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LOCKER ROOM OF CONTENTS


Columns 20 Business

and Sports

By Frank Champion

32 Safety Hazards

of Wearing a Jersey By Chris Bergen

47 New Enforced

Rules of the NCAA

By Tommy Yu

SPORT MANAGEMENT Issue 1 Volume 27 January 2013


69 Stadium

Management

By Kyle Davis

75 What Experts Might Say

By Brandon O’Donnell

Issue 1 Volume 27 January 2013


SPORT FANS AND THEIR TEAMS REDESIGNED LOGOS An Examination of the Moderating Effect of Team Identifications on Attitude and Purchase Intention of Team-Logoed Merchandise By Paul M. Pederson

ne of the most important management dilemmas for owners and general managers of sports teams is whether to make a midseason coaching change when the team is faltering. Changing a coach midseason is an important managerial decision and, like most decisions, there are benefits and costs. The costs are short-term financial costs to owners. If a coaching change is made, owners must compensate the dismissed coach and the newly-hired coach. For example,

Detroit Pistons paid about $6 million dollars to Larry Brown in 2005 after firing him. In 2008, Kings paid three head coaching salaries that season to Kenny Natt, Reggie Theus and Bill Musselman (http:// nbcsports.msnbc.com/id/28239643). The expected benefit of a midseason coaching change exists in the form of improved team performance. However, there is no theoretical consensus about whether a coaching change improves team performance and empirical work on the subject has been inconclusive.

The goal of this paper is to add to the

empirical literature on the performance effects of midseason coaching changes by examining data from the NBA. We develop a simple model to compare the performance of former coaches to current coaches. We use an extensive data set including all midseason coaching changes

there is no theoretical or empirical consensus on the effect of midseason coaching changes on performance. Frick, Pestana and Prinz (2010) discuss three theories of CEO or head coach turnover (see also Fizel & D’itri, 1999 and Soebbing & Washington, 2011). These theories are called the common sense theory, the vicious circle theory, and the ritual scapegoating theory. Common sense theory predicts that a new CEO or a new head coach is hired if the candidate has the required expertise and experience to increase the performance of the firm/team by stopping the organizational inertia. On the other hand, vicious circle theory predicts that the successor is likely to have a disruptive effect on the team resulting in a decline in performance. Finally, ritual scapegoating theory predicts no relationship between succession and performance, and that succession events serve only as signals to stakehold- ers that required organizational change is under way. These theories provide contradictory predictions about the impact of a coaching change on performance. The empirical results on the effect of midseason coaching changes on performance have been similarly inconclusive. Numerous studies have investigated the coaching change effect in football/soccer issue for sports other than football/soccer but the exceptions are: American football and basketball . Results of these studies are contradictory. The only studies to find that midseason coaching changes improve performance are those Fabianic (1984), and Wagner (2010).

∂


“What you do today can improve all your tomorrows.”

LARRY FITZGERALD


Developing an Instrument to Measure the Social Impact of Sport Social Capital, Collective Identities, Health Literacy, Well Being and Human Capital

By Kathy Babiak

e examined all of the midseason coaching changes in the history of the NBA. We statistically compared the fraction of games won for each team before and after the change, and estimated a model to determine factors asso- ciated with a successful coaching change. We find that a midseason coaching change improved team performance in about sixty-one percent of the cases.We find some evidence that the likelihood that the new coach improves team performance increases with experience (the coefficients of each measure of coach- ing ability are positive, though only the coefficient of PctWinsBefore achieves statistical significance in Model 3). We also find that improved performance is positively associated with previous experience as an NBA player.

Kobe Bryant is motivating himself to win another championship ring.

Three limitations of our

study should be mentioned. 1, we did not control for midseason player transactions. These transactions could raise or lower the quality of the team, and thus could be a source of systematic noise in our analysis. Although data on transactions are available at www.basketball-reference. com, it would be nearly

“I’m selfish, impatient and a little insecure. I make mistakes, I am out of control and at times hard to handle. But if you can’t handle me at my worst, then you sure as hell don’t deserve me at my best.” --KOBE

impossible to predict how these roster changes would influence our results. A possible solution to this problem would be to consider player talent as a proxy for roster quality, similar to tthe approach used by Fizel and D’itri. However, exactly how to measure talent is a controversial issue in basketball In any case, most important changes in rosters are usually made at season’s end. 2, we did not distinguish between coaching changes occurring because the previous coach

3 limitation is that we only examine characteristics of new coaches following a midseason coaching change. One could make use of characteristics of the fired coaches to examine whether a midseason coaching change is made. Our focus on the current study is on only those cases where a change was made in an effort to determine the characteristics of a successful new hire. That is, we are looking at the success of a coaching change and not the timing of the change.∂


“I’M CHASING PERFECTION.”

KobeBryant


Determinants of Pay Per View Broadcast Viewership in Sports The Case of the Ultimate Fighting Championship By Scott Tainsky

The undergraduate sport management specialization offers professional preparation in the application of business principles to the sport industry. Students will complete a degree program that includes courses in accounting, management, marketing, economics, and computer applications. Sport management courses will focus on the business aspects of sport in culture, sports information, interscholastic intercollegiate and professional sports, facility management, sport ethics, sport marketing, sport law, and sport finance. Sport management positions carry a variety of job titles. Program directors in community sport programs, marketing and promotions director, academic services for student-athletics, corporate sales director, director of ticketing and finance, sporting goods sales representative, intramural director of campus recreation, facilities coordinator, athletic director, compliance director, athletic business manager, and fitness manager are all sport management titles. Job responsibilities vary with the type of organization, area of the sport industry, and level of management. All involve business aspects of sport, and normally include 50 - 60 hour work weeks, including night and weekend hours of employment. Job duties may involve working with corporations in special event promotions and sponsorships. It may also include accounting, ticketing, and financial operations of a sporting event or program. Additional responsibilities might include developing a risk management plan for dealing with current legal issues in sport. The sport manager may be involved in facility and event management, sport broadcasting and media relations, or the sales of sporting goods and licensed sport products.

There are many benefits in working sport management jobs. The opportunity to work with people who share a common bond of the love of sport provides an enjoyable work setting. Health and wellness benefits are usually excellent in this field. The sport industry has grown dramatically in the past decade and promises to continue to expand. Jobs in marketing and promotions, sports information, academic student services, and development within intercollegiate sports are often available. Other employment opportunities exist in professional sports with event management and community relations. Still others employment options exist in sporting goods, sports agents, arena management, and interscholastic athletic administration. Job responsibilities vary with the type of organization, area of the sport industry, and level of management. All involve business aspects of sport, and normally include 50 - 60 hour work weeks, including night and weekend hours of employment. Job duties may involve working with corporations in special event promotions and sponsorships. It may also include accounting, ticketing, and financial operations of a sporting event or program. Additional responsibilities might include developing a risk management plan for dealing with current legal issues in sport. The sport manager may be involved in facility and event management, sport broadcasting and media relations, or the sales of sporting goods and licensed sport products. Sport management positions carry a variety of job titles. The most known people are the known cool representative, intramural director of campus recreation, facilities coordinator, athletic director,


“SURVIVING IS HALF THE BATTLE.”

Troy Polamolu


Stadium Management Arizona Cardinal’s Proposal for a New Stadium Design for a Dome. Column written by Kyle Davis

Director is the top job in sports facilities management operations. In this position, you’ll oversee the utilization of the venue, finances, business administration, maintenance, repairs, construction and whatever else comes up. Your main job, though, is booking the place. Many stadiums have both a baseball team and a football team as long-term tenants; arenas might house both a basketball team and a hockey franchise. When the sports teams aren’t using them, they still cost money to maintain and operate, so somebody else needs to pay the bills. The Executive Director is the one who brings in the rock stars and country western bands, the special events and entertainment of all kinds to pay rent and fill the stands. This is also the person who has to keep the teams and the visitors happy, and make sure the baseball team and the football team have a cordial relationship with each other. If the NFL team pays twice the rent for 10 home games, compared to the MLB team’s payment for 80 games, who gets their clubhouse renovated first? It’s a tough decision, but the Executive Director has to make it. For this, long days and all, the salary can easily be in the $100,000 bracket at a major sports stadium. A Director of Stadium Operations, Stadium Manager or Sports Facility Manager is like a building superintendent or a resident innkeeper. This is the job of taking care of the physical venue day-to-day. This person may be the one in charge of booking the stadium to make sure it’s used as much as possible by paying customers. This may also be the person who’s responsible for turning a basketball court into a hockey arena in three hours flat. In addition to supervising all the people who work there, this person has to hire and fire them; contract for special services like plowing snow from the parking lots; and work with specialists in advertising, marketing and public relations. Meanwhile, there’s plenty of paperwork and administration to balance the financial books. The pay for this position can range from twenty-something a year to as much as $125,000, depending on the facilities and the owners.

Cardinals Stadium New Design for Dome

Overview layout of the new proposed plan


Sports Management Magazine