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MODULO DE CIENCIAS NATURALES 7°

Estudiante:

Grupo:

Mediador: Periodo:

7

No.

Ana Isabel Cepeda. I

Fecha del período:

PROPÓSITO DEL ÁREA

Área:

Ciencias Naturales

Asignatura:

Biología

Desarrollar en los estudiantes un pensamiento científico que le permita contar con una teoría integral del mundo natural dentro del contexto de un proceso de desarrollo humano integral, equitativo y sostenible que le proporcione una concepción de sí mismo y de sus relaciones con la sociedad y la naturaleza armónica con la preservación de la vida en el planeta.

META DE COMPRENSIÓN DEL AÑO

El estudiante comprenderá: Las relaciones entre las características microscópicas y macroscópicas en función de los sistemas circulación- excreciónlocomoción en seres vivos y la estructura y propiedades de los elementos químicos

META DE COMPRENSIÓN GENERAL DEL PERIODO

El estudiante comprenderá: Los argumentos que explican los procesos de nutrición, transporte celular y las características anatómica y funcional a través de los diversos sistemas de circulación de los seres vivos

TÓPICO GENERADOR

Cómo se transportan las sustancias en la célula? ¿Cuál es la relación funcional y anatómica entre los sistemas de transporte y circulación de sustancias en los seres vivos? ¿Cómo es la composición del suelo y su función de relación con los procesos de nutrición?

CONTENIDOS

METAS DE COMPRENSIÓN DEL PERIODO

1. 2. 3. 4.

Transporte celular Circulación en protisto, mónera y hongos Circulación en vegetales y animales Circulación en humanos

El estudiante comprenderá: a. Las diferencias entre los procesos de transporte celular b. Las características de circulación en protistos, móneras y hongos. c. La características de circulación en plantas y animales d. De forma explicativa los procesos de nutrición y circulación en humanos


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CRONOGRAMA DE ACTIVIDADES: COMPETENCIA ESTÁNDAR

DESEMPEÑOS DE COMPRENSIÓN

ACTIVIDAD DE APRENDIZAJE

Explico las funciones de los seres vivos a partir de las relaciones entre los diferentes sistemas y órganos.

Diferencia entre los procesos de transporte celular: transporte pasivo y activo

Se iniciará con la presentación de diapositivas con el objeto de identificar las características propias de los procesos de transporte y los diversos sistemas de circulación en seres vivos.

Semana 1a2

Posteriormente se desarrollarán ejemplificación de los procesos y desarrollarán trabajos individuales para que se afiancen los conocimientos de dichos procesos.

Semana 5a6

Caracteriza los sistemas de circulación en protistos, móneras y hongos. Caracteriza los sistemas de circulación en plantas y animales Explica los procesos de nutrición y circulación en humanos.

FECHA

Semana 3a4

Semana 7 a 10

Luego se mostrarán diagramas donde los estudiantes identifiquen los procesos de transporte de sustancias como parte de la circulación en seres vivos. Se trabajarán talleres para afianzar los conceptos o contenidos precisos de cada tema y establecerán relaciones entre los diversos procesos y sistemas de transporte.

VALORACIÓN CONTINUA Se desarrollarán actividades escritas para determinar la apropiación de conceptos básicos y que diferencien los contenidos específicos a desarrollar de la temática. Se harán evaluaciones individuales con el objeto de establecer el grado de comprensión de cada sistema de circulación en seres vivos Se realizarán talleres con el objeto de afianzar y reafirmar conceptos con base en los contenidos y bajo la orientación del docente

NIVELES DE META: SUPERIOR Argumenta de forma coherente los procesos de transporte de sustancias a nivel de estructuras y sistemas organizados en los seres vivos.

ALTO Establece diferencias entre los sistemas y procesos de transporte de sustancias y su relación de nutrición en los seres vivos.

BÁSICO Describe las características estructurales y funcionales de los procesos y sistemas de transporte de sustancias y su relación con la nutrición en seres vivos

BAJO Se le dificulta identificar las características de los sistemas de transporte en los seres vivos.

RECURSOS REQUERIDOS (AMBIENTES PREPARADOS PARA EL PERIODO): a. Salón organizado y aseado, sillas dispuestas según momentos de trabajo. b. Guías y lecturas que facilitarán la comprensión de los educandos, de los temas a tratar, además de algunas actividades extra clase sugeridas en páginas web de consulta y el trabajo en el Módulo de estudio.


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INTRODUCCIÓN: A continuación se describen los tópicos que orientan el desarrollo de la asignatura con referencia a los contenidos a impartir durante este periodo, los cuales se orientan desde la circulación, nutrición y transporte celular en seres vivos. Key Words: 1. Active transport 2. Passive Transport 3. Concentration 4. Osmosis 5. Diffusion 6. Facilitated Diffusion 7. Protein pump 8. Membrane 9. Permeable 10. Impermeable 11. Semipermeable 12. Hypotonic 13. Isotonic 14. Hypertonic 15. Endocytosis 16. Exocytosis 17. Phagocytosis 18. Pinocytosis 19. Vesicle 20. Hyphae 21. Xylem

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

Phloem Apoplast Symplast Pathway Cytoplasm Pericycle Casparian strip Transpiration Cohesion Tension Root preassure Blood Heart Blood vessel Veins Arteries Atrium Atria Oxygenated Deoxygenated

MARCO TEORICO: We saw that the cell cytoplasm is surrounded by a cell membrane. This acts as a boundary between the cell contents and its surroundings. This plays a vital role in regulating the materials that pass in and out of a cell. The cell membrane is basically a double layer of phospholipids molecules. The phospholipids are arranged tail to tail, forming a bilayer.

All living cells have a cell membrane. The functions of a cell membrane are: Controls what enters and exits the cell to maintain an internal balance. b. Provides protection and support for the cell. The process by which cells absorb substances such as oxygen, water and nutrients and get rid of wastes is called: Cell Transport. There are different types of cell transport and they are: Passive Transport: It is movement of particles within a gas or liquid. Occur when particles are moved through cell walls from areas of high concentration to low concentration until equilibrium is reached. Examples: Diffusion, Osmosis, Facilitated diffusion. This cell transport doesn’t use energy because the movement of particles is due to their own kinetic energy. (The movement is quite random, and the particles change direction as they bump into another so they tend to diffuse or spread.)


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1. Diffusion: It is the main process by which substances move over a short distances in living things. It is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The diffusion continues until one of the sides of the cell is equal to the concentration on the other side of the cell. This is called: Equilibrium. Example: If a perfume bottle High concentration is opened the smells spread throughout the room low concentration until the smell is equal throughout the room.

2. Facilitated Diffusion: It is very similar to simple diffusion with one difference that requires transport proteins found in the membrane. Transport Proteins are proteins channels that are specific – they “select” only certain molecules to cross the membrane and transport larger or charged molecules. Two types of proteins are responsible for facilitated diffusion: a. Specific proteins take particular substances from one side of the membrane to the other.

b. Ion channels are proteins that open and close to control the passage of selected charges particles such as: Ca, Na, K and Cl. They are proteins with a central hole lined with polar groups.

3. Osmosis It is the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane. It is the net movement of water molecules from a region of high concentration to low concentration.


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All cells have the potencial of gain or lose water by osmosis. The overall tendency for water of enter or leave a cell is determined by water potential. During water potential we can foun Isotonic solution The solution on the outside of the cell membrane has the same concentration as the solution on the inside of the cell membrane. Water moves equally in both directions and the cell remains same size.

Hypotonic solution The solution has a lower concentration of solutes and a higher concentration of water than inside the cell. Water moves from the solution to inside the cell

Hypertonic solution The solution has a higher concentration of solutes and a lower concentration of water than inside of cell. Water moves from inside the cell into the solution

Note: A solution is made up of a solvent (the dissolving fluid) and a solute (the particles dissolve in the solvent) in living organisms, the solvent is water. 2. Active Transport: It is a method by which particles are moved through cell walls from areas of low concentration to high. This transport requires energy to move materials in/out of cell. Examples: Protein Pumps - Protein pumps: proteins are use to move small particles such as calcium, potassium and calcium across the membrane.


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3. Endocytosis and Exocytosis: There are other processes which transport larger materials in and out of a cell. These materials enter or leave the cell through vesicles. Endocytosis The movement of materials into cell by a small vesicle. There are two types of Endocytosis:

Exocytosis The movement of materials out of the cell by a vesicle

- Phagocytosis: material brought into the cell is another cell or organic matter.

- Pinocytosis: material brought into the cell is liquid.

Workshop No.1 1. Label the three images below as isotonic/ hypertonic/ hypotonic

2. Choose the correct answer: a. Movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy is called [ active / passive ] transport. b. The difference in the concentration of a substance across a space is called a concentration [ equilibrium / gradient ]. c. If there is a concentration gradient, substances will move from an area of high concentration to an area of [ equal / low ] concentration. d. [ Equilibrium / Diffusion ] is the simplest type of passive transport. e. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called [ osmosis / diffusion ]. f. A solution that causes a cell to swell is called a [ hypertonic / hypotonic ] solution. g. The process of taking material into the cell by vesicles throughout the cell membrane is called [ endocytosis / exocytosis ] h. In [ facilitated / molecular ] diffusion, membrane proteins help molecules across the membrane. i. In diffusion, molecules [ spread out / condense ] j. The lipid bilayer describes [ a type of transport / the cell membrane ] k. Facilitated diffusion moves substances down their concentration gradient [with / without] using the cell's energy.


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Workshop No.2: 1. What is the function of the membrane? 2. What types of membrane do you know? 4. What is the difference between passive and active transport? 5. Compare and contrast: diffusion and osmosis 6. Consider the solution in the drawing below, with the two sides divided by a perforated membrane. In the blank drawing on the right, show how the solution would look once it has reached equilibrium.

7. Write: Endocytosis and Exocytosis.

8. What are the two types of proteins use facilitated diffusion? 9. What is water potential? 10. Write: Isotonic, Hypertonic and Hypotonic.

11. Complete the chart: Cell transport Diffusion Osmosis Protein Pump Facilitated diffusion Endocytosis Exocytosis

Active or Passive

Type of cell membrane

Direction of transport

CIRCULATION: FUNGI-MONERAN-PROTIST a. Fungi: A single-cell fungus such as yeast, adsorb their nutrients through processes such as diffusion, phagocytosis and pinocytosis. Multicellular fungi, like mushrooms, do not have circulatory systems to transport nutrients that are absorbed by the hyphae. Hyphae: are long, branching filamentous cells surrounded by tubular cell walls. The hyphae absorb nutrient and water and do the exchange.


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The hyphae make up the circulatory system of fungi, since they are the cells that transport nutrients throughout the organism. b. Protist: circulatory system is not needed. They absorb occurs by diffusion and active transport. c. Moneran: circulation is done by diffusion. Workshop No.3 1. What are the processes that fungi use to absorb their nutrients? 2. Do Protists and Moneran have circulatory system? 3. What process do protist and moneran use to absorb their nutrients?

3. CIRCULATION: PLANTS Plants need to get Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Oxygen (O2), water (H2O) and other minerals, and also need to eliminate the waste materials produced during the cellular metabolism. Plant kingdom could be divided into two major groups. They are: Vascular plant group and non vascular plant group a. Non Vascular plants: They are also known as lower plants. Example: mosses. They do not have stem, leaves or roots. These plants do not have tube structures: xylem or phloem, but they use other ways to move water and substances, so the plants cannot retain water or deliver it to other parts of the plant body. Consequently, water must be absorbed directly from the surrounding air or another nearby source through diffusion, active transport or osmosis. This explains the presence of mosses in moist areas, such as swamps. b. Vascular Plants: They are also known as higher plants. Example: trees. They consist of vascular tissues. The vascular tissues are responsible for the transportation of nutrients and water throughout the plant and also provide support to the plant. The vascular tissues are made of phloem and xylem. a. Xylem conducts water and minerals upward from the roots of a plant b. Phloem transports sugars and other nutrients from the leaves to the other parts of the plant.

The nutrient transport in plants happens in three levels: a. The intake and loss of water and solutes by the cells: the water and minerals are absorbed by the hair at the roots. b. The transport of substances in a short distance of one cell to another as occurs when a molecule of sugar produced in photosynthesis, is sent from the photosynthetic cells to the phloem cells. c. Transport over long distances through the xylem and phloem, as with water and products of photosynthesis which are distributed to the whole plant. Absorption of water by plants: Most of the absorption of water and nutrients occur in the Roots; through the Epidermis of the root hairs by osmosis (A Root hair is simple extension of the epidermis of a root cell and reaches into the soil to increases the surface area of absorption). A soon as water enters in the roots hair can take one of two paths. a. The Apoplast pathway is where water takes a route going from cell wall to cell wall, not entering the cytoplasm at any point. b. The symplast pathway is where water moves between cytoplasm/vacuoles of adjacent cells.


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MODULO DE CIENCIAS NATURALES 7°

Then cross the cortex and pass into Endodermis (Endodermis is the innermost layer of the cortex). The cell wall of the endodermis cell has an impermeable barrier known as Casparian Strip. The Casparian strip separates the cortex and the endodermis also blocks the harmful substances from entering the xylem and it must move into the cytoplasm to continue. Finally pass to pericycle and reaches the xylem vessels. The pathway of Water: Root Hair

Epidermis

Cortex

Endodermis

Pericycle

Xylem

After absorption of water and minerals into the root, they enter the xylem, the system of tubes in a vascular plant which transport the xylem sap up to the leaves. There are 2 processes that enable the water to move up a plant: a. Root pressure: water entering the root cells through the process of osmosis contributes some pressure involved in transporting water and minerals up to the plant. Since root pressure is not strong enough to move water up very high another process is needed to enable the water to continue up the plant. b. The transpiration-cohesion-tension: Water is loss through the leaves in form of water vapour this is called: Transpiration. Most transpiration occurs through openings, called stomata, on the underside of the leaves.


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Water moves because it is being pulled up. Why is this? Because water molecules cling to each other by cohesion. Cohesion is the property of water molecules to be attracted to one another.

. Tension: during transpiration, the cells of the leaves loose water that goes to the atmosphere. To avoid dehydration, neighbor cells provide water for them, and these get water from the next cell. Thus, transpiration creates a force which pulls the water chain from the roots to the leaves. It is said that the water in under tension. In addition, the molecules ascending adhere to the xylem preventing water to going back down due to gravity. Sugar transport: The phloem is another transport system in plants that carries food or sugar, from the leaves to other plant parts. Sugar is actually an end-product of photosynthesis. Phloem transport is bidirectional, which means that transport occurs in two directions. What is translocation? The phloem loading and unloading process of food material is called “translocation”.

Workshop No.4 1. What is the difference between vascular and non vascular plants? 2. The absorption of water occurs in two paths. Which are they? 3. Write the pathway of the water. 4. Define: Transpiration, Cohesion. 5. What are the processes that permit water go up to the plant? 6. What is the different between the xylem and phloem? 7. Look at the diagram and write the correct order that happen the water transport in plants. ________ Root Cortex. ________ Xylem. ________ Water in the soil. ________ Leaves. ________ Root hair. ________ Upward movement through the xylem. ________ Water is loss through the stomata.

EXTRA ACTIVITY: Create a Presentation (Power Point) in which you provide a step by step explanation of the vascular system of plants; make it as interactive as possible.


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4. CIRCULATION OF ANIMALS: Single-cell and simple organisms do not require a special system for nutrient and waste transport. Diffusion, osmosis and cytoplasmic streams are enough to carry substances to any region of the organism's body. Examples: sponges. In contrast, more complex organisms need a different way to transport nutrients, water and other materials. These organisms need a circulatory system. The Circulatory System is responsible for transporting materials throughout the entire body. It transports nutrients, water, and oxygen to your body cells and carries away wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce. There are two kinds of circulatory systems: OPEN SYSTEM and CLOSED SYSTEM. OPEN SYSTEM Open circulatory systems are common in insects, other arthropods and in most mollusks. In this system, Here heart pumps blood into open cavities from where blood vessels carry it to all parts of the body bathing all organs that come in its path. Animals with an open circulatory system typically have lots of blood and low blood pressure.

CLOSED SYSTEM Closed circulatory systems are common in earthworms, octopus and vertebrates. In these systems, blood remains in the networks of vessels and never leaves it. The heart pumps the blood through vessels that is divided more and more until they become extremely thin and reach almost all cells. Animals with closed system have high pressure and use much less blood.

Most invertebrates have an open circulatory system. Example: spiders, snails and others mollusks. These animals usually have more than one heart. All vertebrates have a closed circulatory system. Vertebrate can have: Simple, Incomplete, Double and Complete circulatory system. They differ in the number of chambers. a. Simple Circulation: The type of circulatory system that occurs in fish, in which the blood passes only once through the heart in each complete circuit of the body. They have two cavities, one atrium and one ventricle. b. Double circulation: The type of circulatory system that occurs in mammals in which the blood passes through the heart twice before completing a full circuit of the body. The heart has two atria and one ventricle. This circulation has two cycles:

- Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system that carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.


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- Pulmonary circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system that carries oxygen-poor blood away from the heart to the lungs, and returns oxygen-rich blood back to the heart. c. Incomplete Circulation: the heart is not fully divided in chambers. Heart has three cavities: two atria and one ventricle Examples: Amphibians. d. Complete Circulation: Blood is not mixed (oxygenated and oxygen poor blood). The heart is divided in two atria and two ventricles.

VERTEBRATES Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians Fish

CHAMBERS 2A – 2V 2A – 2V 2A – 1V 2A – 1V 1A – 1V

INCOMPLETE

COMPLETE X X

X X X

DOBLE X X X X

SIMPLE

X

CLOSED X X X X X

OPEN

Workshop No.5: 1. Do all living animas have a circulatory system? Explain your answer. 2. What is the main function of the circulatory system? 3. Do vertebrates and invertebrates have the same circulatory system? 4. What are the four types of circulation of the vertebrates? 5. Compare and contrast: open and closed circulation 6. Compare and contrast: Incomplete and complete circulation. 7. It is possible that mammals can live if blood poor in oxygen are mixed with blood rich in oxygen? Explain the answer. 8. Write of the pictures has an open or closed system.

Picture A.

Picture B

5. HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. It is a network of tubes filled with a fluid that can deliver vital materials to all cells of the body, and then take away their wastes. The Circulatory Systems have four main parts: 1. A medium: the fluid that flows in the system and transport materials around the body. This is the Blood. 2. A system of tubes: that carries the fluid from place to place. These are the arteries and veins. 3. A pump that supplies pressure to keep the fluid moving through the tubes. This is the heart.


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4. Sites of exchange that allow materials delivered by the blood to enter the tissues that need them. These are the capillaries. Structure of the heart: The heart is composed mainly of cardiac muscle, a specialized tissue that contracts automatically without fatigue, throughout our lives. The main function is to pump (provide pressure) your blood and keep the blood moving throughout your body. The pressure is generated by the squeezing of the walls of the heart against the blood. The human heart beats over 100 000 times a day and it is formed by four muscular layers: a. Pericardium: It is the external layer and provides protection to the heart. b. Myocardium: It is the thickest and strongest layer. c. Epicardium: it is the outermost layer. d. Endocardium: This is the innermost and thinner layer.

A heart is divided into two sides, each of which acts as a pump. The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood coming from the tissues out to the lungs. The left side pumps oxygenated blood coming from the lungs out to the tissues. A much greater pressure is needed to force blood out the extremities of the body than is needed to drive blood to the lungs. Because of this, the left side of the heart is much more muscular than the right side. Even though the two sides of the heart generate different pressure, they work in the same way and have the same parts such as: a. The atrium receives blood at low pressure from veins (coming from the lungs or tissues) b. The ventricle pumps blood at high pressure out to the arteries (to the lungs or tissues) v. Valves make sure that blood flows in the right direction. The heart has been divided into four chambers: Two atria (right and left): are the receiving chambers and two ventricles (right and left): are the discharging chambers. The septum is a wall that separates oxygenated blood from deoxygenated blood also divided the right side and left side of the heart.

The heart has four valves. The heart valves are flap-like structures that allow blood to flow in one direction. 1. Tricuspid Valve: prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the right atrium to the right ventricle. 2. Pulmonary Valve: prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery 3. Mitral Valve: prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the left atrium to the left ventricle. 4. Aortic Valve: prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the left ventricle to the aorta


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In the Heart we can see different blood vessels. The blood vessels are networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body. The following are some of the blood vessels associated with the heart: Arteries: a. Pulmonary arteries: carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs. b. Aorta: The main artery of the body; carries oxygenated blood out to the tissues. c. Coronary arteries: they are small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. Two major coronary arteries branch off from the aorta.

Veins: a. Coronary Veins: return the poor blood into the vena cava: b. Pulmonary Vein: returns oxygenated blood from the lungs c. Vena Cana: the main vein of the body; returns deoxygenated blood from the head and lower body to the right atrium

Note: this is a picture of coronary arteries. .

Note: A human heart.


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Review activity: Label the different parts of the heart

Heart cardiac cycle: It is the sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats. Below are the two phases of the cardiac cycle: Diastole Phase The heart ventricles are relaxed and the heart fills with blood

Systole Phase The ventricles contract and pump blood to the arteries.

In a healthy person an average heart rate of 75 beats per minute, each cycle takes o.8 seconds during a normal level of activity. This rate is enough to supply blood containing oxygen and nutrient to tissues. The beating of the heart is controlled by a Pacemaker. A pacemaker is a special piece of tissue in the wall of the right atrium which sends an electrical signal and makes sure that: - The atria contract just before the ventricles, so blood flow in one direction. - The heartbeat is fast enough to meet the demands of the tissues for oxygen and nutrients, and for the removal of wastes.


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Blood The blood is an amazing substance that is constantly flowing through our bodies. Your blood is pumped by your heart. Your blood carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from your body cells. The blood has: immunological functions, Coagulation, Messenger functions (carrying hormones). In the human heart there is one atrium and one ventricle for each circulation. Left Side of the Heart. The blood coming from the lungs to the heart collects in the Left Atrium, filling it up. This initiates a contraction of the walls of the Left Atrium forcing the Mitral Valve to open as the blood goes into the Left Ventricle. The Left Ventricle fills with blood which forces the Mitral Valve to close and initiates the muscle of the Left Ventricle to contract, open the Aortic Valve, and squeeze the blood through the Aortic Valve and on to the body. The blood coming out of the Left Ventricle to the Aorta is under high pressure. This pressure is enough to rush it to the different parts of the body at high velocity and give its oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues. The blood comes back from the body to the right side of the heart.

Right Side of the Heart The blood coming from the body to the heart collects in the Right Atrium, filling it up. This initiates a contraction of the walls of the Right Atrium forcing the Tricuspid Valve to open as the blood goes to the Right Ventricle. The Right Ventricle fills with blood which forces the Tricuspid Valve to close and initiates the muscle of the Right Ventricle to contract, open the Pulmonary Valve and squeeze the blood through the Pulmonary Valve and on to the lungs. This blood will get more oxygen and get rid of the carbon dioxide and return to the left side of the heart to begin another cycle.

The blood has two distinct layers: a cellular portion and the plasma. The cellular portion contains red cell, white cells and platelets. Cellular portion a. Red Blood Cells: consist mainly in Hemoglobin which is what gives blood its red color. They are responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide. b. White Blood Cells: they do not have hemoglobin, therefore they are practically colorless. They are cells of the immune system and protect the body from infections and foreign materials. When you have an infection your body will produce more White Blood Cells to help fight an infection. c. Platelets: they are the smallest cells in blood. They help stop bleeding. When we cut ourselves we have broken a blood vessel and the blood leaks out.

Plasma. It is the liquid part of the blood. The main function is to transport other components such as: proteins, salts, products of digestion (glucose, potassium, and calcium), urea, and carbon dioxide.


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Blood Vessels Blood flows in a system of tubes like blood vessels. There are three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries. The blood flows away from the heart in vessel called arteries. Arteries branch into smaller arterioles. Which branch into tiny capillaries. Capillaries are permeable vessels that allow the diffusion of oxygen, nutrients from the blood into the cells and the exchange of Oxygen and carbon dioxide. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels as thin as the hairs on your head. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. Blood flows from capillaries into venules, which drain into larger veins.

Here are some of the key differences between the two main types of blood vessels. Arteries

Veins

Take blood away from the heart

Take blood to the heart

Walls are thick and elastic

Walls are thin

Transports oxygenated blood

Transports de-oxygenated blood

Has small lumen (tubular cavities inside)

Has large lumen

Has a pulse and blood travels in spurts

Has no pulse and blood travels smoothly

Narrow central tube-small lumen(where the Wide central tube -large lumen blood flows through)

Workshop No.6 1. What are the components of the human circulatory system? 2. Name the four layers of the heart. 3. What is the main function of the heart? 4. What does oxygenated blood mean? 5. What does deoxygenated blood mean? 6. Compare and contrast: red blood cells and white blood cells. 7. Why is vital to supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart? 8. What is the function of the atria? 9. What is the function of the ventricles? 10. What does blood do? 11. What kind of circulation do human have? 12. Name two arteries and veins of the human body. 13. What is the main function of the capillaries? 14. What is the function of the septum? 15. What is the main difference between arteries and veins?


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16. Label the four chambers, valves and blood vessels of the heart.

17. Explain how blood flows in the heart. Use your own words. 18. What are the components of the blood? EXTRA ACTIVITY Investigate about Lymphatic system. Be ready for a presentation in class.

CONSULTAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20102/bio%20102%20lectures/circulatory %20system/circulat.htm http://www.teachpe.com/gcse_anatomy/circulatory.php http://scienceray.com/biology/the-kingdom-fungi/ http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/Bio2108/Lecture/LecBiodiversity/BioDivFungi.html http://onteora.schoolwires.com/4370_71121142518/lib/4370_71121142518/transport.html http://www.docstoc.com/docs/23817666/Active-Transport http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/active.html http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-vascular-and-vs-nonvascular-plants/ http://www.wacona.com/words/organisms/plant_groups.htm http://brookings.k12.sd.us/biology/other_units.htm http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trjune99.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulatory_system


Biologia 7th