiphode, CEO, SCOPE T&M Pvt. Ltd. talks on the various testing and diagnostic instruments available to assess the health of transformers.

Capturing the Sun

Manoj Kumar Upadhyay, Chairman, ACME suggests the roadmap to make solar power competitive with grid parity.

Green Zone

Top 5 destinations for wind energy in India

A quick look at states which are naturally windy and helping develop wind power

Energy performance standards of distribution transformers

One third of network losses occur in transformers, and of these transformer losses, 70 per cent occur in distribution transformers. KN Hemanth Kumar of International Copper Association India gives an industry insight

Feature

Concentrating solar power in canebased sugar cogen plants: a strategic energy option for India The article highlights the opportunities and guidelines for enhancing energy efficiency of sugar-based cogenerating plants through automation and hardware upgradation

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One-on-one

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Power Update

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Power Brand

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People

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Trading Zone Electrical & Power Review


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Products of M&I Materials Ltd.


Power Update Alstom to renovate grid infrastructure of Bihar

Siemens to acquire the Rolls-Royce energy gas turbine Siemens completes portfolio with aero-derivative gas turbines for growth in the oil and gas and decentralised power generation sectors and enters into a long-term technology partnership with Rolls-Royce energy Siemens is acquiring the Rolls-Royce energy aero-derivative gas turbine and compressor business and thereby strengthening its position in the growing oil and gas industry as well as in the field of decentralised power generation.

Bihar aims to invest significantly in the coming years to revamp the power sector in the state. The state government plans to replace the obsolete infrastructure, increasing power capacity and providing reliable and uninterrupted electricity to its population of approximately 110 million people. Alstom T&D India has secured an order worth ` 506.6 million, to renovate and modernise 132/33KV grid substations across various locations for Bihar State Power Transmission Company Limited (BSPTCL). The project will strengthen the transmission system and enhance power evacuation capacity under India’s 12th Five-Year Plan. Under this contract, Alstom T&D India will replace ageing and defective substation equipment with new, advanced technology including 132 kV and 33kV outdoor circuit breaker, isolator, lightning arrestors, relay control panels and more. The new equipment will strengthen the substations and hence, stabilise the transmission network in Bihar.

The purchase price is £785 million. The transaction is expected to close before the end of December 2014, subject to regulatory approvals. In addition, as part of the transaction, Siemens will get exclusive access to future Rolls-Royce aero-turbine technology developments as well as preferred access to supply and engineering services. For this 25 year duration agreement, Siemens will pay Rolls-Royce an additional £200 million. Rolls-Royce energy’s gas turbine and compressor business is one of the leading providers of aero-derivative gas turbines. In this segment, the acquired business, which has around 2,400 employees, delivered revenue of £871 million and earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) of £72 million in fiscal 2013. With an installed base of about 2,500 gas turbines, Rolls-Royce energy’s business has the world’s second-largest fleet of aero-derivative gas turbines.

Cairn India selects Dassault Systèmes’ 3DEXPERIENCE platform Optimised plant construction industry solution experience to enhance project delivery performance for oil and gas upstream projects. Dassault Systemes’, the 3DEXPERIENCE company, announced that Cairn India, one of the 20 largest independent oil exploration and production companies in the world, will deploy Dassault Systemes’ Optimised Plant Construction (OPC) industry solution experience for Integrated Project Management System (IPMS). This will enable Cairn India to achieve key performance metrics comparable

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to the best in the global exploration and production industry and align its processes to the best in class in terms of overall project execution and performance. The objective of deployment of web based IPMS is to optimise utilisation of resources, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling, real time communication and systematic data management of the overall project activities.

Commenting on the association with Cairn India, Dr Chandan Chowdhury, Managing Director-India, Dassault Systèmes, said, “If we are to look at reducing India’s dependence on crude oil imports, we need to optimise the upstream and downstream in a way that addresses the expanding energy needs of our country.” With Dassault Systèmes’ “Optimised Plant Construction” industry solution experience, realtime accurate project status will be available for Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) phases during project lifecycle.

Electrical & Power Review


Heat exchange with HX-Factor energizes the world The HX-Factor is our promise. It stands for unique expertise in heat exchange (HX = HEAT EXCHANGE) and clearly defines what lies at the Segment’s core. With GEA air- and hydrogen coolers for generators, charge air coolers, gas preheaters, radiators (fin-fan-coolers) & dry coolers as well as inter coolers and after coolers for compressors – our Segment gives comprehensive coverage of the spectrum.

GEA IHE Systems India Mr. Jayakumar Nair Phone: +91 22 652 98 929, Mobile: +91 98 204 53 979 gmt.hx.in@gea.com, www.gea-hx.com

engineering for a better world

GEA Heat Exchangers


Power Update Research centre at BITS Pilani inaugurated

A BITS Pilani initiative, first in the area of sustainable energy and water management. This will be a centre for research excellence in waste, water and energy management. The Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, recently inaugurated the Centre for Research Excellence (CORE) in waste, water and energy management. The new centre was inaugurated by the honourable chief guest Padmashri Dr Sunita Narain, Director General, Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), Delhi. The centre will help develop technologies, processes and products aimed at providing solutions to pressing societal problems. This centre will draw faculty resources across disciplines from all four campuses of the university. The faculty members will be encouraged to take up research projects cutting across functions and geographies provided at BITS Pilani. Speaking on the occasion, Dr Sunita Narain said, “BITS faculty from across various disciplines and its campuses are expected to collaborate and develop practical solutions to real problems that afflict our society. Our centre for science and environment will be happy to share with BITS its own expertise and experience in these and other areas in environment.”

CG’s innovative offshore technology to power 370,000 households Avantha Group Company CG has successfully performed the marine load-out of a high-voltage offshore substation, part of the german Butendiek offshore wind farm project for Western Power Distribution (WPD) offshore solutions GmbH; thus achieving an important milestone. Installation will now be completed and the substation will be commissioned offshore. The 288 MW wind farm consists of 80 turbines of 3.6 MW each, and will supply renewable energy to 370,000 households. CG is delivering and integrating all critical power equipment such as power transformers, high and medium voltage switchgear, and auxiliary reactors and transformers to connect the 33 kV and 155 kV networks of the Butendiek project. The substation at Butendiek is the most complex component of the plant; it provides complete redundancy and protection against failure, ensuring that no wind turbine is adversely impacted. Commenting on the order, Laurent Demortier, CEO and Managing Director, Avantha Group Company CG, said, “This is an important milestone achieved by the CG offshore wind project team for WPD offshore solutions GmbH.” CG’s connecting technology was chosen for this project due to its high reliability, superior performance and cost effectiveness. The technology has already been deployed in other platforms in the North Sea, such as the Belwind and Northwind offshore wind farms. Its advantages include minimal weight and lower costs, and is designed for reduced but optimal maintenance compared with traditional highvoltage AC/DC solutions.

Perkins celebrates production of its 20 millionth engine

Perkins is one of the world’s leading suppliers of off-highway diesel and gas engines. In 1998 Perkins became a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar.

Perkins is one of the world’s leading suppliers of off-highway diesel and gas engines in the industry. Its engines are manufactured across four continents and power more than 800 different applications in the construction, power generation, agricultural, material handling, industrial and marine markets.

81 years after the brand was established, the 20 millionth Perkins engine, a 1206 two-stage turbo tier 4 diesel engine, rolled off the production line at the company’s facility in Peterborough, UK. At a small ceremony, attended by around 70 employees, Perkins president

Perkins has the capacity to manufacture 800,000 engines a year from its current manufacturing facilities in Peterborough and Stafford, UK; Griffin in Georgia, USA; Curitiba in Brazil; and Wuxi in China; a number which will increase when the new Perkins facility in Aurangabad opens.

Perkins recently celebrated a major milestone with the production of its 20 millionth engine.

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Ramin Younessi said, “20 million engines is a significant achievement of which we’re all very proud. Our global manufacturing facilities have all contributed to this milestone.”

Electrical & Power Review


Power Update Gamesa firms up 100 MW wind power project with Greenko Gamesa has signed a business agreement with Greenko to deliver 300 MW across various wind farms in India. Gamesa wind turbines Pvt. Ltd. has recently firmed up another 100 MW out of the total 300 MW framework agreement with Greenko. With this Gamesa has secured 250 MW of projects which are currently under various stages of implementation. Gamesa has already secured 150 MW earlier in 2 phases which are under various stages of implementation. And now it has secured 100 MW more. In this project, Gamesa will supply and commission 50 units of G97-2 MW turbines at various sites in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan. “Gamesa values the close collaboration we have with Greenko. We are proud to execute this 300 MW framework agreement in its true spirit adhering to the project milestones. It is indeed our pleasure to partner with Greenko in developing these wind farms across India,” said Ramesh Kymal, Chairman and Managing Director, Gamesa India. “Greenko, with our diversified, de-risked operating portfolio of 700 MW wind and hydro capacity including ready to commission 120 MW, has partnered with Gamesa for long term growth plans since 2013. We are impressed with Gamesa Technology, performance of their 2 MW turbines and understanding of execution of Indian wind sector. This motivated us extending the partnership with further 100 MW wind turbine orders which will take us to over 1 GW operating assets by 2015 season,” said Anil

Chalamalasetty, Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director, Greenko Group.

Emerson launches 7th edition of Emerson Cup Emerson Climate Technologies (India) Ltd. has launched the 7th edition of the Emerson Cup 2014. The competition recognises outstanding designs and innovations for projects in the airconditioning and refrigeration categories in India. Being one of the most influential competitions in the industry, the Emerson Cup receives a large number of outstanding projects from all over India and follows a rigorous selection process for winning entries by an independent jury panel. Emerson Cup’s latest edition has made several changes this year including the addition of ‘cold chain design application’ as an award category, to support the current growth of cold storage and food preservation industry in the country. Speaking on the occasion, Sridhar Narayanswami – VP and MD, Emerson Climate Technologies (India) Ltd., said, “The Emerson Cup provides a valuable platform for showcasing the emerging trends and practices amongst industry professionals, combined with the availability of high quality technology today.” Participation in the competition is open to engineers, architects, consultants, developers, institutional owners and end-users. The award categories for 2014 are: New project, Retrofit project, Cold chain project, and Project with Emerson Technologies. The last date for accepting nominations is 15th June.

Welspun renewables commissions Karnataka’s largest solar capacity Project with tracker technology will annually supply 30,724,000 units of clean energy.

work with the state in strengthening its green energy revolution by commissioning mega capacities.”

Welspun Renewables Energy Private Limited (WREPL), India’s leading renewable energy generator commissions Karanataka’s largest solar project with a capacity of 19 MW (DC) implemented as two projects of 8 MW (DC) and 11 MW (DC). Based in Chitradurga district the project was awarded in phase 1 and phase 2 bidding based on Karnataka solar policy. The 8 MW (DC) capacity was commissioned last year – about two months ahead of schedule, while the balance 11 MW (DC)

For the next 25 years, the project will be annually feeding 30,724,000 units of clean energy into the state grid. The tracking system deployed at the site would track the path of the sun from morning till evening. This system is expected to give a significant boost to power generation percentage in comparison to the fixed tilt system.

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capacity has now been commissioned in less than three months from signing of PPA in January 20th 2014 and about 10 months ahead of schedule. Speaking on the occasion Vineet Mittal, Vice Chairman, WREPL, said “We are committed to Karnataka’s energy security targets. WREPL would like to

WREPL has commissioned 328 MW (DC) and over 723.5 MW capacity is under construction.

Electrical & Power Review


COVER STORY

M

ay 16th 2014 became a milestone in the democratic history of India. After 30 years of coalition ruling, the country has elected its new government with a clear mandate. Now expectations are exceptionally high from the new government with regards to reforms and governance. According to Vineet Mittal, Vice Chairman, Welspun Renewables Energy Pvt. Ltd., “Stable government with clear majority will boost confidence of the industry – both at home and for the global and foreign investors. This will help India regain its status in the world affairs and win back its rightful position.”

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We agree with Mr Mittal’s take on stable government; however each sector has different setbacks and needs. With the new government coming in expectations are high that it will act speedily to put each sector back on track. Power sector is the driving force of any country and helps the country to develop economically. Unfortunately, for the last few years, power sector in India has been dealing with number of issues. From lack of funding, delays in clearances to scarcity of fuel, issues kept mounting without any suitable solutions. Here, experts from power sector put forward agendas they want the new govt to fulfil.

Policy push Electricity Act 2003 was formed to reduce the losses in power sector as

There should be integrated approach by central and state governments for faster approval, clearances, speedy land acquisitions and also R&R policies.

Pritpal Singh Bami, President, India Energy Forum

well as lessen the subsidy burden for government. However, due to faulty implementation of policies, the sector further deteriorated with collapsing funding from banks.

Electrical & Power Review


COVER STORY

Power Sector

wishlist

The article puts forward four-point agenda the power sector expects from new Govt

sector reforms and make necessary amendments wherever needed.

The Indian government would do well to enter into partnerships with fuel rich countries to meet its long-term energy needs.

Anil Sardana, Managing Director, Tata Power

Hence, it is crucial that India creates a policy environment, which is supportive of bringing in long-term, firm and strategic investment to the country. New government should review power

Electrical & Power Review

Anil Sardana, Managing Director, Tata Power opines, “To address several challenges that continue to affect the value chain of power generation, transmission and distribution; the need of the hour is to develop a comprehensive national energy security policy which takes into account requirements of all states and UTs.” The umbrella policy can provide a framework to resolve issues related to pending fuel supply agreements for long-term fuel linkages both in India and overseas. “The Indian government would do well to enter into partnerships with fuel rich countries to meet its longterm energy needs. This will act as an

effective hedge against fluctuating global fuel prices. In parallel, regulatory reforms need to be undertaken to make the domestic coal industry more competitive,” Mr Sardana observed. Pritpal Singh Bami, President, India Energy Forum says, “There should be integrated approach by central and state governments for faster approval, clearances, speedy land acquisitions and also R&R policies. Coal Regulatory Authority Bill is already lying in the parliament, it should be cleared. These are some of the issues new govt should take up. The mandate is that power should be supplied to section of society providing quality and universal service obligation.” Mr Bami is also the former Chairman of NTPC.

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COVER STORY Anil Chaudhry, Country President and Managing Director, Schneider Electric India says, “We look forward to policies that will bolster infrastructure development in India, acting as an engine of growth, creating thousands of new jobs and pushing up GDP growth, while lowering poverty levels and bringing alive our collective dream of inclusive growth.”

Availability of fuel Fuels contribute majorly in India’s energy sector. Scarcity of fuel had an adverse impact on power sector. Coal shortage within India has more than doubled over the last 5 years. Coal India, which contributes more than 80 per cent of India’s domestic coal production, has been unable to meet the required demand making the situation worse. Few initiatives had been taken to improve the fuel supply situation, however much more needs to be done to reverse the current deficit scenario. “Proper planning for generation of fuel should be given priority. Restructuring of Coal India should be done. Major recommendation is there should be an energy ministry in charge of power, coal and renewable energy,” Mr Bami suggests. Prakash Kumar Chandraker, Managing Director and Vice President – Energy Business, Schneider Electric India says, “There is an urgent need to take measures for resolving issues related to fuel availability and cost as well as efficient operation of plants to boost the supply side of power sector. To bring back confidence in the sector it is important to have sustained commitment on competitive bidding revival.”

Power distribution A big challenge that Indian power sector is facing is transmission and distribution (T&D) losses. Distribution is a key segment in country’s electricity supply chain; however it is repeatedly proving to be the weakest link in the

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power value chain. T&D losses in India are among the highest in the world. The Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (APDRP) was launched in March 2003 with the main objective to reduce T&D losses. However its under-achievement in reducing the losses made it necessary for the government to reintroduce the programme in the 12th Plan period. Financial restructuring, technology development and larger investment required to bring down the losses and also improve the quality of power supply. “Distribution continues to be the weakest with one of the highest aggregate technical and commercial losses (AT&C). Financial restructuring is only a short term solution and there is need for implementation of open access and competition along with enforcement of the obligation to service,” Mr Sardana anticipates. Commenting on the issue Mr Bami says, “Unless distribution companies are able to recover the cost, the whole financial structure will not improve. It is getting difficult for them to get funds from banks which will again pose as a problem for new projects. So funding should be made the top priority.” However Mr Chandraker feels technology should be given priority. He says, “Technology should be the top priority in the T&D segments to satiate the pressing needs of reliable and quality power. Similarly utmost care is to be taken in improving the utilities’ liquidity position and project financing in the segment. Better control and monitoring by the use of new technologies is required to reduce high losses in the networks thereby also boosting availability of power to masses.”

Focus on RE In the recent years, the concept of renewable energy has been cropping up. Narendra Modi is well-acquainted with the concept of renewable energy

To bring back confidence in the sector it is important to have sustained commitment on competitive bidding revival

Prakash Kumar Chandraker, MD and VP – Energy Business, Schneider Electric India

well. As the Chief Minister of Gujarat, Mr Modi pioneered India’s first incentives for large-scale solar power in 2009. He is said to have plans to use solar power to enable every home to run at least one light bulb by 2019. Commenting on the expectation of renewable energy players, Manoj Kumar Upadhyay, CEO, ACME Solar says, “We expect the government will have policypush in order to grow developers and customers interest in the solar energy. We believe that the new government will give the much-needed impetus to green energy and enable increase in implementation of solar power projects in JNNSM PH-II.” Mr Sardana says, “Benefits can also be derived by strengthening the Renewable Energy Certificate mechanism, which in turn help to meet purchase obligations. It would also help to incentivise offgrid or distributed renewable energy generation.” Sharing their commitments to the Indian power sector, Mr Chaudhry says “Schneider Electric India is committed to all efforts to transform India into a self-sufficient, energy-surplus nation. We hope to partner with the country in developing smart cities as well as boosting the renewable energy segment, in particular.” With Modi’s rise to power, Indian power sector expects sunny days ahead. 

Electrical & Power Review


Industry Analysis

Demand for transformer surge despite setbacks An in-depth exploration of Indian transformer industry: market status, demandsupply scenario and other challenges

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T

he Indian power transformer market is well established, with significant sales being made to the utilities, industrial, and commercial segments within the country and a strong foothold in overseas market. It is an integral part of the country’s electrical equipment industry. This market has witnessed a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8 per cent in the past five years.

Power transformer market The transformer industry is going through a sluggish phase and has been worst affected with lower capacity utilisation and price realisation. It continues to face tough competition from the Chinese manufacturers. However, with the continuous support from the government to promote the power transformer industry through

Electrical & Power Review


Industry Analysis investments, tax benefits, subsidies etc. will help the industry to grow over the coming years. Anil Kumar Aggarwal, Chairman and Managing Director, PME Power Solutions (India) Ltd. says, “The year also witnessed the arrival of international competitors for setting up transformer manufacturing facility in India. Margins remained under pressure throughout the year and scenario is unlikely to change in short run. New projects announcements by corporate sector were very few in the previous year. Industry could continue with its business volume from carried forward orders of past years for uncompleted projects. Large-scale spending on CAPEX anticipated from PSUs is also not visible. With this reality, major players in industry continue facing margin and liquidity pressure.”

Growth drivers The power transformers market revenues in India are expected to grow at the CAGR of 14 per cent till 2018. Under the 12th five-year plan (2012-17), the government plans to spend $ 200 Billion on developing and strengthening power infrastructure in India. Similarly, IEEMA (Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers Association) along with government framed a policy to limit the imports of transformers from China and Korea, along with changing government policies on import duty for CRGO steel, is likely to further promote the domestic transformers industry in India. Government initiatives, new distribution technology and replacement market are among the key drivers of the transformer segment. Despite the global financial crisis, the industry has seen an increasing trend in transformer export, which contributes significantly to revenues. The evolution of the national grid requires the expansion of transmission infrastructure and has been one of the drivers of 765 KV and above voltage transformers.

Electrical & Power Review

Darshan Shah, GMMarketing, Transformer and Rectifiers (India) Ltd. says, “There are few factors pushing the transformer industry: replacement market, generation part, and interregional transport. Lately it seems things are shifting and now with the new government comes in, people are anticipating that there will be growth.” Mr Aggarwal explains, “Huge generation capacity addition targets are among the key drivers of the transformer segment. Further, Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (RAPDRP), the Rs. 515 billion union government flagship programme, aims to reduce Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) losses of state utilities to 15 per cent or below, which in turn has led to an increased demand for new equipment. Distribution reforms are also creating a market for new types of distribution transformers such as amorphous core transformers and dry type transformers.” He further adds, “Renovation and modernisation of network assets that have completed their useful life creates a replacement demand for transformers. Now players in the transformer equipment market cater to domestic as well as international demand.”

Demand-Supply scenario Though there is a perennial shortage of power in the country, the demand for transformers is increasing proportionately with the amplification of power generation, transmission or distribution networks. In India, the demand for equipment used in power sector is multiplying at a rapid rate because of social, economic and industrial development. Experts feel that the growth of the transformer industry depends largely on planned capacity addition to power generation, distribution network and transmission in the country. Mr Aggarwal explains, “Despite all efforts, the govt has not been able

to bridge the gap between demand and supply. The ministry of power is switching over to EHV/UHV system by adopting super-critical 800/600 MW generating unit in a bid to augment the power availability to meet declared goal of the govt of India for providing power to all at reasonable cost by 2017.” The Indian government expects to add another 85,000 MW of power capacity during the 12th Five-Year Plan (201217) period. The demand for power transformers is also expected to go up as a direct consequence. “Govt’s attempt of attaining 100 per cent electrification across the country by 2017 would contribute to the demand for power transformers. However, power deficit across the country is likely to continue during the next decade,” Mr Aggarwal sensed. According to Mr Shah, “Capacity utilisation is in the range of 60-65 per cent and should remain the same as of now, but with the kind of inquiry levels what we are seeing, next year we are expecting the order book would go up sharply as far as this financial year is concerned for everybody. The orders which we are going to book this year would be converted to sales next year.”

Import-export status The transformer industry is heavily depends on imports especially in the extra high-voltage (EHV) segment. Also, the industry growth is increasingly coming under pressure due to the growing competition from foreign manufacturers and the investment slowdown. However, several international players who already have base in India are looking forward to make their Indian setups as manufacturing base for supplying to other countries. “The Indian transformer industry is gradually gaining prominence in developed markets on the basis of its quality and pricing. The domestic transformer industry, which is fairly well established developing all type of

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Industry Analysis transformers up to the 800 KV and 1,200 KV levels, has the potential of becoming the manufacturing hub for the supply of transformers in foreign markets,” comments Mr Aggarwal.

We hope initiative of Indian Electrical Equipment Industry Mission Plan 20122022 by all stakeholders will help in Indian electrical industry gear up to be important global player.”

Talking about export Mr Shah says, “There is not much movement. When it comes to import there has been no changes but it is facing few issues because power grid is still sourcing most of the transformers. Most of the global bidders are getting qualified when it comes to 765 KV tenders.”

“As far as power transformers are concerned, it is always a tender based purchase. In most of the tenders they are being evaluated technically and once it is determined that everybody is at level playing field, then only the cost is compared. Side levels are also fairly same as what indigenous people are offering to clients,” says Mr Shah.

Experts feel domestic demand for next 9 years (Mission Plan Period) may provide the CAGR growth of 3.5 per cent to power transformers and 5 per cent to distribution transformers. However, imports may continue to take a cut out of the domestic demand. In addition, Indian transformer industry is currently exporting about 10 per cent of their production. If this additional exports share continues at 8-10 per cent level, it may only add 2 per cent to CAGR growth. Hence, increasing the export market share is important for a substantial growth.

Impact of cheap imports In recent years, a surge in imports of cheap and inferior quality electrical equipment from abroad is significantly impacting the Indian electrical equipment industry with under-utilisation of recently enhanced capacities across several products. The commercial viability of the industry is getting dented and can have severe long term consequences, leading to a situation of unnecessary dependence on imports at the cost of domestic manufacturing. Mr Aggarwal points out, “Today the situation is that the expected demand has not materialised leading to overcapacity, adversely impacting the transformer industry. In addition cheaper imports from China and Korea have also majorly impacted. Many orders have been lost by Indian manufacturers due to low price of imported equipment.

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Dealing with cheap imports It is necessary for Indian govt to take a look at industry’s issues and come out with policy changes to enhance competitiveness of domestic industry. Under international trade law, solutions are available that intend to take action against imports which are causing injury to local industries. Mr Shah says, “Through IEEMA, we are in dialogues with the concerned ministry and definitely trying to take some measures. We are just suggesting increasing import duties on these transformers.” Mr Aggarwal suggests, “Govt needs to conduct research through R&D schemes as well as prioritise the promotion of domestic brands. It must always weigh the economic benefits of allowing cheap imports against their negative effects. It is crucial, however, government simultaneously take advantage of technology transfer agreements, and negotiate new ones in order to benefit from the technical know-how and skills from China necessary to efficiently develop and run the ailing industries.”

Other challenges The Indian transformer industry is facing some key challenges which restrict it from growing to its full potential and targets. Some of the challenges include inadequate testing facilities, CRG imports, and delay in payment release.

Govt’s attempt of attaining 100 per cent electrification across the country by 2017 would contribute to the demand for power transformers. However, power deficit across the country is likely to continue during the next decade Mr Aggarwal points out, “One of the major concerns for the industry is the growing imports from China and South Korea, which poses a major threat to local manufacturers. Inadequate testing facilities, especially for high voltage electrical equipment too is an issue.” CRG import is a big challenge because they are demanding BIS certification for most of the grades which are to be consumed within India. Because of that availability has been an issue because CRG of the material, not all the grades of all the prime means are approved by BIS. Mr Shah says, “If we are going for a different grade which is not certified by BIS then it becomes an issue. So availability has definitely been a problem and there has been a price increase when it comes to CRG in last one quarter or so.” Mr Aggarwal further adds, “Cold Rolled Grain Oriented laminated silicon steel (CRGO), which is one of the major raw materials for transformer is not being manufactured in India. Long overdue demand of transformer industry to government is to pursue companies like SAIL or TATA to set up manufacturing plant in India which would save considerable forex outflow. Delay in release of payments by power utilities adversely effects top line and bottom line of the industry.”

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EPR PERSONALITY

Transformer industry in India faces CRGO bottlenecks

I

“Long overdue demand of transformer Industry to government is to pursue companies like SAIL or Tata to set up manufacturing plant in India which would save considerable FOREX outflow,� says Anil Kumar Aggarwal, Chairman and Managing Director, PME Power Solutions (India) Ltd.

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ndian power transformer market is set to grow at a CAGR of 14 per cent between 2013 and 2018. However, challenges are many. In an e-mail response to EPR, Anil Kumar Aggarwal outlines the industry trends and future outlook. He suggests that Indian steel producers should be forced to set up CRGO plant to meet the demand.

India is known to be an active supplier of transformers to nations worldwide. What has led to its growth in export in the recent years? India has always been an exporter of transformers and this avenue is set to become even more lucrative in the coming years. Exports from India are diverse including power transformers, distribution transformers and even special purpose transformers. It is estimated that around 15 per cent of India’s production of power transformers is destined for international markets. With India proving its technological edge by producing even 1,200kV transformers, surpassing global standards, the country has a very bright future. It is not only developing African and Central Asian economies that are importing from India; India-made transformers are even finding their way in developed

markets like USA, UK, Canada, South Africa etc. India has been net exporter of transformers till now. Several of international players who already have base in India are looking forward to making their Indian setups as manufacturing base for supplying to other countries. The Indian transformer industry is gradually gaining prominence in developed markets on the basis of its quality and pricing. The domestic transformer industry has the potential of becoming the manufacturing or sourcing hub for the supply of transformers in foreign markets. The market is highly fragmented with a large number of small and medium enterprises involved in the manufacturing processes, and is dominated by organised players. The domestic manufacturing industry is fairly well established with manufacturers having capabilities to develop all type of transformers up to the 800 kV and 1,200 kV levels. The industry also exports to several countries including the US, South Africa, Cyprus, Syria & Iraq, apart from Europe. Indian transformer industry is currently exporting about 10 per cent

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EPR PERSONALITY of their production. If this additional exports share continues at 8-10 per cent level, it may only add 2 per cent to CAGR growth. Hence, increasing the export market basket or share is important for a substantial growth i.e. to align with mission plan objective – ‘go global’.

What shifting market trends and opportunities are you witnessing in the Indian transformer market? The Indian transformer industry is one of the oldest manufacturing segments in the country and is broadly categorised in to power and distribution transformers. The technology used is contemporary and two types of core materials are generally used. CRGO forms the major chunk of core material while amorphous metals used by limited numbers of manufacturers as core material but the usage is increasing. The large transformer segment is dominated by multinationals and large sized Indian companies as capital requirement is high due to high level of technology and sophisticated manufacturing and testing facilities. Distribution transformer segment is concentrated with small scale sector. The industry is currently operating at about 60 per cent capacity as the government projected demand has not materialised fully. However, more and more players are entering this segment. The industry witnessed large level of imports from countries like China, Korea etc. The transformer market in India has been in a healthy state for quite some years now. The market is further expected to witness healthy growth rates and stimulating demand for the coming years. The initiatives undertaken by the Indian government along with the need of replacement of transformers installed in the earlier years is expected to drive growth in the Indian transformers market.

Is rural electrification a demand driver for transformers in India? As a result of increased government

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spending on electrification and rising power demands, the electrical equipment manufacturers are likely to get benefitted. Programmes such as RGGVY (Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana) and R-APDRP (Revised Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Program) are bolstering the demand for electrical equipment such as switchgears, conductors, capacitors and transformers. Transformers being used in generation, transmission as well as distribution network have experienced healthy growth over the last few years and the market is further set to rise as a result of increased governmental focus towards rural electrification. RGGVY has a programme to electrify 1.15 lakh un-electrified villages and providing free electricity connections to 2.34 crore BPL household wherein Government of India will provide funds to the tune of 90 per cent of the project cost as grant while the remaining 10 per cent will be provided by the REC as loan. So far, 562 projects have been sanctioned at total cost of Rs. 265 billion of which Rs. 135 billion has been spent for providing 6.35 million rural household electricity connections for electrifying villages. For this scheme, lakhs of small transformers are required to be manufactured for which the Indian industry is adequately equipped.

China has already entered the Indian power transformer market, how do you rate competition from China? If we will talk about China, yes, it is in our knowledge that some Chinese power transformer manufacturers are setting up their units in India. This will definitely give impetus to Indian manufacturers to enhance their production capacity with the best and latest technologies, so as to give competition to the Chinese and other manufacturers in the world due to open economy at global level. A few players also said that there are players entering India from China which is one of the reasons why the industry is feeling the heat.

We are not denying that Indian transformer industry consistently facing tough competition from the Chinese manufacturers. In addition, cheaper imports from China and Korea have majorly impacted the industry. Our margins have drastically gone down due to steep competition. According to reports, China manufactured products are much cheaper and are technologically advanced. This has a bigger direct impact on small and medium sized transformer manufacturer. However, keeping in mind the stronger electrification drive which is happening in India, players said that the industry will be able to overcome the main issues and maintain a healthy growth rate. I feel, future for quality transformer manufacturer seems bright as there is lot of scope for electrification in India.

According to you, how can Government boost growth of the Indian power transformer industry? Under international trade law, remedies are available for governments that intend to take action against imports which are causing injury to their local industries. In addition, the government need to conduct research through R&D schemes as well as priorities the promotion of domestic brands. It must always weigh the economic benefits of allowing cheap imports against their negative effects. For instance, where domestic markets are struggling, it is prudent to allow cheap imported goods. This will not only ensure the availability of necessary goods that Chinese imports can offer, but also offers necessary competition for the benefit of consumers. It is crucial, however, that governments simultaneously take advantage of technology transfer agreements (and negotiate new ones) in order to benefit from the technical know-how and skills from China necessary to efficiently develop and run the ailing industries.

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EPR PERSONALITY In this way, trade with China will add real economic value. Indian transformer industry continues to face tough competition from the Chinese manufacturers. However, with the continuous support from the government to promote the power transformer industry through investments, tax benefits, subsidies etc. will help the industry to grow over the coming years. The most important recommendations from my side to the govt. would be: • Indian steel producers such as SAIL, JSW, Tata, Mittal group etc should be forced to set up CRGO plant as the demand is about 3 lakh tonnes per year, with lot of scope for export. • Excellent testing facilities should be created as at present EHV/UHV transformers have to be sent abroad for type testing. However one test lab for UHV is being established in Bina (MP) which needs to be expedited. Such more labs are required in northern and northern eastern zone.

What is your outlook on the Indian transformer market and what do you rate as the key challenges? The transformer industry in India has evolved and now has a well-matured technology base up to 800 KV class. India has a field-proven technology and capacity to manufacture a wide range of power transformers, distribution transformers and other types of special transformers for welding, traction, furnace etc. Today, about 95 per cent of the transformers installed in the Indian Power Network are of indigenous origin. Energy efficient transformer with low losses and low noise levels can be manufactured in India to meet international requirements. India has a good and sound base of over 700 industries and has total transformer manufacturing capacity of 1,000 GVA sufficient for domestic

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and export market. The present net worth of industry is about ` 12,500 crores and now has planned to add 100,000 MW in the 12th Plan period which shall result in annual market of ` 15,000 crores for transformer industry. The Indian transformer industry is facing some key challenges, which restrict it from growing of its full potential and targets. Some of these challenges include: • One of the major concerns for the industry is the growing imports from China and South Korea. As per estimates, the Chinese manufacturers’ share in Indian electrical equipment imports has increased. The absence of a level playing field for the domestic industry poses a major threat to local manufacturers. • Inadequate testing facilities, especially for high voltage electrical equipment • Dependence of some sub-sectors on import of critical inputs, • Cold Rolled Grain Oriented laminated Silicon Steel (CRGO), which is one of the major raw materials for transformers, is not being manufactured in India. Long overdue demand of transformer Industry to government is to pursue companies like SAIL or Tata to set up manufacturing plant in India which would save considerable FOREX outflow. • Delay in release of payments by power utilities adversely effects top line & bottom line of the industry. • Low investment in R&D and no structured long-term approach for basic research. • Lack of standardisation of product specification, design parameters and ratings for generation and distribution equipment across different utilities. • Bouncing of orders by utilities, because of factors beyond their control such as govt. approvals, release of funds etc.

Opportunities • Domestic demand: to sustain the envisaged annual GDP growth rate of around 8-9 per cent over the next 20 years, it has been estimated that India will required to increase its electricity generation capacity by around five times by 2032. • Rapid growth in metros, airports and others infrastructure projects is expected to generate huge demand for matching transformers and equipment. • External demand: currently, share of India’s exports in the global market is about 1 percent. With the electricity sector being a sunrise sector across the entire developing world, there exists a significant export potential for the domestic industry. • Increasing emphasis on power and infrastructure sector by the Govt. of India, there is a huge potential for the contractor for the coming years in this sector.

• Outdated tendering procedures and contract awarding based on L1 bidder by utilities. • Unavailability and cost of power project funding. With new government taking over under leadership of Narendra Modi, we are all expecting that country shall be on a growth trajectory and power sector in specific, would be one of the prime beneficiaries in view to fulfil people’s aspirations for round the clock supply and act as a catalyst to promote industry and agriculture output to stimulate growth. It is expected and desired in due earnest that above indicators will change drastically.

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GUEST COLUMN

Energy Performance Standards of Distribution Transformers One third of network losses occur in transformers, and of these transformer losses, 70 per cent occur in distribution transformers

T

ransformers are static electrical devices that are used in electrical power systems to transfer electrical power between circuits through the use of electromagnetic induction. Transformers convert electrical energy from one voltage level to another. They are an essential part of the electricity network. After generation in power stations, electrical energy needs to be transported to the areas where it is consumed. This transport is more efficient at higher voltage, which is why power generated at 10-30 kV is converted by transformers into typical voltages of 220 kV up to 400 kV, or even higher. Since the majority of electrical installations operate at lower voltages, the high voltage needs to be converted back close to the point of use. The first step down is transformation to 33-150

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kV. It is often the level at which power is supplied to major industrial customers. Distribution companies then transform power further down to the consumer mains voltage.

Power generating station

Transformers can be grouped into four broad categories according to their high voltage winding and their function in the network: • Large power

Step up transformer (3MVA to 1000 MVA)

Receiving substation

End Users Customers

Electrical power distribution network

Distribution transformer (5KVA to 3 MAV)

Step down power substation

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GUEST COLUMN • Medium power • Medium voltage distribution; and • Low voltage distribution. Transformers with their highest voltage above 36kV are generally referred to as large power transformers or medium power transformers, depending on the voltage. These transformers are often used in the transmission of electricity. Medium power transformers are generally considered as those with power ratings greater than 2500 kVA and less than or equal to 60 MVA three phase with voltage ratings > 36 kV to ≤ 230 kV. Large power transformers are generally viewed as those with base selfcooled power ratings exceeding 60 MVA and always including all high voltage ratings of 230 kV as well as all extra high voltage (EHV) ratings of 245 kV or more. Large power transformers can be found at generating power stations and electrical substations to convert electrical power to high voltages for transmission and then back down again at the other end to a medium power transformer for transferring power to a sub-transmission circuit. From medium power transformers, the voltage is further reduced by medium voltage distribution transformers into circuits where the electricity is distributed to end users. The Transformers installed in the distribution circuit of electricity networks servicing residential areas and commercial and industrial customers are named as distribution transformers. Distribution transformers (DT’s) are mostly involved in stepping voltage down. As per Leonardo Energy – Transformers report, 2005, the global transmission and distribution network losses will lead to global economic loss of more than $61 billion annually and annual greenhouse gas emissions of more than 700 million tonnes. In general, it is estimated that one third of network losses occur in transformers, and of these transformer losses, 70 per cent occur in distribution transformers. The

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report estimates that total electricity lost on utility networks around the world in 2005 was approximately 1,279 TWh, and of that, distribution transformers consumed 298.4 TWh. High efficiency transformers create economic benefits for society in addition to the reduced greenhouse gas emissions, improved reliability and potentially longer service life if lower temperature rises are experienced through the energy-efficiency improvements. With these benefits in mind, many countries has taken policy initiatives to establish mandatory and voluntary programmes to conserve energy and to help the domestic markets by adopting energyefficient transformers.

Losses in transformers The losses are categorised into following three types: No-load loss (also called iron loss or core loss): Caused by the hysteresis and eddy currents in the core. It is present whenever the transformer is connected, and independent of the load. It represents a constant, and therefore significant, energy drain. Load loss (or copper loss or short circuit loss): Caused by the resistive losses in the windings and leads, and by eddy currents in the structural steelwork and the windings. It varies with the square of the load current. Cooling loss (only in transformers with fan cooling): Caused by the energy consumption of a fan. The bigger the other losses, the more cooling is needed and the higher the cooling loss. These losses can be avoided if operational temperature is kept low by different loss reduction measures. An estimation of the total energy loss can be calculated from: Eloss [kW] = (P0 + Pk *I2)*8760 • P0 is the no-load loss [kW]. • Pk is the load loss [kW]. • I is the rms-average load of the transformer. • 8,760 is the number of hours in a year.

Improving efficiency Improving efficiency at manufacturers end is to reduce losses in transformers during the design and focus is mainly in two elements: core and windings. Transformer design is complex, with many of the characteristics of distribution transformers specified in national or international standards. The no-load losses can be reduced by selecting a high performance steel for the core. Next to the choice of the steel, the way in which distribution transformer cores are designed, cut, fabricated and assembled, plays an important role in energy efficiency. Increasing the size of the core reduces the density of the magnetic field, and in this way improves energy efficiency. Load losses are proportional to the square of the load current, so one should always consider how the unit will be loaded over time. Load losses can be reduced by increasing the cross section of the windings. This reduces the current density and consequently the loss, although at a higher construction cost. The process of winding the conductor coils and then fitting them into the assembled core has a very large influence on the energy efficiency of a transformer. It is a labour-intensive process that requires skilled workers.

Transformer replacements Transformer replacement before failure can be motivated by several reasons. These include environmental and fire safety regulations, changes in the load or the voltage level, an increased risk of failure due to transformer ageing, or the aim to improve the energy efficiency. Distribution transformers rarely catch the attention of the Operation and Maintenance department. They do not have any moving parts. They do what they have to do, day after day, year after year, with a remarkably high level of energy efficiency and reliability. Transformers provide an almost constant quality of service.

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GUEST COLUMN Their decrease in energy efficiency and reliability is at a very slow rate and generally remains unnoticed. Until, that is, they fail and have to be replaced.

Possible reasons for replacements • • • • •

To improve energy efficiency To improve the reliability of supply Because of a change in load profile Because of a change in voltage level To comply with environmental and fire safety regulations.

A transformer failure occurs when the quality of the internal insulation system fails and a short-circuit results. The electrical insulation of transformer windings consists of a particular type of paper, immersed in oil. The physical properties of this paper are largely dependent on the degree of polymerisation of its molecules, which degrades over time, albeit very slowly and not always at the same pace. An insulation failure typically happens when this degree of polymerisation of the insulating paper drops below a threshold value. In such cases, the paper becomes brittle and the breakdown voltage is reduced. A surge in the voltage level, caused by a lightning strike or a fault on the line, can be enough to cause an internal arc. In the worst case, an internal arc can occur without an external trigger. In theory, distribution transformers don’t have an age limit. If they are constructed, operated, and maintained well, the insulation paper can preserve its quality for a very long time. However, even newly purchased transformers can fail when circumstances are bad. Consequently, if you want to replace a transformer before it fails, age is a poor criterion to use in selecting the most opportune moment. If reliability is the only criterion, a rewinding or other type of thorough repair action can be a good alternative to an entire replacement of the transformer. This is especially the case for relatively new transformers for

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which maintenance measurements have shown that risk of failure has risen substantially above the average. However, in the sense of economic and environmental best practice, other criteria should be considered as well. Energy efficiency is the most important of these considerations.

low voltage winding, the core steel and in the surrounding transformer tank or housing and fittings. These losses in the surrounding tank/ housing and fittings are called stray losses. The magnitude of the total losses of the transformer relative to the power throughput determines its efficiency.

The life cycle cost has to be calculated considering financial point of view, taking into account the cost of energy losses, failure risk and maintenance into account, as well as the investment cost and the residual value of the transformer at the moment of retirement.

There are many aspects of a distribution transformer that can be measured through the test methods as per the national or international standards adopted by different countries. Hence the need is felt to harmonise the test Standards.

An accurate estimation of the load losses is critical in this assessment. This requires a good prediction of the loading pattern. A sound evaluation of the risk of failure, depending on the ageing state of the transformer, is also crucial. This will require the correct interpretation of maintenance measurements. The replacement issue mainly comes down to the question whether the energy efficiency can be improved sufficiently to reduce the lifecycle cost of the transformer. As the cost of the energy losses mount up to a multiple of the investment cost of the transformer, a minor energy efficiency gain can already be enough to justify replacement.

Testing standards support all product standards and labelling programmes because they are the means by which product energy performance is measured and compared. Harmonisation of energy performance test procedures is a means of facilitating technology diffusion and trade objectives. Harmonised test methods can encourage trade, conformity assessment, comparison of performance levels, technology transfer and the accelerated adoption of best practice policy. For example if energy efficiencies are to used internationally in performance schemes and if transformers are to be imported/ exported, it is necessary to specify the measurement accuracies (or uncertainty levels) of test methods to ensure that the manufacturer, the user and the Energy Regulator all get the same result when testing energy efficiencies of transformers. Both governments and manufacturers stand to gain from the harmonisation of testing methods.

Standards & Regulations The transformer converts power from one system voltage to another & for a distribution transformer, this voltage relationship, or voltage ratio, is determined by the ratio of the number of turns on the high voltage winding to the number of turns on the low voltage winding. As the alternating current in the high voltage winding changes polarity 50 or 60 times a second (i.e. frequency in “Hertz”), it induces a current in the low voltage winding that is proportional to the voltage of the high voltage winding divided by the turns ratio. As the transformer works, it incurs power (and hence energy) losses in the high voltage winding, the

Benefits to governments include: • Lower development costs for preparing a test method; • Comparative test results for products sold domestically and in neighbouring economies; • The ability to transpose and adapt analyses from other markets to determine appropriate domestic efficiency requirements;

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GUEST COLUMN • Adopting minimum performance thresholds and applying them as a starting point in a domestic regulatory programme; • Adopting a common set of upper thresholds that can be used for market pull programmes such as labelling and incentive schemes; and • Faster and less expensive testing – for compliance and other purposes – as harmonised testing creates a larger choice of laboratories who can conduct product tests. For manufacturers, having one harmonised test method with specified measurement uncertainties used by markets around the world will reduce their testing costs associated with demonstrating regulatory and/ or product labelling compliance. The manufacturers need only conduct one test and the result would be universally accepted by these markets as being accurate and representative of the performance of their product. A harmonised test method also enables them to look ahead to longer-term rewards for innovation around advanced product designs that will be more energy efficient and have lower life-cycle costs for consumers. Having a consistent test method enables countries to establish a common set of efficiency thresholds that would not only be broad enough to encompass all current market circumstances but which also include aspirational efficiency thresholds as pointers for future market development. The promotion of more energy efficient transformers is supported by a number of policy instruments and programmes around the world. Examples of these policy instruments include: • Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) • Voluntary or mandatory product labelling • Financial incentives, subsidies and tax breaks • Communication and outreach materials • Tools including on-line calculators • On-site metering and audits • Technical support and advice on procurement

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• Support for R&D and demonstration projects Of these policy instruments, minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) are one of the most powerful tools, as they require that entire markets shift to higher levels of efficiency. When combined with supporting policies including financial incentives and communications programmes, and with monitoring, verification and enforcement activities to ensure regulatory compliance, MEPS will change markets and ensure the realisation of national benefits from cost-effective energy savings.

Standards & Regulation: Global Scenario The most widely used test method today for measuring distribution transformers is based on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60076 series of test standards, which are continually updated by the various committees and subcommittees working on these standards. There are two major standards bodies that set testing specifications for distribution transformers – they are the IEC and the IEEE. For the measurement of losses, most countries and economies active on distribution transformers use a test standard based on IEC 60076. In some cases, there are slight (local) modifications that have been made due to specific or unique requirements, however for the most part, the standards are consistent and based on IEC 60076. The countries and economies reviewed that have standards referencing or based on IEC 60076 are: Australia, Brazil, China, Europe, India, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand and Vietnam. The United States and Canada, on the other hand, rely on test standards that are based on IEEE. The US uses a test standard that was developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST) in close consultation with manufacturers and other stakeholders.

The US test standard is largely based on IEEE standards. The Canadian standard references the voluntary industry association standard NEMA4 TP 2-2005 as their test standard, which is also based on the IEEE test methodology. The procedures for the measurement of losses of a distribution transformer are given in 60076-1. This is true of both liquid-filled and dry-type transformers. For dry-type transformers, the applicable standard is 60076-11, however in sections 15 (Measurement of Winding Resistance), 17 (Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss: routine test), and 18 (Measurement of no-load loss and current: routine test), all of these sections cross-reference parts of IEC 60076-1. Thus, in addition to all the sections which specify the general requirements for tests, the two key sections from IEC 60076-1 that are the focus of quantifying the energy performance metric for distribution transformers: • IEC 60076-1 Section 11.4 for measurement of load loss • IEC 60076-1 Section 11.5 for measurement of no-load loss.

Standards & Regulation: Indian Scenario In India the test method today for measuring distribution transformers is based on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60076 series of test standards, As India is harmonised with IEC 60076, Both Parts(Part 1 & Part -2) of IS crossreference a series of Indian Standards (IS) based around the IEC 60076 standard. On 5 January 2010, India adopted a mandatory labelling scheme for specific types of liquid-filled, naturally air-cooled, three-phase distribution transformers. These are the units referred to under Indian Standard IS 1180 (part I) and cover power ratings up to and including 200 kVA. More specifically, the standard ratings covered under the energy labelling scheme are 16, 25, 63, 100, 160 and 200 kVA.

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GUEST COLUMN Summary of coverage of liquid-filled distribution transformer programmes* Country

Transformers: Type & Range

Australia / New Zealand

1 phase: 10-50 kVA

Requirements

Mandatory ( MEPS)

Standard I Regulation

Efficiency at 50% load

Yes, since April 2004

AS2374.12-2003

Max watts core and coil losses at 100% load

Yes, current regulation

ABNT N BR 5356

3 phase: 25-2500 kVA Voltage: 11 and 22 kV Brazil

1 phase: 5 to 100 kVA 3 phase: 15 to 300 kVA Voltage: 15, 24.2 & 36.2kV

Canada

1 phase: 10-833 kVA

Efficiency at 50% load

No, voluntary since 2000

CSA C802_1

Maximum core and coil losses at 100% load

Yes

JB/T 10317-02

3 phase: 15-3000 kVA China

1 phase: 5-160 kVA 3 phase: 30-1600 kVA

European Union

Israel

GB 20052-2013

3 phase: 50-2500 kVA; Voltage: 24 and 36kV

Maximum core and coil losses at 100% load

EN 504.64-1: 2007

(draft: 3 phase: 25-3150 kVA)

No (draft MEPS in review)

100-2500 kVA

Maximum W losses 100%

Yes, 2011

IS 5484

1 phase: 5-500 kVA

<500 kVA: 40%

Yes, March 2008; updated 2013

Top Runner

3 phase: 10-2000 kVA both 50 and 60 Hz

>500 kVA: 50%

1 phase 10-100 kVA;

Efficiency at 50% load

Yes, July 2012

KS C4306; C4316 and C4317

Efficiency at 50% load

Yes, 1999

NOM-002-SE DE-1997

Efficiency at 50% load

Yes, Jan 2010; new Jan 2016

10 CFR 431

Efficiency

Yes, Jan 2013

TCVN 8525:2010

scope of coverage beyond 200 kVA and up to and including 2500 kVA and 33 kilovolts. This extension of the scope would bring India’s coverage more in line with other major economies such as Australia, China and the United States.

Conclusion: Energy instrumental

Policy

is

High efficiency transformers are a mature technology with their economic and environmental benefits clearly demonstrated. While their higher initial cost can be more than recovered by reduced running costs, many distribution transformers are still chosen on the basis of the purchasing price. Hence, implementing regulatory framework to assess long term benefits is helpful in the promotion of rational energy use.

Voltage: 22kV or 33kV Japan

Korea

1 and 3 phase; 3.36.6kV, 100-3000 kVA 1 and 3 phase; 22.9kV, 100-3000 kVA & 10-3000 kVA Mexico

1 phase: 5-167 kVA 3 phase: 15-500 kVA Voltage: 15, 25 and 345 kV

USA

1 phase: 10-833 kVA 3 phase: 15-2500

Vietnam

25-2500 kVA, 0.4-35kV

*Courtesy: SEAD Standards & Labelling Working Group Distribution Transformers Collaboration: Part-1: Comparison of Efficiency Programmes for Distribution Transformers

The testing code and procedure for the distribution transformers would be as per the Indian Standard (IS) 1180 (part 1): 1989 with all amendments to date. The Energy label/star system constitutes a useful tool for differentiating between models at the same rating. It is important to note that in a notification dated 20 August 2010, the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) of India issued a requirement that all utilities in India must

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procure at least a 3 star distribution transformer. Hence the transformer purchase orders issues by the utilities prescribe minimum 3 star distribution transformers. This scope of coverage in India is currently under review by the Bureau of Indian Standards and the Bureau of Energy Efficiency. Most likely the revision of the national distribution transformer standard (BIS standard) extends the

Policy makers may consider: • Setting minimum efficiency performance standards to remove the worst products from the market. International benchmarking can help to define adequate performance levels. Build a periodic review process into the regulation. • Establishing a voluntary scheme to define premium levels of efficiency, preferably in the context of a broader programme for energy conservation. If such a programme already exists, include distribution transformers in it. • Designing regulatory schemes to ensure that investment can be made at minimum lifecycle cost. • Whatever program is chosen, ensure it contains a clear product labelling requirement. Authored by__

KN Hemanth Kumar, Chief Manager Energy Efficient Motors & Distribution Transformers, International Copper Association India

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feature

Concentrating solar power in cane-based sugar cogen plants: a strategic energy option for India The article highlights the opportunities and guidelines for enhancing energy efficiency of sugar-based cogenerating plants through automation and hardware upgradation

I

n India, the presently tapped cogeneration of power from sugar plants is very low (1.7 GW). There is good untapped potential of around 8 GW from the sugar sector. The optimal level of turbo-generator size is 8-plus MW per 1,000 tcd (tonnes crushing per day) capacity, which is ideal for energy efficient cogeneration projects. This is in contrast with present values of 3-5 MW per 1,000 tcd in most sugar mills. Sugar-based cogeneration also known as sugar-based CHP (combined heat and power) is an important route of

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renewable energy utilisation through the biomass (bagasse)-steam-power route. Most sugar plants are run by cooperatives (50 per cent) or privately owned (44 per cent) and there are serious resource constraints and technology gaps in modernisation as compared to the full-fledged organised utility power sector. Their instrumentation and automation levels are sub optimal and required to be upgraded in capability as well as volume. This article highlights the opportunities and guidelines for enhancing energy efficiency of sugarbased cogenerating plants through automation (operational optimisation)

and hardware (especially the power block comprising of the boiler-turbinegenerator) up gradation. The cogeneration potential in the sugar sector needs to be assessed in the light of state of the art power generating technology and energy efficiency. The potential (2010) has been assessed by various agencies in the range of 5 GW. The actual achievement is 1.7 GW up to 2013. The annual sugarcane production is in the range of 280 to 320 million tonnes of cane for 2013. The expected sugar production is in the range of 26-30 million tonnes. The

Electrical & Power Review


feature

Concentrating solar thermal (CST) based power generation through the steam cycle has now become technically viable. The generation potential is 0.60 MW/ha or 1.66 ha/MW of power. The capital cost as approved by the Central Energy Regulatory Commission (CERC) order of 2012 is ` 13 crores/ MW as compared to ` 10 crore/ MW for solar photovoltaic. The size of CST power plants range from 1 MW up to 50 MW for Indian conditions. During 2014, the concentrating solar thermal collector technology is becoming increasingly viable and popular. Power generation on the basis of CST collectors has not only been demonstrated but also being adopted in several new projects as an alternative to the solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems. The integration of CST to cane based cogenerating power plants of sugar mills is of great strategic value to the power sector because on one hand the investment in the power block (boiler-turbine-generatorcondenser)can be totally avoided and on the other hand the plant capacity utilisation factor of the sugar power plant can be considerably enhanced.

Energy efficiency of collector (%)

90

80 Dish

Trough

70

60

50

40 0

500

1000

500

Operating temperature ( C) o

Figure 1: Concentrating collector efficiency.

50

Overall efficiency of power generation (%)

cane to sugar ratio is 0.10. There are 750 sugar mills with crushing capacity in the range of 500 to 15000 tonnes crushing per day (tcd). Typical sizes are 2,500 tcd and 5000 tcd. The national capacity is almost 1 million tcd. Assuming 8 MW per 1,000 tcd, the potential could be around 8 GW. The annual PLF of the plants are expected to be in the range of 50-70 per cent. The expected PLF of the plants during the sugar season is 80+ per cent.

40 Dish

Trough 30

20

10

0 0

500

1000

500

Operating temperature (oC) Figure 2: Overall solar concentrating power plant efficiency.

To study the integration of CST with sugar plants, a brief overview of both systems are discussed here.

CST collectors The concentrating collector technologies are the circular parabolic dish, linear parabolic trough, Fresnelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reflectors and central towers. Of these, the most common collectors for power generation at the MW level are the linear parabolic trough collectors.

Electrical & Power Review

June 2014

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feature The minimum temperature in CST collectors is 200 C. The limiting (maximum) concentration achievable for linear collectors is 46,211 and the maximum temperature achievable is the 5,500 C. Concentrating collectors are controlled by the non-linear HottelWhillier-Bliss (HWB) equation. The HWB equation is for determining the collector efficiency. On the other hand, the upper bound of the efficiency of conversion of steam into electric power is governed by the Carnot efficiency. The overall efficiency of the solar energy to power process is given by the product of the collector efficiency and the Carnot efficiency. Hence, when the cycle efficiency increases with temperature the CST efficiency decreases with temperature (Figures 1 and 2).

Cane based sugar plants The Indian weather is composed of three seasons: • Rainy season: June-October • Winter season: November-February • Summer season: March-June. There is considerable overlap and

Turbo-generator

B o i l e r

Boiler feed pump Figure 3: View of the integration of CST source to the power block of the sugar-based power plant

shifting of the seasons in various parts of the country. The cane based power generation in three phases: • Crushing season phase of 180 days (October-March) • Off season phase of 120 days (AprilJuly) • Shut down phase of 60 days (AugustSeptember). Cane, within 24 hours of being harvested is brought to the mill

Units

Value/range

Normal size of sugar plants

tcd

2500-5000

Electric capacity

MW/tcd

3-5

Best practice electric capacity

MW/tcd

8-9

Crushing season

days

90-130

Off season period

days

60-100

Shut down period

days

135-215

PLF crushing period

%

85-90

PLF off season period

%

85-90

PLF annual

%

40-50

Net energy generation

kWh/t of cane

150-200

Specific steam consumption

t/MWh

8-9

Specific water consumption

t/t of cane

0-4-0.6

CHP composite efficiency

%

50-55

Heat rate

kcal/kWh

3500-4000

Particulars for typical sugar-based CHP plants

Units

Value/range

Sugar based power plant capacity

MW

20

PLF of CST-based power

%

30

PLF for bagasse-based power

%

69

Present Plant PLF without CST

%

69

Improved PLF with CST

%

77

Energy generated with existing system (without solar power)

MWh/day

335

Energy generated from CST

MWh/day

145

Table 2: Performance improvement in sugar based CHP

for crushing during the crushing season. During off season period there is no crushing or sugar production. The excess bagasse accumulated during the preceding crushing season is stored for this off season period and used in power only mode of operation. The bagasse is accumulated due to backed down power demand in the grid or plant outage. It must not be concluded that bagasse is saved during the power generating process because the present plants are designed for maximisation of power from a given quantity of bagasse and not minimisation of bagasse usage from a given power output. As a thumb rule nearly 33 per cent of the unutilised bagasse is stored for the off season period. Table 1 gives the main performance parameters of CST-Sugar based CHP plant.

Table 1: Performance parameters of CST-sugar based CHP plant

June 2014

Cooling tower Make up water

Particulars for typical sugar plants

32

Condenser

Integration of CST with sugar plants The steam generated from the CST system is fed into the steam turbines of the sugar plant power block. The steam from the CST plant will minimise the use of bagasse fuelled steam to a large extent. Table 2 gives the improvement in sugar based CHP plant with integration of CST power source. Figure 3 gives a schematic of the main power block of the sugar mill. Figure 4

Electrical & Power Review


feature 90 80

16000 12000

solar power based

8000

bagasse based

4000

Seasonal PLF (%)

Electric power CST and bagasse (kW)

20000

70 60

Crushing season Oil season

50 40 30

Shut down period

20 10

0 0

4

8

12 hours

16

20

24

Figure 4: Power generation pattern from CST plant when integrated with sugar (bagasse fueled)-based plant

gives the integration of CST with sugar based CHP plant. Figure 6 gives the plant load factor for the three seasons. It can be seen that the shutdown period provides opportunities for power generation and the other two seasons provides opportunities for saving in bagasse.

Conclusions Repowering of sugar (bagasse)-based

0 er er er ry ry h ril y e y st er b to embemb nua brua arc Ap Ma Jun Jul ugu emb c M A a O ov ec J Fe pt N D Se Figure 5: Typical seasonal plant load factors for the conventional sugar-based CHP plant without CST

CHP plants by CST can enhance the power production by 30 per cent without any investment in the power block. Since there is integration of processes, the capital cost is kept low. The bagasse-based power plants greatly benefit from the use of CST for enhancing their PLF from 49 per cent to 77 per cent. This combination technology is of great strategic value to India since the CST plant does

not need a power block and the sugarbased plant capacity utilisation can be enhanced. During the main seasons there is saving in bagasse and during the shutdown period generation is facilitated through solar power.  Author_ M. Siddhartha Bhatt, Additional Director, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Division Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore


ONE-ON-ONE

SCOPE T&M aims to be a major global player

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“We would like to expand our products, services and market segments and going public in the process yet ensuring that we do not deviate from our guiding principle of providing simple solutions for difficult measurement,” forecasts Balasaheb Doiphode, CEO, SCOPE T&M Pvt. Ltd.

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June 2014

ransformer is one of the most critical equipment in the entire power system. It’s like the heart of the substation. Hence it is very important to protect and maintain them. In an exclusive tête-àtête with EPR, Balasaheb Doiphode talks on the various testing and diagnostic instruments available to assess the health of transformers. He also discusses the roadmap for his company in India.

Testing and measurement is an important area as far as power sector is concerned. Could you brief us on how SCOPE has become a trusted brand in this area in more than 30 countries? Continual or periodical assessment of healthiness of major power equipment is of paramount importance to ensure uptime of power system and to avoid expensive break-downs. The routine or diagnostic test and measurement (T&M) instruments help assess this healthiness. SCOPE with its focus on T&M for power sector has emerged as a leading solution provider in this area over past 26 years. We are committed to offer products, services and unique solutions of the highest quality at right price through the process of close interactions with customer, incorporating latest and smart technological developments, continuous learning and improvement within company. Our products are developed or refined due to challenges thrown to us by our customers hence

the end specifications are highly usable. We are now aggressively leveraging this strength with foreign customers as the testing requirements more or less remain similar. Consistent participation in leading global trade fairs including ones in Europe and USA had made these customers have a serious look at the solutions offered by us. Our ability make electronics work in hazardous switchyard environment up-to 765 kV had positioned us right at the top of the league.

What are the key areas that driving your growth? Adding new products which are required by same set of customers apart from continuously enhancing the capability and usability of existing products and expansion to new markets are helping us retain leadership position in T&M. This has been facilitated by significant investments in R&D and expansion of marketing team. Under the leadership of our Chairman Sanjay Kulkarni, we had diversified into protection business as well offering CRP, SAS, RTUs and SCADA. Our recent offering of controlled switching device for CBs is met with very encouraging response from customers. We also have a separate group company, ISOSCELES, focused on testing and commissioning (T&C) of new substations. In short time it had created new benchmarks in quality of T&C and completion of projects well ahead of time. Being open to requirements of customer and providing uncompromising customer

Electrical & Power Review


support had earned us customer trust which is at the root of our growth.

What significant role does transformer testing equipment play? Transformer is one of the most critical equipment in the entire power system. It’s like the heart of the substation. Hence it is very important to protect and maintain them. Various testing and diagnostic instruments are employed to assess the healthiness or condition of transformers. As the average age of power transformers in India is increasing and in some cases exceeding recommended life, the residual life assessment and residual life enhancement are becoming imperative for utilities to save huge capital costs involved in replacing them. This has further underlined the criticality of using right testing instruments. Different online and offline testing instruments are used to check degradation in various components of transformer like paper insulation, oil, cores, windings, bushings, OLTC etc. Various factors like overloading, temperature rise, aging, electrical and mechanical shocks to assembly, shorts and looseness in windings and joints, electromechanical issues in OLTC, bushings, oil and paper insulation degradation, partial discharge affect the transformer health and thus life. It is required to detect them at incipient stage. Many times the results of multiple testing instruments are co-related to arrive at conclusion about probable defect in transformer. Some tests results are numerical but some are in the form of signature, which requires expertise to interpret. The outcome of above will help Utilities plan for preventive maintenance and chalk out plan for replacement of transformer itself saving it from sudden accidents or break-down.

Major features of TRM • High open circuit voltage of 50V quickly stabilises reading in highly inductive transformers upto 500 MVA, 765 kV class. • Injects 25 A current in resistance as high as 800 milliohm. Lower currents for higher resistances. • Automatic and quick back-emf discharge facility with LED indicator and message on LCD. • Has three resistance, one test current and one temperature input channel. • Stand-alone as well as PC controlled operation. • Built-in display, memory, real time clock and printer • % drop in current and transition time during OLTC tap change. • Powerful

operation,

generation software.

storage,

analysis

and

report


ONE-ON-ONE What are the key features of your transformer testing application? Out of various test instruments required for transformer, we offer transformer winding resistance meter with dynamic testing of OLTC. It helps to measure winding resistance of multiple windings quickly with temperature compensation and records signature of test current Vs time while changing tap position.

How are you upgrading products technically?

the

Technology in the field of electronics is changing rapidly. Smaller and energy efficient components, power supplies and subassemblies are getting developed. Next generation micro-controllers and surface mount devices are being used thereby making products smaller and lighter. At the same time more and more features are being incorporated to meet ever increasing demands from customers. This is possible for us as we have a core R&D team that continuously develops new technologies and product development team that incorporates them in existing products. Continual improvement in quality, reliability and usability of products is achieved through technology enhancement and more importantly getting customer feedbacks and aligning products with their requirements. We also give attention to aesthetics, ergonomics and ruggedness of product. We also upgrade the older instruments in field to latest level helping customers extract maximum from their initial investment.

Are you going to introduce any new product in this segment? We are aware that currently we are only offering couple of products for transformer testing like TRM and Controlled Switching Device for Transformer and Reactor CBs (which in-turn reduce the stress

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June 2014

Transformer testing procedure Winding Resistance Measurement • Isolate transformer from incoming and outgoing lines. No need to remove jumpers. Connect TRM to transformer bushings. • Ensure that earthing connection, if any, is removed from neutral terminal of transformer. • Select Stand-alone or PC Control mode. Do the tests set up like selection of current range, resistance channels, printing and storing intervals etc. • Start Test. After stabilisation of current, display shows current and resistance values. • Test results can be stored and downloaded to a PC, printed, viewed and organised using SCOPE’s CTrans software. • Stop test. Transformer will be automatically discharged. Then remove connections and restore transformer. OLTC Dynamic Testing • The OLTC test facility is controlled through the CTrans software loaded in laptop. • Isolate transformer from incoming and outgoing lines. No need to remove jumpers. Connect TRM to transformer bushings. Connect OLTC tap change control to TRM. • Ensure that earthing connection, if any, is removed from neutral terminal of transformer. • Select OLTC test mode. Select the operation cycle, Raise or Lower. Do the settings like current range, number of taps present in OLTC. • Start test, after stabilisation of current, laptop display will show current and resistance values. • Issue raise or lower command to OLTC through TRM. During the tap change, the high speed sampling will be automati¬cally triggered. The change in current with respect to time will be recorded. After completion of tap change the data is transferred to laptop. This current waveform is amplified properly to show the small variation in current during transition of tap. • The software calculates and displays per cent drop in current and transition time. • The data is stored and next tap change operation performed. Thus the data of all taps is captured and single report is generated.

on them by switching them at zero voltage or current). We have plans for introducing our Transformer Turns Ratio Meter this year. In next couple of years we plan to launch Oil Break-down Voltage Tester, Insulation Tester and Capacitance and Tan-Delta Test Set. We also intend to develop on-line monitoring system for transformers.

Please update us about your longand short-term objectives. In short-term we intend to increase our T&M range by doubling the number of

generic products that we are offering. We will also be focusing on consolidating the areas in which we had recently diversified. In long-term we want to be a major player globally in the field of T&M, protection and substation automation and T&C. We would like to expand our products, services and market segments and going public in the process yet ensuring that we do not deviate from our guiding principle of providing simple solutions for difficult measurement.

Electrical & Power Review


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GREEN ZONE

A quick look at states which are naturally windy and helping develop wind power

Top 5 destinations for wind energy in India

I

top four countries. Wind energy as a renewable, non-polluting and affordable source directly avoids dependency on fossil fuels leading to a green and clean energy scenario.”

Commenting on the current status in Indian wind power sector, Kailash Tarachandani, CEO, Inox Wind says, “Although India is a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with the Western world, it has the 5th largest installed wind power capacity in the world. In fact during 2009-10, India’s growth rate was highest among the other

Ramesh Kymal, Chairman and Managing Director, Gamesa India adds, “Wind power has seen a cumulative capacity addition of over 17,000 MW when AD was removed in year 2012. With the advent of a new segment of customers, the Independent Power Producers (IPP’s), the market started to incline towards the Generation Based Incentive (GBI) scheme. Jointly, AD and GBI was responsible for a capacity addition of around 3,200 MW in the year 201112. The following year when both the schemes were removed capacity addition fell by almost 50 per cent falling to 1,699

ndia has incredible wind power resources. The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. Currently the country hosts over 21,000 MW of wind power with more than 16 world-class manufacturers. Primarily wind power development in India was driven by the incentives offered to various industrial customers through Accelerated Depreciation (AD) benefits.

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June 2014

Maharashtra has been very encouraging for wind power investment and over the years it has added over 4,000 MW to the state grid

Ramesh Kymal, Chairman and MD, Gamesa India

MW in the year 2012-13 and to recover in 2013-14 with the reintroduction of GBI benefit.” The growth of wind energy in India is

Electrical & Power Review


GREEN ZONE So, which areas of the country are contributing to this growth and have the best wind resources? Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Rajasthan are considered as the top five destinations for wind power in India.

Tamil Nadu

high level of penetration in the State’s energy mix in terms of grid connected electricity.” Mr Kymal says, “It is interesting to note that historically, wind development has been predominantly concentrated across 2-3 states in any given year, due to the favourable tariff policies and infrastructure facilities. Tamil Nadu has been always in the picture until last two years where it saw a slowdown due insufficient power evacuation.” Gamesa in its first year of commercial operations became the market leader in the state during the year 2011-12 with over 400 MW installed in a single year.

Gujarat

Tamil Nadu has been enjoying leadership position in wind energy sector in India. The southern state has 7,200 MW of windmills, in last two years the state witnessed a slow down with capacity addition coming down. But Tamil Nadu is ambitiously planning to add more 5,000 MW in the next five years.

Wind energy as a renewable, nonpolluting and affordable source directly avoids dependency on fossil fuels leading to a green and clean energy scenario

Kailash Tarachandani, CEO, Inox Wind

enormous and proves to be one of the most effective solutions to the problem of depleting fossil fuels, importing of coal, greenhouse gas emission, environmental pollution etc.

Electrical & Power Review

A Srinivasan, Executive, Indian Wind Power Association says, “Wind farms can be set up only in windy locations. Therefore development of wind farms is location specific. In terms of existing installed capacity, Tamil Nadu is the leader with almost 36 per cent of the total installed capacity in the country.”

After Tamil Nadu, investment in wind energy is moving towards Gujarat. In the past few years, Gujarat government had been banking heavily on wind power. The state of Gujarat has the benefit a 1,600 km long coastline and plenty of land availability for wind power generation.

According to Dr S Gomathinayagam, Executive Director, C-WET, “Tamil Nadu is the most favoured destination for some IPPs who are able to draw their own grid lines and transmission infra structure due to the excellent wind conditions prevailing in the wake of Western Ghats.”

It has registered highest growth in wind power generation during last few years, placing it on the second position after Tamil Nadu in India’s wind energy sector. The installed capacity of wind power in the state rose from 150 MW in 2001 to 3,147 MW in 2013.

He further added, “One of the reasons Tamil Nadu holds this position is that they have more than 40 per cent of installed capacity in India with very

Last year, Gujarat government approved Wind Energy Policy to expedite and encourage development of wind power generation activities in the state.

June 2014

39


GREEN ZONE

Because of the estimated capacity, Karnataka is one of the top five destinations for new investments in wind energy

A Srinivasan, Executive, Indian Wind Power Association

Looking at its growth pace a number of private investors has entered into Gujarat’s wind energy sector. Dr Gomathinayagam says, “The reasons for Gujarat being one of the most favoured destinations for the wind turbine investors is the tariff payment by utility which is one of the few DISCOMs running in profit. In addition, the state also has adequate infrastructure in terms of power evacuation and windy land availability.”

Maharashtra

In Maharashtra, wind is the most explored renewable energy. It has 2,976 MW of wind energy installed capacity. Due to the long-term certainty provided by the prevalent regulatory framework and several other policy initiatives by state government, there has been significant development of installed capacity based on renewable energy sources, particularly wind energy.

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June 2014

According to Maharashtra Energy Development Agency, investorfriendly policies of the Government of Maharashtra and technical viability of demonstration projects have attracted private investment of more than ` 11,895 crores in the wind sector so far. As of 31 December 2013 the installed capacity of wind power in Maharashtra is 2,976 MW. According to Mr Kymal, “Maharashtra has been very encouraging for wind power investment and over the years it has added over 4,000 MW to the state grid. The state witnessed a high level of activity in the last two years, where it added 1,300 MW and Gamesa during the same period was able to capture over 25 per cent market in the state adding 334 MW aided by a favourable tariff policy which is amongst the highest in the country.” Commenting on the advantages of Maharashtra in becoming a favourable destination for wind power, Dr Gomathinayagam says, “Maharashtra has a zone wise tariff and pre-allocated land for wind farm development.”

Karnataka

estimated potential of 23,585 MW in the renewable energy sector, the Karnataka government has so far allotted projects for a capacity of 14,391 Mw. “Because of the estimated capacity, Karnataka is one of the top five destinations for new investments in wind energy,” Mr Srinivasan says. “Karnataka has been quite selective in signing PPAs but has even permitted to set up wind mills in some of the forest lands recently,” Dr Gomathinayagam noted.

Rajasthan

With more than 300 days of optimum sunshine and wind, Rajasthan is blessed with plentiful natural resource. Rajasthan has made significant strides in the last few years in the power sector. The sector has witnessed increased private sector participation. Rajasthan is one of India’s leading states in tapping wind energy for power generation. According to Bureau of Investment Promotion Rajasthan, the gross wind energy potential in the state has been estimated at 5,400 MW out of which a total of 1,825.995 MW wind power capacity has been installed.

Karnataka has good wind potential. There are many small wind farms in Karnataka, making it one of the states in India which has a high number of wind mill farms. Chitradurga, Gadag are some of the districts where there are a large number of windmills. According to Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Ltd’s report, of an

Other destinations Apart from the above-mentioned states, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh too are preferred for wind power generation. Andhra Pradesh looks promising, although it is yet to tap full potential in wind power. The estimated gross Electrical & Power Review


GREEN ZONE promoting wind energy with private participation. Mr Kymal comments, “Andhra Pradesh is looking a very promising state with the revised policy framework. The state added around 300 MW last year which is 40 per cent of the capacity addition in the state till date.” Gamesa has added 100 MW wind power during the last year.

potentiality of wind power generation in the state is 14,497 MW. The installed capacity of wind power projects at present is 564.09 MW and feasibility clearance on the existing network has been issued for evacuation of power for 1,098 MW. Feasibility for evacuation on the proposed network is given for about 1,970 MW. Andhra Pradesh government has been

Madhya Pradesh state government has announced 800 MW wind power projects to be set up in the state. At present, 324 MW capacity wind energy projects have already been completed in the state, and another 7 projects with total capacity of 217.8 MW are under construction. This apart, 39 projects of 1260 MW power capacity have been allotted to private sector. According to Dr Gomathinayagam, “Apart from the five top destinations for wind farms, Madhya Pradesh has attracted towards the end of the

The reasons for Gujarat being one of the most favoured destinations for the wind turbine investors is the tariff payment by utility which is one of the few DISCOMs running in profit.

Dr S Gomathinayagam, Executive Director, C-WET

financial year considerable installations due to the highest ‘feed-in-tariff’ per unit of (kWh) wind generated electricity.” However, Mr Kymal observes, “Though the state has not added much capacity addition over the years, Madhya Pradesh has looked very lucrative for the investors with the recent tariff revision.”

Measuring wind turbines remotely using laser

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he rotor and mast of a wind turbine can oscillate even in normal operation. The analysis of these oscillations plays an important role when the equipment is being developed and maintained. Up to now, this analysis has only been possible at discrete points located directly on equipment. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany use modern information technology to remotely measure the oscillatory pattern over the entire structure of the facility from several hundred meters away.

Laser tracks movement of the rotor blades automatically Kaufmann and his colleagues have taken on this problem and developed a system with which the oscillation analysis can be completely carried out from a distance of several hundred meters. The system consists of a laser

Electrical & Power Review

that is directed at the installation and able to measure the oscillations at all points on the surface. To accomplish this, the laser automatically tracks the motion of the moving parts like the rotor blades. The centerpiece of the system responsible for this is an IT-based tracking system combining a camera and a laser. These are mounted on a head that can pan and tilt to follow the rotor blades. The camera records images of the installation and forwards these along to software that processes the images and builds a model of the rotary motion from the data. With the help of this information, the pan and tilt head is positioned so that the laser automatically follows the rotor blades. The camera simultaneously collects data about the exact position of the roughly twoto-three centimetre laser spot on the

rotor blade in order to stabilise it on the revolving surface. This way, as many points on the equipment as are needed can be scanned during operation – even from a great distance. “Considerably more comprehensive analyses can be carried out very quickly than are possible using fixed sensors. The measurement interval is variable: the slower the oscillations, the longer the laser takes measurements,” says Kaufmann.

June 2014

41


ONE-ON-ONE

Capturing the Sun

S

“Energy storage clubbed with solar power can almost eradicate the need for conventional energy systems as it makes the renewable energy predictable and round the clock,” says Manoj Kumar Upadhyay, Chairman, ACME

olar is all set to become a crucial component of India’s energy portfolio. In an exclusive interview with EPR, Manoj Kumar Upadhyay suggests the roadmap to make solar power competitive with grid parity. He observes that the target of generating 20,000 MW under JNNSM is not a tough target.

round the clock. The surplus power generated can be stored in the energy storage device and then drawn back in the absence of the generating source or during peak demand.

Can solar power reduce India’s dependence on imports of diesel and coal for power generation?

India sets a target of generating 20,000MW of grid-connected solar power by 2022. Is it an achievable target?

Sure! The country’s dependence on conventional fuels that fulfil most of its energy demands can be curtailed by the uptake of solar power. We have an ideal location for solar power generation; our country has a great advantage of being in the equatorial sun belt of the earth thereby receiving abundant radiant energy from the sun. Clear sunny days are experienced 250 to 300 days a year in most parts of India. The annual global radiation varies from 1,600 to 2,200 kWh/m2 which is comparable with radiation received in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. On the financial parameters, during the last few years, cost reduction in solar and cost increase in conventional power have shown significant potential for solar to compete with conventional, grid-connected electricity. Here, we would like to add the element of energy storage that can revolutionise the entire energy infrastructure. Energy storage clubbed with solar power can almost eradicate the need for conventional energy systems as it makes the renewable energy predictable and

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June 2014

Solar will soon become a crucial component of India’s energy portfolio. Solar will fill India’s supply gap while tackling unmet demand.

We believe that the target of 20,000 MW is not a tough target and will be fully achievable with the support of the central and state governments, efficient solar policies and conducive regulatory framework along with the support from financial and banking institutions. On the implementation front, over the last few years, the technological advancements and manufacturing at a decent scale brought down the cost of the solar photovoltaic panels and have helped bringing down the levelised cost of energy. However, to make solar power competitive with grid parity and to achieve the target successfully, support from financial institutions is a must. Incentives like priority sector lending, long tenure financing i.e. up to the life of the plant and low cost funding will be a boon for solar industry in achieving grid parity.

What are the steps to be taken to achieve this target? The current uptake of renewable energy

Electrical & Power Review


ONE-ON-ONE can be scaled up in multiples with effective policy and regulatory support.

based firm, a leader in the natural resources saving space.

One of the most influential plans in India is National Action Plan for Climate Change, under which the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) is playing a key role for most of the solar power investments in the country. Most of the states have also come up with their own feed-in-tariff mechanisms.

In association with such world-class partners, ACME is fully confident to meet its target of 1,000 MW solar power generation by the end of FY 17.

However efforts are still lagging for setting up solar projects under Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPO) issued by various State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs), and Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs). The penalty mechanism is unclear under RPO mechanism and there is a lack of clarity in terms of project cash flows beyond 2017 under REC mechanism. It is further leading to difficulties in financing and paying collaterals and securities to achieve financial closure. The government should come up with concepts like open solar tariff or contracts to boost the solar sector which will really help in achieving the solar targets set by the government.

What will be your target until 2022? We aim to have a generation portfolio of 1,000 MW by the end of FY 17. In the field of energy storage systems, in partnership with Samsung SDI, we are planning to install 110 MWh in the next two years.

Could you brief us on some of your major ongoing activities? At ACME, our vision is to provide users an independent, reliable, cost-effective green source. To turn our vision into reality, we have taken a slew of measures and partnered with the leading energy giants in the space of solar energy and energy storage solutions. The company has set itself upon an accelerated trajectory in the solar sector by entering into a three-way joint venture with world’s largest electricity utility, EDF EN and EREN, a Luxemburg-

Electrical & Power Review

ACME also entered into a strategic partnership with Samsung SDI, the world leader in energy storage systems. As per the agreement we will be the sole partners of Samsung SDI having the exclusive right to use Samsung SDI’s technology in India and Africa markets. We aim sale of upto 110 MWh of lithium ion batteries by FY 16 in these two regions.

ACME aims to make solar power tariff at par with grid-connected electricity. How are you going to do this? Is it commercially viable? ACME has been working towards bridging the competitive gap between the renewable energy and the conventional grid-connected electricity. There is a lot of research going on to improve the efficiency in the solar power space. We are trying to improve the efficiency by optimised engineering and reducing execution time for our solar power plants. But still it can’t compensate for higher interest rate and weak rupee. We believe that this would be immediately possible as the rupee restores its earlier position and interest corrected at 6 to 8 per cent.

What are the major challenges the sector is facing today? Though the regulatory and policy framework for state and central government is favourable for the solar power sector in the country at the moment, a lot of work needs to be done for segments implementing taking out solar from bank sectoral limit of power sector, REC mechanism, captive and open access users and rural electrification. Financial closure of the project is a challenge faced by many companies. It is highly related to the financial health of the state DISCOMs or the

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) signing authority. Financial or banking institutions are not comfortable for funding solar projects under other routes like REC etc. as REC is an unpredictable market. In order to boost such markets appropriate regulatory mechanism should be developed by the regulators. More interaction of regulatory bodies and financial institutions is required to address the financing issues.

What are your strategies in place to deal with the given situation? ACME is trying the level best to mitigate these issues. Our project finance team is putting every effort in getting funding at descent rates. With the economies of scale, the cost of solar power is reducing as has been seen in the recent JNNSM Phase II bidding where ACME has been allotted 100 MW. With support of our international partners viz. EDF EN and EREN, being the largest electricity utility, and with clubbing our experiences; we are getting the best of the technologies, reliability and a good capacity utilisation factor of our power plants which will support to break through the current barriers in the market.

ACME has partnered EDF EN. How do you view this partnership from the Indian context? EDF Energies Nouvelles (EDF EN), the renewable energy major is the renewable energy arm of French staterun electricity utility Électricité de France S.A. and has acquired 25 per cent in ACME Solar. We believe EDF EN and EREN partnership will help us to scale solar energy generation and play an important role in renewable sector. EDF EN and EREN will bring its expertise in the field of renewable energy. It will also give ACME Solar an access to EDF EN’s proven engineering expertise, leading technology partners, world-class R&D facility in France, where EDF EN and ACME Solar will be jointly conducting research as how to lower the costs of solar power generation. 

June 2014

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power brand

ElMeasure’s Motor Protection System With adequate unique features, the product helps to avoid raw material and manpower wastages leading to improved productivity and better profits

E

lmeasure, one of the technology leaders in energy management products and solutions, has launched a sophisticated product ‘Motor Protection System / Unit’. The product built with advanced features and functions helps the user to protect critical motors and equipment from unforeseen failure due to voltage, frequency abnormalities, overload, under PF, single phasing, unbalance on both voltage and current, neutral current and phase reversal. It can also detect winding shorts and displays reason for tripping for future correction. With adequate unique features, the

product helps to avoid raw material and manpower wastages leading to improved productivity and better profits.

For more details email marketing@ elmeasure.com or log on to www. elmeasure.com 

RelaySimTest: application-oriented and distributed protection testing O

MICRON´s new RelaySimTest software allows CMC test set users to easily perform simulation-based relay tests independent of the relay type, manufacturer and detailed parameters. For end-to-end testing in the field, even multiple CMCs can be controlled from one PC, using a standard Internet connection. This considerably simplifies distributed testing of systems such as teleprotection or line differential protection. The time synchronisation of the devices is conducted by the flexible PTP grandmaster clock CMGPS 588. With RelaySimTest, distributed tests can be performed in the same way as singleend shots. The required injection signals are calculated for all ends automatically, making troubleshooting of the network very efficient. Comprehensive

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June 2014

RelaySimTest: Distributed protection testing with CMC test sets

reports can be generated in a single place over the whole test, covering all relays. Furthermore, RelaySimTest simulates relaycontrolled breaker operations. With iterative closed-loop simulation, the testing of auto-recloser functions is possible even in distributed protection systems.

RelaySimTest is also an effective solution for challenging testing tasks including power swings, transient ground faults, capacitive line phenomena as well as complex teleprotection and adaptive protection schemes. The software is capable of simulating steady-state values and transient signals even without a CMC connected.

Electrical & Power Review


power brand

SKF exhibits solutions for power industry at Power Gen S

KF India showcased world-class products and solutions catering to the power industry at Power Gen India 2014. The products and solutions focus on life cycle management for power assets. The solutions cover all aspects of the life cycle from improved designs with integrated solutions to enhanced operations and maintenance.

Products showcased

and

solutions

Supergrip bolt Demo Flange Supergrip bolts are a superior solution for connecting flange couplings. Compared with traditional bolt systems, Supergrip bolts are much easier to install and remove. The bolts are inserted and removed by hand and with a clearance, eliminating the risk of seizure. The bolt is hydraulically expanded and tightened into the coupling bolthole, using a set of portable tools. The need for an overhead crane and time-consuming slugging of bolts is eliminated. Once the holes have been line-bored for initial installation, there is no need for further reaming or boring of holes. Thus the use of Supergrip bolts eliminates uncertainty about the length of downtime needed for removing and installing bolts at outages. Costs are cut and the length of future outages is significantly decreased. Vibracon Demo Kit SKF Vibracon SM elements are universal, adjustable steel chocks that simplify shaft alignment and machine

installation by eliminating the need for rigid steel chocks, shims or epoxy resin grouting. The Vibracon chock can be re-adjusted as needed for specific applications. For generators, compressors, turbine and pump sets, Vibracon chocks eliminate a number of timeconsuming problems common to traditional alignment methods. Parallel and angular soft foot problems are eliminated, even when the base frame is twisted. It is not necessary to make extensive machining of base frame or foundation and there are no onsite problems related to arranging or installing shims. When Vibracon chocks are used in combination with laser alignment equipment, alignment time can be reduced by 50 percent. SKF Microlog Analyser accessories SKF offers a variety of accessories that are available for the SKF Microlog analysers, including infrared thermometers, laser tachometers, modal analysis hammers, microphones,

strobe lights, optical phase reference kits and more. Complementary to SKF Microlog analysers, SKF offers various sensors/ accelerometers to obtain vibration measurements for assessing the mechanical status of machinery for condition monitoring purposes. In addition, the new non-contact sensor, SKF Laser Vibrometer extends the analysersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; possibilities to reach areas where it was previously impossible to access.

Electrical & Power Review

EXP4000 The SKF Dynamic Motor Analyser - EXP4000 performs seven major functions for predictive maintenance programmes. It identifies possible power circuit problems that degrade motor health, examines overall motor power conditions, monitors the load and observes motor performance plus estimating energy savings. In addition, it is programmed to supply information on voltage level, voltage balance, harmonic and total distortion, rotor cage condition, motor efficiency, effective service factor, overcurrent, operating condition, torque and load. The EXP4000 is designed for remote monitoring from the Motor Control Centre (MCC) or through the EP1000 connection. A non-hazardous, low voltage, battery-operated unit, the instrument is highly portable and durable for use in tight and rugged locations.

June 2014

45


power brand

Atlas Copco launches generator range in India A

tlas Copco announces the launch of its generator range in India. The new QAX range of portable generators will be produced at its LEAN manufacturing facility at Chakan, Pune. Nico Delvaux, Business Area President Atlas Copco Construction Technique, says, “With this new range of portable generators, our customers will dramatically increase their productivity. QAX range is more than an engine and an alternator put together; in fact, it is a smart amalgamation of innovative technology and design which includes rugged base frame and portability, making it an all-rounder.” These machines are designed with customised features, improved fuel efficiency, easier maintenance and increased lifetime. “For us, it is imperative to deliver on the three key principles of Predictable Power: low cost of ownership, reliable performance and risk-free operation,” adds Nico Delvaux.

(L-R) Vladimir Kozloyskiy, President, Construction Tools division, Atlas Copco Construction Tools; Nico Delvaux, Business Area President Construction Technique, Atlas Copco AB; and Filip Vandenberghe, Managing Director, Atlas Copco (India) Ltd.

The new range of machines is designed for fast, easy and safe transportation and on-site handling on virtually any unprepared surface. “Atlas Copco’s Predictable Power helps lead the industry towards increasingly smaller, more flexible machines that can easily be combined for larger projects. Customers enjoy significantly reduced costs, improved fuel efficiency, easier maintenance and increased lifetime.

That is what Predictable Power is all about,” the company states.

ExxonMobil showcases its lubricant portfolio at POWER-GEN E

xxonMobil Lubricants Pvt Ltd, a subsidiary of Exxon Mobil Corporation, showcased its comprehensive line of highperformance turbine oils and next generation of Mobil SHC-branded synthetic industrial lubricants at the ‘2014 POWER-GEN India & Central Asia’ exhibition and conference held in New Delhi from 5 – 7th May. “Customers rely on ExxonMobil because of the quality of our products, our reliability, technological excellence and

46

June 2014

close association with many leading original equipment manufacturers and builders,” said Rupinder Paintal, General Manager, Industrial, ExxonMobil Lubricants Pvt. Ltd. ExxonMobil lubricants are formulated to help reduce maintenance costs, extend oil drain intervals and deliver exceptional protection for key components, even under the extreme weather and load conditions common in many power-generating applications. The company’s advanced technology

offerings for the energy-sector which were displayed at the event included: Mobil SHC 600 Series: Mobil SHC 600 Series high-performance synthetic circulating and gear lubricants is recommended for use in 1,800 applications and is ideal for use in a range of industrial applications. Mobil SHC Gear: Gear lubricants reengineered for optimum equipment oil life in gearboxes, even under extreme conditions. 

Electrical & Power Review


PEOPLE Siemens appoints Lisa Davis to Managing Board Siemens AG has appointed Lisa Davis to the Managing Board, effective August 1, 2014. Lisa is currently Executive Vice President Strategy, Portfolio and Alternative Energies at Royal Dutch Shell. She will be responsible on the Managing Board for the power and gas division, the wind power and renewables division, the power generation services division, the region North America and the region South America. She will be based in the United States. Until Lisa assumes her position, the Siemens’ energy sector will be headed by Randy Zwirn on an acting basis and represented on the Managing Board by Klaus Helmrich.

CG appoints Ravi Rajgopal as Executive Vice-President Avantha Group Company CG has appointed Ravi Rajagopal as their Executive Vice-President and Global Head – Legal, Governance and Risk. Mr Rajagopal will also be a member of the Executive Committee of CG. Based out of Mumbai, Rajagopal will lead CG’s strategy, conceptualisation of frameworks and global deployment in the areas of legal, governance and risk. He will also oversee CG’s activities in its constituent businesses to align current business focus areas and expansion plans with the law, regulatory and corporate law framework of all geographies. Rajagopal brings with him a rich experience of 27 years in the areas of legal, secretarial and compliance related to the financial services and power industry. He was earlier the General Counsel at Essar Steel India Ltd, where he headed the legal, compliance and contracts functions. Prior to this, he was Senior Vice President (Legal, Secretarial, and Compliance) at Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd, part of Vedanta Resources Plc, where he headed the Legal, Compliances & Secretarial functions of the aluminium and power businesses. He has also worked with other globally reputed organisations such as Jaiprakash Industries and the Pressman Group.

Electrical & Power Review

June 2014

47


Trade Zone

t o psh

a n S et

k r a M

IEX & PXIL Price and Volume Day Ahead Market-Aprilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;14 Delivery day

IEX Avg MCP (Rs./kWh)

PXIL Avg MCP (Rs./kWh)

IEX MCV (MWh)

PXIL MCV (MWh)

1st April

2.92

2.93

48,507

2,369

16th April

4.18

3.45

65,184

1,676

2nd April

3.27

2.98

53,195

1,265

17th April

4.20

3.57

74,347

1,232

3rd April

3.24

3.07

62,904

2,117

18th April

3.92

3.31

67,651

2,020

4th April

3.41

3.02

60,944

2,314

19th April

3.56

3.19

67,542

1,497

5th April

3.20

3.09

67,450

2,046

20th April

3.14

3.19

63,555

1,388

6th April

2.87

3.01

60,068

1,834

21st April

3.40

3.05

66,819

1,439

7th April

3.45

3.17

69,541

1,675

22nd April

3.39

3.44

67,383

1,844

8th April

3.56

3.24

69,583

2,262

23rd April

3.79

3.32

70,507

2,243

9th April

3.68

3.28

76,368

2,484

24th April

4.12

3.12

79,953

2,056

10th April

3.70

3.16

77,527

1,868

25th April

4.18

3.84

79,187

1,440

11th April

3.53

3.38

77,951

1,473

26th April

3.61

3.00

75,131

1,915

12th April

3.82

3.12

61,318

1,879

27th April

3.56

3.19

70,416

1,681

13th April

3.62

3.74

64,280

1,558

28th April

3.85

3.06

78,393

1,836

14th April

3.67

3.79

62,581

1,497

29th April

3.76

3.42

95,432

1,469

15th April

3.88

3.15

66,172

1,552

30th April

3.92

3.41

88,076

3,018

Delivery day

IEX Avg MCP (Rs./kWh)

PXIL Avg MCP (Rs./kWh)

IEX MCV (MWh)

PXIL MCV (MWh)

IEX & PXIL Price & Volume in Day Ahead Market-April'14 Volume (MWh)

IEX MCV (MWh)

PXIL MCV (MWh)

IEX Avg MCP (Rs./kWh)

Price (Rs/KWh)

PXIL Avg MCP (Rs./kWh)

1,20,000

4.50 4.00

1,00,000

3.50

80,000

3.00 2.50

60,000

2.00

40,000

1.50 1.00

20,000

0.50

-

0.00

1st April

48

June 2014

4th April

7th April

10th April

13th April

16th April Day

19th April 22nd April 25th April

28th April Source: IEX

Electrical & Power Review


Trade Zone

IEX Non-solar REC Trade Details

Month

Buy Bid

Sale Bid

Cleared Volume

Cleared Price (Rs/REC)

Month

Buy Bid

Sale Bid

Cleared Volume

Cleared Price (Rs/REC)

Apr’11

260

4,046

260

1,500

Nov’12

54,976

9,21,376

54,976

1,500

May’11

14,002

15,143

14,002

1,500

Dec’12

1,73,644

8,55,784

1,73,644

1,500

Jun’11

72,002

21,331

15,902

1,505

Jan’13

1,90,875

13,71,503

1,90,875

1,500

Jul’11

81,493

34,976

14,668

1,555

Feb’13

48,093

15,26,114

48,093

1,500

Aug’11

1,45,204

49,897

22,096

1,800

Mar’13

3,07,260

13,08,044

3,07,260

1,500

Sep’11

1,96,159

76,026

41,385

2,300

Apr’13

10,670

12,21,579

10,670

1,500

Oct’11

2,01,532

1,35,424

92,303

2,700

May’13

18,543

12,80,605

18,543

1,500

Nov’11

2,57,578

1,55,917

96,154

2,900

Jun’13

36,147

14,01,048

36,147

1,500

Dec’11

2,64,093

1,66,000

1,05,942

2,950

Jul’13

72,321

16,76,875

72,321

1,500

Jan’12

4,14,387

1,86,610

1,65,460

3,051

Aug’13

31,101

18,72,449

31,101

1,500

Feb’12

3,60,330

2,15,157

1,90,482

3,066

Sep’13

38,195

23,25,171

38,195

1,500

Mar’12

2,72,366

2,23,907

1,90,354

2,900

Oct’13

98,921

24,47,684

98,921

1,500

Apr’12

2,37,100

1,05,844

62,277

2,201

Nov’13

97,743

27,60,452

97,743

1,500

May’12

3,39,882

2,46,501

1,53,125

2,402

Dec’13

2,50,722

27,12,444

2,50,722

1,500

Jun’12

3,13,973

3,30,371

2,23,164

2,402

Jan’14

78,955

25,57,666

78,955

1,500

Jul’12

1,49,628

4,35,348

1,47,369

2,000

Feb’14

1,76,107

20,15,377

1,76,107

1,500

Aug’12

2,48,168

5,68,097

2,48,168

1,500

Sep’12

2,39,364

6,64,641

2,39,364

1,500

Mar’14

3,61,842

28,93,896

3,61,842

1,500

Oct’12

1,32,231

8,51,177

1,32,231

1,500

Apr’14

16,798

29,24,976

16,798

1,500

IEX Non-solar REC Trade Details Sale Bid

Cleared Volume

Cleared Price (Rs/REC)

20,00,000

3,500

16,00,000

2,800

12,00,000

2,100

8,00,000

1,400

4,00,000

700 0 Apr'11 May'11 Jun'11 Jul'11 Aug'11 Sep'11 Oct'11 Nov'11 Dec'11 Jan'12 Feb'12 Mar'12 Apr'12 May'12 Jun'12 Jul'12 Aug'12 Sep'12 Oct'12 Nov'12 Dec'12 Jan'13 Feb'13 Mar'13 Apr'13 May'13 Jun'13 Jul'13 Aug'13 Sep'13 Oct'13 Nov'13 Dec'13 Jan'14 Feb'14 Mar'14 Apr'14

0

Cleared Price (Rs./REC)

No. of REC

Buy Bid

Source: IEX

Electrical & Power Review

June 2014

49


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52


EPR June 2014