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熱點話題

HOT TOPIC 013 009

HISTORY IS NOW:

7 Artists Take On Britain

歷史再現:七位藝術家眼中的英國

011

Made in China:

A Doug Fishbone Project 名畫中的“中國製造”

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Fall in Love Again:

The Whitworth Reopens 情定惠特沃斯美術館

015

Magnificent Obsessions: The Artist as Collector 瑰丽之寶:艺术家藏品

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Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty

019

Inventing Impressionism

021

亚历山大·麦昆:野性之美 印象派伯樂

025

黑方歷險記:

抽象藝術與社會1915-2015

Award: Scarcity-Waste

先正達攝影獎: 稀缺與浪費

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The Catlin Art Prize 2015 2015年凱特琳藝術獎:

英國藝術院校的新生力量

Adventures of the Black Square:

Abstract Art and Society 1915–2015

The Syngenta Photography

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More

更多熱點

023 Marlene Dumas:

The Image as Burden

瑪琳·杜馬斯:成為負擔的圖像

固定專欄

EXCLUSIVE COLUMN 143

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Fluxus: the Undefinable

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Maverick: Interview with Zhu Tian

149

A Brief History of Curating

169

Essential Experiments: Zhang Peili

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Truth from Heart:Interview with Du Hualin

“激浪派”無法定義? 《策展簡史》

內心的真實:專訪杜華林

造反有理:專訪藝術家朱田

—On the Possibility of Alternative Readings

必要的實驗:張培力——探討另一種閱讀的可能性


每期專題

SPECIAL FEATURE

107 031

Path to Curating 彳彳亍亍,於策於展

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Curator in Contemporary Art

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047

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The Artist Curator as Activist & Art Outside Galleries

當代藝術中的策展人

083

What Do Artist-Curators Say? 對話藝術家策展人

Emerging Curatorial Models & Transformation

089

Celebrity Curators 明星策展人

091

Super Curators 超級策展人

095

From Selector to Curator

新興策展模式與轉換

No Man Is An Island

Louise Ashcroft, Artist and Founder of Floating Island Gallery 沒有人是一座孤島

浮島畫廊創始人,藝術家——路易絲·阿什克羅夫特

與時俱進:專訪馬可·丹尼爾

Constructing Art—Interview with Huang Du

117

Other Views 眾說

119

Artist’s Dissatisfaction

—Interview with Cui Cancan

123

Who’s Driving? The Artist as Curator

A Vision of Curating—Interview with Luc Tuymans

135

The Stories We Tell – Performance Artists as Curators

Artist Take on Curating

067

International Approaches & Local Dimensions

藝術家策展

國際理念與本土探討

Curating Is My Approach 策展即行動——專訪崔燦燦

073

—Interview with Marko Daniel

107

057

069

作為行動主義者的藝術家策展人與畫廊以外的藝術

視覺先導:專訪呂克·圖伊曼斯

對藝術本質的干預:專訪策展人黃篤

"不安守本分"的藝術家

由誰掌舵?藝術家策展人

我們講述的故事——作為策展人的行為藝術家


ISSUE 13 2015

ART.ZIP

ISSN 2050-4152

Publisher 出版人

Liu Chunfen 劉春芬 Editor-in-chief 主編 Harry Liu 劉競晨

Executive Editor 執行編輯 Michelle Yu 余小悅 Editor 編輯

Ke Qiwen 柯淇雯 Li Bowen 李博文

Nicholas Anderson Sarah Pettitt

Guest Editor 特邀編輯 Fion Gunn

Contributor 撰稿人

Chris Berry,Chen Meng 陳檬

Louise Ashcroft,Shaheen Merali

Dr Becky Shaw,Zhan Xuhua 湛旭華 Translator 翻譯

Cai Sudong 蔡蘇東, Chen Ting 陳婷, Syndi Huang 黃煥欣 Shoran Jiang 姜嘯然, Yu Chang 于暢, Elaine Yu 余寧 IT Project Manager IT主管 Ace Xie 謝達明

Media Officer 媒體主管 Iris Shih 施孟慧

Advertising Manager 廣告客戶經理 Liu Tingting 劉婷婷

Wang Jiejing 王潔凈 Creative Director 創意總監 Li Ye 李燁

Ye Xianghui 葉向輝 Art Director 藝術指導 Gao Xiaodan 高曉丹 Wu Nan武楠

Managing Director 運營總監 Shi Yuese 石約瑟


Visual Design 視覺設計 Bulletpin Studio Thanks to 鳴謝

Barbican Centre 巴比肯藝術中心

British Film Institution 英國電影協會 British Museum 大英博物館

Chinese Visual Festival 華語視像藝術節 Catlin Art Prize 凱特琳藝術獎

David Zwirner London 倫敦大衛·茨維爾納畫廊 Design Museum 設計博物館

Dulwich Picture Gallery 達利奇畫廊 Floating Island Gallery 浮島畫廊 Hayward Gallery 海沃德画廊

National Gallery 英國國家畫廊

National Portrait Gallery 英國肖像畫廊 Royal Academy of Arts 皇家藝術學會 Somerset House 倫敦薩默塞特府 Tate 泰特美術館

Whitechapel Gallery 白教堂畫廊

Whitworth Art Gallery 惠特沃斯美術館

Victoria & Albert Museum 維多利亞與阿爾伯特博物館 Yorkshire Sculpture Park 約克雕塑公園

Address 雜誌社地址

GCCD Ltd. Elizabeth House, 39 York Road, SE1 7NQ, London, UK Website:www.artzip.org


THIS MAGAZINE LOOKS AMAZING #SINCE CREATIVE

Innovative design always since creative. | hello@sincecreative.com


EDITOR’S NOTE 主編寄語

“Curator” is a strange concept for most Chinese. In China, the word is often understood as its Chinese “equivalent” (Cezhanren) suggests—the one (ren) who plans (ce) the exhibition (zhan). However, the original meaning of “curator” as a borrowing word is never correctly conveyed in this translation.

With the coming of the information era, a globalized and networking society is also bringing tremendous changes in art, and the word “curator”, popular as it has already been, seems to gradually become fatigued. Its ever-

changing connotation and denotation is a witness to the development of its concept under various contexts and in different logical categories of art.

In this issue, we will explore an “artist as curator” phenomenon. Such a concept has sparkled discussions in the art

circles in recent years, which, however, fail to stage effective dialogues among individuals who engage themselves differently in art. In my opinion, “artist as curator” represents a more democratic way of artistic expression as well

as a motivation to practice artistic autonomy—in an art world full of frameworks, artists’ autonomy aspiration may

well be a showcase of what is intrinsic in contemporary art. Therefore, we have invited artists, professional curators, artist curators and art lovers into discussion, and adopted both inside and outside perspectives of the issue in question to illustrate what roles curators and artist curators are playing in the world of art today.

“策展人”對大多數中國人來說是一個陌生的概念,但源於中文的拆分組合后再進行理解的文字方式,大多被人理解為“策 劃展覽的人”,然而“curator”這個舶來品的含義本源並沒有體現在“策展人”這個譯文當中。

隨著信息時代的到來,全球化和網絡化的社會也影響著藝術領域的巨大變革, “策展人”這個本來已經非常時髦的詞彙現在看 來也逐漸顯現出疲態,其內涵和外延的不斷變化也反映出了“策展人”概念在不同語境和不同藝術邏輯範疇內的發展軌跡。

在這一期的雜誌當中,我們會和大家一起來探討“藝術家作為策展人”這樣一種現象, “藝術家策展人”概念在近年來已經在

藝術界引起了不少的討論,但對於處在藝術領域不同層面的個體來說,很難形成一個有效的對話。在我看來, “藝術家策展 人”所代表的是一種更民主的藝術傳達方式和實行藝術“自治”的一種驅動力,在即以框架聳立的藝術世界當中,藝術家們

要求“自治”的願望未嘗不是當代藝術本源概念的一種體現。在這期雜誌中,我們邀請了藝術家、職業策展人、藝術家策展人 以及很多藝術愛好者們一起參與到討論當中,從縱向和橫向的範疇來展現“策展”和“藝術家策展人”之於當下藝術世界的 意義所在。

HARRY LIU 劉競晨

Editor-in-chief 主編


About Fion Gunn 關於菲昂·戈恩

Guided by a passion for strengthening intercultural relations, Fion Gunn

菲昂·戈恩是一位活躍于國際舞台上的藝術家策展人,她一

network in the UK, Ireland and China, linking with city councils, institutions

交流和相互理解。多年來,在她的努力下已經在英國、愛爾

works as an artist curator in the international arena. She has developed a

and arts organisations in the Republic of Ireland as well as in Northern Ireland. She has pioneered cross-cultural collaborations between Ireland and China and is recognized for her curatorial, logistical and organisational skills in

annually directing of the Irish Wave project in Beijing and Shanghai. Gunn is represented by Peking Art Associates in Beijing.

Her own art practice encompasses a wide range of media and scale and

直致力於通過藝術的手段來推動和促進不同文化之間的 蘭、北愛爾蘭以及中國建立了一個包括政府部門、研究機構 以及藝術組織的網絡。她開創性地在愛爾蘭和中國之間搭

建起了跨文化合作和交流的藝術項目《愛爾蘭之潮(Irish

Wave)》,通過這樣一個一年一度的在北京和上海舉辦的 藝術活動,她作為策展人的藝術實踐也越來越多地被大家 所認可。

covers a range of interrelated themes: the convergence of histories and

她的藝術實踐非常豐富,採用不同的藝術媒介并探索製作

elucidative potential of art.

互聯繫:從個人和全球視角來審視歷史的發展和融合,衝突

narratives both personal and global, the legacy of conflict, the healing and

Graduated from Crawford College of Art & Design (CIT) in Cork, Gunn is the

不同規模的藝術作品,她所關注的很多主題都有內在的相 所遺留的創傷以及藝術所蘊含的治療這種創傷的潛力。

first Irish artist to have been awarded a public sculpture commission in China,

戈恩畢業於克勞福德藝術與設計學院(Crawford College

Design and the first to curate exhibitions in Beijing’s 798 Arts District. She is

藝術項目的愛爾蘭藝術家,也是第一位在著名的清華美院

the first to present a solo show at the prestigious Tsinghua Academy of Art & actively engaged in a number of initiatives with European, Asian and African artists as curator and artist.

Key questions central to Gunn’s practice are: How can our work touch people in meaningful ways which alter the ways in which we relate to other individuals, other cultures, other philosophical and moral viewpoints?

How do we depict and reshape the world in our heads?

As artists, how do we generate a future orientated vocabulary? What are the best ways to collaborate?

of Art & Design),是第一位被中國政府委託創作公共雕塑 內舉辦個人展覽的愛爾蘭藝術家,同時也是第一位在北京 798藝術區內策劃展覽的愛爾蘭策展人。作為藝術家和策展 人,她參與了眾多歐洲、亞洲以及歐洲的藝術項目。 戈恩的藝術實踐主要集中於以下幾個方面:

藝術家的作品如何以一種有效的方式來觸動人們,尤其是 當我們與其他個體、其他文化、其他哲學體系或者其他道德 標準產生聯繫的時候?

我們是如何在自己的意識當中去描繪和重塑周遭的世界的? 作為藝術家,我們是怎麼樣以前瞻性的眼光來創作的? 最好的合作方式是怎樣的?

Working collaboratively with other artists, landscape architects, writers etc.

戈恩樂於與各式各樣的人進行合作,不論是藝術家、設計

and inspires both artists and the public alike, enabling people from different

發藝術家,同時也可以讓廣大公眾有所獲益,能讓來自不同

is of major interest to Gunn whose desire is to create work which engages cultures and backgrounds to encounter one another in dynamic and

meaningful ways. The philosophy of unity through diversity is fundamental to her work, informing her artistic practice and her curatorial approach.

師、作家或者別的什麼人,她希望藝術實踐不僅能鼓勵和啟

文化和背景的人們可以通過藝術活動形成一種動態的、有 效的互動。她藝術創作和策展實踐的核心就是要將多元文 化整合到一起,形成一個新的文化集合。


Projects In 2009 Gunn co-founded BIGsmall Artists, with fellow Irish artist Ray Murphy, which promotes cross-cultural collaborations and established Streatham Women’s Sewing Group CIC with Ifrah

Odawa to promote social inclusion through art & crafts. Both are now Community Interest Companies (CIC).

Throughout 2014 Gunn worked on ‘The Dress My Mother

Wore’ as lead artist with Streatham Women’s Sewing Group CIC

for which she was awarded a grant by Arts Council England – the

project, which has at its core the aims creating new audiences and

項目概況

featured in London Museums: Museum of Childhood, Horniman

2009年,戈恩與愛爾蘭藝術家雷·莫非(Ray Murphy)共同成立了

the promotion of inclusivity and social inclusion. The artwork was

Museum, the Southbank Centre as well as a number of local festivals. Gunn is currently working with artist Michael Lisle-Taylor and

craftswoman Ifrah Odawa on the Sewing Group’s next collaborative project We’re All in the Same Boat.

She will curate and feature in an international exhibition Intimate

Transgressions at the Whitebox Art Centre New York in September

2015 which highlights the issue of war and genocide rape. This

exhibition will tour in China – Beijing in October and Shanghai in

November. She participated in Mémoire et Sublimation in Paris in March 2015 on the related theme of traumatic memory.

旨在推廣跨文化合作的大小藝術家協會(BIGsmall Artists);並 與艾佛爾·奧達瓦(Ifrah Odawa)創建了斯特黎漢姆婦女紡織協會 (Streatham Women’s Sewing Group CIC)以更好地通過藝術 與手藝推動社會融入行動。目前這兩家機構均為社區利益公司。

2014年,她在英格蘭藝術委員會的資助之下作為首席藝術家和

斯特黎漢姆婦女紡織協會一同打造了名為《母親曾經穿過的衣裳 (The Dress My Mother Wore)》藝術項目,這個藝術項目目的

在於開發新的藝術觀眾群體,同時也是為了促進不同族裔人群能 夠更快地融入英國的社會環境并增強當地社會對外來人群的包容 性,整個藝術項目在倫敦的兒童博物館、霍尼曼博物館、南岸藝術 中心以及很多當地節慶活動中都有展示。

戈恩現在正在和藝術家邁克爾·萊爾-泰勒(Michael Lisle-Taylor) Find Out More w w w.fiongunn.org

w w w.bigsmallar tists.com

w w w.intimatetransgressionsproject.com

w w w.pek-ar ts.com

w w w.memoireetsublimation.weebly.com

w w w.sewinginstreatham.weebly.com

以及手工藝者艾佛爾·奧達瓦一起為紡織協會的下一個藝術項目 《同舟共濟(We’re All in the Same Boat)》進行工作。

2015年三月,她參加了《記憶與昇華(Mémoire et Sublimation)》 在巴黎的展出,并著重討論了關於創傷記憶相關的主題。

2015年九月,戈恩將在美國紐約的白盒子藝術中心策劃一個名為 《“親密”越軌(Intimate Transgressions)》的國際性展覽,這個

展覽將展現和探討戰爭以及戰爭之中伴隨的屠殺和強姦的問題。 該展覽將分別於同年的十月、十一月在北京和上海巡迴展出。


Bristol bloodhound at Richard Wentworth’s curated section. Photo Linda Nylind.

HISTORY IS NOW: 7 Artists Take On Britain 歷史再現: 七位藝術家眼中的英國

In the run up to the General Election in 2015, the Hayward Gallery exhibition History Is Now will

offer a new way of thinking about how we got to where we are today. Seven artists - John Akomfrah,

Simon Fujiwara, Roger Hiorns, Hannah Starkey, Richard Wentworth, and Jane and Louise Wilson – have each been invited to curate sections of the exhibition, looking at particular periods of cultural history from 1945 to the present day. The exhibition is part of Southbank Centre’s Changing Britain 1945 – 2015 festival, from 30 January – 9 May 2015.


Installation view of Richard Wentworth’s curated section. Photo Linda Nylind.

Tips

小貼示

展覽場地:Hay ward Galler y 海沃德畫廊 展覽時間:10.02.2015 – 26.04.2015

更多信息:w w w.southbankcentre.co.uk

History is Now: 7 Artists Take on Britain offers an inventive

way of exploring the country’s recent history; spanning

ideas and topics as varied as the Cold War, post-Thatcherite

society, protest movements, feminism, ‘mad cow disease’ and

celebrity culture. Working with Dr Cliff Lauson, Hayward Gallery come from both public and private collections, as well as draw

正逢2015年英國大選之際,海沃德畫廊迎來了新展《歷史再現:七位

newspapers, films, domestic items, and artifacts. Much of the

年至今的發展歷程。展覽由當下七位炙手可熱的藝術家主導,他們分

upon informal collections and objects such as photographs,

material borrowed from libraries, archives and science, history and local museums has never been seen previously in the context of an art gallery.

藝術家眼中的英國》,該展用一種全新的思考模式來回顧英國從1945 別是約翰·阿肯法(John Akomfrah)、藤原西蒙(Simon Fujiwara)、 羅傑·海恩斯(Roger Hiorns)、漢娜·史塔基(Hannah Starkey)、理查 德·文特沃斯(Richard Wentworth)和威爾遜姐妹(Jane and Louise

Wilson)。在相對獨立的空間裡他們以策展人的身份向觀眾重現他們 心中的某段特定的英國歷史,該展覽同時也是南岸中心《1945-2015大 不列顛的變遷》的項目之一,這場盛典會一直持續至5月9日結束。

《歷史再現:七位藝術家眼中的英國》採用了更具創意性的方式來探索

國家近代歷史;話題豐富多樣,當中包括冷戰、後撒切爾時期社會、抗議 運動、女權主義、 “瘋牛病”和名人文化。在與總策展人克里夫·勞遜博 士(Dr Cliff Lauson)的溝通與協作後,藝術家們總共挑選了250多件物

品,其中有來自公共機構藏品和私人藏品,也有日常物品如照片、報紙、 電影、家庭用品和工藝品。當中有不少材料是從圖書館,檔案室,科學、 歷史和當地博物館借來的,這些珍貴的藏品資料第一次在一個藝術畫 廊中進行展示。

在這些展品中包括了許多知名藝術家的作品,如基斯·阿納特(Keith

Artworks to be shown will include those by: Keith Arnatt,

Tony Cragg, Gilbert and George, Richard Hamilton, Barbara

Hepworth, Damien Hirst, David Hockney, Ryan Gander, Henry Moore, Hayley Newman, Ben Nicholson, Martin Parr, Toby Patterson, Eduardo Paolozzi, Sam Taylor-Johnson, Penny Slinger and Christine Voge among many others.

While each section of the exhibition is distinct in both focus

and style, taken together, History Is Now provokes reflection

Arnat t)、托尼·克拉格(Tony Crag g )、吉爾伯特與喬治(Gilber t

and George)、理查德·漢密爾頓(Richard Hamilton)、芭芭拉·赫

普沃斯(Barbara Hepworth)、達明·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)、大 衛·霍克尼(David Hockney)、瑞安·甘德(Ryan Gander)、亨利·摩

爾(Henr y Moore)、海莉·紐曼(Hayley Newman)、本·尼科爾森

(Ben Nicholson)、馬丁·帕爾(Martin Parr)、托比·帕特森(Toby

Patterson)、愛德華多·保洛齊(Eduardo Paolozzi)、薩姆·泰勒·約翰

遜(Sam Taylor-Johnson)、潘妮·斯靈格(Penny Slinger)和克莉絲汀· 沃格(Christine Voge)等等。

and debate on the events, people, and objects that have

不論在焦點話題還是呈現風格上,七位藝術家的展區都是非常獨樹一

decisions and directions.

的反思和討論,從而為國家未來的決策和走向起到一定的引導作用。

shaped the nation in recent decades, so informing our future

幟的。圍繞各個歷史事件、人物、對象展開, 《歷史再現》引發了一系列

Damien Hirst, Out of Sight. Out of Mind, 1991. Roger Hiorns’ curated section. Photo Linda Nylind.

Curator, the artists have selected over 250 objects, which


Interior © Stuart Leech

Made in China: A Doug Fishbone Project 名畫中的“中國製造”

From 10 February, visitors to Dulwich Picture Gallery will be set the challenge to identify a Chinese replica hanging among the

270 Old Master paintings on display. ‘Made in China: A Doug

Fishbone Project’ will explore the nature and importance of

the original versus the copy and the role of art as commodity, a subject of increasing importance in our age of global mass production.

Conceived by artist Doug Fishbone and curated by Dr Xavier

很難想像一間正統的藝術機構竟公然將名畫的仿製品引進門。其實這

Dulwich will temporarily remove one of its paintings from the

in China: A Doug Fishbone Project)》——從2月10日起,畫廊將發起

Bray, the Arturo and Holly Melosi Chief Curator at the Gallery,

frame, replacing it with a replica commissioned by Fishbone and produced by one of China’s numerous exporters of handmade oil paintings.

For three months the public will be invited to identify the

是多維茨畫廊近期展覽《中國製造:藝術家道格·費甚波恩項目(Made

一項挑戰,公眾需要從270幅早期繪畫大師的作品中辨識出一幅中國 製造的仿製品。該項目的目的是為了讓大家探討原作與仿製品的本質 和重要性,在全球大生產的環境下藝術品作為商品所不可小覷的地位 展開了討論。

replicated painting and have the opportunity to submit their

此次展覽由藝術家道格·費甚波恩(Doug Fishbone)構思,多維茨畫

answer will be entered into a competition to win a custom

維爾·布雷博士(Dr Xavier Bray)策劃。費甚波恩先前委託中國出口商

answers via an iPad in the Gallery. Those with the correct

print from the Gallery’s collection, signed by Doug Fishbone.

The replica will be revealed on 28 April 2015 when it will hang side by side with the original. Visitors will be invited to return

廊的阿圖羅和霍利·梅洛西(the Arturo and Holly Melosi)總策展人澤 複製其中一幅館藏畫作,然後策展團隊將原作從畫框內取出,替換成 這幅仿製品。

to compare and contrast. How does the brushwork differ? How

在為期三個月的展覽中,畫廊盛情邀請大眾來找出這幅仿製品,且可

interpreted the style of painting of an Old Master?

畫印刷品,並附有道格·費甚波恩親筆簽名。多維茨畫廊將在2015年4

has the varnish aged on the original? How has the Chinese artist

以通過iPad提交答案。回答正確的觀眾將有機會角逐一幅珍貴的名 月28日揭曉答案,屆時仿製品會與原作一併展示,大眾可以比較筆觸 不同之處,原畫表漆的褪變程度還有中國畫家是如何模仿早期繪畫 的風格。


Displaying Original Fraginard and the Replica ©Dulwich Picture Gallery

Many Old Master painters, from Titian to Rubens, encouraged the iteration of their work, of which there are several examples in Dulwich’s collection.

The Gallery’s version of Venus & Adonis clearly demonstrates how Titian’s

assistants would have mapped out the composition using a template, with the master coming along at the end of the process to add the finishing touches. 小貼示

展覽場地:Dulwich Picture Galler y 多維茨畫廊 展覽時間:10.02.2015 – 26.04.2015

更多信息:w w w.dulwichpicturegaller y.org.uk

Today, famous paintings are being reproduced in the millions with China dominating this export market.

By placing a replica amongst its collection Dulwich will be encouraging the

public to look closely and engage with the magic of the originals on display, and to also explore the issues raised by Fishbone’s work regarding identity,

value and authorship. Does a replica introduced into the sanctity of a museum setting acquire newfound quality and status?

早期的繪畫大師如提香(Titian)和魯本斯(Rubens)反復重畫自己的作品在多維茨畫

廊就有好些展示。畫廊藏品中的《維納斯和阿多尼斯(Venus & Adonis)》就清楚地展 示了當年提香的助手們是如何使用模版進行描繪,在最後收尾時再由提香畫龍點睛。 如今,中國主導著龐大的出口市場,大師名畫正被數以百萬次地複制與交易。

用複製品替換原作這一做法不僅鼓勵公眾仔細觀察和品味原作的魅力,也展開了關於 身份、價值和原創者提出的疑問:當一張仿製品出現在神聖的殿堂時有被賦予不一樣 的特性和地位嗎?

Replica invoice

Tips


War Room (2015) by Cornelia Parker. Photographer David Levene. Courtesy of the Whitworth.

Fall in Love Again: The Whitworth Reopens 情定惠特沃斯美術館 The Whitworth, part of The University of Manchester,

reopened its doors on 14 February 2015 following a £15

million redevelopment project by MUMA (McInnes Usher McKnight Architects), that transform the 125 year old

Whitworth into a 21st century gallery in the park. The

redevelopment, which has been supported by a major

Heritage Lottery Fund grant, The University of Manchester

and other funders, doubles public space and creates state-

of-the-art new facilities including expanded gallery spaces, a study centre, learning studio, and a collections centre.

Leading with a major solo exhibition from one of Britain’s

most acclaimed contemporary artists, Cornelia Parker, the opening programme celebrates the Whitworth’s eclectic

CORNELIA PARKER. ‘Cold Dark Matter, An Exploded View’ 1991. Photographer Hugo Glendinning.

and extensive collection of historical and contemporary

fine art, textiles and wallpapers. Gallery displays include: A gallery papered with Sarah Lucas’ Tits in Space (2000)

wallpaper, in which multiple pairs of cigarette-encrusted

orbs float against a pitch black background. The wallpaper forms the backdrop to a selection of sculptures by the

internationally renowned British artist. Johnnie Shand Kydd displays never-before-seen photographs of YBAs (Young British Artists) during the 1990s on the Greek Island of

Hydra. Chinese artist Cai Guo-Qiang has created a large reflective water pool in the new Landscape Gallery for

his gunpowder installation, Unmanned Nature (2008).

Tips

小貼示

展覽場地:the Whit wor th 惠特沃斯美術館

更多信息:w w w.whit wor th.manchester.ac.uk


全新勝地,於2015年情人節當天對公眾重新開放。由遺產彩票基金會

(Heritage Lottery Fund),曼徹斯特大學及其他出資者共同耗資1500萬 英鎊,由MUMA建築事務所策劃改建,把惠特沃斯美術館從一棟擁有125

年曆史的古建築轉型成與園景渾然天成的當代美術館。改建後的公共空 間不僅是過去的兩倍,新增的設施如擴充的展覽空間、全新的學習中心、 研習室和藏品中心也均達到了最高標準。

開幕展覽不僅有久負盛名的英國當代藝術家科妮莉亞·帕克(Cornelia

Parker)坐鎮,惠特沃斯美術館還呈現了更多館內珍品:歷史和當代美

An installation of Low Tide Wandering, by leading

(Sarah Lucas)的壁紙作品《空間裡的奶頭(Tits in Space, 2000)》,多

are suspended just above head height from taut wires

術作品、紡織品和壁紙等。其中一間展館鋪滿了英國藝術家莎拉·盧卡斯 對由香煙裹成的球狀物均勻浮在漆黑的背景中,這與她的其他雕塑作品 放置在一起顯得相得益彰;另外也有約翰尼·尚德·基德(Johnnie Shand

German artist Thomas Schütte, whose daily etchings encompassing the whole gallery.

Kydd)首次曝光的攝影系列作品--20世紀90年代在希臘島嶼伊德拉島

Dr Maria Balshaw, Director of the Whitworth says: “We

的山水畫廊內中國藝術家蔡國強(Cai Guo-Qiang)利用一座反光大水池

should be a unified experience for our visitors. Our new

(Hydra)上的年輕英國藝術家們(YBAs,Young British Artists);在新建

來映襯他的火藥繪畫作品《無人的自然(Unmanned Nature, 2008)》;

德國藝術家托馬斯·舒特(Thomas Schütte)每日一練的系列銅版畫《低

落徬徨(Low Tide Wandering)》也是一大亮點,百餘張畫作懸掛在頭部 上方貫穿了整個展廳。

館長瑪麗亞·巴爾沙博士(Dr Maria Balshaw)表示: “我們一直認為藝術 館與公園相結合的遊覽經驗是我們應該帶給參觀者的。這項改建計劃令

我們夢想得以實現,此次的開幕展覽將惠式的精神完美呈現:這是曼城

have long held the view that the gallery and the park

building makes this a reality. The opening programme,

led by Cornelia Parker’s remarkable exhibition, captures

Central Exhibition Gallery, Cornelia Parker’s exhibition. Photographer David Levene. Courtesy of the Whitworth.

隸屬曼切斯特大學的惠特沃斯美術館是隱逸在惠特沃斯公園內的一處

the spirit of the Whitworth – a place where marvellous, eclectic art works connect to people and our place in Manchester.”Just six weeks after reopening, the

Whitworth welcomes its 100,000 visit, and has been shortlisted for Museum of the Year 2015.

的一處奇妙之所,是它把藝術與人民牽引在一起。”惠特沃斯美術館在重

開後六週內就迎來了100,000參觀人次,最近亦被提名為年度博物館2015

Cai Guo-Qiang, Unmanned Nature, The Whitworth, Photographer Michael Pollard

的候選博物館。


Magnificent Obsessions: The Artist as Collector 瑰丽之寶:艺术家藏品

Magnificent Obsessions: The Artist as Collector is the first

各大藝術機構總是對享譽國際的藝術家作品趨之若鶩,但他們的私人收

collections of post-war and contemporary artists, including

藏品(Magnificent Obsessions: The Artist as Collector)》首次將藝術

major exhibition in the UK to present the fascinating personal Arman, Peter Blake, Hanne Darboven, Edmund de Waal,

Damien Hirst, Howard Hodgkin, Dr Lakra, Sol LeWitt, Martin

Parr, Jim Shaw, Hiroshi Sugimoto, Andy Warhol, Pae White and Martin Wong/Danh Vo. Their collections range from mass-

produced memorabilia and popular collectibles to one-of-a-

kind curiosities, rare artefacts, and natural history specimens. Curated by Lydia Yee, the exhibition presents a selection of objects from the collections of the artists alongside at least one key example of their work to provide insight into their Hanne Darboven collection. Magnificent Obsessions_The Artist as Collector, Barbican Art Gallery. ©Peter MacDiarmid, Getty Images

inspirations, influences, motives, and obsessions.

藏卻鮮為人知的。近期巴比肯藝術中心的大型展覽《瑰麗之寶:藝術家的 家的私人珍藏推向了公眾視野。參展的藝術家有戰後及當代藝術家:阿曼 (Arman)、彼得·布萊克(Peter Blake)、漢娜·達波文(Hanne Darboven)、

艾德蒙·德瓦爾(Edmund de Waal)、達米恩·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)、霍華 德·霍奇金(Howard Hodgkin)、Dr Lakra、索爾·勒維特(Sol LeWitt)、馬丁· 帕爾(Martin Parr)、吉姆·肖(Jim Shaw)、杉本博司(Hiroshi Sugimoto)、

安迪·沃霍爾(Andy Warhol)、佩·懷特(Pae White)、馬丁·黃和傅丹(Martin

Wong /Danh Vo)。展品的种类千差万别,有普通的批量紀念品和傳統收 藏品;也有獨一無二的珍品,罕見的手工藝品和自然歷史標本等。策展人 莉迪亞·儀(Lydia Yee)為了使大眾更深入理解藏品對藝術家帶來的靈感 和影響,以及收藏的初衷與迷戀,藝術家本人的創作也將一併呈现。


Left: Martin Wong collection_Dahn Vo artwork. Magnificent Obsessions_The Artist as Collector, Barbican Art Gallery. ©Peter MacDiarmid, Getty Images Right: Arman artwork. Magnificent Obsessions_The Artist as Collector, Barbican Art Gallery. ©Peter MacDiarmid, Getty Images

While many of the participating artists are recognised internationally, their collections are often private and less well known. Individual

collections include: African art and samurai armour owned by Arman; examples of British vernacular culture from Peter Blake; the eclectic contents of two rooms from Hanne Darboven’s family home in

Hamburg; Edmund de Waal’s Japanese netsuke; Damien Hirst’s skulls,

taxidermy and medical models; Indian paintings from Howard Hodgkin; Dr. Lakra’s record covers and scrapbooks, Sol LeWitt’s Japanese prints,

modernist photographs and music scores; 20th century British postcards and Soviet space dog memorabilia from Martin Parr; Jim Shaw’s thrift

store paintings; Hiroshi Sugimoto’s 18th century French and Japanese

scarves and other textiles by the American designer Vera Neumann from Pae White; and a collection of thousands of objects assembled by Martin Wong and subsequently acquired by Danh Vo.

Throughout history artists have collected objects for professional and

private reasons – as studio props, sources of inspiration, references for

Tips

小貼示

展覽場地:Barbican Ar t Galler y 巴比肯藝 術中心 展覽時間:12.02.2015 – 25.05.2015 更多信息:w w w.barbican.org.uk

their work, personal mementos and even as investment.

本次展覽的亮點包括:阿曼的非洲藝術和武士鎧甲;彼得·布萊

Reflecting personal interests and obsessions, their acquisitions are

德蒙·德瓦爾的日本根付;達米恩·赫斯特的頭骨、動物標本和醫

usually made in tandem with their own work and on a visual basis.

While many artists make direct use of their collections for research and study purposes – sometimes incorporating individual items into their

own work – others keep them under wraps or in storage. Some artists

are connoisseurs, carefully shaping their collections and selling objects

to make new purchases, and others accumulate hoards of things, never letting anything go.

克的英國本土文化的範本;漢娜·達波文家中房間的部分展示;艾

學模型;霍華德·霍奇金的印度繪畫; Dr. Lakra的專輯封面和剪貼

簿;索爾·勒維特的日本版畫、現代主義攝影和樂譜;馬丁·帕爾的

20世紀英國明信片和蘇聯太空狗紀念品;吉姆·肖從二手店淘來 的畫;杉本博司的18世紀法國和日本的解剖圖和書籍;安迪·沃霍

爾的餅乾罐;佩·懷特珍藏了設計師薇拉·紐曼設計的1000多條圍 巾等紡織品;而馬丁·黃收集了一整組由數以千計的物件构成的藏 品,隨後又由傅丹收藏。

縱觀歷史,大部份藝術家們因為專業或私人的理由收集物件,如 工作室擺件、靈感來源、參考文獻、個人紀念,甚至作為投資。這 些藏品通常反映出藝術家的個人愛好和執迷,不僅與自己的創作

息息相關並且反映了自身的視覺準則。當中許多藝術家直接使

用藏品進行學術研究,有時甚至將個別物件運用到作品中去,而 有一些人則將藏品封裝和儲藏。一些藝術家同時也是收藏界的 行家,他們精心管理自己的藏品,銷售再購置新的物件;而另一 些人則喜歡日積月累地收集,絕不出讓任何一件。

Jim Shaw’s thrift store paintings collection. Magnificent Obsessions_The Artist as Collector, Barbican Art Gallery. ©Peter MacDiarmid, Getty Image

anatomical prints and books; Andy Warhol’s cookie jars; more than 1,000


Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty 亚历山大·麦昆:野性之美

繼2011年盛況空前的紐約展覽之後,鬼才設計師亞歷山大·麥 昆(Alexander McQueen)的回顧展於2015年春季回歸故土倫

Installation view of ‘Romantic Nationalism’ gallery. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

敦,命名為《野性之美》。此次展覽是麥昆整個創作生涯的重 現,貫穿了女裝創作歷程的始末,從最初1992年中央聖馬丁藝

術設計學院碩士畢業作品至2010年秋冬季未完成的遺作,所有 最具代表性的主題和概念都將展示於公眾。

展覽總共劃分為十個主題展區。第一個展區“倫敦”回顧了麥

昆自小的成長環境倫敦以及他早期最具爆發力的七組系列作 品。當年的秀場影片也將一併呈現,其中包括了1996年的春夏

系列《飢餓(The Hunger)》。麥昆驚世的才華絕不止於此,在 隨後的展區中展現了他在各大領域的嘗試,堪稱淋漓盡致。例

如“野性思維”是麥昆對傳統剪裁技法的顛覆性突破; “浪漫

哥特(Romantic Gothic)”探索了黑暗與光明的相互交錯; “浪

漫 原始主義(Romantic Pr imitivism)”和“浪漫自然 主義

Savage Beauty will be presented in ten sections which will showcase the dominant themes and concepts within Alexander McQueen’s

extraordinary body of work. The sections are built around garments

which span the breadth of McQueen’s womenswear collections, from his MA graduate collection in 1992 to A/W 2010, McQueen’s final, unfinished collection.

Spray Painted Dress by Alexander McQueen. Model: Shalom Harlow represented by dna model management New York, Image: Catwalking.

The first section of the exhibition, London, will focus on McQueen’s London roots and his early development as a designer. Important designs from McQueen’s impactful first seven collections will be

displayed alongside footage of catwalk shows including The Hunger

(S/S 1996). McQueen’s skillful subversion of traditional tailoring practices will be the focus of Savage Mind. The interplay between dark and

light will be explored in Romantic Gothic. Romantic Primitivism

will explore McQueen’s fascination with the animal world, a subject

which inspired him throughout his career. McQueen’s fascination with his Scottish heritage, ancestry and the colonial past will be explored

within Romantic Nationalism. McQueen’s longstanding interest in

Eastern cultures will be examined in Romantic Exoticism. Romantic Naturalism will represent McQueen’s lifelong passion for nature and

the inspiration he drew from its beauty and fragility.

(Romantic Naturalism)”分別展示了麥昆對動物世界的迷戀,

以及對自然的鍾愛,從大自然的美麗和脆弱中獲得靈感;在“浪

漫民族主義(Romantic Nationalism)”中有麥昆對於具備蘇格

蘭傳統,血統和殖民歷史的驕傲;在“浪漫異國風情(Romantic Exoticism)”中也講述了他對於東方文化濃厚的興趣。 Tips

小貼示

展覽場地:V& A MUSEUM 维多利亚及阿尔伯特博物馆 展覽時間:14.03.2015 – 02.08.2015 更多信息:w w w.vam.ac.uk


Installation view of ‘Cabinet of Curiosities’ gallery. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

The Cabinet of Curiosities will form the heart of the exhibition

在一個巨型空間“珍奇陳列室(The Cabinet of Curiosities)”

more than 100 garments and accessories, produced in collaboration

師菲利普·崔西(Philip Treacy)和首飾設計師如肖恩·利尼

and will be presented in a double- height gallery. It will showcase with the milliner Philip Treacy and jewellers such as Shaun Leane and Sarah Harmarnee. A further section in the exhibition will be devoted to recreating the spectacular Pepper’s Ghost, which

provided a memorable finale to The Widows of Culloden (A/W

2006-07)- The spectral form of Kate Moss will appear nearly life size.

內陳列著100多套服裝及配飾,其中有麥昆與著名帽飾設計

(Shaun Leane)和薩拉·哈莫尼(Sarah Harmarnee)等人的 聯袂創作。而另一個特定展區則還原了奇特的“佩珀爾幻象 (Pepper’s Ghost)”,這是2006/2007年秋冬季《卡洛登

的寡婦(The Widows of Culloden)》的壓軸秀,接近真人 形體的凱特·莫斯(Kate Moss)將以全息投影形式呈現。

McQueen’s last fully realised collection, Plato’s Atlantis (S/S 2010)

2 010 年 春夏系列《柏拉 圖 的亞特蘭 蒂 斯王 國(Plato’s

where the ice caps have melted and humanity has had to devolve

最終系列。故事設定在一個未來世界,因為冰原融化人類不

will be the finale of the exhibition. Set within a futuristic narrative in order to live under the sea, the dramatically original collection fused McQueen’s interest in nature and technology in what was widely considered his greatest achievement.

Atlantis)》是本次展覽的最大亮點,這是麥昆生前完成的 得不遷移到海底生活,大膽而誇張的原創設計融合了麥昆在 自然和工藝上的獨特品味,所以該系列也被譽為他最偉大 的創作。


Photograph of Paul Durand-Ruel in his gallery, taken by Dornac, about 1910, Archives Durand-Ruel © Durand-Ruel & Cie

Inventing Impressionism 印象派伯樂

“Without him”, said Monet,

“We wouldn’t have survived.” “沒有他”莫奈說,

“也就沒有我們。”

This spring, the National Gallery presents the UK’s first major exhibition

春至,一位印象派的傳奇人物將造訪英國國家美術館。他既不

(1831-1922). An entrepreneurial art dealer, Durand-Ruel discovered

紀人。他是推動印象派發展的中堅力量,更被視為當今國際

devoted to the man who invented Impressionism, Paul Durand-Ruel and unwaveringly supported the Impressionist painters and is now

considered a founding father of the international art market as we know it today.

This ground-breaking exhibition lifts the veil on the pivotal figure

that discovered Monet, Pissarro, Degas and Renoir in the early 1870s, immediately buying their works when they were still largely ignored or ridiculed. The dealer became the most courageous backer during its early decades of struggle, dedicating his entire life to making the creative journey of the Impressionists a success story.

是流派創始人也非印象派大師,而是一位特立獨行的藝術經

藝術市場的開創者——保羅•杜朗-盧埃爾(Paul Durand-Ruel) (1831-1922)。

《印象派伯樂》這個具有開拓性的展覽向大眾揭開了這位幕 後功臣的面紗。在19世紀70年代初期,眼光獨到的他先后發現 了莫奈(Monet)、畢沙羅(Pissarro)、德加(Degas)和雷諾瓦

(Renoir)超乎常人的天賦,當這些畫家仍是無人問津的小人

物時,杜朗-盧埃爾毫不猶豫地買下了他們的畫作。在早期的奮 戰中杜朗-盧埃爾是印象派最強大的後盾,他傾盡了一生來推動 印象派從邊緣走向藝術的輝煌。


Paul Cézanne, The Mill on the Couleuvre near Pontoise, about 1881, Oil on canvas, 73.5 x 91.5 cm,Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie, A-606 © Photo Scala, Florence / bpk, Bildagentur für Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte, Berlin / Photo: Klaus Goeken

insight, Durand-Ruel developed revolutionary business

strategies, such as exclusivity, and one-man shows of ‘his’ artists. He turned his Paris-based business into a global

firm, staging countless exhibitions around the world and reversing the fortunes of the Impressionists. Beyond his work as a dealer and gallery owner, Durand-Ruel also

assembled a personal collection of paintings which he exhibited in his apartment where he often welcomed

visitors, as it allowed him to showcase the work of the

Impressionists in a more domestic and intimate setting.

Inventing Impressionism follows the key events of Paul Durand-

Ruel’s career in a broadly chronological order; these are intrinsically linked with the rise to fame of the Impressionist painters. The

exhibition will present a series of rarely-seen portraits of the dealer and his children painted by Renoir and exhibited in the UK for the first time. Other highlight paintings will include no less than five paintings from Monet’s ‘Poplars’ series and all three of Renoir’s famous ‘Dances’.

Paul Durand-Ruel was 89-years old when he declared: “At last the

Impressionist masters triumphed … My madness had been wisdom.

To think that, had I passed away at sixty, I would have died debt-ridden and bankrupt, surrounded by a wealth of underrated treasures…” Tips

了一套革命性的經營策略,如獨家代理、代理藝術家個展等。他 把巴黎本土業務擴張成跨國企業,在世界各地舉辦了無數次展

覽,徹底扭轉了印象派的命運。除了作為藝術經紀人和畫廊主, 杜朗-盧埃爾還是一位資深的收藏家。他將自己的公寓打造成印 象派的展示空間,以更個性更親民的方式呈現給訪客。

《印象派伯樂》按時間順序展開,以杜朗-盧埃爾的職業生涯為 主線,從本質上來說似乎更像是一部編年史,記載著印象派日益 壯大的史實。展覽在英國首次呈現雷諾瓦為杜朗-盧埃爾及其孩

子們創作的肖像系列,其他亮點還包括莫奈“楊木”系列和雷諾 瓦最為人稱道的“舞蹈”系列。

89歲高齡的杜朗-盧埃爾曾感嘆到: “印象派大師們終於贏得了戰

役……我的一切瘋狂行為是明智的。如果我60歲就去世了,那時 候的我肯定是債務纏身,身邊堆滿了無價之寶卻無人知曉……”

小貼示

展覽場地:National Galler y 英國國家美術館 展覽時間:04.03.2015 – 31.05.2015

更多信息:w w w.nationalgaller y.org.uk

Edouard Manet,The Salmon, 1869, Oil on canvas, 71.8 x 89.9 cm Collection of Shelburne Museum, Gift of the Electra Havemeyer Webb Fund, Inc., 1972-69.16 © Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vermont

憑著獨到的藝術鑒賞力和卓越的商業頭腦,杜朗-盧埃爾發展

Claude Monet, Poplars in the Sun, 1891 Oil on canvas,93 × 73.5 cm The National Museum of Western Art, Matsukata Collection, Tokyo P.1959-0152 © National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo

With great artistic flair and extraordinary commercial


Adventures of the Black Square: Abstract Art and Society 1915 – 2015 黑方歷險記: 抽象藝術與社會1915-2015 A major new exhibition tracing a century of Abstract art from 1915 to

Dan Flavin,‘Monument’ for V. Tatlin, 1966–9, Fluorescent tubes and metal, 305.4 × 58.4 × 8.9 cm © 2014 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, Courtesy Tate Collection: Purchased 1971

today is on show at the Whitechapel Gallery. It brings together over

100 works by 100 modern masters and contemporary artists including Carl Andre, David Batchelor, Dan Flavin, Andrea Fraser, Piet Mondrian,

Gabriel Orozco, Hélio Oiticica, Aleksandr Rodchenko, Sophie TaeuberArp, Rosemarie Trockel, Theo Van Doesburg and Andrea Zittel.

Curated by Iwona Blazwick OBE, Director, and Magnus af Petersens, Curator at Large, Whitechapel Gallery, Adventures of the Black

Square: Abstract Art and Society 1915 – 2015 is international in

its scope including Asia, the US and Latin America. The exhibition

includes paintings, sculptures, film and photographs spanning the century from 1915 to the present, brought together from major international collections.

百位現代大師和當代藝術家的逾百件作品齊聚倫敦白教堂畫廊,展覽《黑方 歷險記:抽象藝術與社會1915-2015》追溯了抽象藝術的百年演變史,其中

包括著名藝術家卡爾·安德烈(Carl Andre)、大衛·巴徹勒(David Batchelor)、 丹·弗萊文(Dan Flavin)、安德烈亞·福瑞澤(Andrea Fraser)、皮特·蒙德里安 (Piet Mondrian)、加布里埃爾·奧羅茲科(Gabriel Orozco)、何裡歐·奧蒂塞卡

(Hélio Oiticica)、亞歷山大·羅欽可(Aleksandr Rodchenko)、蘇菲·陶伯-阿

爾普(Sophie Taeuber-Arp)、羅斯瑪麗·特洛柯爾(Rosemarie Trockel)、 特奧·凡·杜斯伯格(Theo Van Doesburg)和安德烈·奇特爾(Andrea Zittel)。

經館長伊沃娜·布萊茲維克(Iwona Blazwick OBE)和策展人馬格努斯·艾

弗·皮特森(Magnus af Petersens)共同策劃,展覽彷彿是一幅橫跨全球各 個大洲的世界抽象藝術版圖,從1915年至今的百餘件藝術作品均來自全球 各大藝術機構的慷慨借出。


由馬列維奇 最 具 顛覆性影 響的《 黑與白,至

上主義創作(Black and White, Suprematist 代表作黑色方塊系列之一。1915年,該系列曾

在彼得格勒(今聖彼得堡)《最後的未來主義 展覽:0.10(The Last Futurist Exhibition of

Paintings: 0.10)》中轟​​動一時。早於1917年俄 國革命,該系列標誌著抽象藝術的萌芽,同時 也預示著藝術的政治潛能。

展覽按時間線劃分為四大主題: “溝通”——檢

視了通過抽象來鼓動社會變革的可能性; “建築 學”——審視了抽象是如何強化社會轉型; “烏 托邦”——展望了一種無分階級或等級的新型理 想社會; “日常”——抽象語言滲入到視覺文化 的方方面面。

整個展覽項目的陳列、藝術委任項目和特別活

動將白教堂畫廊裝點的無處不抽象,當中包括

大衛·巴徹勒(David Batchelor)從1997紀錄至 今的500張黑白檔案照片的展示,巴特·路德威

克(Bart Lodewijks)的抽象白線定點創作,以

Kazimir Malevich, Black and White. Suprematist Composition, 1915, Oil on canvas, 80 x 80 cm Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Donation 2004 from Bengt and Jelena Jangfeldt

Composition,1915)》作開場,這是馬列維奇

及一系列研討會和行為藝術來探討抽象藝術與 社會和政治的相關論題。

The exhibition begins with one of Kazimir Malevich’s radical

‘black square’ paintings. Alongside Malevich’s Black and White,

Suprematist Composition (1915), included in the famous

exhibition The Last Futurist Exhibition of Paintings: 0.10 (1915) in Petrograd, now St Petersburg, prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917, these iconic works are the starting point for telling the story

Tips

小貼示

展覽場地:Whitechapel Galler y 白教堂畫廊 展覽時間:15.01.2015 – 06.04.2015

更多信息:w w w.whitechapelgaller y.org

Arranged chronologically, the exhibition is divided into four key themes:‘Communication’ examines the possibilities of

abstraction for mobilizing radical change.‘Architectonics’ looks at how abstraction can underpin socially transformative

spaces.‘Utopia’ imagines a new, ideal society, which transcends hierarchy and class.‘The Everyday’ follows the way abstract art

filters into all aspects of visual culture, from corporate logos to textile design.

To coincide with Adventures of the Black Square: Abstract Art

and Society 1915–2015, abstract art takes over the Whitechapel Gallery with displays, commissions and special events including David Batchelor: Monochrome Archive 1997-2015,Bart

Lodewijks: White Li(n)es and a programme of talks and

performances expand on the themes of the exhibition.

Dóra Maurer, Seven Rotations 1–6, 1979, Six gelatin silver prints, 20 × 20 cm each Collection of Zsolt Somlói and Katalin Spengler © Dóra Maurer

of Abstract art and its political potential over the next century.


Marlene Dumas: The Image as Burden 瑪琳·杜馬斯: 成為負擔的圖像 Marlene Dumas is one of the most prominent painters of her generation. Marlene Dumas , Evil is Banal 1984, Collection Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, The Netherlands © Marlene Dumas, Photo credit: Peter Cox, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Tate Modern’s large-scale survey is the most significant exhibition of her work ever to be held in Europe, charting her career from the early 1970s to the present. The exhibition offers a compelling overview of her work, exploring the physical and psychological reality of human existence

and the importance of the painted image. The show brings together

over 100 of her most important and iconic paintings and drawings, her experimental collaged works and her most recent canvases.

Dumas’s intense, psychologically-charged imagery often references

art history, popular culture and current affairs. Her approach to making art combines the personal with the public, painting those closest to her – such as her daughter in Helena’s Dream 2008 – alongside images of such famous and infamous faces as Amy Winehouse,

Princess Diana, Osama bin Laden and Phil Spector. She is unafraid to

address controversial subjects, from a colonial war for independence in The Woman of Algiers 2001 to a political assassination in The

Widow 2013, as well as themes derived from newspaper articles,

religious imagery, the adult entertainment industry and the artist’s

imagination. Simultaneously drawing upon the world around her and

her own experiences, Dumas reflects on contemporary anxieties about

Marlene Dumas , The Image as Burden 1993, Private collection, Belgium © Marlene Dumas, Photo: Peter Cox

love and death, gender and sexuality, and mass media and celebrity.

瑪琳·杜馬斯,20世紀末最傑出的女性藝術家之一。她的作品充滿了對人類生 存現狀的思考,不論是生理還是心理;與此同時對圖像的描繪也是她創作中很

重要的環節。2015年倫敦泰特現代美術館為她量身定製了一個大型個展,名為

《成為負擔的圖像》,是對上世紀70年代初期至今的整體藝術生涯的回顧。展 覽展出了百餘件杜馬斯最具代表性作品,當中包括繪畫、素描、實驗性的拼貼 和最近的油畫。 Tips

小貼示

展覽場地:Tate Modern 泰特現代美術館 展覽時間:05.02.2015 – 10.05.2015 更多信息:w w w.tate.org.uk


Marlene Dumas , The Widow 2013, Private Collection © Marlene Dumas

The exhibition’s title is derived from Dumas’s The Image as Burden 1993, a small painting depicting

杜馬斯經常將藝術史、流行文化和時事政治等話題繪製成充滿張

inspired by a film still of Greta Garbo and Robert

也有家喻戶曉的大眾圖像如艾米·懷恩豪斯(Amy Winehouse)、戴

one figure carrying another. The composition was

Taylor, but also brings to mind art historical images of Mary contemplating the dead body of Jesus.

Dumas draws a connection between the subject of

the painting, and the painter who carries the weight

of her subject. Her interest lies in the impact that the act of painting has on the image, rather than that

of the image on the painting. In an era dominated

by the proliferation of images, Dumas’s work can be seen as a testament to the meaning and potency of painting.

力,情緒化的藝術作品。繪畫對像有自己最親密的人,她的女兒《海

倫娜的夢境(Helena’s Dream, 2008)》;也搜羅並重現了許多著名 安娜王妃(Princess Diana)、本·拉登(Osama bin Laden)和菲爾·

史貝克特(Phil Spector)。杜馬斯並不避諱爭議性的話題,例如爭

取獨立的殖民戰爭作品《阿爾及爾的女子(The Woman of Algiers, 2001)》,還有關於政治暗殺的作品《寡婦(The Widow, 2013)》;她

也會從新聞報紙、宗教隱喻、色情產業和藝術家幻想中找尋主題,再

結合周遭世界與親身經歷,杜馬斯探討了當下社會對於愛情和死亡、 性別和性、大眾媒體和名人文化的焦慮。

展覽名稱來自杜馬斯的同名作品《成為負擔的圖像(The Image as Burden,1993)》,這幅小畫作描繪了懷抱女子的男子。當時她受葛

麗泰·嘉寶(Greta Garbo)和羅伯特·泰勒(Robert Taylor)的電影劇

照啟發,同時作品也令人想起聖母凝視耶穌遺體的畫面。杜馬斯將 作品的中心人物與畫家本身相聯繫,她的興趣在於探討繪畫對圖像

影響,而不是圖像對繪畫的影響。在這個圖像氾濫的時代,杜馬斯 的作品正是一個寫照——繪畫語言所具備的重大意義與無限潛能。


Marcus Doyle (UK), Red Chair. Location: North Shores, Salton Sea, California

The Syngenta Photography Award: Scarcity-Waste 先正達攝影獎: 稀缺與浪費

“先正達攝影獎”是一項全球性的攝影

獎項,旨在通過視覺語言就當前的全球

危機引發系列討論從而提高公眾意識。 第二屆“先正達攝影獎”以人類最大的 挑戰“稀缺與浪費”為主題,因為足夠 的土地、食物和水源等自然資源是後代 繁衍的基本保障,所以主委會希望通過

Now in its second edition, the Syngenta Photography Award is an

international competition which aims to stimulate dialogue and raise

Lasse Bak Mejlvang (Denmark), Smokey Mountain. Location: Manila, Philippines

awareness about significant global challenges through photography. This exhibition will highlight some of the most thought-provoking and powerful responses to the ‘Scarcity- Waste’ theme – one of

humankind’s greatest challenges. Ensuring enough land, food and water for future generations has become a fundamental social,

political and environmental issue of our time. The photographers not only illustrate the ‘Scarcity-Waste’ theme, in striking and ambitious ways, but have also taken on the role of courageous advocates, showing deep concern for our environment.

Tips

小貼示

展覽場地:Somerset House, London 倫敦薩默塞特府 展覽時間:11.03.2015 – 10.04.2015

更多信息:w w w.syngentaphoto.com

借助攝影來探討這個最發人深省的話 題。當然僅有視覺震懾力是遠遠不夠 的,攝影師們更應充當起勇敢者的角色 呼籲人們關注環境問題。


Benedikt Partenheimer (Germany), Shijiazhuang, AQI 360, 2014. Shiziazhuang, China Location: Shanghai, China

Curated by Candlestar, the exhibition is divided into themed rooms. The

展覽由藝術顧問公司Candlestar策劃,入圍作品按主題分

such as population growth and the increased demand on resources. Latvian

激增和對資源需求的加劇。拉脫維亞攝影師艾尼斯·斯達寇

first two rooms illustrate the pressures on the world today due to factors

photographer Alnis Stakle’s Shangri-La is of a dimly lit building site for a

skyscraper in Shanghai, representative of the growth of China’s population.

In another room addressing issues such as poverty and mass consumption,

Garbage City: Cairo, Egypt by Italian photographer Francesca Remorini,

captures a group of children belonging to the ‘Garbage people’ community in an overcrowded slum settlement on the outskirts of the Moqattam Hills. The slum’s inhabitants recycle a staggering 80 percent of the garbage collected from Cairo’s residents – an activity that is central to the local’s economy.

類。前半部分展示了由於各種因素導致的全球危機,如人口 (Alnis Stakle)的作品《香格里拉(Shangri-La)》取景是上 海某處摩天大樓的昏暗建築工地,隱喻中國人口的迅速膨

脹。後半部分展示了諸如貧困和大眾消費等問題,意大利攝

影師弗朗西斯·瑞莫里尼(Francesca Remorini)的作品《垃

圾城:埃及首府開羅(Garbage City: Cairo, Egypt)》捕捉了 一群來自“拾荒者部落”的孩子們,該貧民窟坐落在默卡塔 姆山(Moqattam Hills)邊郊。那裡的貧民幾乎回收了80% 的城市垃圾,這已經成為當地經濟鏈中不可或缺的一環。

Over 2,000 professional and amateur photographers from all over the

當我們意識到資源日益匱乏,來自全球2000多位專業和非

– one of the greatest challenges we face today in a world of increasingly

紀實攝影師穆斯塔法·阿齊茲(Mustafah Abdulaziz)的《靈

world submitted applications in response to the subject of Scarcity-Waste limited resources. US Documentary Photographer Mustafah Abdulaziz wins Professional Commission for his acclaimed Water series.German

Photographer Benedikt Partenheimer wins Open Competition for his image,

Shijiazhuang, AQI 360, 2014.

專業攝影師用視覺語言積極響應。在本屆獲獎名單中,美國 魂之水(Water)》攝影系列榮獲專業組一等獎;德國攝影師 貝內迪克·帕頓錫莫(Benedikt Partenheimer)則憑《石家 莊空氣質量指數360(Shijiazhuang, AQI 360,2014)》獲得公 開賽的冠軍。


The Catlin Art Prize 2015 2015年凱特琳藝術獎: 英國藝術院校的新生力量 The Catlin Art Prize gives talented young artists who have recently graduated from UK art

schools the opportunity to showcase their work professionally and win a significant monetary award towards their future development.

Oliver Hickmet. Let’s Go Swimming. Photograph acid dyed on silk, acrylic paint, wooden stretcher 300 x 300 cm.

Now in its ninth year, the Catlin Art Prize is a curated exhibition featuring artists selected

from The Catlin Guide 2015. The Catlin Guide is an introduction to the 40 most promising new graduate artists in the UK, recommended by a wide survey of curators, art writers, collectors, gallerists and course tutors.

The 2015 Catlin Art Prize finalists are: Jon Baker (Chelsea College of Arts), Felicity Hammond

(Royal College of Art), Oliver Hickmet (City &

Guilds of London Art School), Nicholas Johnson (Royal College of Art), Paul Schneider (Royal

Academy of Arts), Lexi Strauss (Royal College of Art), Dominic Watson (The Glasgow School of Art) and Zhu Tian (Royal College of Art).

Finalists are selected from The Catlin Guide

2015 for their potential to make a significant mark on the art world in the next decade. Shortlisted artists receive mentoring and

generous production assistance to encourage ambitious new projects for the exhibition.


implementing this framework. It is this

support and the high production values of

the exhibition that distinguish the Catlin Art Prize from other survey shows and prizes.

Many previous Catlin Art Prize finalists are building successful careers nationally and internationally. As title sponsors of the

Catlin Art Prize, Catlin – one of the world’s leading insurers of fine art – continues to help realise the ambitions of promising

Dominic Watson. ‘Bootcut Renaissance’ 2014 HD Video Still

The Catlin Art Prize is unique in

new artists.

“凱特琳藝術獎(Catlin Art Prize)”是一個專為英國藝術院校畢業生創立的藝術獎

評審團相信這些入圍藝術家在未來十年內會為藝術界作

創作。

協助,並為“凱特琳藝術獎2015”展覽獨家呈現全新創作

今年是“凱特琳藝術獎”第九個年頭,按照慣例展覽將從《凱特琳指南(The Catlin

出重要貢獻,以上八位入選藝術家將會接受專業指導和 的作品。

Guide)》裡挑選藝術家參展。 《凱特琳指南》是一本介紹英國年度最具潛質藝術畢

“凱特琳藝術獎”的一切建設都是基於藝術畢業生前景

家、畫廊主和導師等,而評審團最終會從這40位裡選出最終入圍名單並提供獎金進

獎”使其與別不同。往屆候選藝術家們已享譽英國乃至世

業生的導覽,40位藝術家均來自眾多專業人士的推薦,如策展人、藝術作家、收藏 行新的創作及展示。

2015年“凱特琳藝術獎”入圍候選人有來自切爾西藝術與設計學院的喬恩·貝克(Jon

的考量,正是這種大力支持和高品質展覽讓“凱特琳藝術 界,作為“凱特琳藝術獎”的冠名贊助商,凱特琳藝術保 險公司將繼續支持藝術新銳藝術家們前行。

Baker)、英國皇家藝術學院的費莉西蒂·哈蒙德(Felicity Hammond)、倫敦城市協

會藝術大學的奧利弗·黑克米特(Oliver Hickmet)、英國皇家藝術學院的尼古拉斯·約 翰遜(Nicholas Johnson)、英國皇家美術學會的保羅·施奈德(Paul Schneider)、英 國皇家藝術學院的萊克茜·斯特勞斯(Lexi Strauss)、格拉斯哥藝術學院的多米尼克·

Jon Baker, Mother’s Medal (Blacked) Installation image (2015)

沃森(Dominic Watson)和英國皇家藝術學院的朱甜(Zhu Tian)。

Tips

小貼示

展覽場地:Londonewcastle Project Space 倫敦新城堡項目空間 展覽時間:08.05.2015 -30.05.2015 更多信息:w w w.ar tcatlin.com

Nicholas William Johnson. Crazed Flowering, (2014). Installation Detail Acrylic and collage on paper and canvas

項,它為新銳藝術家提供專業的展示平台,並頒發可觀的獎金幫助於他們進行未來


What is Luxury?

Defining Beauty: the Body in Ancient Greek Art

Victoria and Albert Museum

25 April– 27 September 2015

British Museum

26 March – 5 July 2015

Richard Diebenkorn Royal Academy of Arts. 14 March – 7 June 2015

2015 Sony World Photography Awards Someset House, London. 24 April - 10 May, 2015

Henry Moore: Back to A Land Yorkshire Sculpture Park 7 March - 6 September 2015


Rubens and His Legacy: Van Dyck to Cézanne Sir John Soane’s Museum 24 January -10 April 2015

Carol Bove: The Plastic Unit David Zwirner, London April 14 - May 30 2015

Sargent: Portraits of Artists and Friends National Portrait Gallery

12 February – 25 May 2015

Ravilious Dulwich Picture Gallery 1 April-31 August 2015


PATH TO CURATING 彳彳亍亍,於策於展 TEXT BY 撰文 x FION GUNN 菲昂·戈恩 EDITED BY 編輯 x HARRY LIU 劉競晨 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x SUDONG CAI 蔡蘇東 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x FION GUNN 菲昂·戈恩

The importance of curation did not come to me at first from a

我第一次認識到“策展”的重要性並不是在當代藝術領域的展覽中,

(2004) in British Library. At that time, I was for the first time clearly

2004年,我第一次清楚地認識到“策展”可以將海量的信息轉化成優

contemporary art exhibition but an exhibition The Silk Road

aware that curation can express substantial information in such a graceful and fantastic manner, and that a curator is able to

render such a complex content into a well-organized exhibition language and convey the very idea of exhibition by means of multidimensional and diverse presentations.

In 2006, quite accidentally I had an opportunity to curate an exhibition in China, and that marked the beginning of my

curatorial practices. It was an exhibition displaying contemporary art in Ireland, which, honestly, turned out rather dissatisfactory.

而是在大英圖書館的《絲綢之路(The

Silk

Road)》展覽上,那是

雅和美妙的表達形式,而“策展人”將龐雜的內容梳理成為線索清晰 的展覽語言,并通過立體化、多樣化的呈現方式來傳達展覽理念。

2006年,我很偶然地獲得了一個在中國策劃展覽的機會,那是我第一

次開始策展實踐,我策 划了一 個關於展現愛爾蘭當代 藝 術整體面貌

的展覽,說老實話,那一次的展覽效果其實很不盡如人意,但從那一 次的策展經歷當中,我學到了很多,我開始更關注和周圍的藝術家進 行交流,和社區團體互動,看更多的資料,而不僅僅是“閉門造車” 一樣封閉在自己的小世界里。從那以後,我開始了更多的策展實踐。

From that experience, however, I learnt quite a lot; I began

到了20 09年,我開始認識到自己的身份已經轉 變為了“藝 術家 策 展

community groups and access more information, instead of

進行調研和策 劃。在我的策展實踐當中有以下幾 個方面是我非常關

to communicate more with the artists around, interact with

limiting myself to a self-confined world. From then on, I engaged myself more in curatorial practices.

In 2009, I began to realize my role shift as an “artist as curator”—on

one hand I have my own artistic pursuit and on the other I research and plan for exhibition projects. In my curatorial practices, I have been paying close attention to the following aspects.

人”,一方面我要進行自己的藝術創作,另一方面,我還要為展覽項目 注的。

• • • •

如何在不影響創新和藝術作品質量的前提下讓更多的觀眾參與 到藝術當中來

如何促進和鼓勵不同想法和觀點的交流

如何在私人或者公共收藏當中平衡不同性別藝術家的作品 如何實現國際化和本地化藝術的良性互動

how to make art available for the widest audience possible

作為一名身處 創作一線的藝 術家,我在進行策展實踐的時候自然會

• •

how to facilitate diverse practices and diverse viewpoints

人”是一個二元對立的局面,而且出現多元化的策展模式和聲音對藝

how to achieve positive interaction of international and local

without compromising on quality and innovativeness

how to gender rebalance public and private collections of contemporary art art & artists

As an artist at the very frontline of artistic creation, I naturally

adopt different perspectives from the other curators in curation.

擁有與其他類 型策展人不同的視角,但我不覺得“藝 術家”和“ 策展

術世界的發展無疑是大有幫助的。同時,藝術家策展人的身份和工作 內容也使得我可以清楚地看到很多問題,比如大眾對當代 藝 術的疏 遠甚至迴 避、對策展人概念的不了解、 “明星”策展人對藝 術界發展 產生的負面影響、藝術家策展人孤立無援的生存狀態等等等等。

為了能夠讓 更多的人從本質上 來了解當代 藝 術的理 念,來了解 藝 術 的本源並不是買賣與利益,也不是模棱兩可的術語或者是拖著一串


©Alex Julyan

Nevertheless, the role of artist and curator is not binary, it’s not

and challenges confronting them in their respective working

from having a diversity of curatorial and authorial voices. At the

are from various countries and regions, grown up in different

about either/or, surely the art world will be a better environment same time, I am in a better position to approach various issues

thanks to my role as an artist-curator and responsibilities involved, such as public alienation or even distaste of contemporary art,

lack of understanding of the concept of curator, negative impacts of “celebrity” curators on artistic development, isolated and

environments. The artists, curators and artist-curators in question cultures and with divergent backgrounds. This issue is hoped to promote art and the concept of curator to more people,

therefore encouraging participation in art and enhancing artistic enjoyment for every one of us.

helpless status of artist-curators and so on.

Hence, essential understanding of contemporary art should

零的天文數字的價格,而是人類對於創造、交流、冒險等本質渴望的

not be understood as deals and solely related to profit, nor a

士,希望能為大家還原一 個現實環境下的對於“藝術家策展人”的討

be enabled in a wider audience so that art in its nature will

vague jargon system or something priced astronomically, but an expression of aspiration to create, communicate and take risk. In this issue, we invited and interviewed a number of art

practitioners, hopefully staging a discussion about “artist-curator” under current circumstances as well as showcasing difficulties

表 達。我們在這一期雜 誌的專題當中邀 請 和採訪了眾多的藝 術界人

論,並且展示他們在實際工作中所面對的困境和挑戰,這些藝術家、

策展人、藝術家策展人都來自於不同的國家和地區,有著不同的文化 和背景,我們希望通 過 這一期雜誌,人們可以更多地了解藝 術、了解 策 展 人概 念、從而 更多地參與到藝 術當中來,享受藝 術賦予我 們的 愉悅。


Ola Gerlach, “The Flag” “Re: Generation II – Art District”, The International Art Exhibition in Forgotten Poznan Districts, Poland, cutaror: Kasia Kujawska-Murphy, 2007

Irish Wave 2015


Why Is This Swing Important?

“My purpose is to create clarity within complexity, dialogue

So why is the artist as curator an issue at all? What do we bring

the audience. To pose questions not answers or certainties. To

to the experience of exhibitions that is any different from the

academic, the writer, the museum custodian who dominates the current scene?

between works and dialogue between the works / event and

be true to the investment made by the artist in their work and to give them another perspective on it.”

Why is this swing important? I believe that the artist-curator

改 變 正在發 生,意義 舉足 輕 重

curating, one which evokes a more direct audience response

我們要問,為什麼藝 術家充當策 展 人會是 個值得討論的問題?和學

different way from the theoretical narratives of the academic/

人相比,我們對他們的策展期待有何不同嗎?

is far more likely to have an intuitively visual approach to

and one which contextualises the artworks in a fundamentally critic or the commercial concerns of the gallerist. After all,

術界、撰寫人以及博物館管理 員這些手握當今展覽行業支配大權的

the latter could be perceived as (and often are) consumers or

為什麼這樣的轉 變 很重要?我認為,藝 術家 策展人對策展有著更敏

way into the position of retailers, middlemen and arbiters of

置 於一定的語境中,這種做法完全不同於學術批評的理論化 敘事作

facilitators of art rather than creators, who have wangled their public taste.

The artist-curator’s projects are more likely (although certainly not always) to be free from over reliance on text or academic

justifications, the premise of our work is first and foremost, the

銳的視 覺 直 感,因而更能 夠激發觀 眾的反響,同時 把 藝 術品的呈現 風,亦 與 畫 廊經營者的商業 考 量 大相 徑 庭 。至 於後者,我 們 不 妨 把 他們看成是(很多時候確實也是)藝術的消費者或者促進者,而不是

創造者,他們不過是費盡奇巧,最終成了售賣者、中間商和大眾品味 的仲裁者。

creation and secondly, the explanation (if required), not the other

藝術家策展人的項目更有可能(儘管也不總是)擺脫文本或者學術認

through a maker’s eyes which affords viewers a greater sense of

性,其次才是作品的闡釋(如果需要的話),而不是相反過來。我們能

way around. We can provide the personal experience of seeing immediacy and intimacy - our exhibitions are not brokered or mediated by a third party.

證的過度依賴,我們策展的前提是,首先考慮作品是否具有直觀創造 從 創作者的角度提供更加個人化的體驗,從而使得 觀者獲得更強的 即場感和親密感——我們的展覽基本沒有經過第三方的安排和調和。

It is clear that for many artist-curators the process of

我們可以 清晰 地看到,對於許多藝 術家 策 展 人而言,嶄 新的合 作流

to initiate something are key factors when we embrace the

角色的主要原因。

collaboration, frustration with the status quo and the desire curatorial role.

For some it was also an adventure, a way of gaining greater

control over the exhibition space, for others it was more of a

team enterprise, a way of accessing a community of peers and avoiding isolation. Probably for all of us there was something

about how we looked at the world when we were children, how

we responded to visual or spatial organisation and combinations of different materials that drew us to an interest in curation.

This urge to organise a wide range of visual components leads us to develop a skillset discrete from the production of our

程、對策展現狀的沮喪和想要發起新風潮的渴望便是他們投入策展

對於一 些 人 來 說,這 還 是 一段冒險的旅程,一種獲 得更多展 覽空間 掌 控 權的方 式 。對另外 一 些 人而言,這 是 一種 團隊事 業,一種 加入

同行陣營避免孤軍奮戰 的方法。當我們還 是小 孩時,我們以 獨 特的

方式 看待 這個世界,我們 接 觸 視 覺 和空間的不同組 成,以 及不同物

質 的 組 合 時 也有 特 殊 的 體 悟,或 許正 是 這 些 使 我 們 對 策 展 產 生了

興趣。這種安排各種視覺因素的迫切希望引導著我們創造出一種技 藝,這種技藝儘管可能來源於個人的藝術創作,但卻沒有直接關係。

然而,許多藝術家卻沒有這種急迫的希望,對策展也無動於衷。我認 識的許多藝術家就情願眼裡容沙,也不願自己策展。

own personal artwork although it may grow out of it. There are

最後,我想引用亞利克斯·朱利安(Alex Julyan)的一段話來作結,

interested in it, most artists I know would rather stick pins in their

總結了此文中所有藝術家策展人的觀點。

however, many artists who do not share this urge and are not eyes than have to curate.

Finally, I would like to quote Alex Julyan describing her purpose

as artist curator in the most elegant and precise summation of all the ideas expressed by the contributors to this article:

她 精辟地描述了自己 為何選擇藝 術家 策 展 人 身份的原因,也準確地 “我的初衷是,于繁複中創造清晰,於作品中促成對話,架設作品、

活動和受眾的溝 通橋樑 。我要做的是,提出問題而不是提供 答 案或 裝 神弄鬼 。藝 術家 對於 作品的嘔心瀝 血,我 們 敬 重 有加;我 們 的精 心安排,則給了藝術家看到自己的作品時,有‘驚鴻一瞥’的驚喜。”


Case Study: How I Curate A Show Time: 3rd – 20th May, 2012

3. Identify a suitable gallery, in terms of scale, medium etc.

Venue: A.P.T Gallery, London

Outcome:

Inspirations:

A group exhibition of 21 artists from mainland China, Africa, United

Exhibition: The City & The City: Contested Space

Reading a book by China Miéville called The City and The

City, which describes a dystopic metropolis where two

cultures occupy the same physical space and have to be

film. Each artist had a different interpretation of the theme. The Unexpected:

the situation in Jerusalem (on a political level) at first, but I

Sarah Rubidge, a choreographic installation artist, whose featured

of our cities divisions are economic, class, cultural, religious

textile ‘river’ which would run through the gallery along the floor

began to see other more widespread paradigms. In so many or even age related.

There was a drug related murder in one of the houses

around the corner from my home, this was such a shock. I

know many of my neighbours, we have an active residents’ association and we’re a culturally diverse community in

South London. Generally I go about my business not noticing

work was a video installation. She also had the idea of making a

and have tributaries on the walls and floors which would connect to each artwork. I was a bit concerned at first that this might

overpower the individual artworks, but we talked it through,

discussed the methodology and decided to give it a go. Five of

the featured artists were involved in the installation working as a team, a sort of curatorial ‘hive’.

or seeing drugs related activity because it isn’t part of my

When we installed the exhibition it was immediately evident that

made me think about the people who walk the same streets

wonderful visual narrative and sense of fun to the show.

own life nor that of my family and friends, so this murder

that I do, but whose lives are parallel and rarely cross mine.

drawing, mixed media installation, sculpture, photography and

trained to un-see each other. The narrative, which is set in a

vaguely futuristic/parallel world, reminded me very much of

Kingdom, Ireland, France and Taiwan, artworks including painting,

I also thought about how I, as a woman, exist within what is

the ‘river’ had been an inspired idea on Rubidge’s part, it gave a

Audience Engagement:

sometimes a very threatening environment and how women

We also wanted the show to have a generative aspect, so we

men who share our lives may worry about us but they don’t

‘architectural’ additions, these were placed on the banks of the

the world over share these concerns and yet, very often the experience the threats in the same way. My Own Practice: I was making small scale sculptures on the theme of urban life and urban expectations as well as large scale paintings which explore the ways in which we seek, accept or reject

ran weekly workshops, where adults and children could make

‘river’. Little ‘cities’ grew up in different parts of the space and the exhibition grew in complexity as well as interest for the visitors.

The workshops were organised so that lack of skill was no bar to

having a good end result and because the materials we provided were easy to manipulate as well as being harmonious with the appearance of the show, the end result was magical.

new experiences.

Achievement:

Curating Steps:

This ‘hive’ curatorial model has great potential to result in diverse

1. Identify which of my own artworks would ‘start’ the

and workshops create new audiences for contemporary art both

curatorial conversation.

2. Look at other artist websites and check out the archive of

images which I’ve put together over the years with work by artists I know or am interested in.

and inclusive exhibitions, the generative aspect of the installation in a museum or gallery context as well as in other public spaces.

It also gives us, as artists and curators, the eye as well as the ear of the people.


案 例 分析:我 是 如 何 策 展 的 時間:2012年5月3日——20日

3. 尋找合適的畫廊,需要考慮其規模以及展出方法等等。

場地:倫敦A.P.T畫廊

結果:

靈感來源:

了一場 藝 術家群展,展品包括 油畫、素描、多媒體 裝 置、雕 塑、攝影

柴那·米耶維寫過一本書《城與城 (The City and The City)》,描 述了一座反烏托邦的大都市,其中兩種文化共處同一空間,必須加

意外事件:

看到了其他更加普遍的範例。我們所處的這麼多城市之中,分裂的

品 是 一 個 視 頻 裝 置,她 還 想要 用織 物 做 成一 條“河流”貫穿畫 廊,

因素可以是與經濟、階級、文化、宗教,甚至是年齡相關的。

在我家附近的一間房子裡,發生了一起與 毒品相關的謀殺 案,

這讓我非常震驚。那裡 是倫敦南部一 個有著各種 文化背景的街 區,我認識許多鄰居,我們這些比較活躍的居民還設有社團。我

總是忙著自己的事,沒注意到或看到與毒品有關的事情,因為這 和我自己,我 的家 人和朋友的生 活 扯不上關 係 。因 此 這件謀 殺 案讓我想起那些和我走在同一 街道的人,他們的生活和我是平

和錄影作品。每位藝術家對主題的解讀都是不同的。

以訓練才能無視對方。這種基於含糊的未來主義和平行世界的敘

事,首先讓我想起了耶路撒冷(政治層面上),但漸漸地我也開始

21位來自中國大陸、非洲、英國、愛爾蘭、法國和臺灣的藝 術家帶來

行的,也甚少和我有交集。

薩拉·盧比奇(Sarah Rubidge),一位舞蹈裝置藝術家,她的展出作 其“支流”遍佈牆面和地面,連接起每一件展品。我一開始擔心這樣

做會蓋 過 其他藝 術品的獨立呈現 效果,但我們經 過詳細的討論後決 定試試 。結果五位參展藝 術家加入了這個創意,成了一 個團隊,一 個 所謂的策展“蜂巢”。

當我們布展的時候,我們清楚地看到, “河流”不僅是讓 盧比奇無比 激動的創作,更是為展覽帶來了極佳的視覺敘事和樂趣。

我同時 也想著,作 為女性,我 是 如何生活在 這樣 一 個 威脅時 有

觀眾參與

生命的另一半會 擔心我們,但 是男性卻無法感同身受地體會我

坊,大人和小孩都可以在這“河流”的兩岸添磚加瓦。小“城”漸漸地

的世界 裡,全世界的女性 又 是 如何對待 這 些擔憂的;往往我們 們所面對的威脅。

我的個人藝術實踐:

我 創作了一批以城市生活及城市期望為主 題的小型 雕 塑,以 及旨在 探索我們如何尋找、接受或者拒絕新體驗的方式的大型繪畫作品。 策展步驟:

1. 確定我的哪件作品將“啟動”我的策展對話。 2. 瀏覽 其他 藝 術家的網 站,查看 我多年來積 累的圖庫檔案,其中 都是我認識或者感興趣的藝術家作品。

我們還希望展覽能夠激 勵“生產”,所以我們開辦了每週一次的工作 在各個展 覽空間成長,展 覽也變 得愈發複 雜,同時觀 眾的興 趣也愈

發 濃 厚 。在我們的工作坊中,就 算參與 者不懂 如何“建 房”,也不會

影 響最 終的效 果,因為我們所提 供的材料 都 易於操作,同時吻合展 覽的呈現效果,所以最終效果是意料之外的奇妙。 成績

這種“蜂巢”式策展模式有著巨大的潛力,可以實現多樣並包的展覽

效 果,裝 置的可生產元素和工作坊為博 物 館和畫 廊語境下以 及 其他 公共空間的當代 藝 術帶來了新的受眾。它同時也讓作為藝 術家和策 展人的我們得以從大眾的角度觀察和聆聽當代藝術展覽。

Left: Sugar Metropolis NY 2014 ©Brendan Jamison Right: ©Fion Gunn NCPA. Glass work by Mary Mackey

展覽主題:城市與城市:對抗空間


CURATOR IN CONTEMPORARY ART 當代藝術中的“策展人”

TEXT BY 撰文 x HARRY LIU 劉競晨 EDITED BY 編輯 x SYNDI HUANG 黃煥欣

When referring to the definition of ‘curator’, different people

當提 及“ 策展人”這個名詞的時候,人們會有各種不同的認識,很多

describe a curator as an organizer, a director, a manager, and

為策展人 是負責布展的人 員或者是藝 術經銷商,這樣的答案不一而

working in different fields give different answers. Mostly, people there are a lot of people that would think curators are personnel

responsible for exhibition planning and art dealing. In the context of contemporary arts, the definitions are limited, or defined with preconceived bias. However at least, it seems ‘curator’ is a role filled with multiple identities and responsibilities.

According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary,

the ‘curator’ refers to ‘a person in charge of a museum, art gallery, etc’. (Crowther, 1995) Its etymology comes from the Latin word ‘cura’ which means ‘take care of’. Although the definition of

人會 把“ 策 展 人”描述 成 為組 織 者、總 監、經 理 人,還有很多人會認 足。不過在當代藝術語境當中,對策展人如此的描述顯然是片面的,

或者 說 是 充 滿 了先 入 為主 的 偏 見 的,但不管怎 麼 說,人們 對“ 策 展 人”概念的一 個統一的認識就是:“ 策展人”是一 個具有多重身份和 職能的重要角色。

在高階牛津字典的定義里, “策展人(Curator)”是指代博物館或者藝 術畫廊的管理者,其詞源是來自於拉丁語的“Cura”,意為“照料”,雖

然這樣的定義依舊是含糊不清,但至少從這個定義中,我們可以看到 策展人是一個在博物館和藝術領域中至關重要的一個職位。

‘curator’ remains inexplicit, at least from its definition we could

為了讓大家對“策展人”的概念能有一 個比較全面的認識,這裡有必

fields of museums and galleries.

詞和展 覽展示或者藝 術 都沒有半點關係,它最早是指代在教堂和教

find out that ‘curator’ is related to a very significant role in the

In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the

concept of ‘curator’, it is necessary to introduce the origin of the word ‘curator’. The first use of the word ‘curator’ has nothing to

do with arts and exhibitions, but related to the person who takes charge of props and instruments for religious rituals at churches, the meaning of which emphasizes ‘looking after and taking care of’. The development of ‘curator’ in the modern context can be traced back to the 17th century (Ambrose & Paine, 2007) when

要簡單 地介 紹一下“ 策 展 人”這個名詞的來由。最早的“ 策 展 人”一

會當中負責保管宗教儀式所使 用道具和法器的人,其詞義更多強調

的是“保管和照料”。 “ 策 展 人”在現代語境中的發展可以 追 溯到17 世 紀,當時 在 英國 誕 生了第一 個 現代意義 上的博 物 館,阿什莫 林先 生捐贈了一批 珍 貴稀有的個人收 藏品給 牛津大學,也就 是 後來阿什

莫林博物館(Ashmolean Museum)最初的雛形,那時候負責保管 這 些 藏品的人被稱作“ 策 展 人”。進而,隨著時間的發展,博 物 館的 概念和職能也在不斷地演化,策展人們的主要職能也從保管藏品慢

慢地 轉 變為對藏品的研究 和梳 理,再後 來,博 物 館除了具有收 藏 和

展示陳列的功能以外,也越來越多地肩負起了公眾教育的職能,同時


the first modern museum was born in the United Kingdom. Mr

為了籌得更多的國家基金,博 物 館機構需要 擴 大自己的受 眾群體和

University of Oxford, which forms the preliminary development

成 為了策 劃 優 質 展 覽的中流砥 柱,從 這時 起,策 展 人開始 逐漸 走向

Elias Ashmole donated a series of rare personal collections to the of the Ashmolean Museum, where the person in charge of the custody of those collections is called ‘curator’. Furthermore,

受 益 人群,於是,作 為熟 悉 藏品屬性和具有專 業 知識的策 展 人群體 台前,成為了鏈接展品和受眾的一個橋樑。

over the time the function and concept of museum have been

從 更 廣闊的角度 上 來看,不同國家地區的不同藝 術機構中,對 策 展

been transmitting from taking care of collections to conducting

化語境都不盡相同,但在對於“策展人”概念的描述中卻是有很多相

evolving, and as a result, the responsibilities of ‘curator’ have

researches and studies of collections. Later on, in addition to its

collecting and exhibiting functions, museums also take up more

and more public education functions. And in order to raise more national funding, museums need to expand their visitors and

beneficiaries. Therefore, as the expertise of the collections and relevant knowledge, the curator becomes the main figure in

planning high standard exhibitions. As a result, the curator being

人的定義也是不一樣的。雖然這些機構 和組織所處的地理位置及文 同之處,例如,策展人需要具有一定的學術能力和知識儲備、在博物

館或者美 術館畫 廊之 類的機構服務、需要肩負對藏品的保管照料的 責任 等 等。雖 然在 這個 層面我們基 本上可以勾勒出一 個關於“ 策 展 人”概念的大致輪廓,不過對於很多方面依舊存在沒有回答的問題:

那些不為機構 和組織服務的獨立的策展人是否符合這個定義?策展 人需要什麼樣的資質認證?策展人的職責和角色又是什麼?

the connector between the exhibitions and visitors becomes

為了能從操作層面上 來 展示策 展 人的概念,我們不妨來看一看策 展

From a broader point of view, the definition of ‘curator’ differs

策 展 人 的 角色

art institutions have geographical and cultural differences, there

在當代 藝 術範疇,對策展人的角色的描述有很多種 版本,雷阿·格林

‘curator’. For instance, a curator should be well-educated, working

擁有很大的影響力,他們的工作就是去篩選“偉大的藝 術家”。這樣

moving forwards to the front stage.

from art institutions in different countries. Although the different are some principles in common with regard to the concept of in a museum or a gallery, and in charge of taking care of the

collections. Even though the definition of ‘curator’ can basically be sketched out for a rough outline, there are some important

issues that are still not mentioned. For example, does the curator who works independently also meet the definition? Are there any qualifications of being a curator? What are the roles and responsibilities of a curator?

In order to find out a clear definition for this term, it is

important to address two essential problems of the curatorship of contemporary arts: what the role of a curator is in the

contemporary context and what a curator is doing in the

人在當代藝術領域扮演的角色,同時審視一下他們實際工作的範疇。

菲爾德(Liah Greenfeld)認為策展人是扮演“守門人”的角色,他們 的描述在某種意義 上是 成立的,策 展 人根據自己的專業 知識或者自

己的理 念 來審 視 藝 術作品,在 展出的過程中選取他 們認為是“ 好的 藝 術”的作品參加展覽,同時撰寫文章來介紹和評價作品,的確,他 們擁有這樣的特權和影響力,的確很像“守門人”一般,但同時, “守

門人”這個描述 所 散發出來的刻板和冷漠往往 又不能惟妙 惟肖地展

現“ 策展人”的全 貌。從當代 藝 術的角度出發,很多策展人研究藝 術 史,與藝術家們進行大量的交流,投入大量的精力去組織策劃展覽, 這些很多都是因為策展人對於發現新的藝術和推動藝術史的發展充 滿激情,這種 激情 絕不會是“ 守門人”所應該 具有的特質,當代 藝 術

中的策展人 更多表現出來的是積極主動的行事風格、靈活多樣的工 作方式以及擁有獨特的人格魅力。

contemporary arts fields.

已故的美國 策 展 人 賽 斯·西格爾 勞布(S e t h Sie ge laub)對“ 策 展

The role of a curator

的 藝 術 價 值 ,也 不 能 扮 演 藝 術 領 域 當中“上帝 ”信使 的 角 色,如 果

There are many different descriptions of the role of ‘curator’ in

the contemporary arts fields. Liah Greenfeld describes curators

as ‘gatekeepers’ (1988), he believes that the curators are certainly powerful and their jobs are to select ‘great artists’. I partly agree with his point. The curators introduce the subjects into the art

world, and write articles to explain why the artists do so. Based

人”有 著另外 一種 描 述,他 覺 得策 展 人 並不能 代 表 所 謂 的“正 確 ” 將 整 個 藝 術史看作 是 一 部 在 進 行中的表 演,那麼“ 策 展 人”無 非 僅 僅 就 是 這 個 演出當 中 的 一 個 或一 部 份 角 色 而 已 。從 歷 史 發 展 的 角 度 來看,這 種 說 法 無 懈 可 擊,而 且不 論 是 藝 術 家、策 展 人、收 藏 家 亦 或者是我 們 每 一 個 人,在 歷 史的舞台上都是 一 個“ 演 員”而已,

而 從 這 樣 的 形 容 中 我 們 卻 無 法 判 斷“ 策 展 人”之 於 歷 史 的 重 要 程 度 到底 是 怎 麼樣 的。

on their professional knowledge of the arts and their own

當然,對於“策展人”的描述和比喻還有很多,有很多學者用“扳機”、

the great art is and what is not. Indeed, the work of curators is

對“策展人”概念的理解。在 這 些 當中,筆 者 覺 得“ 翻 譯 ”這個 形 容

concepts, curators have the power and privilege to define what quite like that of gatekeepers. However, ‘gatekeeper’ seems too

“主廚”、 “老師”、 “保管員”、 “翻譯”、 “實驗者”等等詞彙來詮釋 比 較 接 近 我 們 所討 論的“ 策 展 人”概 念 。首先 正 如蓋 爾·波 斯(Gair


cold and stereotyped. From the perspective of contemporary

curatorial choices of models, strategies and attitudes towards

and devote their passion to making exhibitions because they

for pondering of our selection of art and curatorial models.

arts, curators study the art history, communicate with the artists want to discover the new arts, enrich the art world and explore the new area of arts. Therefore, the definition of ‘gatekeeper’

art, rather than as starting points for self-assessment and (Milevska, 2007)

is not really suitable to describe that of the ‘curator’ at present,

I approve of her viewpoint, because the concept of ‘curator’

However, the curators are still playing the roles like ‘gatekeepers’,

A curator, as being bringing theories into practice, is a cross-

because it does not embody the basic elements of the curators. while curators are more proactive, versatile and with unique personality charms.

With regard to the description of ‘curator’, Seth Siegelaub holds another different opinion. He thinks curators do not represent the so-called ‘right’ artistic values, nor do they play the role of

‘God’ messengers in the arts fields. Instead, if the entire art history is compared to a show in progress, the ‘curator’ is nothing more

presents a double identity combining ‘scholar’ and ‘executant’. disciplinary profession that often ‘translates’ different theoretical concepts uncritically into exhibitions or other curatorial projects and events. So the ‘translator’ is a very vivid description for

contemporary art curators who based on their professional knowledge and practice effectively process information in

various fields, and to promote mutual communication and understanding among the different fields.

than just a role or part of the roles for the show (Obrist, 2001).

From the perspective of historical development, I agree with his point. If the whole art history is a big show, every one involved

would be playing a role, including the artists, curators, collectors and so forth. But even if in a show, there are some roles that are still more important than the others. Seth Siegelaub’s opinion

only points out that the curator is one part of the art history but

he does not mention if the role of the curator is important or not. There are many others descriptions and metaphors of ‘curator’.

Boase)所說:“ 對於大多數去看展覽的人來說,他們把策展人看作

‘conservator’, ‘translator’, and ‘experimenter’. Among these

在某些時候 是非常相似的工作方式,但 人們就很 少感覺到翻譯人 員

Many scholars describe the ‘curator’ as ‘trigger’, ‘chef’, ‘teacher’, metaphors, I prefer the comparison to a translator. On the one hand, Gair Boase says:

For most exhibition-goers, curators are producers, mediators,

是製片人、調解員、甚至是藝術編輯,雖然策展人和翻譯這兩個工作

在其作品中所留下的痕跡,同樣的,策展人的工作也應該是‘潤物細 無聲’的形式,他 們的工作 不應該混淆 和泯滅 藝 術家 所要表 達的藝 術觀念。”

even editors of arts. While the curator and the translator work in

策展人是一座溝通公眾和藝 術世界的橋樑,他們通 過運用知識和不

of his or her own presence on the work itself. Therefore, curators

都應該 將這 種“ 交 流”置 於 最為首要的位 置,而不僅 僅 是 對於 藝 術

much the same way, a good translator’s work seldom leaves any should in no way obfuscate or obliterate the art works or the artistic concepts. (Boase, 2003)

I agree that the curator is a bridge between the art world and

the public, and the curators’ job is to use different methods to improve the communication between the art world and the

public. A curator should focus on the communication but not

同方式來促進公眾和藝 術世界之間的交流 和互動,而每一 位策展人 作品作出評判。策展人蘇珊娜·繆拉夫斯卡(Suzana Milevska)也認 為策 展 人在 理 論 和學 術 範 圍內 從 事策 展工作 的 時 候 其 實 就 是在 扮

演“翻譯”的角色: “‘翻譯’這個術語要優於‘應用’,因為它蘊含了 一種 潛 在的自覺,是出於 將理 論 概 念作 為策 展的最初判斷,從而進

行 選 擇展示手段、策略以 及 對藝 術的態度,而不僅 僅 是以自我審 視 和思考我們所選取的藝術或者策展形式為出發點。”

to judge. On the other hand, Suzana Milevska believes that the

對於她的觀點我是很認同的,因為“ 策展人”的概念結合了“學者”

within the scope of theoretical and academic contexts. She says:

的角色,需要將很多學術概念原原本本地“翻譯”成為可以在展覽或

curators are playing the role of translators when they are curating

The usage of the term “translation” (rather than “application”) stands for the awareness of the confinements that appear

whenever theoretical concepts are used as justification for

和“執行者”的雙重身份,策展人將理論付諸實踐,這是一個跨學科 者其他 策 展項目或者 活 動中可以 呈現 的狀 態。從 這個 層面上“ 翻 譯 者”的角色 和描述非常恰當地展現了策展人在依據其專業 知識和實

踐的過程中將信息有效地在不同領域內進行轉 換,并促進相互交流 和理解的特性。


What a curator does

策 展 人 到 底做 些 什麼

Nowadays, the word ‘curator’ is becoming more and more

現在, “ 策 展 人”這個詞兒越 來 越流行,但 其實很多人都不知道 策 展

literally doing. Seth Siegelaub points out that the key issue of

策 展 的 一 個 關 鍵 問 題 就 是“去神 秘化 ”,也 就 是 一 個 策 展 人嘗試去

popular, but the public is still not clear what curators are

the contemporary art curatorship is ‘demystification’ which

is a process in which curators attempt to understand and be conscious of their actions(Obrist, 2001). For this section, it is

人 具 體 要 做 哪 些事情 。賽 斯·西 格爾 勞 布曾經 指 出,對 於 當 代 藝 術 理 解他 們所 作所為的過程。下面我們來看一下到底 策 展 人都 在做 些 什麼。

essential to make clear what contemporary art curators are doing.

策展人漢斯·烏爾里希·奧布里斯特(Hans Ulrich Obrist)曾經在他

The famous contemporary art curator Hans Ulrich Obrist once in his

能的描述:“ 策 展 人擔當行政 管理者、撰 寫人(介 紹文字的撰 寫)、

book mentioned Harald Szeemann for his definition of ‘curator’: As an administrator, amateur, writer (author of introduction),

librarian, manager, accountant, animator, conservator, financier,

的著作中提到了哈拉爾德·塞曼(Harald Szeemann)對於策展人職 庫管員、經理、會計、漫畫師、保管員、融資達人、外交大師等等。而

且這一長串的單子還可以無限擴大,例如保安、搬運工、協調員以及 研究員等等。”

diplomat and etc. This list can even be expanded including the

雖然 看上去不是那麼嚴 肅,但 這就 是當代 藝 術策 展 人 大部份工作狀

(Obrist, 2008)

的藝術領域和方向,而且作為橋樑他們將不同領域的內容“翻譯”給

guard, the transporter, the communicator, the researcher and etc.

This is a true portrayal of curators who are working in the

contemporary art fields. Because during the development of the

contemporary arts, curators always explore new artistic fields and directions, and always play the ‘translator’ role between different

態的真實寫照。因為隨著當代 藝 術的發展,策 展 人們始終 在探索新 其他的受眾,於是乎這些先行者並沒有前車之鑑可以遵循,也沒有人 會知道“應該或者必須做些什麼”。所幸的是,在很多藝 術機構中都

設有策展 人職位,他們所公開的關於策展 人招聘時候 所提出的工作 要求可以幫助我們窺視一下策展人所面對的工作內容。

fields, as a result, what those pioneers should or have to do had

我們搜集了包括英國泰特現代美術館的一些藝 術機構的招聘信息,

the contemporary art organizations, and their job descriptions will

策展人在實際操作中需要面對的問題和需要掌握的技能。

not been told. Fortunately, there are many curators working for help us to discover what they are doing.

There are some job descriptions of the contemporary art curators at Tate Modern and other art organizations. To analyse these

將其中對於策 展 人職位的相關內容進行了彙 總,這些基 本上展示了 1.購買

samples, I summarize the general duties of a curator as follows: 1.Acquisitions:

A curator is in charge of building the organizations’

• •

and actively seeking the resources and new areas of

collecting or making recommendations and decisions to

eliminate items which are not suitable for the missions and

The curator should deal with the paperwork, including

and numbering it.

The curator also need to maintain and develop an

• •

appropriate network of contacts among artists, gallerists,

策 展 人需要負 責一 部份的文 案 工作,包括簽 署協 議 。例如 起草 和簽署關於作品贈與的協議、備案及歸檔。

建立和維護機構與藝 術家、批評家、學者、拍賣行之間的網絡。

此 外、策 展 人需要和其他部門進 行 協 同工作,建 立與潛 在的贊

策 展 人 必 須 對 機 構 擁 有 的 藏 品 具有足 夠 的 知 識 儲 備 和 管 理 能

力,從而可以帶 領、協調、以 及管理關於展 覽和藏品,以 及 展 覽 團隊。

策 展 人 負責 起草展 覽方案。根 據不同的展 覽方案,策 展 人 負責 規 劃預 算 、項目管 理 、合算并監 督資 金 的支 配 並在預 算 範 圍內 達到最佳的展 覽質量,同時策 展 人也要負責規 劃展 覽項目的日

signing the agreement, such as the Deed of the Gift

agreement, assigning it an accessions number, cataloging it

域,為優化符合機構主旨和使命的藏品提供建議和作出決定。

2.收藏和展覽

principles of the organization.

購計劃,例如確認已有藏品的斷檔以 及積極地開拓新的收 藏 領

助者的關係。

permanent collection. Including researches and proposing acquisitions, such as identifying the gaps in the collection

策展人需要負責規 劃藝 術組 織的永久收藏。負責研究及提出收

程安排。

策 展 人負責與藝 術家、藏家以 及公共或者私人機構的展品租借 事宜。

對現有的或新的展覽展示方案進行調研和開發。

負責藏品展示和演示,包括研究、調研以及撰寫專業文章。


critics, scholars and auction houses. Furthermore, curators

relationships with potential benefactors.

• • • • •

need to cooperate with other department and build

2.Collections and Exhibition:

The curator must be competent and knowledgeable

about the collections of the organization, in order to lead,

cooperate and manage the exhibition, and collection, as well as display project team.

The curator makes the exhibition plan. According to

the different exhibition purposes, the curator holds the

responsibility for project budgets; drawing up, managing, monitoring accurate detailed budget estimates for

策展人根據藝術史和社會現象進行研究和批評性思考。 關注並參與關於當代和現代藝術的學術討論。

在專業領域內保持和更新自己的知識結構和必要技能。 為機構整體的研究項目作應有的貢獻。

為出版物撰寫學術文章,例如為展覽畫冊撰寫重要評論文章; 為組織機構撰寫項目介紹文案;撰寫展覽前言及展品介紹。

3.行政管理

• • • •

擔負項目經理的職責,監督基層員工的工作。 負責指導實習生和志願者。

為第三方機構提供專業建議。

負責項目的行政管理相關工作。

簡而言之,以上的策展人職位描述已經涵蓋了所有的當代 藝 術策展

curator holds responsibility for establishing and maintaining

上來認識“ 策展人”作為一 個職位所肩負的責任,從 企劃、開發到執

important schedule dates for the project.

The curator negotiates about loans and liaise with artists,

Research existing or new proposals for exhibition and

collectors, public and private institutions.

collection display projects.

Lead tours and presentations of displays and collection

Draw upon art historical and curatorial expertise to research

exhibitions. Research, Development and Writing.

and develop existing and new concepts for exhibition and collection display projects.

Present researches and critical thinking about art historical and social issues, the curatorial role.

Follow and engage in scholarly debate about modern and

Maintain and expand expertise in the specialist area(s).

Contribute to organizations’ overall research program.

Increase expertise in specialist areas by visiting exhibitions,

contemporary art.

researching and writing papers or articles, presenting lectures, attending conferences.

示方案。

expenditure and income, to obtain best value without

comprising high standards of presentation and also the

依據藝術史和策展專業知識來研究并開發現有的或新的展覽展

Write informative and scholarly texts for publications,

including editorial supervision for exhibition catalogues.

人工作範圍,不論是機構策展人,抑或是獨立策展人。從實際的層面 行一 個展 覽或 藏品的展示,並且要依 據 其研究、策 展角度以 及撰 寫

的專業論文 來為人 類的知識、藝 術史發展、策 展實踐等領域作出貢

獻。除此之外,策 展 人 還需要為機構藏品的建設提供相應研究 和符

合機構需求的購買 建 議 。從職位 描述 上 來看,策 展 人必須 具備的素 質包括:勝任其工作的知識儲備,優秀的寫作和研究技能,還要有不

錯的人際 交流 和團隊協作的能力。不難 看出,策 展 人已經 遠 遠不是

一 個肩負純 粹學 術研究的功能 職位,它已經發展 成 為了一 個含義更 為寬泛的職位或者職業,進而“策展人”概念已經開始滲入到其他的 行業領域,包括教育、娛樂以及傳媒行業。

綜 上 所 述,為了能 讓 讀 者更 好地了解“ 策 展 人”在當代 藝 術 中的 概

念,我們試圖找到一 個清晰的關於 策 展 人概 念的定義,但 是 很快我 們發現, “ 策展人”是一 個非常難以 給出準確定義的名詞。然而我們

還 是 進一步討 論了“ 策 展 人”的概 念興 起 、扮 演的角色以 及 策 展 人 實 質的工作內容,藉此,大家也就可以明白為什麼“ 策 展 人”的概 念

很難被限定,因為“策展人”一詞同時兼具的角色和職責過於豐富。 不管怎麼說,我們希望上面的文字可以幫助大家從一 個宏觀的角度 來了解“ 策展人”這一概念,在此,我們也會給出一 個我們認為比較 全面的關於“ 策 展 人”的定義:“ 當代 藝 術策 展 人,不論是為機構服

務,抑或 是 獨立為之,都是 將其自身專 業 知識 運 用於對 藝 術品的研 究 和策展理念的發展,并將其開創性的成果通 過組織展覽或者活動

的形式 進行表 達,以 達到為人 類 知識、藝 術史發展以 及 策 展實踐 理 論作出貢獻的人。”


Write/present project descriptions for the organization. Write accessible gallery wall texts and captions. 3.Administration and management

• • • •

cooperation with different people. The emphasis of the curator is moving away from a purely academic research function towards

a broader-ranging career which sets foot in many different fields, such as education, entertainment and communication.

Supervise junior staff as line manager.

Form the paragraph above, in order to help understand the term

Give expert advice to external bodies.

for the contemporary arts, but it is really difficult to define the

Supervise interns or volunteers.

Take on administration-related tasks and projects.

In general, the above job descriptions show all duties of a

contemporary art curator who is no matter working for an

organization or working independently. It helps to demonstrate the purpose of a curator’s job, which is to devise, develop and deliver exhibitions and collection displays and to contribute

intellectual, art historical and curatorial expertise to all through research, curating and writing. In addition, to research and

propose acquisitions within organizations’ acquisition strategy is required. From the job descriptions, it can be seen that there are

many essentials of a curator: he or she must be a specialist being knowledgeable for his or her job, and must have great writing

and research skills, and also must be good at communication and

of ‘curator’, I wanted to find out a legible definition of ‘curator’ word ‘curator’. However, I still tried to discuss about when the curator appeared, what the role of the curator is and how a

curator works, so it proves the reason that why the ‘curator’ is

so hard to define is because the ‘curator’ plays many different

roles and holds many different responsibilities at the same time.

However, some essential elements and principles of the curators have been mentioned, and I would try to give a definition of the

contemporary art curator for this study: the definition of ‘curator’ is an open concept. A contemporary art curator is working with

an art organization or working independently to apply his or her expertise, creativities and activities to research and develop the

collections and concepts, meanwhile organizing and delivering exhibitions or events in order to be affluent in intellectual, art historical and curatorial knowledge to human beings.

The origin of the artist curator lies in the 1830s in Paris where it was a manifestation of protest.

“French Artists were placing themselves in the curatorial role in fringe independent gallery exhibitions such as the ‘Salons des Refusés’, produced by artists who were refused by the Paris Salon academia. Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, artists such as Édouard Manet and Pierre-Auste Renoir showcased their work by artist run organisations, such as Société des Artistes Français, Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and Salon d’Automne. Across the Atlantic Artists like Marcel Duchamps wished to break away from the norm when his work ‘Nude Descending on a staircase No.2’ was featured in The First Armory Show in New York in 1913 (Pierce, 2011). These artist led Curatorial practices successfully challenged the art establishment, as artists began to take charge of how their work was displayed, moving away from the boundaries of the frame or wall and set the groundings for what was to follow.” —Matthew Nevin.


What are your 3 pet hates when you visit contemporary art exhibitions?

當你參觀當代藝術展覽時最不能忍受的是哪三點? 9%

13% 13% 6%

12% 13% 7% 6% 6% 11% 1%

2%

Unfriendly and unwelcoming staffs / 工作人員太高冷 Too much‘ jargon ridden text’/ 導覽文字不明覺厲 No seating provided / 就不能有個地方坐嗎?! No activities for children / 孩子往哪擱啊?!

Too much‘same-y’work that was boring and unmemorable / 看上去都是差不多,沒什麼特色 Too conser vative in curation / 策展方式能不能有點新意?

Pricey tickets / 這破玩意還敢收門票?

Boring, or I don’t get it / 沒意思,不好玩,什麼鬼

Nearly no contribution in knowledge production / 對知識生產毫無貢獻

Too much pretentious‘ar t’/ 裝,使勁裝 I don’t care / 關我鳥事 Other / 其他


SHOW TIME STAGE ONLINE

w w w. x y c o l l e c t i v e . c o m NEVER STOP MAKING GOOD IDEAS BET TER.


“We went from years in the red to doubling our budget and building up an operating reserve and we did it by opening up the doors for people to be involved.”—Nina Simon, museum

director of the Santa Cruz Museum of Art and History “這 些 年來 通 過實 現公眾參與的策 展 模 式,我們的預 算翻了一 倍,同時也建立了運作 儲備金。”——妮娜·西 蒙,美國聖塔克魯茲藝術與歷史博物館館長。

“I wondered if this mirrored the trend in museums to ‘share authority’ by allowing visitors to create meaning and often curate exhibitions through the collections. It’s all about democratisation - as they say ‘history from below’. This could also be applied to art museums... art from below.”—Gail Ritchie, artist “我很 好奇讓公眾通 過展示藏品去創建其意義和策展是否反

映了博物館將分享其權利的趨勢,這都是源於民主,正如他們 所說的‘自下而上的歷史’,這概念也可應 用於藝 術 博 物 館, ‘自下而上的藝術’。”——蓋爾·里奇,藝術家

“I think there’s a general feeling that the terms of this sort of engagement with the public haven’t been carefully thought out…Some of these projects may be difficult to sustain over the longer term without, in some way, dramatically changing the nature and even the missions of these institutions.”—Peter Eleey,

curator of MoMA PS1

“我覺得多數人普遍地認為這種公眾參與的策展模式

是沒有經 過 深思熟慮的...其中的一 些項目如果不 在相

應程 度 上改 變 其 相 關 機構的性 質和目標,可能 會在 較

長時期內難以維持。”——彼得·埃里,紐約當代藝 術博 物館PS1策展人

“I don’t believe that everybody is a curator, something about the power of art and the sanctity of the public trust had been compromised.”—Susan Leask,former curator of

the Santa Cruz Museum of Art and Hisotry

“我不認 為任 何人都能 成 為策 展 人,藝 術的力量 和公 眾信任的神聖性已經受到影響了。”——蘇珊·里斯克, 美國聖塔克魯茲藝術與歷史博物館前策展人

“In most galleries so much importance is put on creating a hallowed space for the next exhibition, making a force field of protection around the gallery that distinguishes it from the rest of the world. It’s a funny thing to change a space only to make a protected environment for the next person to come along—it seems incredibly perverse and I realised if you do that continuously, you just get gallery fatigue, you begin to understand too much what that gallery is made of and the place no longer has any meaning. The question for us was whether there is also a fatigue of endless possibilities, of change and transformation.”—Gavin Wade,artist-curator “大多數的畫廊都著重為將要進行的展覽 創建神聖的空間, 打造各種 保 護 牆把 畫 廊與世界上的其他 地方區分開來 。但 滑 稽的是 僅僅只是為了讓下一 位藝 術家進入一 個受保護的環境 而去改變一 個空間,這真的令人難以置信,我認為如果這現象

持續下去,畫廊只會變得愈加脆弱和令人感到疲憊,然後人們

會開始愈加明白畫廊的本質以 及發現 其不再附有任 何意義 。 如今我們面臨的問題是策展模式的改變和轉型還有這種無限 的可能性是不是也會導致疲憊”——加文·韋德,藝術家策展人


presents the exhibition and artworks as a

attract new audiences by transforming

which adds diversity and new vitality to

am very interested in how art institutions the curatorial approach, because any

organization or individual applying for

complete ‘product’, this new attempt of contemporary art.

funding supports would come across

these questions, “how to attract audience? How to develop a new targeted market?” In recent years among arts organizations

作 為 一 個 在 藝 術 機 構 以 外 個 體 ,我 對 藝 術

models have emerged, where

這 個 議 題 非 常 感 興 趣 ,因 為 任 何 一 個 組 織

and institutions a lot of new curatorial

‘crowdsourcing’ and ‘artistsourcing’ are

the more prominent types. In order to get more audience involved in art activities, art institutions become more open to

機 構 如 何 通 過 變 換 策 展 方 式 來 吸引新 觀 眾 和 個 人在申 請 資 助 基 金 的 時 候 都 要 回 答 這

樣 的問 題, “ 如 何 吸引觀 眾 ?如 何 開 發 新 的 受眾群體?”

the curatorial principals and processes to

近 年 來 在 藝 術 組 織 和 機 構 當中出 現了很 多

Although such attempts are not always

及“藝 術家參與型”策 展 是比較 突出的兩個

enable more public to interact with art. successful, it is still worth trying.

Even though it is difficult to tell if it is a

more open, democratic and risk-taking

curatorial practice, or merely a reserved approach inside a small circle, this new

新 的 策 展 模 式,其中“公 眾參 與 型 ”策 展以 方向,既為了讓 更多的觀 眾參與到藝 術 活動 當中,藝 術機構開始在策展原則和過程上更 為開放,使得更多的公眾可以與藝 術產生互

動,雖 然 這樣的嘗試 並不 總是 成 功的,但 這 仍然是值得去嘗試的。

curatorial model challengs the old ones

雖 然 ,對 這 種 趨 勢 我 們 很 難 分 辨 它是 一 種

With the continuous development and

踐,亦或是一種小圈子內部的保守主義暗箱

and appeals a very broad development. improvement of this new curatorial model, it would be a tremendous

contribution to the development and diversification of contemporary art. The transformation is also a very

更開放的、民 主的、更有冒險精神的策 展實 操作,但不管怎樣 這種新形式的策展方法和

手段對陳舊的策展模式發起了挑戰,並且擁 有非常廣闊的發展空間,相信隨著這種策展 模式的不斷 發展和完善,它會對當代 藝 術的 發展及多樣化做出非常大的貢獻。

interesting subject. The transformation

另外,關 於 新型 策 展 帶 來 的“ 轉 換”也 是非

concern to many artist curators, often

關注 點落到空間和概念的轉 換上,這通常是

of space and concept is of major

deriving from their personal practices in which they transform materials,

ideas and the internal environment of

their artworks. This desire to shape and

redefine the physical, psychological and contextual aspects of their own work

also seeps into their curatorial practice as a natural progression.

Recently, transforming exhibition space evokes a new trend, which encourages

more attention to the artwork itself and the exploring process, rather than just

常有意思的課題。許多藝術家策展人把策展 從自身的藝 術實踐 發展而來,一般他們都對

材質、想法和空間的轉 換懷有極 大 興 趣 。因 此,建 立和重新定義 作品的物理、心 理 和語 境 方面的 欲 望 也促 進 藝 術 家 策 展 人 的 策 展 實踐的自然發生。

近 年 來 這 種 將 展 覽 空 間 作 為“ 轉 化 ”的 場 所,而 並不 從 策 展 的 角度去 做“ 發展 ”也 是

一種新的趨勢,這樣的趨勢 使得展覽更注重 藝 術家本身的作品和探索過程,而不是把展 覽 和 作 品 都作 為 一種 完 成 的“產 品”,這 種 新的嘗試也為當代藝術添加了多樣性和新的 活力。

EMERGING CURATORIAL MODELS & TRANSFORMATION 新興策展模式與轉換

As being outside any art institutions, I


NO MAN IS AN ISLAND LOUISE ASHCROFT ARTIST AND FOUNDER OF FLOATING ISLAND GALLERY

沒有人是一座孤島

浮島畫廊創始人,藝術家 路易斯·阿什克羅夫特

TEXT BY 撰文 x LOUISE ASHCROFT 路易絲·阿什克羅夫特 EDITED BY 編輯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x QIWEN KE 柯淇雯 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x LOUISE ASHCROF 路易斯·阿什克羅夫特

Born in Bradford, West Yorkshire 1983. Lives and works in

出 生 於 西 約 克 夏 布 蘭 弗 的 路 易 斯·阿 什 克 羅 夫 特 是 常

University) in 2004 and Birkbeck (University of London)

(Ruskin School of Ar t, Ox ford Universiy)以及倫

London. Graduated from the Ruskin School of Art (Oxford in 2008, Ashcroft also studied Sculpture at The Royal

College of Art (London) in 2012-13 and is co-founder of the alternative art school AltMFA. An artist herself, Aschcroft

curates exhibitions for Departure Foundation and runs her own gallery Floating Island. She organizes and initiates a

variety of group show, educational activities, collaborative projects and events, such as ‘Unperforming’: an ongoing

series of energetic performance events featuring various artists(about 25 per event).

駐 倫 敦 的 藝 術 家 。畢 業 於 牛 津 大 學 拉 斯 金 藝 術 學 院

敦大學貝克學院(Birkbeck, Universit y of London),

阿什克羅 夫特也曾在皇家藝 術學院學習雕 塑,其後 創辦

了另類 碩士課程( A lt MFA )。阿什克羅 夫 特不但 進 行藝

術創作,也為啓程基金會(Depar ture Foundation)策 展 ,同 時 運 營 著自己 的 畫 廊 ——浮島 畫 廊 。她 策 劃 並 發

起 過 多次 群 展 、教 育活 動 、協作 項目及 活 動,其 中 備 受 關注的有《非 表 演(Unp er for ming )》—— 一 個 在不斷

進行中的藝 術現場系列活動,每次合作參與的藝 術家有 25位之多。


Floating Island

—Collective studio, shape-shifting gallery Floating Island is an artist-led gallery which I founded in April 2014. We occupy an ongoing series of temporary spaces

according to the needs of each project, all of which have so far been at Harbour Exchange, a waterfront development

near Canary Wharf. The aim of the organization is to catalyze

collaboration, conversation and experimentation by creating

a shared environment where selected artists in residence can make new work and exhibit together. Currently, there are

fourteen artists in residence who have access to a large shared studio for two months, which will culminate in an immersive,

shape-shifting exhibition with performances that will transform the space throughout the opening event. Some of the artists

浮島畫廊─ ─集體工作室&百變畫廊

Rivers, are making playful, abstract work focusing on form,

成立 於2014月4月的浮島畫 廊是 一家藝 術家 運營的畫 廊。藝 術家們

myself, Fritha Jenkins, Freya Gabie and Claire Nichols, are making

活動範圍集中在离金絲雀碼頭(Canar y Whar f)不远的海港交易所

such as Jennifer Taylor, Elly Thomas, Sarah Pettitt and Robert object, deconstructed imagery, and assemblage; others like

site-orientated projects that refer to the cultural history of the

docklands and its surrounding financial district. What unites the

work is the importance of metaphor and gesture, which is why I

根據每個藝 術項目的需要入 駐臨時的場地進行創作,迄今為止我們

(Harbour Exchange)的碼頭區。通過這個共享的平臺,藝術家們 可以一同創作,一同展覽,促進更好的合作、對話和實驗。

have chosen to title the exhibition ‘Sketchy Remarks’ (quoting

目前,14位藝術家正在參與長達兩個月的駐地項目,開幕式當天他們的

impossibility of a fixed conclusion).

在發生變化的展覽現場。一些藝術家注重形狀、物件、解構圖像和再組

Noam Chomsky in ‘On Anarchism’, when he accepts the

‘Unperforming’ Performance I am personally very interested in liveness and performance, so Floating Island exhibitions are often accompanied by an event

I curate called ‘Unperforming’ which features many short, risk-

taking live works erupting throughout the space. The tone of

the event is often humorous, wild and shambolic; nobody really knows quite what is going to happen. I act as presenter, using a

frying pan as a gong, telling stories and poems in-between acts.

藝術作品加上現場行為藝術將把駐地空間塑造成一個浸入式的、隨時 合,意在創作有趣、抽象的作品,如珍妮弗·泰勒(Jennifer Taylor)、艾 莉·托馬斯(Elly Thomas)、莎拉·佩蒂特(Sarah Pettitt)和羅伯特·理

弗斯(Robert Rivers);而其他藝術家以碼頭的歷史文化和周邊的金融 區為題材,創作定點區域的作品,如弗利沙·詹金斯(Fritha Jenkins)、弗

蕾婭·蓋比(Freya Gabie)、克萊爾·尼克爾斯(Claire Nichols)還有我自 己。 “隱喻”和“姿態”的重要性是此次創作的關鍵,所以我把展覽命 名為《淺談粗聊(Sketchy Remarks)》 (引用自諾姆·喬姆斯基(Noam Chomsky) 《無政府主義(Chomsky On Anarchism)》,他認為世事沒 有絕對的定論。)

Recent events have been wonderful: The collective BBKP made

非表演的表演

boarded it and sailed it around the dock; Hannah Jones sang

因為我個人十分熱衷於現場 性質的表演,因此我經常在浮島畫廊舉

like ceremony on the balcony with sculptural costumes and

然維持的時間不長,但是卻激活了整個空間,就像冒險一樣,沒人能

an impossible-looking boat using chopsticks and cling film, then opera about her iPhone; Lily Johnson enacted a surreal, weddingshaving foam; Jennifer Taylor floated a giant weather-balloon

on the water; Neela Basu made an edible text piece written on slices of cheese; Aaron Williamson performed an OCD parody

辦《非表演》的藝 術現場活動,這些幽默、野 性、混亂的現場作品雖

預 料 接下去會發生什麼。通常我 的角色 是 說 故事的人,在各個 行為 表演之中穿插故事和詩歌。

of internet ‘how to’ videos; Fritha Jenkins froze blocks of the

最 近的 活 動非常有意 思:B B K P團隊用筷 子和 保 鮮膜 建 造了一 艘 不

a scene from his new play; Renata Bandeira hired a male and

歌 劇的形式讚頌她的蘋果手機;莉莉·約翰遜(Lily Johnson)身著

River Thames and let them melt; Cradeaux Alexander presented female model who stripped for us in reverse; Marcus Orlandi

performed slapstick live sculptures involving flour, boxing and

可思議的船,一直沿著碼頭航行;漢娜·瓊斯(Hannah

Jones)用

泡沫裝 點的雕 塑 服裝,在露臺上演繹了一出類似夢幻婚禮的慶典;

珍妮弗·泰勒(Jennifer Taylor)讓一顆巨型的氣象氣球浮在水面;


falling from a ladder; Rebecca Glover showed us her anatomical

尼拉·巴蘇(Ne e la B a su)用奶酪片制作了可食用的文本;艾倫·威

conversations. My own work is influenced by Dada, Situationism,

秀; 弗利沙·詹金斯(Fr itha Jenkins)將泰晤士河的水凍成冰塊,

diagrams of the docklands; and Rosa Farber scripted viewers’

happenings and stand-up comedy, so I am attracted to artists whose work has similar touchstones.

Free For All It’s important to me that we try out new ways of relating to the audience and that the space can be used as a practice-based research tool for questioning the exhibition-making process.

Most people come to see our shows by attending one of our

再待它們融化; 克拉朵·亞歷山大(Cradeaux Alexander)再現了 他新劇裡的一幕;雷娜塔·班代拉(Renata

Bandeira)請了一對男

女 模 特以倒 敘的方式 為 我 們 表 演 脫衣 舞;馬庫 斯·奧蘭迪(Marcus

O r l a n d i)運 用面 粉、箱 子、滑 梯 等 道 具 上 演 了一出 移 動 雕 塑 的 鬧 劇;麗貝卡·格洛弗(Rebecca Glover)向我們展示了她所創作的碼 頭 結構解析圖;羅莎·法 伯(R o s a Fa r b e r)記 錄觀眾的對話並把它 變 成 劇本 。我 深受 達 達 主義、情 境 主義、偶發 藝 術 和單口相聲的影 響,所以類似觀念的作品很讓我著迷。

events, which are increasingly crowded with familiar and new

自由發展,自我發生

community. We also try to get local people involved (a process

對我來說,嘗試採取新方式來與觀眾發生互動是非常必要的,而這個

Office of Public Ritual played reggae and set-up a lunch-hour

許多曾經參加過我們活動的觀眾會再次參加下一次的聚會,現場總是

faces, and which catalyze a very supportive, joyful sense of

which is often led by the work itself), for example, the collective

Performing at Pitzhanger Manor 2015

廉森(Aaron Williamson)表演了一段來自網絡教程的強迫症模仿

空間可視為以實踐為基礎前提的研究工具,來探討展覽製作的過程。


Sketchy Remarks. Photo by Jennifer Taylor.


Sketchy Remarks 2015

cake stall in the street as a way of making conversation with local

擠滿了一張張熟 悉和陌生的面孔,活動本身 使得整個社區都活躍了

by them.

(Office of Public Ritual),一個為重大場合或事件定制儀式的服務

office workers who were invited to commission rituals designed

I think that the most crucial condition for making great art is

freedom, so my curatorial role is simply to plan a structure and

concept for a show as a starting point, then provide a space and gather an audience; the rest of the time I am one of the artists.

Making Art, Making Friends

起來。我們經常尋找當地公眾來參與作品創作,例如,公共儀式組織 機構,他們曾在街頭播放雷鬼音樂,設立甜點餐車,邀請當地上班族 們參與特定的儀式等等。

創造好藝術的先決條件是自由。在浮島畫廊的展覽中,我的身份通常

一分為二:策展人和藝 術家。構思概念和框架、尋找場地、宣傳聚集 人氣是我作為策展人的職責所在,其余時間我也是一名普通的藝 術 家,埋首自己的藝術創作。

The artist-led approach is fundamental to the success of my

做藝術,交朋友

for the arts charity Departure Foundation, which supports and

我想由藝術家主導的運作模式是讓活動順利進行的一個重要原因。

curating exhibitions, events and prizes showcasing new work. We

年,基金會為藝術家提供免費的工作室、展覽機會和資助獎勵。當時

projects. I set up Floating Island Gallery after five years of working promotes artists by providing them with free studios and by

had access to a lot of warehouses and offices (which were empty

because of the recession) and we transformed them into galleries and free workspace. At Departure Foundation, I exhibited in many of the shows I organized – we wanted to create a

movement and peer-group, so it was conducive that my own

position was that of an artist. It was an exciting time - I spent a lot

我曾在藝術慈善機構啓程基金會(Departure Foundation)工作了五 經濟蕭條,我們可以把很多閑置的倉庫和辦公室運用起來,把它們打

造成畫廊和免費的工作室空間。在啓程基金會工作的日子裡,通過策 劃展覽我們創建了自己的小規模運動和形成了一個小團體,這對大家 都很有幫助。現在想起來還是很激動的,我常在諾大的倉庫空間裡遊

玩、創作、交友,毫不誇張地說數萬平方英尺的土地都曾是我們的遊 樂場,這應該是雕塑家的夢想吧。這些閑置空間遠比規規矩矩的畫廊


of it hanging around in vast warehouse spaces, making art and

更吸引我,藝術家們在這裡發光發熱,此處誕生的作品可以稱為“關

became our playground - it was a sculptor’s dream. Empty offices

不安,我對那些非畫廊的真實空間則非常感興趣。

making friends. Literally hundreds of thousands of square feet

and industrial buildings continue to have far greater appeal to

於藝術的藝術”吧。我自己本身有些多動症,白色畫廊空間會令我會

me than conventional galleries, which I find can lead to the work

在啓程基金會工作的時候我認識了遍佈英國各地的朋友,在英格蘭東

bit ADHD, so I get anxious in white cubes and am much more

到非常多優秀的藝術家,在甄選藝術家時,我們更多地在考量創作過

being ‘art about art’. I did an MA in cultural studies, and I’m a interested in the drama of being in real, non-gallery sites.

While working for Departure Foundation I made connections

all over Britain, having simultaneously run projects, spaces and

studios in the North East, Yorkshire and Birmingham and London. I met so many brilliant artists. We selected artists whose practices

北部、約克郡、伯明翰和倫敦同時開展項目,運營空間和工作室。我遇

程而非現成作品。同時我也意識到一個有趣的現象:如果藝術家早在

開展前幾個月就進駐展覽空間進行創作,空間將以一種更有凝聚力的 方式進行有機的自我策展。若把傳統策展比作工業化耕作,那它就是

永續農業。我策 劃的許多項目就是希望把空間打造成類似藝 術學院 內的集體工作室,而不僅僅是一個畫廊。

got us excited, rather than choosing finished works. I learned

從牛津到倫敦

venue for a couple of months before the show, making work

浮島 畫 廊是在一 點一滴堆砌而成的。我不想離開校園,我在拉 斯 金

more cohesive way than other curatorial methods allow. It’s like

院 不大卻人才濟濟。在 這個 氣氛 活躍的校 園 裡,我有幸 遇 見了許 多

quickly that when a group of artists have access to the exhibition on site, the space sort of curates itself organically in a much

permaculture as opposed to industrial farming. In many ways, the spaces I initiated were more like the collective studio space in an art school than a gallery.

From Oxford To London

學院(Ruskin College)完成了我的本科學位,它隸屬牛津大學,學 出色的老師,包括邁克爾·阿切爾(Michael

Archer)、布萊恩·凱特

琳(Brian Catling)和理查德·文特沃斯(Richard Wentwor th)。 畢業前,藝術經紀安妮·伯紹德(Anne Ber thoud)組織了一次為期

一月的摩洛哥駐 地 項目;在那之後我 和同學 們帶著 憧憬來到倫敦闖 蕩,但迎來的卻是昂貴又陌生的大都市和隨之而來的生活窘迫。

I never wanted to leave art school. My BA was at The Ruskin

嘗試過一次次前景渺茫的銷售工作,也走訪過托特納姆黑爾就業中心

It was nurturing and full of activity. Even while I was there, I

我得到了一份機會難得的工作——在達明·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)

(a small, ambitious school which is part of Oxford University). realized that it was a massive privilege being taught by incredibly inspiring tutors, including Michael Archer, Brian Catling and

Richard Wentworth. The course ended with a month-long group residency in Morocco, which was organized by the art dealer

Anne Berthoud, after which I moved to London with my course mates. We were all very driven and thought that our degrees were a passport to success, but instead faced the reality of

trying to survive as artists in a big, expensive city that we knew nothing about. After a string of dead-end sales jobs and visits

(Tottenham Hale Job Centre),最後在朋友尼拉·巴蘇的引薦下, 的蝴蝶 拼貼工作室的從事制作。接下來的幾年碩果 累累,我在那結 識了很多才華橫溢的年輕藝 術家,我們交流經驗、分享想法、舉辦展

覽,其中很 瘋狂的一 個是在即將 拆除的 倉庫內舉 辦了一次名為《 落 錘式破碎機(Wrecking

Ball)》的活動。我們也常受邀出席許多藝

術聚會,我們還一起到洛杉磯高古軒畫廊(Gagosian Galler y)出席

赫 斯 特的大 型個展開幕式 。但 是漸 漸 地,我意識到這份工作 不是長

久之計,我一直都在機械地日復一日地貼蝴蝶翅膀。我開始上夜校攻 讀 文化 與 批判研究的碩士課程,同時 在啓程 畫 廊 找 到了工作,也就

to Tottenham Hale Job Centre, my friend Neela Basu got me a

fabricator position at Damien Hirst’s butterfly collage studio (she worked in his photo-realist painting studio). The next few years

were great fuel, because lots of extraordinary young artists also

worked there and we became a close group of friends. The nature of the work meant that we had a lot of time to chat together and share ideas about what we were making in our own practices

and to organize exhibitions together, one of which was a wild

event called ‘Wrecking Ball’ in a warehouse that was about to be demolished. We got invited to lots of art world parties and even

“I think the best art is art adventure, artist is as much important as the viewer, if they are not surprised by their artwork, then they are not working hard enough, they are not scared enough, they should be scared of what’s going on.”

went to LA for the opening of a huge Hirst exhibition at Gagosian

“我覺得會冒險的藝 術才是 好藝 術,藝 術家的感知和觀 眾的是同等

and that my main transferrable skill had become ‘picking the

努力,他們應該對未知保持一種恐懼感才能促使更好的發生。”

Gallery. After a while I realized that the job wouldn’t last forever

重要的,如果他們自己都不被自己的作品所震撼到,那麼他們還不夠


wings off butterflies and sticking them onto canvas’, which was

problematic, so I studied for an MA in Cultural and Critical Studies at night school and then got the job at Departure Gallery (which

later developed into Departure Foundation) - a new organization founded by two chartered surveyors Robert Wort and Giles

Andrews who wanted to help emerging artists by providing them with free space and resources.

The few first shows I organized at Departure (in 2009-10)

were in a series of warehouses in Heathrow and featured

works by some really extraordinary up-and-coming artists

including Edward Fornieles, Stewart Gough, Ilona Sagar, The Lloyd Corporation, Doug Jones, Helene Kazan, Paul Eachus,

“I think curator has become some sort of artist in a way, and the artists now illustrate the vision of the curator, so the artists become a material, in some way, it feels like that. But I don’t want to do that. I’m more interested in making my own work. I don’t like the thought of controlling from the top. I prefer to curate situations where people can make decisions together and become a community. It’s quite likes some sort of Utopian, maybe a bit cheesy, but it’s nice to create a shared space that discussion can happen. It’s more like an art school, or a situation, the space curates itself, with conversations, interactions between different objects or works.”

Blue Curry, Helen Barff and Charlesworth, Lewandowski &

“我覺得有時候策展人在某種程度上把自己變成當成藝術家了。有時

despite their distance from central London. One of the shows,

點具體化呈現給觀眾。我並不想變成那樣的策展人,我有自己的藝術創

Mann. Literally thousands of people attended the openings,

Rhizomatic, involved over 200 artists occupying 64,000 square

feet of space (using a ‘six degrees of separation’ concept as

a way of selecting artists based on the artists we had already worked with), which effectively physicalized our creative network and introduced it to itself.

候藝術家彷彿變成了一種被策展人利用的素材,幫助策展人把他的觀 作,我不喜歡高高在上的控制一切,我更願意創造一種情境或環境,讓 大家一起作決定,我們是一個平等的群體。這聽起來有點烏托邦,又或

許聽起來有些空洞,但是創建一個可以讓討論發生的平台是我的志願。 這更像是一所藝術學校,或者一個情境,空間能夠自我策展,不同的作 品能夠互相對話。”

Alternative Gallery, Alternative School The opportunity to set up Floating Island Gallery came about through connections with a space I had used while working

for Departure. I had co-curated the end of year exhibition for

Goldsmiths College’s ‘Research Architecture’ MA there. It was a magnificent waterfront premises, sandwiched between the

futuristic, corporate skyscrapers of Canary Wharf and the arty but then still un-gentrified streets of South East London. The project

ended, but in 2014 I had the opportunity to lease this space and

neighbouring properties independently at an affordable rate, so I decided to set up a new gallery.

是現在的啓程基金會,它是由羅伯特·沃特(Rober t

The name Floating Island had several associations for me:

家,為他們提供免費的場地和資源。

Robert Smithson’s piece in which a manmade island is towed by

Wor t)和賈爾

斯·安德魯斯(Giles Andrews)成立的新組織,目的是幫助新興藝術

boat around Manhattan; a French dessert that I’m a fan of called

我早期策劃的展覽大約在2009到2010年之間,當時在希思羅機場的一系

the fact that the gallery building is on a sort of artificial island

華·弗尼勒斯(Edward Fornieles)、斯圖爾特·高夫(Stewart Gough)、伊

île flottante; the essay Desert Islands by Gilles Deleuze; and or platform built on Millwall Dock. As the poet John Donne

said, ‘No man is an island’, and I certainly don’t want to be one; despite the connectedness of our digital age, living in London and being an artist and can be isolating. For me, it’s crucial to have a physical space in which to gather and try things out together with other artists.

When I set up Floating Island I’d recently left the Royal College

of Art where I was studying sculpture but had run out of money

列倉庫裡策劃了好些項目,許多嶄露鋒芒的藝術家都參加了,包括愛德 洛娜·塞格爾(Ilona Sagar)、勞埃德公司(The Lloyd Corporation)、道 格·瓊斯(Doug Jones)、海倫·卡贊(Helene Kazan)、保羅·伊修絲(Paul

Eachus)、布盧·科理(Blue Curry)、海倫·巴爾夫(Helen Barff)、查爾斯

沃思(Charlesworth)、萊萬多夫斯基和曼(Lewandowski & Mann)。盡 管場地偏遠,但據統計至少有幾千名觀眾出席了開幕式。其中一個展覽 《根莖(Rhizomatic)》很是讓我驚訝,展覽空間足有64000平方英尺,

參展藝術家超過了200人,我們用數學遊戲“小世界現象(six degrees of separation)”來通過合作過的藝術家再邀請新的藝術家參與,實實在在 地建立了龐大的人際網絡。


Screens 2013 (videos, monitors, objects)


“Whenever I organize something, it’s almost like a party, a happening, or something live of an event, the people out there are part of that. It doesn’t always feel I curate the show, even if it has a scheduled performance. It feels like artists choose me rather than me choosing artists. I might find out about someone because someone else knows someone, or I saw their works there. It’s usually quite organic in the way the connections are made. I quite like that, it becomes a group of friends, like the 50s, 60s, 70s, people were in the warehouses, experimenting, making different kinds of performances and striving for utopia.” “我策劃的展覽更像是一場派對,一個發生,或者一個活動現場,在這個場景裡的人很重要,他們是這個活動的重要組成部

分,無論是觀眾還是藝術家。儘管有表演流程安排等等,但我覺得好像並不是我在策展,感覺像是藝術家挑選我多於我挑選 藝術家。我可能會因為一位藝術家認識另外一位藝術家,或者是在朋友的活動上看到別的藝術家的作品從而認識新的藝術

家。我喜歡這樣有機地搭建人際網絡,就像是50年代,60年代,甚至是70年代,藝術家之間都是朋友,聚首在倉庫裡一起實 驗,一起嘗試各種各樣的行為表演,共同打造這樣美好的烏托邦。”

“I’m not commercially successful artist, I am more interested in giving artists a safe space to play, to make mistakes, to try out something new. It might not be the best of their works, but it’s a progress, a development, a practice. It’s not like going shopping at the degree show, picking someone’s good work, but to train them, to grow with them. ” “我不是商業上成功的藝術家,我更感興趣的是為藝術家提供一個安全的空間一起作樂,一起犯錯,一起嘗新。也許展出的成

品算不上他們最好的作品,但是這個發展過程和實踐本身就是最值得鼓勵的。要是像去畢業展銷會挑好貨那就沒意思了,我 更願意和這些尚在摸索的藝術家一起成長。”


to pay the extortionate course fees. I was disappointed with

另類畫廊,另類學院

compared to the exhibition-making I had been immersed in

在一個偶然的契機,我決定著手進行最重要的項目——浮島畫廊。這

in the alternative MA course ‘altMFA’ which I founded with a

度展覽,這是一次合作的策展項目。一處宏偉的臨水展覽場地,就位

the course in general because it seemed so lacking in content through my work at Departure, and also through my involvement friend in 2010. I didn’t want to get in debt in order to complete my MA (debt kills freedom), but I still craved a space to make

work and an artist community to share ideas with. When I left

the Royal College I sent an email to Paul Thompson the Rector

要歸功於金匠學院(Goldsmiths College)建築研究碩士課程的年 於 金 絲雀碼 頭 那未 來 主義 風 格 的摩 天 大樓 和附庸風 雅 卻 略 顯 粗糙

的東南部街道之間。2014 年,我以合理的價格租下那裡以 及 鄰近物 業,浮島畫廊誕生了。

and cc’d the student body and staff, expressing my worry about

畫廊以“浮島”為名有好幾個原因:第一是因為我喜歡羅伯特·史密森

The email ended by proclaiming, “A great art school is simply a

航行;其二,我很喜愛的法式甜點叫做“浮島(île flottante)”;第三,

the institution’s increasingly corporate, bureaucratic approach. room full of intelligent, rigorous, adventurous people who are passionate and present”. It’s not easy to achieve this in a large

university any more, but these conditions are exactly what I am trying to create at Floating Island; not just a gallery, but a space

to think, play, share, hide, exhibit, inhibit, learn, mess around, fail, succeed and be together.

(Rober t Smithson)的作品:一艘船拖曳著人造漂浮島環繞曼哈頓 我喜歡哲學家吉爾·德勒茲(Gilles Deleuze)的文集《荒島(Deser t

Islands)》;第四,畫廊所在地就在米爾沃爾碼頭(Millwall Dock)的 人工島上。正如詩人約翰·多恩(John Donne)所言: “沒有人是一座 孤島”,我自己並不希望成為孤島;盡管數字時代下溝通無阻,但定居倫

敦、又是藝術家的我很容易成為孤軍作戰的一個人。因此我覺得實體空 間能夠切實把大家聚集在一起共同奮鬥。

Despite this critique, some great things happened during

浮島畫廊創立之前,我正巧從皇家藝術學院(Royal College of Art)

house in the yard outside the sculpture building and made

較失望,和啓程基金會的項目還有2010年我與朋友創辦的“altMFA”

my time at The Royal College. A group of us built a wooden a collaborative installation there during the final show,

comprising of individual and co-authored works. It came about through a really simple concept, which was ‘sharing lunch’, and then developed into ‘sharing thoughts on: solidarity, boundaries, domesticity, time, space, exchange, caring,

politics, ways of making, and ways of living…’. Building a house became a mechanism for cross-pollination and resistance to the individualism of the final MA exhibition. Floating Island

Gallery is born from this and all the other experiences I have touched upon here. It’s a many-headed-monster that shifts

shape all the time, because art is slippery and elusive; art is an

退學,那裡高昂的學費實在壓得我喘不過氣來。總體來說我對課程比 (另類碩士課程)相比,課程內容實在太匱乏了。所以我不打算為了這

門學業而負債累累--負債剝奪自由。我憧憬的是一 個自由創作,藝

術家互相交流的平臺。在我離開前,我給校長發了封郵件並抄送了全

體學生和教職人員,信中我表達了對於院校日益商業化和官僚化的憂 慮,我還在結尾處聲明: “出色的藝術學院應該是一個包容各類型人

才的地方,那裡的人不僅有才智,也嚴謹,還需要有熱情,勇於挑戰, 活在當下。”我清楚地知道要實現上述想法非常不易,更不用說像皇 家藝術學院這種規模的院校了,但這正是我成立浮島的理由:它不只

是一間畫廊,而是一個融合了思考、遊玩、分享、隱藏、展示、學習、摸 索、失敗、成功、聚集的空間。

individual sport but you play it in tribes and there are no goals,

撇開這些不滿,我在求學期間還是有一些激動人心的事值得分享。畢

out new things together.

間展示了一件共同創作的裝置。這個項目源於“分享午餐”這個簡單

just tries – a bit like rugby. Floating Island is a space for trying

業展覽期間,我們一行人在雕塑大樓前搭建了一間小木屋,裡面的空

的概念,進而演變成“分享理念:團結、邊界、家庭生活、時間、空間、

交換、關懷、政治、制作方式還有生活方式……”“造房子”變成了分 享交流,抵制畢業展覽個人化的一種方式。浮島畫廊的概念最初就是 從這裡發展而來的,然後再利用我的其他實踐經驗來打造這個千頭萬

緒的變形者,藝術也是如此,轉瞬即逝,難以捉摸,無法定義。藝術又

像是一項個人運動,但你不能脫離別人而存在,藝術沒有目標,只有 不斷嘗試。浮島畫廊就是一個一起嘗新、一起玩的遊樂場。


ARTIST TAKE ON CURATING 藝術家策展

INTERVIEWED BY 採訪 x FION GUNN 菲昂·戈恩 EDITED BY 編輯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x QIWEN KE 柯淇雯 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x HAYWARD GALLERY 海沃德畫廊

At the time of preparing this issue, the Hayward Gallery,

正籌 備這 期專題的同時,海沃德 畫 廊迎 來了新展《 歷 史再

Artists Take On Britain which is curated by 7 artists

Take O n B r it ain)》。該 展 覽由當下七位 炙手可熱的藝

London presents an exhibition HISTORY IS NOW: 7

including John Akomfrah, Simon Fujiwara, Roger Hiorns, Hannah Starkey, Richard Wentworth, and Jane & Louise Wilson. Working with Dr Cliff Lauson, Hayward Gallery

Curator, each artist was invited to curate a section of the

exhibition, looking at particular periods of cultural history

from 1945 to the present day. The exhibition aims to offer

an inventive way of exploring the country’s recent history;

spanning ideas and topics as varied as the Cold War, postThatcherite society, protest movements, feminism, ‘mad cow disease’ and celebrity culture.

Dr Cliff Lauson the Hayward curator who led the team

現:七位藝術家眼中的英國(HISTORY IS NOW: 7 Ar tists 術家 主導,他們分別是約翰·阿康伐(John

Akomfrah)、

藤原西蒙(Simon Fujiwara)、羅傑·海恩斯(Roger Hiorns)、

漢娜·史塔基(Hannah Starkey)、理查德·文特沃斯(Richard Wentworth)和威爾遜姐妹(Jane & Louise Wilson)。在與總 策展人克裏夫·勞遜博士(Dr Cliff Lauson)溝通與協作後,藝

術家在相對獨立的空間裡以策展人的身份搜集素材,重現某

段 特 定 的 英 國 歷 史 ,旨 在 嘗 試 用 另一 種 思 路 來 回 顧 英 國 從1 9 4 5 年 至 今 的 發 展 歷 程 。《 歷 史再 現 》通 過 開 拓 新方

式 來 探索國家 近代 歷 史,展現多樣 化的思 路和主 題,如冷 戰 、後 撒切 爾社會 抗 議 運 動、女 權 主義、瘋牛病 和名人 文 化等等。

which supported the artists felt that the artist curator

策展人勞遜博士認為藝術家策展人的想法既充滿活力又意

comparing the methodological differences between

較鬆散的,整個過程都有在挑戰既定的策展原則。

perspective is both invigorating and unexpected. When

料之 外。相 較 於機構策 展 模 式,他形 容這次工作關係是比


working with institutional and artist curators, he was quick to

critics, Adrian Searle from the Guardian and Alastair Sooke from

that the process was pushed to its limits.

artists’ curating practices.

The idea of inviting artists to curate did create an excitement

“展中展”這個全 新模式的確 是 展 覽的一大亮點,四位藝 術家與 我

us their experience of curating. What’s more interesting, two art

報》的兩位藝術評論家分別給出了截然不同的評價。

around the exhibition, we’ve interviewed four artists to share with

the Telegraph showed nearly opposite views responding to the

們 分享 了他 們 的 策 展 經 歷 。更 有 趣 的 是,來自英 國《 衛 報 》和《電

Roger Hiorns

羅 傑·海恩 斯

Roger Hiorns’s (born 1975, Birmingham; lives and works London)

羅 傑·海恩斯,1975年出生 於英國伯明翰,現 居倫敦,作品有大型裝

and performances that mix everyday objects with unexpected

結合。著名裝置《佔領(Seizure,2008)》是把一座公屋轉變成一 個

work encompasses large-scale installations, individual sculptures interventions. His celebrated installation Seizure (2008), which transformed a council flat into a grotto of deep-blue crystalline

growths, was nominated for the 2009 Turner Prize and acquired

置、個體雕塑、行為藝 術,這些創作都與日常生活和偶發現場幹預相 深藍晶體洞穴,憑著這作品海恩賜於20 09年榮獲了特 納獎 提名,作 品於2011年起正式入駐約克郡雕塑公園。

by the Yorkshire Sculpture Park in 2011.

在惠康基金會人類獎(People Award from the Wellcome Trust)

Supported by a People Award from the Wellcome Trust, Hiorns

病及 人 類 感染 變異的克 雅二氏病(v C JD)進行了探索,調查它的起

investigates bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and provides an artistic exploration of the disease and its human equivalent,

variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), looking at how these crises

的支 持下,海恩斯對瘋牛病(BSE)展開了一系列調 查,並 對這 類 疾 源、發展以及後續影響。他與科學家們一同研究,打造了這場結合生 物醫學、農業、畜牧業、食品生產及消費的展區。

arose and key milestones in their developments, as well as their

展區按照時間順 序 從多個視角展示了相關的藝 術作品,例如古斯塔

vCJD and to curate an exhibition that incorporates biomedicine,

Slide Talk)》(1996),達明·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)的《眼不見,

lasting impact. He has worked with scientists to investigate BSE and agriculture, animal husbandry, food production and consumption. The exhibition itself is multi-layered, displaying artworks from

the time of the crisis, such as Gustav Metzger’s Mad Cow Slide

Talk (1996) and Damien Hirst’s Out of Sight. Out of Mind.

夫·梅茨格(Gustav

Metzger)的《瘋牛病幻燈片講座(Mad

Cow

心不煩(Out of Sight. Out of Mind.)》(1991),還有一些文獻物

件,比如牛的證件、瘋牛病研究的相關設備和物件、影片、紀錄片素 材和官方報告等,更有運用新科技製作的‘證物’,如3D打印的感染

性朊病毒蛋白模型。海恩斯將疾病的歷史、發展以及後續影響清晰、 有條理地歸整在按時間順序發展的框架下。

Left: Damien Hirst, Out of Sight. Out of Mind, 1991. Roger Hiorns’ curated section. Photo Linda Nylind

point out that the relationship was ‘much more discursive’ and


Left: British Cattle Movement Service 2011, Photo: Roger Wooldridge Right: Jørgen Leth and Ole John‘My Name is Andy Warhol’ from 66 Scenes from America (66 scener fra America), 1982, © the artist 1982/2014. Courtesy the artists and Andersen’s Contemporary, Copenhagen

(1991), and cultural artefacts - excerpts from a cattle passport,

除此之外海恩斯還調查了上世紀80、90年代瘋牛病對英國人心理方

and documentary media clips, and official committee reports -

一直情 緒 起伏很 大。但他一直 秉 持著 信念:加深人們對該 疾 病的認

scientific equipment and objects related to BSE research, film

alongside newly produced objects, including a 3D-printed model

of the infectious prion protein. The exhibition is structured around a timeline charting the history, development and impact of the

diseases, in addition to other points that the artist found of interest. Roger Hiorns described his curatorial journey as an emotional

roller coaster as he investigated the impact of ‘mad cow disease’ (CJD) on the UK psyche back in the 80s and 90s. For Hiorns,

the project represented a psychological burden as he “tried to

unveil an overwhelming truthfulness”. His purpose was and is to promote understanding, to reveal what lies beneath the surface

of things. He remarked that as artists “we have a different way of behaving, the world seeps in more.”

面的影 響,他深知這個真 相會 如潮水般 湧來,所以在 策 展 過程中他 識,揭開隱藏在背後的真相。

ART.ZIP:你為甚麼選擇在一個藝術空間討論一個如此科學的話題?

RG:我認為我們在進行藝 術創作時有一種 無 形的傳統,就 是一 般不 會或者不輕易跨 越 約定俗成的標準 和界限。然而這種習慣框定了我

們自己,我認為如果當代 藝 術應該 用更真實的手法去表 達 來證明其 存 在的意義,那麼這 些 條 條框 框 必 然 要 被打 破,當然不是以侮 辱或 極端的方式,而是 用成 年人的做 法來 推 動事 物的進 展。所以我 將這

個藝 術領域之外的課題帶進畫廊空間。我認為該疾病一直在英國社 會回蕩,一 代 人 飽受摧 殘,克 雅 二氏病 釀 成了年 輕 人 揮之不去的心

理陰影,足有十年。在這樣的文化背景下,當你描述那一 代人的時候

這個話題 必然 繞 不開。直到現在這個問題的嚴 重性 還 沒有浮現,但 它仍然潛伏著。

ART.ZIP: What makes you choose such scientific topic for this

ART.ZIP:這肯定是一個大工程,你必須拋開個人主觀情感來對大量

RH: I think that there is a tradition that when making artworks

RG:我 必須 冷靜客 觀 地考慮 這些材料的展示方式 。你不能只是 動動

curatorial project in a gallery space?

there are certain levels or certain boundaries that are not or do not tend to be allowed to be crossed. It is a way in which we

allow ourselves limitations, and I think that if contemporary art

的信息進行客觀的分析,對嗎?

嘴皮子,也不能以 美 感 和構 圖 佈局為出發 點,你 必須站 在一 個 理 性 化 、本質化的立場來考慮作品是否真實 地 表 達了主 題 。在 某 種程 度 上我會說這是“實打實的真相”。畫廊變成了一個不作任何修飾地客


is going to survive as a legitimate way of relating to the world

觀 展現‘真 相’的空間。人們喜歡接觸第一手資料,這樣的展現方式

insulting, transgressive manner, but let’s be adults about things

揭露真相的實踐正是當代藝術的精神和作風。

in a truthful way, then boundaries have to be crossed, not in an and move things forward. So I wanted to put a subject in the

可以讓 我們有機會親身探究並深入到問題的內部。這種抽 絲剝繭、

outer realm of things but in a gallery space. I thought it had a

ART.ZIP:所以這種當代的做法就是你的策展方式嗎?

of people which were very affected by this disease – CJD slipped

覽沒有必要全盤托出。人們可能對成功和完整性看得太重了,我認為

very hermetic social significance, there was a whole generation into the psychological landscape of British young people for

about 10 years and that becomes culturally significant when your describing a generation, it’s a shared issue. But that issue doesn’t emerge, it remains latent.

ART.ZIP: It must have been a hugely challenging task, there’s so

much text and you had to get so much information across which is analytical, it’s not just about you emoting and responding to

R G:可以 說 我 的藝 術 實踐 的確 是 這樣 。而 我 的 策 展 原則是 想像,展 懷著 假 想和猜 測的策 展才更有意思,因為結 論是開放的。策 劃展 覽

的成 本 其實很高,它會 涉及 到 相當多的工作,還有物 流 和運 輸 等問 題 。因此 過 於 追求完 整 性有時 是 一種 浪 費,浪 費了一 個可以 分 散 思 考的課 題 。因此 策 展 更有趣的方面應該 是 如何提出一 個假 想,而不

是 驗 證 這個假 想,應該 更多地去考察 課 題與藝 術家的關係,是否為 觀者開啓一種新的認知。不過我覺得作為藝 術家是比較 難去平衡到 這一點,因為我發現自己總是處在“被”展覽的角色。

something?

RH: I had to be impartial, reasonably dispassionate about the

way the show would emerge. You can’t just be glib, you can’t

start thinking about beauty and composition, you had to take a

rather rationalist, essentialist position and think about displaying the work for its truthfulness, its honesty. In some ways I would describe this as a ‘hard slice of truth’ and the gallery is a place

where you can actually display this and where you can present truth in an unmediated undigested way, which I think it is a

new idea. I think because we’re quite happy to isolate ourselves among a number of surfaces that it is a way to break through

into a level of knowledge and truth and experience things first hand. You are trying to strip away and reveal things, this is a

“I admire Hiorns as an artist, but this visually flat display, bludgeoning visitors with an overload of information in the form of newspaper reports, official documents in plastic folders, and scientific studies tracing the evolution of the epidemic, is off-the-wall. It isn’t a room in an exhibition so much as a temporary research centre for an obsessive historian tacking up every single primary source that he could find – and believe me, it makes for tough going.”— Alastair Sooke, art critic from the Telegraph

contemporary way of revealing and to be honest.

“作為藝術家的海恩斯非常棒,但他策劃的展區——以新聞報導、官

ART.ZIP: So do you think that this describes your

異常乏味。它不像一個展覽,更像是一位著了魔的歷史學家在他臨

curatorial approach?

RH: It describes my art-making, my curatorial approach is to

imagine projects, to choose shows that are not necessarily carried through to completion. I think that success and completion are maybe overrated. I think it’s more interesting to have

hypothetical pairings, hypothetical ideas about how to produce a show. Shows can be expensive, they can actually involve quite a

lot of work, issues of logistics and transportation. Sometimes that can be a waste of an idea. So it’s more interesting to think about how a propositions for a show might arise rather than actually

方文件、疫情演變的科學研究等形式給觀眾的信息過大,視覺效果

時的研究室內整理每件研究對象。這個展區實在很難讓人有看下去 的興趣。”——阿利斯泰爾·舒克, 《電報》藝評人

“With timelines, government, veterinary and medical reports, x-rays, artworks, objects and photographs, Hiorns overwhelms us with his meticulous research. It might sound dry and horrifying, but it completely sucks you in. His use of arresting incidental photographs – like the one of operagoers at Glyndebourne picnicking beside a field of cows and sheep – take on a whole new significance here.”—Adrian

finalising it, to play with the relationships between artists, matter

Searle, art critic from the Guardian

ideas, a cross pollination of new ideas in the world. But I guess

“海恩斯按著時間線向我們展示各種研究成果,有政府、獸醫和醫

being curated in other people’s shows.

來既幹澀又駭人,但它簡直讓你無法自拔。他會選用一些吸引人眼

in the world and somehow try to contaminate other people’s being an artist, it’s very difficult, because I always find myself

ART.ZIP: Do you yourself actually curate?

RH: I need to be aware of curation because I am curated so

療方面的報告、X光照片、藝術作品、物品和照片等等。這也許聽起 球的圖片來澆築和主題相關的新的意義,比如有張照片描繪了常去

格萊德堡歌劇院(Glyndebourne)的戲迷們,他們正在牛羊群邊野 餐。”——艾德裏安·西勒 , 《衛報》藝評人


much, actually being on the inside of the subject can be

ART.ZIP:那麼你有實際策展經驗嗎?

understand the motives of the person who’s actually curating.

當轉 換到另一方進行策 展的時候 其實幫助我了解策 展,我需要充分

more enlightening in a way, because you have to try to fully

Those motives can be very changeable, because they want to make a name for themselves, because they want to make an

investigation which is legitimate, it could be a very cool agenda that they want to position or be a very straight and serious kind of position. It’s actually interesting because I find myself in all of

RG:我需要更明確策展的原則,因為通常我是被策展的那一方,所以 了解策展人的動機。動機可能非常多變,他們或許為了署上自己的名

字,也許為了進行嚴肅的考察。有趣的是我發現自己在策展時免不了 對自己的作品作出價值判斷。我只能對自己說,要放開手去做,這只 是展覽的一部分,無論如何呈現我都應該感到高興。

them and then you find yourself making value judgements about your own work. At some point, I think you have to let it go and

say I’ll be part of all shows, I’ll be fascinated by how this emerges.

Jane and Louise Wilson

簡 和 路易絲·威 爾 遜

Twins Jane and Louise Wilson (Born 1967, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne;

簡和路易斯·威爾遜姐妹,1967年出生於紐卡斯爾泰恩河畔郡,現居倫

studying fine art at separate universities, but exhibiting identical

自由的無名紀念碑(A Free and Anonymous Monument)》 (2003)、

lives and works in London) began collaborating together after

bodies of work for their BA shows. Recent works, including A Free and Anonymous Monument (2003), Unfolding the Aryan Papers (2009) and Undead Sun (2014), take the form of multi-screen installations and explore, among other things, the

敦。在各自完成藝術深造後正式開始藝術合作。近期的作品包括《一座

《展開印歐語文件(Unfolding the Aryan Papers)》 (2009)和《日不 落(Undead Sun)》 (2014)採用多屏裝置的形式,她們透過研究建築 來探索了現代主義的影響。

legacy of modernism through specific architectural sites.

在本次展覽中,威爾遜姐妹探討了20世紀末英國的社會政治動盪。

Jane and Louise Wilson explore episodes of social and political

的 回 應 。因 此 她 們 重 訪 了必 爭之 地 —— 維 克 多·帕 斯莫 爾( V i c t o r

unrest that have shaped Britain during the late 20th century. The Wilsons pay particular attention to the public and private spaces

in which these episodes have taken place and the ways in which artists have responded to them. Exploring how architectural

space – particularly that which has been the scene of conflict –

她 們 特 別 關 注事件發 生 的 公 共 和 私 人 空 間,還 有 藝 術 家 就 該 事件 P a s m o r e)為 杜 倫 郡 的 礦 業 城 鎮 彼 得 利(P e t e r l e e , D u r h a m)打

造 的 現 代 主 義 建 築 群;調 出了格 林 漢 姆 康 門 和 平 營(G r e e n h a m

Common Peace Camp)的檔案;調查了北愛爾蘭的長期衝突,從中 探索衝突發生的建築空間留下了什麼痕跡,記憶如何被強化等等。

can be measured, and how memory can be recorded, they re-visit

威爾遜姐妹的展區中展出了克裏斯汀·沃格(Christine Voge)和莫

contributions to the mining town of Peterlee, County Durham;

響,無 論 是 對平民 還 是 軍人 。威 爾 遜 姐 妹 說 道:“通 過 展 示不 同 類

the contested legacy of Victor Pasmore’s modernist architectural draw from the archive of the Greenham Common Peace Camp; and examine the long-running conflict in Northern Ireland.

娜·哈透姆(Mona Hatoum)的作品,她們研究了衝突對個人的影 別的物 件、藝 術品 和文件,我們希望 大家能夠 發 掘這裡每 一 件 物品 內在的能量和帶來的影響。”

The Wilsons’ associative exhibition also features work by artists

ART.ZIP:你們如何看待藝術家作為行動主義者這樣的角色?

measures the impact of conflict – whether domestic or military

任何意見在別人身上,但放棄主觀判斷才能擁抱更全面的事實。我說

including Christine Voge and Mona Hatoum, whose work

– on individual lives. ‘By bringing together a diverse array of

objects, artworks and documents’, the Wilsons explain, ‘we hope

to draw attention to the energy and momentum inherent in each of them.’

ART.ZIP: How do you see the role of the artist as activist?

W: Obviously by nature of somebody is slightly outside can throw a different perspective on how we look on things. I’m not saying

W:我覺得站在局外看事件能觀察到更多的方面。我並不是說要強加 的都是些陳詞濫調,但卻是事實。我們能夠看到格林漢姆康門和平營 的抗議得到了不少藝術家的支持,像迪特爾·羅斯(Dieter Roth)、理 查德·漢密爾頓(Richard Hamilton)和吉姆·戴恩(Jim Dine)都發行

限量版版畫來支持抗議。從某種意義上來看,藝術家的行動主義基因 是與生俱來的,所以把這些檔案一併呈現給觀眾有很大的意義。 ART.ZIP:你們經常策展嗎?

W:並沒有,這 是一項 艱巨的考驗,能在海沃德畫 廊這 麼好的空間策


Installation view of Jane and Louise Wilson’s curated section. Photo Linda Nylind Left: Richard Hamilton, The State,1993, Tate, London 2014 © The Estate of Richard Hamilton, DACS 2014

that puts you into this incredibly privileged, knowledgeable mind

展 真 是 太 難 得了,它要求 策 展 人 全 身心的投 入,我 想這 是 最 大的 挑

a bit means that you do have a bit of that space. I know that it’s

而高高在上,他們給了我們很大的自由度,海沃德畫廊最難能可貴的

but I do think on the whole that the fact you’ve stepped outside a bit of a generic cliché but it is true. It is important to recognise that even at the time when you had the Greenham Common protests happening, you had people like Dieter Roth, Richard

Hamilton and Jim Dine making limited edition prints to be sold to

戰。畫廊團隊非常優秀,而且我們是平等合作,而不會因為是大機構 就是這種集體認知。

ART.ZIP:你們對當下策展行為有什麼看法?

W:我感覺有時 博物館的做法太像保 姆了,決 定哪些作品可以 入選,


support the protest. In a way, the artist as activist is in the DNA so we felt that this was important to show alongside the archive. ART.ZIP: Have you curated often?

W: No, we haven’t, it was a big challenge – you don’t usually get the Hayward gallery as a space to start to curate and it demands a high level of engagement and I think that really was the main challenge. But they’ve got such a good team here...in a way

they’re progressive on one level, it wasn’t like the institution

oversees the priority here, what’s great about the Hayward is that it really has a collective consciousness around it.

ART.ZIP: What do you think about curating nowadays?

W: I think the problem is that sometimes it feels like a bit of a

nanny state with museums deciding what gets through, what

“(t)heir section feels infinitely more impassioned. They present art and photography recording fraught moments in recent British history, such as the Troubles in Northern Ireland and the anti-nuclear protests of Greenham Common. Britain, here, is a grim, contested, unruly place. Much of the imagery is strong and subversive: for instance, Richard Hamilton’s painting The State (1993), a picture of an uneasy, grey-faced squaddie on patrol in Northern Ireland in which the only part completely in focus is his rifle. Stuart Brisley’s 1983 installation 1=66,666 is similarly powerful: inside a menacing, rusty cage, 66 leather gloves swollen with plaster hang upside down like trussed game following a shoot, each one representing 66,666 people that out of work. It looks gruesome.”—Alastair Sooke, art critic from the Telegraph

gets seen. Sometimes when people have such a big ‘brand’

“威爾遜姐 妹的展區令 我無比振奮。當中展出的藝 術作品和攝影作

can become such a myopic view about where you are as an

漢姆康門的反核抗議活動。展區中的英國正遭遇著無組織無紀律的

around an institution that things become a little curtailed. It

institution that the artist becomes – you know ‘brick them in

when you can’! I feel it’s good to redress the balance from time to time and keep everyone on their toes.

ART.ZIP:How do you feel being artist-curator?

W: I think curatorial process involved translation of the priorities

and thoughts of the team. Collaborating with other curators and

artists always means thinking about those relationships. Being an

品追 溯了英國近代史中的不堪時刻,比如北 愛爾蘭的動亂以 及格林 嚴峻考驗,大部分的圖像都 極具震懾力,例如理查德 •漢密爾頓的畫

《國家(The State)》(1993),描繪了一位正在北愛爾蘭巡邏的灰臉 新兵,手上的步槍是 整幅畫面的焦 點。斯圖爾特 • 布裏 斯 利(Stuar t Brisley)裝置作品《1=66666》(1983)也具備同樣的威力:一 個生

鏽的籠子裡倒掛著灌滿石膏的66副皮手套,像是射擊的捆綁遊戲,

每一副代 表了失 業的66666人,真 是令人毛骨悚然。”—— 阿 利斯 泰 爾·舒克, 《電報》藝評人

artist curator involves being able to provoke and play around and have a more fluid position.

哪些大眾可以看到。當一個機構聲名大噪時,策展行為反而畏首畏尾 了。但目光怎能 如此 短 淺呢,藝 術家不就 成了“ 籠中鳥”!我 覺得 適 當作出調整是好的,每個人都應保持警覺。

ART.ZIP:身為藝術家策展人,你們有什麼感想嗎?

W:我 覺得策 展 過程需要涉及 如何平 衡 傳達內容的主次和團隊成 員

的觀 點。與其他藝 術家和策 展 人合作就要考慮彼此的關係。藝 術家 策展人必須俱備激勵他人、協調和變通的能力。

“The Wilsons excavate the out-of-time solidarity of the Greenham Common protest and set it against the militarisation of public space first excused by IRA terrorism. The raw emotions of Greenham protesters’ diaries become emblematic of passions now seemingly as distant as those of Mrs Banks’s suffragettes. They are brought beautifully to life by juxtaposition with Penny Slinger’s magical, semi-abstract film sequences, projecting her body as the battleground of art, and stiffly counterpointed by extendable yardsticks that once measured the precise span of hydrogen bomb chambers at Orford Ness; even the imperial measure is now obsolete.”—Adrian Searle, art critic from the Guardian “威爾遜姐妹把不合時宜的格林漢姆康門抗議活動再次帶到觀眾視

線,正 對著的是愛爾蘭共和軍(IR A)恐 怖統治下最早的軍事化公共 空間 。抗 議 者日記中自帶的原 始 情感 成 為了憤 世的象徵,現在看來

和班克斯夫人的那些婦女參政論同樣遙遠。旁邊還放著潘妮•斯林格

(Penny Slinger)神奇的半抽象電影,她用身體作為藝術的戰場, 而參照物威爾遜姐 妹選 用了生硬的碼尺,即使它曾精確測量 過位 於

奧 福 德 內 斯 的 氫 彈 室,即 使曾經 輝 煌 一 時 現 在 恐 怕 早已 無 人 問 津 了。”——艾德裏安·西勒 , 《衛報》藝評人


Simon Fujiwara

藤原 西 蒙

Simon Fujiwara’s (born 1982, London; lives and works in

藤原西蒙,1982年出生於倫敦,現居柏林。他將個人經歷與他人的經

combine the artist’s personal history with the biographies of

實與虛構的界限。 2010年,泰特聖艾夫斯畫廊(Tate St Ives)為他舉

Berlin) installations, performances, texts and video works often other people, places and objects, to create works in which

reality and fiction are indistinguishable. In 2010 Fujiwara was

given a ‘retrospective’ at Tate St Ives, which was simultaneously the artist’s first major UK exhibition.

Bringing together objects and artworks from current visual and material culture Simon Fujiwara presents an archaeological

assessment of life in contemporary Britain. Works by Young

歷、地點和物品結合到裝置、行為、文本和影像作品中,刻意模糊了現 辦了回顧展,同時這也是他在英國首次重要的展覽。

通過當下視覺物質文化的作品和物件,藤原對英國當代生活進行了考

古式的探索。青年英國藝術家(YBA)達明·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)和薩 姆·泰勒-伍德(Sam Taylor-Wood)的展品也在展區內進行展示,從90年 代起名聲一直有增無減,這些都深刻地反映了英國日益沉迷的名人文 化和娛樂話題。

British Artists such as Damien Hirst and Sam Taylor-Wood, who

另外從掃帚到組合式陽臺,藤原藉由這些物件提出了一系列質疑——

today, touch on Britain’s increasing preoccupation with celebrity

2011年的暴亂席捲了幾個重要城市,這之前媒體已經報道或重新闡述

rose to fame in the 1990s and continue to generate headlines and entertainment.

Elsewhere in his exhibition Fujiwara presents items – from brooms to a prefabricated balcony – that raise questions about the

changing relationship between public institutions and private

公共機構和私營公司之間的變化關係;近年來英國大事件的發生,如 過 這些事件。他還調查了近年來英國從 物質到非物質生產的轉型 過 程,樂觀主義造成了當前經濟、政治和文化環境。如今“幸福”作為衡

量當今國內生產總值的一個指標,藤原視其為後資本主義社會的一個 有力符號。

companies, or the ways in which events in recent British history –

ART.ZIP:你是如何成為本次展覽策展人的?

been narrated and reinterpreted through their media coverage.

辦過回顧展,也和不少當地藝術家合作過。我被邀請主要是基於一個

such as the 2011 riots that swept the country’s largest cities – have At the same time this diverse array of objects and artworks allows Fujiwara to trace the recent shift from material to immaterial

production that has taken place in Britain, and the ways in which

SF:我有很多項目會接觸到其他藝術家的作品,我在家鄉聖艾夫斯曾舉 高度個性化、個人化的敘事方式,我的展區是關於在全球化環境下生活 的我們和物質在英國的語境下又有什麼特殊指代。

optimism has shaped our current economic, political and cultural

ART.ZIP:你展區中的作品標籤似乎比其他展區的文字信息要少得多?

Fujiwara reads as ‘a powerful symbol of our late-capitalist moment.’

一切看起來就像一個個商標,但背後的意義當然遠遠不止這些。因為

climate. Happiness is now a Gross Domestic Product – a fact that

ART.ZIP: How did you come to curate?

SF: I think I was invited because a lot of my projects involve other

artists’ works, I’d had a retrospective in my home town St Ives and had worked a lot with St Ives artists. I was invited on the grounds that it would be a highly personalised individualised narrative

about something specific, and my section ended up being about

all of us and the material in the world we live in globally and how it manifests itself in England specifically.

ART.ZIP: Looking at your labels, there’s less text in you section than any of the others?

SF: Yes and that’s exactly what I wanted to do – I want you to

‘know’ but not know. Everything looks like a brand but of course there’s more to it than that. Because everything is a brand, even our feelings, if you’ve ever taken any medicine which I’m sure

everyone here has, you’ve understood that now in ourselves, we

are a brand…So that was the idea in this whole section, you think you know what you’re seeing but you never really know…

SF:是的,這正是我的表達——我讓觀眾“知道”,但又不能全盤托出。 任何東西都可以變為商標,甚至是感覺,相信每個人都服用過藥物吧, 其實藥也是一個商標。所以這就是我討論的核心,眼見非實,或者說我 們永遠不可能知道事實的全部。


“Fujiwara seems to be laughing up his sleeve at what he perceives to be a middle-class lifestyle in thrall to consumerism, capital, and celebrity chefs. Fine, but does this add up to anything more than a spot of light satire? And will anyone care? The whole thing feels so cold and uptight, so calculated and awash with irony – and ultimately so forgettable.What a bland and bloodless way to open an exhibition designed to take the pulse of the nation.”—Alastair Sooke, art critic from the Telegraph “藤原西蒙似乎在拂袖嘲笑那些中產階級只知道消費、資本和明星主廚。好吧,但除了略 微的諷刺之外還剩下什麼呢? 會有人在意嗎?整個展區既冷清又拘謹,這麼蓄意的諷刺最終還是讓人過目即忘。這是一種多麼蒼白無力的方式來講述 國家的動向。”——阿利斯泰爾·舒克, 《電報》藝評人

“Fujiwara’s ensemble is all about buying things, having things and wanting more, whether it’s a Damien Hirst spot painting (lain on its back, as it would have been when some poor studio assistant had to paint in its perfect dots) or Nigella Lawson’s handy salad scoops. The deft juxtapositions and exhibition layout are pure genius.”—Adrian Searle, art critic from the Guardian “藤原西蒙的展覽圍繞了購買、擁有以及無止境的欲望,無論是達明•赫斯特圓點繪畫(作品讓人聯 想到是一群可憐的 工作室助理們正默默的繪制著這些圓點)還是奈潔拉•勞森(Nigella 真是太絕了。”——艾德裏安·西勒 , 《衛報》藝評人

Lawson)便捷的沙拉勺。巧妙的搭配和展區佈局


Installation view of Simon Fujiwara’s curated section. Photo Linda Nylind


“China doesn’t have a rooted curatorial tradition. We don’t have the traditional art foundations and donations. In art institutions, which in China have only been around a couple of years, there is still some trouble reconciling the work between that of the curator and that of the management department. On the other hand, the development of Chinese art curation is very fast and promises a lot of chances. It can be odd, irregular, without many restrictions or taboos—breaking boundaries, which is actually a good thing.” —Qiu Zhijie, artist curator

“中國沒有一 個根深蒂固的策展傳統,我們沒有傳統的藝 術基金和捐贈機構。藝 術機構在中國也僅僅只

存 在了那麼幾年的時間,策展 人和展館管理部門難以相互協調各自的工作。然而中國藝 術策 展的飛速發 展帶來了許多機遇,雖然這些所帶來的發展看起來奇形怪狀,毫無規律,也沒有太多的限制和禁忌,打破 了所謂的條條框框的規定,這實際上是一件好事。”——邱志傑,藝術家策展人


their own situations. It should be noted that those interviewed are not working in the commercial sector with private galleries and museums and the projects described are ‘not for profit’ collaborations.

For many Western practitioners (in all fields) the most striking feature of the Chinese art scene is the way in which everything seems to be organised not just at the last minute, but actually well after the last minute has

passed. The speed at which things are organized, is both admirable on the one hand but borderline mad on the other, advance planning and preparation often has to be jettisoned in favour of improvisation.

Equally many artist curators like Brendan Jamison are concerned

about the narrowness and ‘cliquishness’ of local art galleries and organizations which make it difficult for artists to develop an

international practice and a more diverse network. No matter how difficult it can be to work internationally, the very act of travelling to another place, leaving one’s comfort zone is a valuable way of developing and maturing for artist curators.

The major challenges when curating exhibitions internationally remain those of:

• •

logistics i.e. freight in particular

• •

different expectations of local partners

funding - most countries concentrate on funding projects within their own national boundaries

lack of reciprocity often caused by unequal funding opportunities

在 這一章 節,活 躍 於 世界 各地 的藝 術 策 展 人 將 談 談 他 們 各自的 情 況 。在 此 需要 指明,這次被 訪問的策 展 人他 們並沒有在私 人 畫 廊 和博 物 館做商業 上 的工作,而且他們所講述的合作項目也不以盈利為目的。

對於 各個 領 域的 許 多西方藝 術工作 者,他 們 對中國 藝 術 領 域的作風體 會最

深刻 的是 一 切工作的安排 都是在 項目舉 辦的前一刻 作倉促 的計劃,甚至 逾

期才作準備。一方面他們很敬佩中國的組織速度,但同時卻覺得不可思議, 往往因為突發的改變將前期的計劃和準備抹得一乾二淨。

同時,許多藝 術家策展人,如布伦丹·贾米森(Brendan Jamison),擔心本 土藝 術畫 廊 和機構的 狹 隘和目光 短 淺 使 藝 術家 難以 邁向世界發展,並 且阻

礙 他 們進 入一 個更多元 化的領域 。無論在國際 上 展 露拳 腳是多麼艱 難的一 件 事,能 夠 挑 戰自己,離 開自身的 舒 適 環 境去到另外 一 個 陌生 的 地 域 作 探 索,這對於藝 術家策展人的發展和成長是彌足寶貴的。 國際策展面臨的挑戰因素:

• • • •

物流貨運

資金--大多數國家只限於資助本土境內項目 當地合作夥伴的期望差異

由於不均的資金投入所引起的互惠參差

INTERNATIONAL APPROACHES & LOCAL DIMENSIONS 國際理念與本土探討

In this section artist curators who work internationally will describe


CURATING IS MY APPROACH INTERVIEW WITH CUI CANCAN 策展即行動:專訪崔燦燦

TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x SUDONG CAI 蔡蘇東 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x CUI CANCAN 崔燦燦


Cui Cancan is an active Chinese independent curator. He was the winner of the CCAA (Chinese Contemporary Art Award) Critics’ Award, Critics’ Award in Chinese contemporary art by YISHU (Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art), the annual award by L’OFFICIEL Art

and so on. He was also appointed special observer for the 13th Kassel Documenta. As a curator, Cui contributed to the success of major exhibitions including Heiqiao Night Away (2013), FUCKOFF II (2013), Unlived by What is Seen (2014), etc.

-----

崔燦燦是一名活躍在中國的獨立策劃人,曾獲CCA A中國當代藝術評論青年提名榮譽獎, 《YISHU》典藏海外版中國當代藝術批評獎, 《藝術 財經》年度成長獎等,並擔任第十三屆卡塞爾文獻展特約觀察員,策劃的主要展覽包括《夜走黑橋》(2013)、 《FUCKOFF II》(2013)、 《不在圖 像中行動》(2014)等。

ART.ZIP: How did you start curating? Did you have any idea

A R T. ZIP:您 是 如 何開 始 策 展的 呢 ?在 此 之前 您 對 策 展 有什麼 想法

C: When I realized creating works could no longer fully

崔:當我開始意識到創作作品無法充分表達我的想法和思考的時候,

about curating before you got started? If yes, what was it? express my idea and thinking, I wished there was a better

way to communicate them. In my opinion, a curator has such

special properties—he can stage a simple issue in an enriched fashion just like a conductor, and he is at the very frontier to

communicate with the public and society. In terms of how to

enable both individuals and society to express their ideas freely,

嗎?如果有,那是怎樣的呢?

我希望用更好的方式去交流。在我看來,策展人具有這種屬性,他可 以像指 揮家一樣 把一 個平面的問 題 豐富化,也 直 接站 在 與公 眾、社

會進行直接交流的第一線。我想對於個體和公共 社會的自由表 達而 言,職業不是一 個問題,如何更 好地、更有效地交流,才是如何行動 的核心,策展即是我的行動。

it does not matter what approach one adopts, what is important

ART.ZIP:您的策展原則是什麼?策展目的又是什麼呢?

more efficient—curating is my approach.

做 我 感 興 趣 的 事情,這 個 興 趣 會 劃 分出 你 喜 歡 什 麽 或 是 不 喜 歡 什

is that such approach should make communication better and

ART.ZIP: What are your curating principles? And what is the goal?

C: I do have principles, but more importantly you cannot let these principles become limitations. I prefer to do what I am interested in, and the interest will tell what you like from what you do not

like—interest itself sets the boundary of principles. Surely, when

崔 : 原 則 肯 定 會 有,但 更 重 要 的 是 原 則 不 能 成 為限 制,我 更 願 意去

麽,興趣本身就決定了原則的邊界。當然,當我明確了目的的時候, 原 則 也 就 會自然 呈現 。策 展 對於 我 個人而言,我 希望它一方面 可以

使我時刻不斷地保 持一 個當代人的狀 態,另一方面它對我所處的文

化 境 遇和現實處境有所改 變,在改 變的過程中,我不斷地制造 這個 發生。

I have a clear goal, principles naturally appear. What curating

ART.ZIP:您覺得“藝術家策展人”這樣的角色重要嗎?為什麼?

contemporary in me and on the other it enables me to make

現實的核心問題,是什麽身份都不是太重要。

means to me is that, on one hand it maintains a state of being things happen in the changing process it brings about of the

崔:角色的劃分在今天並不是這麽強烈,如果能在第一線碰觸藝術和

cultural scenario and reality where I am situated.

ART.ZIP:您能形容一下您跟一起合作的藝術家及“藝術家策展人”

ART.ZIP: Do you think the role of “artist-curator” is

崔:既像是戰友,又像是敵人。我們既要奔著一 個共同目的像地球一

important? Why?

C: Defining role is not important today. If he can have instant

access to what is central of art and reality, it does not really matter what role one is in.

ART.ZIP: Can you describe the relationship between you and the

之間的關係嗎?

樣公轉,也要時刻保持距離進行自轉,這是一 個挺分裂的關係,甚至

應該 是 危險的,只有危險才會讓 我在集體 價值中不斷地尋找自己的 方位。上一刻的親密戰友,在下一刻也許就是需要去抵抗的敵人,只

有這樣,一 個展覽的內部才會具有張力,才會刺激出一種真實,這個 真實包括自我的真實、處境的真實、身份的真實。

artists and “artists-curators” you work with?

ART.ZIP:您是如何平衡本土化與國際化藝術實踐的呢?

goal just like planets which revolve around the sun but at the

雙年展式的政治與現實的博弈,博覽會和畫 廊系統中的物質商品而

C: They are like comrades as well as enemies. We have the same same time we have to remain some distance so as to revolve on

our own axes. It is quite a divided relation, even a dangerous one, but only such danger can help me define myself in the collective value. Very close comrade in the first minute can be enemy you

fight against in the next. Only in this way can tension be created

崔:我更看中當代 藝 術的本土性價值,藝 術在全球化時代,不僅作為 存 在。它應該更 好的創造自身的改 變和我們所生存的語境的現實改

變。只有這樣,當代藝術才不會在國際化的虛妄中迷離。當代藝術在 全 球 所呈現的高度同質化一直 是我反對的,我們提供的不是一 個跨

地 域的 獵奇與消費,也不是 一種 文化奇 景和資本 取 樂,當代 藝 術必

須 具有它的落地性和明確的針對性,它應該持 續的去解決實際的困


《不在图像中行动》 ,当代唐人艺术中心

within an exhibition, and reality stimulated, which includes reality of oneself, scenario and identity.

ART.ZIP: How do you balance local and international art practices? C: I regard local value more in contemporary art. In the era of

globalization, art should not only be a biennial gaming event

境 。也正 是在全 球化的背景中,解決中國的問題 就 是 解決 全 球的問 題,全 球現實困境的一體化並不代 表藝 術形式的一體化,每個地區

都有它的特殊性,而正是這種特殊性才能形成藝 術形式的獨特性。 藝 術針對的對 象 並不是參加國際 展 覽,而是 無論采 用什麽方式,它 最終都是對自身困境的有力解決。

between politics and reality or a material article in exhibitions

A R T. ZIP:您和公眾的關 係是 怎樣 的 ?您 覺 得藝 術 對 於公眾 來 說 起

itself and the substantive transformation of the context we live

崔:我希望我是一 個好的交流者,可以將我所認識的問題不斷地和公

and gallery systems, it should better contribute to the changes of in. Only in this manner shall contemporary art not be lost in the vagueness of internationalization. The severe homogenization of contemporary art all around the world is what I have been

strongly opposed to. What we offer is not cross-region novelty

扮演著怎樣的角色呢?

眾進 行交 換 、互 動 。公眾是當代 藝 術的基 礎,如 果 我 們要關在象 牙 塔 裡閉門造車,我 覺得 他只能 是 個人的一種自我修 煉,他不是公共 問題,也無需在公共系統中被放大或者談論,他也以自生自滅。

hunting or consumption, nor cultural exotica or commercialized

ART.ZIP:您的工作當中最難的是哪一方面?

specific pinpoint; it should aim to solve problems in reality in a

式的固守、物 質的迷 戀以 及 將自我固定化的 傾向,我 們 時 時刻刻 都

amusement. Contemporary art should have its localness and

sustained manner. Against the backdrop of globalization, the

solving of China’s problems is the solving of global problems.

崔:精神的腐敗吧,我一直在警 惕這 種 腐敗,它包含價值的重 復、方 在警惕這種看似安全的溫床。

Nevertheless, the universal reality problems confronting the

ART. ZIP:過去有犯 過什麼“ 錯誤”嗎?都有什麼呢?您是怎 麼面對

forms. Each region is blessed with its own specialties, and it is

崔:我基本上都在“犯錯”吧,當代藝術不應該是這樣嗎?

globe as a whole do not necessarily result in uniformity in art

的呢?


such specialties that make art distinctive. Art is not meant for

ART.ZIP: What kind of program are you most interested in

should be a forceful solution to its own dilemma.

C: Nothing specific. But I do really hope that my continuous

international exhibitions. No matter what forms it takes on, it

ART.ZIP: What is the relation between you and the public like? What role do you think art is playing to the public?

C: I wish I were a good communicator, and I could continuously exchange and interact my understanding of issues with the

public. The public is the basis of contemporary art. He who locks himself up in the ivory tower is but practicing self training—he has detached himself from the public and needs not to be

joining if given a chance?

curation can play a part to contribute to the changes of the

reality in China and provide a brand new way of perception. For individual, the mix-up of reality and his work means failure in

both aspects. I wish there would be such a program that can help me define my way of existence and unfold my possibilities after failing so many times.

studied or discussed; he runs his own course.

ART.ZIP:未來如果有機會的話您最想參與一 個怎樣的項目?

ART.ZIP: What is the most difficult part in your work?

國 的現 實 處 境,提 供 一 個 新的 認 知方 式 。對 個 體而言,現 實 和工作

C: The spiritual decay, I think. I have been alerted of it which breeds repetition of values, stubborn adhesion to certain methods, craze for material pursuits and submission to fixed models. We have been cautious of this seemingly harmless seedbed.

崔 : 沒有具體 的 的 吧,我 更希望我可以 通 過 持 續 的 策 展 行 動改 變中 的 混 雜 過 程,是 一 個 雙向失 敗 的 過 程,我 希望可以有一 個 項目,能 讓 我在 持 續的失 敗中,形成一 個屬於 我個人的存 在 方式,打開自己 的可能性。

ART.ZIP: Did you make any “mistakes”? What were they, if any? How did you cope with them?

C: Well, it is fair to say I have been making ‘mistakes’. Isn’t it the

2014《不明真相》张玥个展,展览现场

spirit of contemporary art?


A VISION OF CURATING INTERVIEW WITH LUC TUYMANS 視覺先導 專訪呂克·圖伊曼斯

EDITED BY 編輯 x SARAH PETTITT 莎拉·佩蒂特 MICHELLE YU 余小悅 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x ELAINE YU 余寧 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x DAVID ZWIRNER LONDON 倫敦大衛·茨維爾納畫廊


Luc Tuymans is one of the most prominent contemporary painters, highly regarded for his paintings that draw on visual techniques from

photography and film. His works are featured in museum collections worldwide, including Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; Tate Gallery, London.

Tuymans was also the curator of the 2013 group exhibition Constable, Delacroix, Friedrich, Goya. A Shock to the Senses at

Albertinum in Dresden. He previously organized A Vision of Central Europe in 2010 at Brugge Centraal, Bruges, Belgium, as well as The

State of Things: Brussels/Beijing in 2009 at Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, which traveled to the National Art Museum of China, Beijing. -----

呂克·圖伊曼斯是當代繪畫界最具影響力的畫家之一,善於將攝影及影像視覺技術融入繪畫中。他的作品相繼被全球藝術機構列為館藏,其 中包括巴黎蓬皮杜中心、紐約現代藝術博物館、倫敦泰特美術館等等。

同時他也是位資深策展人,主要展覽項目有群展《感官的沖擊:康斯特勃、德拉克羅瓦、弗裏德裏希、戈雅(Constable, Delacroix, Friedrich,

Goya. A Shock to the Senses)》、 《中歐的願景(A Vision of Central Europe)》、 《事物狀態:布魯塞爾/北京(The State of Things: Brussels/ Beijing)》等等。

ART.ZIP: Would you please introduce briefly this exhibition titled

ART.ZIP:請您大概介 紹一下這次在倫敦大衛·茨維爾納畫廊舉辦的

LT: This is not so much a thematical show, the portraits

LT:這 次 展出並非主 題 性的,一樓 展 廳 陳 列 的肖像 畫 靈 感 直 接或間

The Shore at David Zwirner London?

downstairs are derived directly and indirectly from the Scottish painter Sir Henry Raeburn paintings which are paintings from the Eighteenth Century. Downstairs you have a painting of a

chimney, and you have a fireplace, and you have the wallpaper paintings, twice, with the clouds - they come directly from my

iPhone when I was in Edinburgh in the hotel. All these paintings are to do with domesticity, because this gallery is like a house.

展覽《海岸(The Shore)》?

接來源於十八世紀油畫家亨利·雷布恩爵士(Sir Henr y Raeburn)

的作品。這個展廳有煙囪,壁爐,有兩幅墻紙,和雲朵 – 他們來自於 我的iPhone,是我在愛丁堡的酒店中拍攝的。這些畫與家庭生活有

關,因為大衛·茨維爾納畫廊這裡的空間就像一座 房子。當中帶有一 定程度對蘇格蘭啟蒙運動的諷 刺,因為早前蘇格蘭公投引發的種種 事件。

It is also, a sort of ironical play with the idea of the Scottish

二樓 展 廳 的作品 則截 然 不同,那幅巨大 黑暗 背景的畫《 海岸》其實

Scottish Referendum.

像,在作品 裡 他 還 是 一 個帶著面具的孩子。另一幅黑色背景的畫作

Enlightenment because now you have this thing with the

And then upstairs it becomes totally different, because the black painting here is actually the image of an execution, and the

portrait there is Mr Sagawa, a Japanese cannibal in the Seventies

是一幅 行刑的圖像,而旁邊 那幅是日本七十年代 食人惡魔佐 川的肖

則是我 房間的一盞 燈。因此 展 覽一方面有祥 和的家 庭 元素,而在樓 上 的 空 間 確 是 充 滿 危 險 與 讓 人不 安 的 元 素 。這 些 是 我 想 展 現 的 題 材,我的展覽名稱與大尺幅的主畫作同名:《 海岸》。

and this was when he was a kid with a mask. This other painting

ART.ZIP:這個展覽由您自己策展的?

on the one hand you have the element of domesticity which

所有的畫廊展覽也是我自己來安裝的,我已經舉行了115場 個展,也

in the back is actually a painting of the lamp in my bedroom. So is reassuring and on the top floor you get something which is

actually much more about danger, much more about something

which is disturbing. These were the elements that I wanted to put in my show and I called the show after the main painting, the big black one, The Shore.

ART.ZIP: So you curated this show by yourself?

LT: Well, for every individual, solo or museum show I actually

install myself. All the gallery shows I also install myself, I have now

LT:是的,我的每個展覽,個展或博物館展覽我都堅 持自己來安裝。

許超 過6 0 0 個 群展。但群展 我 讓 策 展 人 來負 責,因為 我不可能 什麽 都做。

ART.ZIP:您的策展經驗這麽豐富,是否還記得您策劃的第一個展覽?

LT:我早期策劃的展覽之一是和另一位藝 術家共同合作的《動蕩:繪 畫(Trouble Spot: Painting)》,那是1999年在安特衛普與新國際

文化中心(New International Cultural Centre)合辦的一個油畫

展,那在當時是比利時展 覽 規模 最 大的合作。展 覽之 所以有很 好的 規 模 是 因 為 我 們 利 用了位 於南安 特 衛 普 的 公司空間 與 整 個當代 藝


done 115 solo shows, and maybe over 600 group shows. Group

術 博 物 館的場地 。展 覽的概 念 實際 上 是探索繪畫的界限,參展藝 術

do everything!

Kelly),還有年輕藝術家諸如大衛·克萊布(David Claerbout)。一方面

shows I leave to the curator because it is too much, I mean I can’t

ART.ZIP: Well, we have found the right person to discuss curating a show! Could you remember the first show you curated?

LT: One of the very first times I curated a show was together with an artist colleague and the show was called Trouble

家有傑哈‧李希特(Gerhard Richter),埃爾斯沃思·凱利(Ellsworth 是關於二維媒介的繪畫,另一方面是從二維繪畫轉向圖形裝置。當打開 畫箱看到伊夫·克萊因(Yves Klein)金燦燦的畫《共振(Résonance)》

(1960)時是讓人極其興奮的,然後我們將他的作品設計在其他作品旁 來組成不同的效果配對。這是我第一個策劃的項目。

Spot: Painting. It was a painting show and that was in 1999

ART.ZIP:當您在策劃那個展覽時,您是否感覺到藝術家和策展人的

Cultural Centre, which was at that point the biggest artists

LT:首先我並不希望剝奪策展人的工作,因為他們是十分必要的。但

in Antwerp together with the NICC, the New International

cooperative nationwide in Belgium and it was a big show. It

was a big show because it was in the space of this corporation which is in the south of Antwerp and also in the entirety of

the Museum of Contemporary Art. The idea of the show - we

had Richter, we had Ellsworth Kelly, we also had young artists such as Claerbout - was actually exploring the boundaries of painting. On the one hand, two dimensional painting; but

區別?

藝 術家又作策展人時好處就是比較靈活。我可以直接給皮斯特萊托

(Michelangelo Pistoletto)、羅伯特·戈伯(Rober t Gober)等人 打電話,因為我認識 他 們 。所以在 某 種 意義 上你處在 完全不一樣的

位置,另外,我認為藝 術家 策 劃的展 覽更注 重視 覺 效 果而不是學 術

理論。我們關注的是體 驗本身,而我認為這 對策 展 人來說這 是 很 好 的補充。我並不把這看作是競爭,只是不一樣的策展方式而已。

on the other, moving away from the two dimensionality into

我想,許多策展人,尤其是西方的,靠的是人際網絡,而不是單純的

Résonance painting by Yves Klein for example, and then

究 才 有 極強 專 業 性 。這 些 策 展 人 大 都 不是 深 入研 究 某個 特 定 課 題

pictorial installation. It was quite exciting to unpack a gold

hang it next to something else and make all these different combinations. That was the first show I curated.

ART.ZIP: When you were doing that show, did you feel there was a difference between an artist and a curator?

LT: First of all I don’t want to take away the job of the curators

because they are also necessary, but the good thing when you

are curating as an artist is that you can move very fast. I can phone

學 術 背景。策 展 人的背景 也許不是學 術 性質或 理論性質的,因為學 的,或是專攻什麽學科,他們的工作是建立在對話上的。這個對話被 關注,被傳授,因此有時候往往脫離視覺,而這樣會陷入一種困境,

因為容易造 成大 量 類 似的展 覽 。還有許多挑 起 政治、社會學元素的

展覽,他們並非不是有趣的項目,但是如果展覽都往那個方向走,過

於理論化,過於強調理論而忽略視覺體驗,那麽這是有問題的。這些

策展人藝 術家往往是在同一 個人際關系網絡裡的,他們會聯合成為 強大的組合互相保護。所以最重要的不是學術背景,而是關係網。

Pistoletto, I can phone Robert Gober, because I know all those

ART.ZIP:您的意思是,如果藝術家作為策展人,他們可以更好地幫助

think, artist-curated shows are also much more within the visual, less

LT:是的,我明年9月將在倫敦的傘形單元當代藝 術基金會(Parasol

people. So in a sense you have a totally different position, and also, I on paper. It’s not that there is no concept, there is a concept, but it

is first and foremost about the visual. It is about the experience, and that is a nice addition, I think, to a curator. It is not that I see it as a competition, it is just something different.

I think a lot of curators, especially in the West, come from a network, but not an academic background. It is something different. They

come from a training which is not necessarily academic, because

an academic is somebody who has an in-depth specialism. These

curators are not in-depth, or specialised, instead there is a discourse. This discourse is followed, and it is also taught, and so in that sense

其他藝術家發聲?

Unit)舉 辦 一 個關於比利時 抽象藝 術的展 覽 。它將展出被 遺 忘以 及

已經離世的藝 術家,但 是 他 們 將和其他當代 藝 術家一起 呈現,你將 清楚他們之間是怎麽互相影響的。

ART.ZIP:當您作為策展人時,哪一 個環節最吸引您?哪一 個環節您 最看重?

LT:我對一切環節都十分注重。我的意思是,展覽中的所有作品都應 該以 最 好的形式 被 展出,出現在最 好的位 置,和其他作品發生 最 好 的對話,相鄰的作品能構建出新的意義,建立新的對話。這些在作重 新考量和安排時是非常重要的。

it moves away from the visual which is at some points quite difficult

我曾與烏爾裏希·比肖夫博士(Dr Ulrich Bischof f)共同策劃一個展

get an instigation towards the idea of the political, sociological

的 館長 ,一 開 始 我 們 是 先 從 卡 斯 帕·大 衛·弗 裏 德 裏 希( C a s p a r

because then you get quite a lot of the same shows. You also often element within a show which is not uninteresting, but if a show

moves more in that direction and the show remains too much on paper and focuses too much on the concept and when it doesn’t

覽,他是一名學者,並且是德雷斯頓阿爾伯提努博物館(Albertinum) Dav id Fr ie dr ich)著手的。那次展覽的核心是四位大師–康斯坦堡

(Constable),德拉克洛瓦(Delacroix),卡斯帕·大衛·弗裏德裏希 (Caspar David Friedrich)和戈雅(Goya)-以及與他們相關的現


visualise itself, that is actually the problem. These people in the

當代 藝 術。那是 十 分有趣的項目,因為你可以做各種 大 膽的 猜想和

each other. So it’s not academics, it’s a network.

一位 康斯坦堡的專家他對我們的方案持懷疑的態度,直至他看到裝

network are also part of a power group and so they also protect

ART.ZIP: So you mean if artists can be the curators, it becomes easier for them to help other artists to gain a voice.

LT: Yes, I am going to curate a show next September in Parasol

假設。來自倫敦維多利亞艾伯特博物館的策展人也是一位學者,作為

置的效果時他才熱衷起來。這就是我說的“重新考量”的意思。一個

好的展 覽 必須有一 些未被發掘的新想法新觀 點,它應當是一種 啟發 人們思考的體驗。

Unit, London about Belgian abstraction. It is going to show

ART.ZIP:您作為策展人是否會更加考慮到與觀者之間的關係?

bringing it all back to contemporary artists , so that you can see

的,它得有凝聚力,有意義,它必須盡可能完美,但首當其沖的,它必

people who are forgotten and who are dead, but it will be the influences clearly.

ART.ZIP: When you are working as the curator of a show, which part is most interesting to you? Which part do you pay most attention to?

LT: Well I pay attention to everything. I mean, the first thing is

that all the art handled in the show is shown in the best possible

LT:是,但也不全是。當你在博 物 館策 劃公眾展 覽的時候,理 所當然

須 對 我 來說 是有意義的,概 念是說 得 通的,這樣我 才能把展 覽的主

旨跟 觀者表 述清 楚。我也挺 反對 墻上 冗長的說明文字。人們需要的

是去看,去感受。許多時候人們低 估了觀者的理解能力,這是不應該 的。我們應該 讓 他 們自由地觀看和體 驗。我們不應該 高估或低 估任 何人,但也必須注意找到平衡點。當然,在準備展覽時就應該考慮到 這些事情,但前提是展覽帶出來的概念本身就應該是令人振奮的。

way, in the best possible spot, in the best possible co-relation,

ART.ZIP:我們希望對您在中國策劃的展覽有更多的了解。

a different meaning, create a different dialogue. Those are really

學者余輝博士合作的《紫禁城(Forbidden Cit y)》聯展項目,我負

so that two different works that hang next to each other create important things in order to be able to reconsider things.

I also co-curated a show with Dr Ulrich Bischoff, an academic,

who was the director of the Albertinum in Dresden, but they also

start with Caspar David Friedrich and so on. The core of that show were four artists - Constable, Delacroix, Caspar David Friedrich

and Goya - and around them we went up until contemporary art. That was really interesting because then you were able to make different suppositions. When the curator came from the V&A in

LT:中國的策展體驗是十分難忘的。第一 個展覽十分有意思,是我 和 責挑 選比 利時 各大 博 物 館的藏品 。我們 把1 2-1 5世 紀中國與西方古

典大師的作品放在一起做了一 個史 無前例的對比,這在布魯塞爾藝 術館(Palais des Beaux Ar t s)裡兩者的作品都在同一 個空間以比

對的方式進行展示。但當我們來到中國時,作品被分開展示了,原來 的理 念也隨 之被破壞了,這 是 挺 遺 憾 的事。我 們 的作品 展示在子 午

門,紫禁城的第三道門,這是中國皇帝曾經的住 所,而中國作品則放 在後面朝堂所在地,因而為了連貫兩者我們做了一條長廊。

London, who was also an academic, with the Constables, he was

在中國做的第二個展 覽 是當代 藝 術展,我不希望再有此 現象發生,

very enthusiastic. So that is what I mean about reconsidering.

國家美術館館長範迪安合作,這一次我們貫徹了我們的理念,並且可

very skeptical, until he saw the installation and then he became There has to be something to the show, the show has to be an experience and it has to make people think.

ART.ZIP: Would you concern more about the relationship with the audience when you work as a curator?

LT: Yes and no. Of course when you make a show in a museum

it is a public show, it has to be cohesive, it has to have a sense, it has to be perfect, but in the first place it has to also make sense

我不想再 看到我的初始概 念被破壞,幸好 也並 未發生。我們與中國 以 將所有作品在一起 展示,這 是十 分重 要的。當我開始與艾未 未合

作時我就 和他討論怎麽在體制內作出完美的呈現,因為我擔心在布

魯塞爾的展覽來到北京展出影響力不如前者,但我很想把它處理好, 因為在北京這 是中國當代 藝 術家第一次在國家美 術館進行展示,這

對他 們來說意義 重 大。這 並不是 一 個 徒有虛名的 偽展 覽,這 是 一 個

有概念的有真正實際意義的展 覽,我們主要的目的就是要把這種真 正的策展理念帶到中國,這並不容易但我們確實做到了。

to me, only then can I communicate that to other people. I am

ART.ZIP:您覺得是否對西方人來說信仰結構更重要,而在中國概念

to look, they have to experience. A lot of the time people tend to

LT:不是的,中國的藝 術是和諧的。 (有一 個很 大的區別就 是 每次余

also against a lot of wall texts and all of that. Again, people have

underestimate the spectator and you shouldn’t do that, you should allow them the liberty to look and to experience. I mean you

should not over estimate or underestimate anybody but you have

to feel the right balance. Of course these are all things you think of when you are putting up a show, but in the first place it has to be really exciting.

與圖像更重要?

輝博士給我介紹一位新藝術家時,他都同時告訴我他的年齡。)長期

以來,西方畫家們都不是來自於貴族的。在西方,畫家大都被認為是 怪人,很少是貴族出身,除了委拉斯開茲(Velázquez),但這還有待 考究。但在中國就曾經出現過皇帝是畫家,藝 術在中國是和諧的。但

在西方則截然 相反,藝 術家往 往 是 抗 衡 者,中西兩 種 傳 統 理 念出自

完全不同的立場。這也聯 係到中國當代 藝 術中一 個非常值得探討的 課題:無論你怎麽看,許多概念的東西都衍生於西方。我認為中國藝


Luc Tuymans, The Shore, 2014, Oil on canvas, 76 1/2 x 141 1/8 inches (194.2 x 358.4 cm), Courtesy David Zwirner, New York/London


ART.ZIP: We would also like to know more about the shows you

not that it is not connected to the West, of course it is, but there

LT: Well, that was quite an experience, I have to say. The first

dialogue and that’s what I am curious about. I am going to do a

curated in China.

show was very interesting show, I worked with Dr Yu Hui from the Forbidden City, who was also an academic and I worked

with the collections from the different museums in Belgium. We

started in the fifteenth century up until the twentieth century and

is still a search going on for this connection in a different type of show next year with Liu Wei who makes very strange paintings, he

was also in the China show, with the paintings of people smoking he is a very interesting painter.

that was juxtaposed with Western old masters and that was the

ART.ZIP: From the curated show you seem to have a lot of

Palais des Beaux Arts, they were all shown together in the space

it before the show?

first time that this has actually happened. So in Brussels, in the

but once we came to the Forbidden City they separated it, they destroyed the concept, which was such a shame because that was the whole point in doing it. We were in the Meridian Gate

which is the third gate, that is where the Chinese Emperor would

be and the Chinese art was in the back where actually the court

understanding of Chinese traditional art, were you familiar with LT: Before I was also fascinated by it, but of course to work on it

you have to inform yourself, although I didn’t make the choices,

they were made by Dr Yu Hui, I think if you work on something as complex as that, it is really interesting to do.

used to be, so we had to make a corridor to do that.

ART.ZIP: What do you think of Chinese traditional art?

And so the second show I did, with contemporary art, I did not

about the brush in painting, the way of the brush. It is a catalogue

want to experience that again - to see the concept destroyed - in fact that was not the case. We worked with Fan Di’an who was

the director of the National Art Museum of China, and there we

actually managed to keep the concept together and we kept the artworks together and that was really important. When I started

to work with Ai Weiwei I told him one way of doing things was to go into the system and see what we can do, because I was very

LT: Well, I have a book called The Seeds Of Painting, which is

of how you actually paint. You can learn that, like you can learn

Western painting too, but it is all about the element where there is something more coming out of your brush. Something that

escapes, basically, and that is the masterpiece. That is a bit the

same in Western art but there the control is completely different and that always fascinated me, this way of the brush action.

well aware that the show in Brussels had less impact then when it

ART.ZIP: Does your role as curator affect your own practice as

contemporary artists - and it was 50 / 50 - that they were in the

LT: Well not really, because I sort of separate those things. The

came to Beijing because in Beijing it was the first time for Chinese museum, which was really important for them. And it was also not a representational show, it was a real show with a concept and so that was the main aim really to get that show in China, which was not easy but we did it anyway.

ART.ZIP: Would you say for Western people it is about belief

structures and in China it is more about the concept as well as the images...

LT: No, the idea is about harmony, and also the big difference and this was really to talk to Dr Yu Hui - every time he showed me a

painter - he also told me how old he was. In the West painters have long been, especially who are not nobility that is one thing, maybe only after Velazquez, but that is still questionable. In the West

painters are seen as much more eccentric. In China you has the

an artist?

influence is much more mental but it is not going to shine through in the work or change the work. Sometimes these things also

happen together - installing a show and working on my own work. ART.ZIP: So when you are acting as a curator do you think of yourself as an artist or the opposite?

LT: Well in that instance I would probably take the point of view of somebody who is curating a show, with an artistic vision of course. It is different because you also work with people, you

have a team to discuss things with, so it is different from installing a gallery show, for instance. You have to also work with different

artists who all have different needs. It is more complicated - a lot more things need to come together.

Emperor who made paintings and it had to do with longevity, and

ART.ZIP: Do you enjoy being a curator?

and much more about the idea of confrontation and those are two

people to do it. The very first show another artist asked me to be

so that is the idea of harmony - in the West it is the total opposite totally different positions. It is also linked to a problematic element within Chinese contemporary art because, however you look at it,

a lot has been derived from the West and it is still quite important, I think, for Chinese artists to create this one entity which is totally,

LT: The funny thing is that I actually was always being asked by

the co-curator, up until now all the shows I have curated I have been asked to do for them, now if I accept to do something I

expect to do it right. But I have never instigated a curated show myself, never.


接,它們當 然 是 互相 聯 繫的,但藝 術家們 仍需 繼 續 努力創建 另一種 不一樣的對話方式,這是我比較好奇的。

我明年將策 劃劉偉的 個 展,他的繪 畫十 分 奇 特,他也參與了之前 策

劃的中國當代 藝 術展中,作品是關於吸 煙的人。他 是 一 位很有意思 的畫家。

像大師一樣了。這收放的方式與西方藝術完全不同,我十分欣賞這樣 對畫筆的控制運用。

ART.ZIP:您作為策展人的角色是否影響作為藝術家的實踐?

LT:這並沒有影響,因為我會將這兩個身份分開。策展對我的影響更 多 是精神上的,但 這 並不會 體現在我 的 作品中,或 改 變 我 的 創作 方 向。有時候我又要策展同時又要創作。

A RT. ZIP:在您 策 劃的展 覽中您看起 來 對中國傳 統 藝 術有很 好的理

A R T. Z I P :當 您以 策 展 人 身 份工作 時,您 是 否 認 為自己 是 一 名藝 術

LT:過去我為中國傳統藝術著迷,但是要真正策展起來我需要再“補

LT:在這種情況下,我也許更傾向於自己是一個有藝術家眼光的策展人。

解,在策展前您就對它很了解嗎?

補課”,雖然我不需要挑選中方的藝 術品,那是余輝博士決 定的。參

家?還是反過來?

與如此復雜的項目其實是相當有趣的。

ART.ZIP:您喜歡當策展人嗎?

ART.ZIP:您怎樣看待中國傳統藝術?

是一位藝 術家邀請我做副策展人,直到現在我策 劃的所有展覽都是

LT:我有一本書叫《 繪 畫的種子》,講的是關於 繪 畫中筆刷的運 用導 致不一樣的筆鋒 。就像你 們學西方油畫 那 樣,我也 學習中國畫 裡 畫

筆該怎麼運用,怎麽放,怎麽收,一旦學會收 放自如,那麽就能畫 得

LT:有趣的是,我很多策展項目都是被 邀請進行的。第一次策展時便 被邀請的,如果我答應了我就會盡力把它做到最好。但我從來沒有自 己發起過一次策展。

Luc Tuymans, Bedroom, 2014, Oil on canva, 62 7/8 x 82 1/4 inches (159.6 x 208.9 cm), Courtesy David Zwirner, New York/London

術家 建 立自己 獨特的體系是非常重要的,並不是說 完全與西方不連


“I have organized two ‘Regeneration’ projects where an Art District was created in the forgotten districts of Poznan. The aim was to regenerate this dilapidated district through art. It was also important not to ‘force’ people to participate in the Art District. I made a ‘field’ which the homeless and unemployed people of the area, felt was important and this enabled them to identify with and participate in the event.”—Kasia Kujawska-Murphy, artist curator “ 在 被 人 遺 忘 的 波 茲 南地 區(Poz an)有個 藝 術 區,我在 那 裡 組 織了兩 次名為《再生 》的藝 術 項目,目 的是為了通 過藝 術 來 振 興 這個 衰 落 的區域,強 調 的是不能 強求人們 去加 入 這個 藝 術區 。我 還 特 意為 無 家可歸的人和失 業 人士建了一 個‘小 基 地’讓 他們感受被 大家關心 和關懷,使 他們能夠一起參與這個活 動。”——卡西亞·庫左斯卡-墨菲,藝術家策展人


activist, a radical element in society with a responsibility to bear witness, to agitate and to be inclusive.

The passionate and ‘educative’ approached described by Brendan

Jamison in his interview is one which I and most the artist curators in

this feature, have put into practice, it also connects with the desire to move art outside galleries and to reach out proactively to the public rather than passively ‘waiting for them to come to us’.

Artist curators are often in a better position to address inequalities in critical/ public perception of the use of different media i.e. all media on an equal footing, with no ghettoising or hierarchy. The desire to be inclusive, which does not entail sacrificing artistic standards, is

something most of us seem to share giving maximum value to each artwork and each participating artist’s voice. Echoing the views of Louise Ascroft in the section of Transformation, I would say that

artist-curator are not afraid to break rules and respond intuitively

to exhibition spaces; we are interested in creating shows/projects which include installations, digital/sound/video work, paintings,

textiles, 3D work and performance, shows that don’t just have their eyes on the next commercial ‘big thing’ and which value contrast

over homogeneity. Generally, we like to work with artists from other cultures and other disciplines because it’s interesting – it’s not ‘tidy’

or fixated only on the end product, we want to explore the process, share it, be activists and make something meaningful, something needed to be done, then do it.

許多藝 術家策展人毅然地把自己定位為行動主義者,承擔著見證、激 勵 和鼓舞平等的責任。

布伦丹·贾米森(Bredan Jamison)在受訪時提到了積極主動和具有教 育意義的方法論是我和大多數藝術家策展人所認同的並落實的,另外,

把 藝 術挪到畫 廊以 外的地方去主動接近大眾而不是被 動地等 待大眾靠 近也是我們所堅持的。

藝 術家 策 展 人往 往 更容 易運 用不同的媒 介來 提出不 平 等的問題,從而 倡導平等,無分階 級。渴望被包容的欲望 是我們在其中所體會到的,這 並不意味 著要降 低 藝 術的質 量,反而使 參與的每 一 件 藝 術 作品 和每位

藝 術 家 的 心 聲以 及 所要 闡 述 的 含 義 和 價 值 最 大 化 。回 應 路 易丝·阿什 克罗夫特(Louise A shcrof t)在‘轉型’章節的觀點,我認為藝 術家策 展 人不害怕 打 破 規 矩和對 策 展 空間 做出直觀 地反 應。我 們感興 趣的是

創辦活 動 和展 覽,其中包括 裝 置藝 術、數字/聲 音/影像作品、繪 畫、紡

織、3D作品和行為藝 術,不只是 局限 於挖掘下一 個商業價值,而是提倡

差 異 勝 於 趨 同 。一 般 情 況下,我 們 希望 與 不 同 文化 和 領 域 的 藝 術 家合 作,擦出有趣的火花,我們不需要‘乾淨’的成品,也不迷 戀成品本身,

而是去探究 和分享當中的過程,積極主動地做一些有意義的事,做需要 被完成的事 。

THE ARTIST CURATOR AS ACTIVIST & ART OUTSIDE GALLERIES 作為行動主義者的藝術家策展人 與畫廊以外的藝術

Many artist curators situate themselves firmly in the role of artist


WHAT DO ARTISTCURATORS SAY? 對話藝術家策展人 INTERVIEWED BY 採訪 x FION GUNN 菲昂·戈恩 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x TING CHEN 陳婷

Find Out More:

Heartfelt thanks to all the artist curators who

contributed their responses: Brendan Jamison, Alex Julyan, Kasia Kujawska-Murphy, Mary Mackey, Gail

Ritchie, Alessandro Rolandi, Niamh Cunningham and

to those I have quoted: Matthew Nevin, Darryl Banks, Mary Sherman, Gavin Wade, Antonin Vidokle.

衷 心 感 謝 以 下 藝 術 家 策 展 人 的 經 驗 分 享 ,他 們 是 :

布蘭登·傑米森、亞歷克斯·朱利安、卡西亞·庫左斯卡-墨

菲 、瑪麗·麥琪 、蓋爾·裏奇、亞 歷山德羅·羅蘭迪、尼安· 坎寧安、馬修·納文、達利爾·班克斯、瑪麗·希爾曼、加文· 韋德、安東寧·維多克。

Darryl Banks: www.curatorsincontext.ca

Niamh Cunningham: www. niamhcunningham.com Brendan Jamison: www.brendanjamison.com Alex Julyan: www.alexjulyan.com

Kasia Kujawska-Murphy: www. kujawska-murphy.com

Mary Mackey: www.glasssocietyofireland.blogspot.co.uk/2009/11/artist-profile-mary-mackey Matthew Nevin: www. matthewnevin.com

Alessandro Rolandi: www.alessandrorolandi.org Gail Ritchie: www.gailritchie.com

Mary Sherman: www.transculturalexchange.org Antonin Vidokle: www.e-flux.com

Gavin Wade: www.eastsideprojects.org


Part One: The Principles

第一 部分:策 展 原 則

“I don’t think it’s about finding a new approach, but about finding a voice as a

“藝 術家 策 展 人尋求的不是一種新的方式,而是自己

it’s important to define what that is and how it can be developed as a curatorial

重要的是如何去定義這種視角並把帶到自己的策展實

curator. If you’re a practising artist you bring a unique perspective as a maker, so skill, in other words - how do you convey what your ethos / passion / line of enquiry is in your practice through your curatorial work.

的聲音。每個 從 業藝 術家都 有獨 特的創作 視角,因而

踐去。換句話說,就 是如何通 過 策 展的方式 來傳達 你 的理念、熱情和探索精神。

As a curator my multiple role is as an impresario, a producer and an editor

我 作 為策 展 人,同 時 也 是 經 理 、制 作人和 編 輯,需 要

experience as an artist. My skill is to bring together the right voices (be they

的信念。我必須利用我的策展技巧在特定的時刻將不

- an individual with a vision and a conviction to match, shaped by my own

academic, sonic or visual) at a given moment and shape them into a coherent conversation. I must finely balance my hunger and excitement to create this

dialogue with others, with the patience and sensitivity to let ideas ferment and mature.” ──Alex Julyan

有基於自身藝 術 經 驗而形成的一種視角,以 及實現它 同 觀 點(理 論 也 好,聲 音 藝 術或 或 視 覺 藝 術 也 好)集 合起來組成連貫的對話。我擁有創作的渴望和激情, 也 具備讓 思 想發酵 、沈 澱的耐心 和敏 感 性,但二者必 須達到完美平衡。”─亞歷克斯·朱利安

“It starts with either a unifying theme (such as danger) or a particular medium

“通常由 某個 統 一 的主 題( 比 如“ 危 險 ”)作 為出發

needs to be international, however, all of the artists do not already need to

盡管作品必須符合國際化的標準,但藝 術家無需已達

(such as a survey exhibition of contemporary collage). The standard of work

be established to that level, it is more about the quality and freshness of the work and how the pieces by each artist will play with each other, both on

a conceptual level and through the visual language. The exhibition should be challenging and approach the subject matter with as many different

perspectives as possible, therefore the pool of artists will be as diverse as

possible to cross-pollinate various social, political and cultural backgrounds” ──Brendan Jamison

點,又或是特定的媒介(例如當代拼貼的主題研究)。 到那 樣的程 度,更 重 要的是作品的水準 和新意,以 及

不同藝 術家的作品之間,在藝 術概念和視覺表現形式

上如何產 生互 動。展 覽 應當具有挑 戰 性,並 盡可能多 角度 來 呈現 主 題 。因 此,參展 藝 術 家也 應 多樣 化,從

而彼此傳遞不同社會、政治和文化背景知識。”-布蘭 登·傑米森

“The over-arching principle for me is quality of work and how much the work

“ 對 我 來 說,首要原則就 是作品質量,以 及作品對展

number of artists, there has to be a certain cohesion to the overall look of the

覽,不同藝 術家的作品會同時展出,因而要求 整體 效

has answered the brief. Having curated group shows which could involve a large exhibition. This would be nearly impossible (and uninteresting) to do in terms

of materiality and execution. Having a theme/text/aim for artists to respond to makes both the selection of work an easier process and creates linkages and

relationships between the exhibited works. Otherwise the exhibition can end up being a mish-mash of work which has nothing to say in terms of conversations between the artwork and the audience.” ──Gail Ritchie

覽概要的闡釋是否到位。我曾策劃過幾次大型集體展

果的統一。這 點 對於材質和表現 形式 來說,簡直 是不 可能的,而且 還 會 導致 展 覽 變 得乏味 。但 如果能為每

位藝 術家設 定 某個主 題、文本或者目標,策 展 人 挑 選 作品就容易很多,參展作品之間也 相應有了呼應和關

聯。否則整 個展 覽 就 是各式不同作品的大雜 燴,無法 激發觀者與藝術作品之間的交流。”-蓋爾·裏奇


Part Two: The Path to Curation

第二部分:策 展 之 路

“From a very young age I had been looking at exhibitions of all kinds and had

“我從很小的時候就已經開始去各類 展覽參觀,潛移

work and a strong sense of audience. As my work matured and changed (from

意識。從繪畫到雕塑再到定點作品,

unknowingly developed a visual sensibility beyond the bounds of my own

painting to sculpture to site-specific) I experienced different aspects of the art machine and like many artists I looked for ways to take more control over the way my work was experienced by others.

默化中培養了對他人作品審美的敏感性和很強的觀眾

隨著自己作品的

不斷成熟 和變化,我體 驗了藝 術的多 個層面。跟許多 同行一樣,我也尋求另一種方式更多地把控觀 眾對作 品的體驗。

When the more tenacious of us sought out spaces for hire in Central London and

我 們 中 有些 策 展 人曾堅 定 執 著地 在倫 敦 市 區 租 用 場

once again in a different form). This was a period when there was virtually no

同。當時的藝 術院校未能提供任何商業方面的支持或

put together exhibitions to the best of our abilities (something that is happening support given in art schools to the business end of art or outside opportunities and we were truly learning on the hoof. I’m not sure that we thought of it as

anything as high powered as curating at the time, but looking back this is how I cut my teeth.” ──Alex Julyan

地,竭 盡 所 能 辦展,現 在也 是 如 此,可能 形式 有所不 其他額 外的機會,我們的確 是 邊 做 邊學 。回想起 來, 雖然那時所做的不像是策展那樣精彩,但卻是我真正 學習積累的階段。”-亞歷克斯·朱利安

“Curation seemed to evolve naturally from my own sculpture practice of creating

“我的策展似乎是這種從雕塑實踐自然演變過來的,

complementary arrangement of different elements.” ──Brendan Jamison

以 及利用不同元素 實現 最 好的視 覺 效 果的能力。”-

installations in entire galleries, with a fine-tuning of spatial awareness and the

因 為雕 塑 放 置在 畫 廊 空間 需 要 有 對 空間 微 妙 的 感 知 布蘭登·傑米森

“Curating art shows is based on the same creativity which is the main key to how

“創新是藝 術家對世界認知的關鍵要素,也是展覽策

got a unique theme with very wide understanding of aspects inspired by the

受到自身興趣 啟發而確定一 個獨特、開放性的主題,

artists perceive the world. An art show curated by an artist-curator often has

personal interests which are usually the base for creating artefacts.” ──Kasia Kujawska-Murphy

劃的基 礎。身為藝 術家的策 展 人,在設計展 覽時 通常 而這 種 個人 興 趣 通常也是藝 術 創作的基 礎。”-卡西 亞·庫左斯卡-墨菲


Part Three: Difficulties

第三部分:困 難 與 挑 戰

“The most difficult aspect is communicating my vision for a show to the host

“ 策展最難的地方,就是與展館主辦方溝通我對展覽

exhibition space, coupled with a text outlining why the show is so appropriate

什麽展 覽適合在這樣的場地舉辦,以 及它如何吸引新

museum or gallery, and this usually manifests itself in a scale model of the

for the venue and how it will attract new audiences.” ──Brendan Jamison

“I have more-or less run out of energy for trying to make projects through any

的設 想。所以我常會事先 做個模 型,配以 文字闡述為 的觀眾。”-布蘭登·傑米森

other means than commission. I have 30 years’ experience and am still largely

“ 除了策 展委託 項目,我也曾試圖再自發策 劃一 些 展

bureaucratised, and outcome-driven, which has accelerated the erosion of

低 。如 今,藝 術 的 本身 也 經 歷了巨 變,其官僚 化 和 功

very underpaid, the arts landscape has changed dramatically, it’s now over-

trust. Value is much spoken about in relation to outcome and benefits, but the

value of the creator often overlooked or marginalised. Trust allows artists to be creative and do what they do best, whether it’s making work or curating, this is particularly irksome when being managed by commissioners with much less

experience than myself. I’ve actually found working with small organisations to be the most rewarding because they are freer to experiment and can respond quickly to ideas, they are also often, quite openly on a learning curve and one can actually mentor alongside the delivery of a project.” ──Alex Julyan

“In terms of curating exhibitions, or perhaps being part of a selection panel, it is

覽,但 實 在 是 太 累了。從 業 3 0 多年,我 的 報 酬 仍 然偏 利化的特點更 是加深了大家對彼此的不信任。展覽的 價 值 更 多 通 過 收 益 來 體 現 ,但 策 展 人 的 價 值 通常 會

被忽略甚至是邊緣化。信任可以使藝 術家或策展人充 分發揮才華和創造力。與缺乏經驗的委托人合作總是

令人疲憊。我反而感覺與 小型機構的合作更能受益,

他 們 更 願 意去嘗 試,反 應 迅 速,且不 斷 學習積 累,這 讓策展人可以以導師的身份參與其中。”-亞歷克斯· 朱利安

always difficult to choose between selected and non-selected work. This is even

“展覽策劃或參展作品挑選的困難就是篩選的過程,

know, personally or professionally. Selecting work is often a qualitative, subjective

的篩選通常是比較主觀的定量的過程,策展人通常對

more difficult if the submissions include work from other artists whom one might process and as a curator you may have a vision for the overall look of an exhibition. For this reason, some parameters are useful. If work is too big/too small/ does

not respond to/fit the brief then selection becomes a little easier. Outside of the selection process – logistics and finances are always difficult.” ──Gail Ritchie

如果申請人中有相 識的藝 術家,更 是 難 上 加難 。作品 展 覽 整體 效 果 有自己的設 想 。因此,使 用參數 標 準可

以簡化篩選 過程,比如作品尺寸是否 合 適、能否切合 主 題等。除篩選 之 外,策 展涉及的相關物流 和財務方 面的工作也是很具挑戰性的。”-蓋爾·裏奇


Part Four: The Artist and the Public

第四部分:藝 術家與公眾

“The public are the biggest audience, the zone beyond the regular art audience

“公 眾 是 除 藝 術 愛 好 者 和 藝 評人以 外最 大 的 觀 眾 群

around gallery talks, workshops, and where possible, collaborative artworks that

畫廊導覽、工作坊等形式來實現,甚至以協作的方式,

and art critics. It is key to engage the public through press interviews, walk-

invite every visitor to the exhibition an opportunity to participate, irrespective of age. It is extremely important to convey a warm and positive aura when dealing with the public and all communication should be in a clear and concise fashion.

體。增強公眾的參與至關重 要,可以 通 過 媒體 采訪、

邀請不同年齡的觀者參與藝 術品的創作。與公眾打交 道,就需要傳遞 積 極熱 情的信息,用最簡明的方式確 保溝通的順利。

I detest art-speak waffle where curators write an exhibition blurb that is

有些策展人寫的展覽介紹過 於籠統,同樣的文字可以

the world at any given moment. It is more important to be specific about

視 。我認為,展 覽介 紹的目的在 於具體 描述 該 展 覽的

so generalised it could actually be applied to 1,000 exhibitions around

what makes the exhibition unique and to connect with the public through clear language that complements the specific aesthetics and themes of

the show. All communication should be conducted with an educational mindset.”──Brendan Jamison

“The public are paramount. I’ve worked for many years in gallery learning &

interpretation as well as other forms of public engagement. As an artist I work in gallery and performance contexts, these have all informed the way I work with audiences. If curating for public consumption it’s vital to define the audience

you are aiming for and to have them in your consciousness, after all without an audience we are nothing. I visit a lot of diverse cultural events and am always

audience-aware - what are audiences responding to and what are they alienated

用來放在世界上1000個其他的展覽,這種做法我很鄙 亮點所在,用簡單明瞭的語言與 觀 眾溝 通,並與 展 覽 的審美和主題相輔相成的。任何溝通都要以 給人以啟 發為出發點。”-布蘭登·傑米森

“公 眾 是 至 關 重 要 的 。我 有多 年 從 事公 眾 參 與 項 目

的 經 驗,如 藝 術 館 教學 和作品闡 釋 。作 為藝 術家,我 在 展 館 和表 演 方面的 經 驗 成 為 我 建 立 與 觀 眾 關系的

基 礎 。如 果 策 展 的目的是為了公共 大 眾的,我 們需 要

時刻考慮 受 眾 。脫離與公眾的聯系,藝 術家的意義 何 在 ?我 經常出席不同的文化活動,我 都會 時刻留意觀 眾的反映,什麼成為他們理解作品的障礙。

by (that includes oneself).

我深信,言過 其實的藝 術語言只會使藝 術脫離受眾,

Inflated art-language only serves to re-enforce a hierarchy and doesn’t engage

便是深入淺出。”-亞歷克斯·朱利安

audiences. I feel very strongly about this. The best communicators in any field

淩 駕於受眾需求之 上。無論在任 何領域,最 好的溝 通

can communicate and articulate complex ideas in simple terms.”──Alex Julyan

“The public are not just passive viewers but can also play a participatory role.

They can co-create meaning in a work of art by sharing their own insights and

responses – whether positive or negative – or they could take up some form of creative activity themselves.” ──Gail Ritchie

“公眾不僅僅是被動接受的觀者,他們還可以是主動參 與的角色。他們通過分享自己的理解,提供的任何反饋 都能共同賦予藝 術作品不同的意義,無論這種反饋是 正面的還是負面的;除此之外,公眾還可能參與作品的 共同創作來賦予作品新的意義。”-蓋爾·裏奇


Part Five: Motivation

第五部分:策 展 動力

“I started being interesting in organising exhibitions, partly to explore the figure

“ 我 開 始 對 策 展 產 生 興 趣 ,主 要 是 希望 能 參 與 到 合

practice.For this reason, my approach to curating has been to avoid what was

的工作 和角色 。所以,我 的方法 是 盡 量 避 免‘典 型 ’

and role of the curator, but mostly to engage in collaborative projects and social “typical” about it: such as choosing artists, artworks and topics according to a

highly coherent scheme that is meant to prove a point or define a standard or frame a certain topic.

作 項目和社會 實踐中來,同時也想更深入了解策 展 人 的 策 展工作,比如制定一 套 條 理 分明的方案,證 明某

個 觀 點 、標 準或 提出問 題,挑 選 相 應 的 藝 術 家、作 品 和主題。

I never really considered myself a curator in a specific sense, because the way

我其實並不認為自己是 策 展 人,因為我的工作以 及與

similar to that of a situationist : I define an area of interest, precise or broad,

選一 個感興 趣的領域,範圍大小 不限,選 擇或 被安排

I work and function with other people, artworks and concepts is much more I chose or I am given a physical location which I study and I contact people

whose work can potentially trigger something unexpected. If these people are interested to collaborate, I make sure they have enough physical and mental

space to develop their ideas and I try to see if these ideas can be influenced and

transformed by mutual interaction. I do not influence the final outcome, I try just to ‘prepare’ the ground for something to happen.”──Alessandro Rolandi

“My duty of care is to facilitate the exhibition, to the best of my ability, and part

他人、作品 和概 念的交 流 方式 更像 是 情境 畫家:我挑 到一 個特定空間,然後就去聯系我認為能與此空間發

生有趣碰 撞的人。如果他 們 願 意合 作,我需要做的就 是確保他 們能自由地在空間發 揮自己的創意,還有考 量互動是否會對這個創意產生影響或轉化。我不會控 制最 終的結果,只是提供一 個平臺。”-亞歷山德羅· 羅蘭迪

of that involves being aware of not prioritizing my own work where it is included

“ 我 的 職 責 是 盡 我 所 能 促 成 展 覽,這 意 味 著 我 不 能

artist, work, and staging is given equal and considered attention, to create a

平 等地 對待 藝 術家、作品、以 及公平分配 展示平臺,

in the overall exhibition. Curating requires an objective approach, where each

cohesive exhibition that is inclusive for both the participants and the audience.” ──Mary Mackey

“Previously, I had experience in either selecting work for projects or exhibitions

優先考慮自己的作品在展覽中的位置。策展人需客 觀 從而打造一 個能夠凝 聚藝 術家和觀 眾的展 覽 。”-瑪 麗·麥琪

during various art related employments. I also had experience of as an artist in

“ 我 之 前 做 過 各 種 藝 術 相 關 的 工作,為 項 目或 展 覽

success. A Spanish artist, Ima Pico, joined our studios and was very pro-active

申請失敗。西班牙藝術家艾瑪·皮克(Ima Pico)加入

putting forward my own proposals for curated exhibitions – mostly without in initiating artist led projects and we were both frustrated with the limited opportunities to show work in Northern Ireland. We founded a non-profit

organisation called Green Dog Arts and our remit was to look for exhibition

opportunities for artists to show their work outside of Northern Ireland. Over a period of several years we took the work of North Irish artists to venues in

Mexico, USA, Japan and Spain. I had no real thoughts about curating beforehand other than a consideration of the premise that it would be interesting to show work by both established and emerging artists alongside in each other and in

that way help the professional development of emerging artists.”──Gail Ritchie

甄 選作品 。也曾以藝 術家的身 份申請參展,不過 經常

我們工作室後,非常積極地推動以藝 術家為主導的項 目,但令 我們無奈的是在北愛爾蘭能夠展示作品的機

會太 少。因此,我們隨後 成立了名為‘綠犬藝 術’的非

盈利性機構,為北愛爾蘭的藝 術家們尋找在國外參展 的機會。幾年的時間內,北 愛 爾蘭得 藝 術家作品已經

在 墨西 哥、美 國 、日本 和西 班 牙 等 地 區得到 展 示 。之 前我對策展也並沒有特別的想法,只是希望找個平臺 讓新老藝 術家同臺參展,也是對新興藝 術家的職業生 涯提供幫助。”-蓋爾·裏奇


CELEBRITY CURATORS 明星策展人


The recent years in contemporary art witness a celebrity curator phenomenon,

where curators with supreme rights occupy a variety of art resources and platforms, in the influence of which less and less attention is paid on the artworks and artists.

It is undeniable that most curators are equipped with broader visions and profound professional knowledge, however, the influence varies on the development of

contemporary art as a result of more and more attention is laid on curators. In the

following session, various art professionals, such as artists and curators, from varied

countries and cultural backgrounds are invited to express their views on the cause and influence of this phenomenon.

在當代 藝 術 領域,近些年來出現了一種“明星”策展人的現象,這些策展人擁有著至高無上

的權 利,佔 據著各種藝 術 資源和平台。在 這 些“超 級 策 展 人”的光 環 之下,對於藝 術或者藝

術家的關注往往也變 得越 來 越 少,不可否認,大部份的策 展 人都 具有開闊的視 野和紮 實的 專業 知識,但對策展人 越 來越多的關注導致的對當代 藝 術 發展 產生的影響卻是仁者見仁,

智者見智。在下 面一 個單元中,我 們會邀 請處在不同位 置和不同領域的藝 術界人士來 談 一 談,這些來自不同國度,不同文化背景的藝 術家、策展人、亦或者是藝 術家 策展人都對這樣 一種現象的產生和其影響表達了自己的看法。


SUPER CURATORS 超級策展人

Huang Yan, Landscape on Body © PEH with permission

TEXT BY 撰文 x FION GUNN 菲昂·戈恩 EDITED BY 編輯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x ELAINE YU 余寧


I love the Venice biennale, the location, the huge numbers

我熱 愛 威尼斯雙年展,它在良 好的地 段,有著大 批 來自不同地 域 和

footsore and weary after a long day wandering from exhibition

覽館奔至另一 個,我也不介意看看我不喜 歡的大多數作品和各種平

of participating artists, cultures, locations. I don’t mind being

space to exhibition space. I don’t mind not liking a large number of the artworks I see and I don’t mind seeing individual shows

curated by buffoons. What I do mind, terribly and painfully, to the point of wanting to stick pins in my eyes and shed someone’s

擁有不同文化的藝 術家。我完全不介意一整天 馬不停蹄地從一 個展 庸的個展。我 發自肺腑而痛心疾首地痛恨的是那些自以為是的視覺 白癡,他 們用圖像垃圾和獨裁的喇叭 充斥著整 個雙年展,抹 殺著策 展的多樣性。

blood, is visually illiterate smart arse curation infiltrating a whole

事與願違,西米利亞諾·吉奧尼(Mas similiiano Gioni),上一屆雙

curatorial diversity.

多!),那麽為什麽說他抹殺多樣性呢?我認為吉奧尼,這位被《藝術

biennale, shouting down individual voices and drowning out

Perversely, Massimiliiano Gioni, curator of the biennale included many more artists than in previous years (an impressive total of

150), so why accuse him of drowning out diversity? I do so because I feel that Gioni, sharply dressed and rising ‘inexorably’ to quote

artreview.com curated the biennale as though he were kitting out

年展的策 展 人囊 括了比前些 年要多許多的藝 術家( 竟然有1 5 0 個之 評論(Ar treview)》評為時尚的“無情”新星,策劃雙年展時仿佛在 打造 曼哈頓的一間時 髦公寓一 般,急功 近 利地 維系華 而不實、卻具 “適當學術性”的裝飾。對於吉奧尼來說,控制是核心,他被列為世

界八 大 超 級 策 展 人 之一,這 又意味著 什麽?他在 紐 約與美國城市大 帝國外到底是否向外面的世界觀察過,去了其他地方在發生什麽?

a cool loft apartment in Manhattan, eager to impress, to maintain

“《百科宮殿( T h e E n c y c l o p e d i c P a l a c e , t h e 5 5 t h Ve n i c e

for Gioni, listed as one of the eight top super-curators in the world

說, “雙年展可以是學究的,但也可以不乏味。”

a slick, totally ‘academically appropriate’ decor. Control is the key

– what does this even mean? Does he actually look at what’s going

B i e n n a l e)》將探索蜿蜒的歷史,涵蓋百年的夢想和願景”,吉奧尼

on out there in the wider world, beyond the universe of New York

他 錯了。展 覽像是被一 個 瘋狂的圖書 管理 員 策的,那些藝 術作品按

“It (The Encyclopedic Palace,the 55th Venice Biennale) will

為什麽要 在一堵墻上掛五幅不怎麼樣的繪 畫,如果在同一堵牆

said Gioni, noting that 38 countries are represented. “A biennale

為什麽只 放一 個攝 像 屏幕,如果 放10 0 個屏幕是不是能更 震 撼

and the American Urban Empire?

zigzag across histories, covering 100 years of dreams and visions,” can be pedagogical without being boring.”

He was wrong…the artworks felt as though they had been

curated by a maniac librarian, catalogued according to medium and size, as though he had asked himself:

照媒介和尺寸編排在一起,好像他在問自己:

上換成500幅一樣平庸的作品是不是就能讓人印象深刻? 人心?

為什麽不提供一 個震耳欲聾音頻環境,好 使大家都不願意花太 長時間在這個巨大的空間裡,也沒有時間去 想想這些 作品是否 值得去欣賞?

如果這一切的令人不快是有目的的,我並不會如此在意——因為這樣 的話便會有意義,使得負面反饋產生價值。

why have a wall with 5 mediocre drawings when putting 500

why show one video screen when a bank of 100 screens will

2011年雙年展策展人比奇·庫萊格(Bice Curiger)是歷史上唯一策

why not have an audio environment which is so deafening

地提升了觀者體驗,同時亦很好地展示了當代藝術的多樣性。

of them on the same wall will be so impressive? overwhelm the viewer even more?

and unpleasant that people won’t spend too long in the

huge space and won’t have time to see if the work is actually worth looking at?

I wouldn’t mind so much if there were a point to the

unpleasantness – that after all, would give it meaning, would make the negative reaction worthwhile.

His predecessor Bice Curiger, one of only three women to

have curated the Biennale did so with significantly greater

finesse, engaged the viewers and reflected the diversity of the contemporary art world far more effectively.

劃過雙年展的三位女性之一,她在策展方面則要出色許多,她更有效 吉奧尼在同一次採訪中提到, “《百科宮殿》最能反映這個國際展會

的巨大規模”,並且“反映了要捕捉了如此龐大的當今藝 術世界是不

可能的”。吉奧尼的策展 越 來越多地展露了它的重復性,排 他性,他 的基 本理 念是“大就等於好”,《百科宮殿 》並沒有反映出除此之 外 的東西。

科琳·米麗德(Coline Milliard)在一篇恭維吉奧尼的評論中說道: “他不只挑選了一副伊姆蘭·庫雷希(I m r a n Q u r e s h i)啟蒙運動系

列的作品——用古老的莫臥兒微縮技術刻畫的當代人像——吉奧尼使 用了九幅作品,這純粹的量化加強了它們令人不安的感覺。”


Gioni remarked in the same interview “It [The Encyclopedic Palace] best reflects the giant scope of this international

Actually, I saw this show as a portrait of the curator and Gioni

enormity of the art world today.” More and more his curatorial

the show to be an exploration but not an exploration of the

exhibition,” and “the impossibility of capturing the sheer

revealed itself as repetitive, excluding, his underlying philosophy “being big = good” and the Encyclopedic Palace reflected

trying to grapple with his Catholicism or maybe his lapsed

Catholicism, it was fascinating but I didn’t expect that. I expected curator’s psyche.

nothing beyond its own navel.

An abiding and convincing criticism of many ‘super curators’ is

Coline Milliard in her deferential critique of Gioni’s approach

they are culturally insensitive and where they eat up resources

relates that “Rather than picking just one picture from Imran Qureshi’s Moderate Enlightenment series — which portrays

contemporary characters using the ancient Mughal technique of miniature — Gioni has selected nine of them, the sheer critical mass enhancing their unsettling qualities.”

However, he didn’t manage to enhance anything, he made

that these individuals are parachuted into environments where which would be better spent or used in more ‘democratic’ ways. Using a theatrical metaphor it is as though they are the lead

actors in a play who have to have their own spotlight always

trained on them irrespective of anyone else acting on the stage (the other players remain in obscurity) and whether they have anything to say or not.

everything really difficult to look at, difficult to remember. In

Personally, I would like to dismantle the critical sway of academic/

because he was unable to make good curatorial decisions.

from both the artists’ and the public’s perspective, strewn with

fact, he destroyed the impact of many really good artists’ work

It might sound harsh, but given the stranglehold that critics/

academics/celebrities like him have on today’s artworld, I feel

justified in levelling these criticisms. I have little sympathy with the privileged layer of super curators (none of whom is an

artist or issue of a visual discipline) who currently dominate the presentation of art to the global general public. I’m not going

to list them here, I don’t want to fuel the over-coverage which they already receive but, suffice it to say, that another one of

the Super 8 – Okwui Enwezor , will curate the Venice Biennale in 2015. Maybe his background as a poet will give him a different perspective from Gioni’s into the curatorial process.

An artist who was featured in the 2013 Venice Biennale remarked: “Gioni has a specific overview of what he wants, he has a

thematic and that thematic has to be ‘muscled out’ made physical. And then he has these pairings, these special

relationships between certain kinds of work and reactions he

wants to provoke. So for instance, a work that I made with certain paintings and I really don’t share that view…”

I asked him how he found working with Gioni and he replied:

“For somebody to hold so many artists in his mind and to have only 6 months to curate a show from zero...I found it deeply fascinating to observe.”

He added worriedly, ‘in the best possible way of course and

please don’t quote me on that because I might want to work with him again...”

art critic curators who have created a difficult, excluding space, obstacles to visual coherence, dialogue and engagement.


然而不幸的是,吉奧尼沒能提升什麽,他讓一切變得很難進行觀看,

很 難 使 人記住。事實上,因為他 策 展的失誤他 毀了許多 優 秀藝 術家 作品。

然後他又擔憂地補充到: “請不要引用我說的這些話,因為我可能會 想與他再度合作…”

這也許 聽 起 來 很刺耳,但當今藝 術界 被像他這樣的藝評人 /學者/名

事實上,我覺得展覽很好地刻畫了策展人本身,吉奧尼試圖撇清他的

人 擁 有特權,他 們當中甚少 是藝 術家 或視 覺專家,但卻主導全 球公

的發生,但十分有趣。我期待的雙年展是一場藝術探索之旅,但沒想

人 所控 制,我覺得 提出批評 是有必要的。我並不支 持 這些 超 級 策 展

眾觀看藝 術的方式 。我不 在 這裡一 一列舉,我不想再增加這 些已被 過 度報 道的人和事,但簡單 地說,另一 位 八 大 超 級 策 展 人 之一的奧 奎·恩維佐(Okwui Enwezor)將策劃2015年的威尼斯雙年展。也許 他作為詩人的身份背景會給這次策展帶來不一樣的視角。 一位參加2013年威尼斯雙年展的藝術家說:

“吉奧尼很明確自己要什麼,他有自己的主題,又考慮著各種搭配,

以此來挑明他想要闡述的某些特定作品與其反饋之間的特殊關係。 譬如說,我創作的作品並不是他想要表現的那個觀點…” 當我問起他與吉奧尼共事有什麽感想時,他說:

“ 對於一位有這麽多藝 術家要考慮而只有六個月時間從零開始準備 策展的人來說,我覺得他十分有看頭。”

天 主教信仰,或者說他不 再 相 信的天 主教信仰,我 沒有預 料到這樣 到是探索策展人的內心。

對於這許多“超級策展人”比較有力的評論也許是這樣的:這些策展

人被空降到一個不熟悉的文化環境,他們用光了所有可用資源,儘管 這些資源也許能被更 好地利用,或者以更民主的方式來進行分配 。

如果用劇場作比喻,他們就像劇裡的那些無時無刻需要鎂光燈聚焦 的領 銜主演,其他演 員 則在舞台一角無 人關照,不管 他 們是否有 話 要說。

就個人而言,站 在藝 術家和公眾的角度,我 希望能 夠廢除這 些學 術 派或 藝 術批評家 策 展 人的統治,他們建立了一 個令人窒息而排 他的 空間--佈滿 荊 棘,阻礙了視 覺語言的連 貫表 述,也讓 對話 和參與 變得愈加困難。


Tate’s new building. The Vision, View from the South © Hayes Davidson and Herzog & de Meuron 2011

FROM SELECTOR TO CURATOR INTERVIEW WITH MARKO DANIEL 與時俱進 專訪馬可·丹尼爾 EDITED BY 編輯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x BOWEN LI 李博文 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x TATE 泰特美術館


Marko Daniel is Convenor of Public Programmes at Tate Modern and Tate Britain. In 2014, he was curator of the 8th Shenzhen Sculpture Biennale: We have never participated.

He was co-curator of Joan Miró: The Ladder of Escape (Tate Modern, 2011; Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona; and National Gallery of Art, Washington). He was curator of a solo

show by Taiwanese artist Chen Chieh-Jen at Chinese Arts Centre, Manchester (2010) and Vice-Chair of the London Consortium, a unique collaboration between the Architectural Association, the Institute of Contemporary Arts, the Science Museum, Birkbeck College and Tate that offers interdisciplinary research programmes in the humanities. Marko

Daniel is a member of the Academic Committee of OCAT Shenzhen. He completed his

PhD on Art and propaganda: The battle for cultural property in the Spanish Civil

War at the University of Essex in 1999. -----

馬可·丹尼爾是泰特現代美術館和泰特英國美術館的公共項目召集人。2014年,丹尼爾擔任第 八屆深圳雕塑雙年展“我們從未參與(We have never participated)”的策展人;2011年,他

是“胡安·米羅:逃亡之梯(Joan Miró: The Ladder of Escape)”展覽的聯合策展人,該展覽 在英國泰特現代美術館,巴塞羅納胡安·米羅基金會以及華盛頓國家美術畫廊進行巡展;2010 年,丹尼爾為台灣藝術家陳界仁在曼城華人當代藝術中心的個展擔任策展人;他還是倫敦聯盟

(London Consortium)——一個由建築聯盟學院、當代藝術研究學會、科學博物館、倫敦大 學伯貝克學院以及泰特美術館聯合創辦的跨學科人文研究項目的主席;丹尼爾同時也是深圳

OCAT的學術委員會一員。他於1999年在埃塞克斯大學完成博士學位,課題是“藝術與宣傳:

西班牙內戰中的文化財產之爭(Art and propaganda: The battle for cultural property in the Spanish Civil War)”。

ART.ZIP: How would you describe the current situation of artist,

ART.ZIP:對你來說,英國的藝術家、策展人以及藝術家策展人這三

MD: It is a very interesting and complex question. I think the

MD:這是一 個非常有趣而複雜的問題。我清楚策展人是在過去二三

curator, and artist as curator in the UK now?

current notion of a curator has only come into existence in the

last 20, 30 years. When I worked on my first exhibition project here in London in 1995, we were not called curators, but selectors; we used a completely different term. At that point, the curator was

somebody who worked in a museum and looked after the works in its collection. So this “looking after” side was most important. This

included research into the history of the object, but also physically

looking after it, making sure it was in good condition, and knowing what its provenance was. At that point, somebody who worked on exhibitions was identified by reference to the fact that they

chose works of art for a project and selection. Since then, the word ‘curator’ has become incredibly widespread.

About 10 years ago, Tate was very actively involved in a PhD programme here called the London Consortium, which was a collaboration between Tate and other institutions like ICA,

Architectural Association, Birkbeck University of London, and

subsequently the Science Museum. In that collaborative project, we realized that people were more and more interested in the

notion of curating. People started curating things that were not

種身份的現狀如何?

十年內出現的年輕專業。我在1995年於倫敦進行了我的第一个展覽 項目,那是二十年前的事情了,那時 我不 被稱作是 策 展 人,而是“選

擇者”——所以在 過去我們使 用了完全不同的辭彙。在那個時候,策 展 人在博 物 館內工作,負責照看藏品 。所以, “ 照看”工作 就 是 最 重 要的工作,我們需要對於 藝 術品或 文物的歷 史 進 行研究,但同時需 要照看它們,確保它們保存良 好,了解它們的出處,並好好地照看這 些物件。在那個時候,在一 個展覽之中工作意味著:你手頭上有很多

的藝 術品,而你要選出你 希望 放到一起去展示的那些,而這 就 是當 時工作的標準。自那時開始, “策展人”一詞便被大量地傳播開來。

大 約十 年前,泰 特 美 術 館開 始 積 極 地參 與 名為倫敦聯盟(Lon don

Consor tium)的博士學位研究項目,這個項目的合作者包括了泰特

美 術館、當代 藝 術研究學會(IC A)、建 築 聯盟學院(Architec tural Association)、倫敦大學伯貝克學院(B ir k b e c k

Uni v e r s i t y

of

L o n d o n)以及隨後加入的科學博物館(Science Museum)。在這 個合 作 項目中,我們意識到人們對於 策 展實踐 越 發感興 趣 。人們開 始為不屬於藝術範疇的事物策劃展覽。首先,在美術館中,不僅那些 照看永久 藏品的人們在進行策 展,為了展 覽計劃而工作的人們也開 始進行策展工作。隨後,在教育部門工作的人們也開始策劃活動,包 括電影放映等等。策展實踐因此得到發揚。


Sonia Delaunay, Propeller (Air Pavilion), 1937 Skissernas Museum, Lund, Sweden© Pracusa 2014083, Photo: Emma Krantz

art. First, in the museums, it was not just the people who were

A pple可能 是 最 著名的品 牌,因為它們開始了對手 機 應 用程 序的 策

making exhibitions. Then people who worked in the learning

應 用程 序供你使 用。計算機開始為你 策 劃經 驗。這事實上是一 個非

looking after the permanent collection, but also people who were department were said to be curating events, they were curating the film programme, and it then extended from that.

Apple is perhaps the most famous brand because they started ‘curating’ Apps, so that when you go to the App Store it offers you a selection of Applications to use. In a way, computers

began to curate an experience for you. It is a really interesting

comparison actually with 20 years ago, say; if you wanted to see examples of video art, it was very, very hard to find anything.

Finding them, getting physical access to that material required a

劃,在 Apple的手機 應 用程 序商店上你可以找到一系列經 過 挑 選的 常有趣 的比 較:打比方 說,在 20 年前,如 果你 想要 看甚麼影像 藝 術

作品的話,無論是在電視上或是在影院中那都是非常非常困難的事

情。你需要找到這些作品,而找到這些作品,將它們拿在手中之前你

已經需要完成一系列的調查、研究,也需要很大量的資源,你可能需 要長途跋涉地去尋找這些作品。在今天,如果你想要聽音樂的話,所

有的一切都在網上。所以,在現在,在一 個人的成長中,問題不再是 如何能夠聽到一首20世紀30年代寫就的藍調歌曲,儘管這首歌可能 只有一 個或兩個實體拷貝。問題變成了:你需要弄明白,這到底是不 是你想要聽的。所以我們現在需要應對的是知識的策展。

lot of research and resources; you needed to travel to get it. Now

簡言之,所有事 物 都越 發 唾手可得,而重 要的問題 則變 成了獲 得這

it’s all there. So when you are growing up now, the problem is

別人的協 助來完成自己的選 擇 。而這本身就 是 一 個策 展的過程。我

if you want to see anything or hear any music, you can go online, not how to get access to a blues song that was written in the 1930s, of which there are maybe one or two recordings. But

actually now you don’t need to find the material, you need to

find out what you want to listen to. So now what we are dealing with is the curation of knowledge.

Everything is actually much more easily accessible, and the most

些事 物的方式以 及你到底 想要 些甚麼。在信息爆炸的時 代,你需要 覺得這裡對語境的描述是很有幫助的,因為關於這個時代背景的描 述能 夠幫助我 們思考 我 們 使 用“ 策 展 人”這個 詞的方式-用以 形 容

有着某種知識特長的人。再打一個比方:我可能會常去看某個博客,

因為博主總能向我推薦一些特別有趣的歌曲。儘管我也能找到這些 歌曲,但我並不知道應當從何聽起。所以我前去關注這個博客,去接 受這個由別人完成的選擇。

important thing now becomes how do you get access to it?

然而,我們在討論的事實上是兩種選擇:一種是簡單的、基於知識以

needs to help you narrow down the selection. And that itself is

密不可分。當我們在進行策 展實踐的時候,我們在討 論的是不同的

What do you want? There is so much information that somebody the process of curation. As a context this is really useful because it allows you to think about the way in which we use the term ‘curator’ for people who have a specialist knowledge. For

example, you might go to a particular blog, because the person

who writes it selects really interesting songs. Now I could find the

及研究 完成的選 擇,而另一種 是 基於品味完成的選 擇 。這兩種 選 擇

藝 術作品選 擇原則 。對 我 來 說,這 可能 是 美 術館 策 展 人、獨立 策 展 人以及藝 術家策展人之間最大的區別:他們為前來觀展的觀 眾提供

了些甚麼?藝 術家作為策展人在選擇參展作品的時候會帶入他們的 藝術感性,而一個獨立策展人或多或少也會這樣做。


songs myself, but I wouldn’t know where to begin. So I go to that blog and I get a selection readymade for me.

We are looking at two different kinds of selection here, one is

simply based on knowledge and research, and the other one is

based on taste. The two kinds go together. What we are looking

at when we are dealing with curation is different motivations for

making a selection of works. So maybe this is the most significant difference between the ways in which professional museum

但當我們要面對的是泰特這樣的一 個機構的時候,策展實踐的一 個 主要的任務是幫助藝術家以最好的方式將他們的作品呈現給觀眾。

在泰 特之 類的機構中,我們的立場 和明星 策 展 人不一樣,明星 策 展 人 通常被混為藝 術家 來 對待。他們可能 會認為,他們的策 展實踐能

為作品增添一些別的甚麼,並非來源於作品本身的東西。我認為,在 我 所 供職的泰 特美 術館之中,我們 傾向於謹慎 地處理 這種 態度,因

為我們認為最重要的元素是藝 術家的作品,而我們需要以最 好的方 式來呈現這些作品。

curators work and artists who are also curators. What do they

ART.ZIP:策展人在對公眾呈現作品的過程中扮演了一個很重要的角

in which artists and, to a greater or lesser extent independent

人是否有着一種巨大的權力?

offer the audience that comes to their exhibitions? It is the way curators, bring their own sensibilities to the selecting of artwork. But particularly when you come to institutions like Tate, one of the main goals that we have in curating is to help the work of the artist to become visible in the best possible fashion. So in

an institution like Tate you are dealing with something that is

quite different from the celebrity curator. Celebrity curators may

色。你覺得在這樣的環境中,在向世界呈現藝術作品的過程中,策展

MD:如果我把這個論點推向極致,我們可以說,很多人相信,一 個物 件算不算是藝 術品是完全由策展人來決 定的。這是這個論斷的極端 說法,這個說法 也包括 這個看 法:美 術館機構在決 定把甚麼物 件當

作藝 術來展示的時候有着極大的權力;如果泰特選擇展出哪個藝 術

家的作品,那個藝 術家應當感到“非常幸運”。我在誇張地形容這個 狀況,因為我並不認為這是事實。

sometimes confuse their role with being an artist themselves,

我 想,自2 0 世 紀 5 0 年 代 以 來,討 論 藝 術 的 哲學 家們 發展了被 稱 作

in institutions like ours, we tend to be very cautious about that,

藝 術不是由其 本質決 定的,不是由藝 術家的創作決 定的,不是由藝

as if their exhibitions were works of art by themselves. I think

because we think the most important element to deal with is the work of the artist, and we need to show that to the audience as best possible.

ART.ZIP: The curator plays a very significant role in presenting

artwork to the public, do you think in this case the curator has a certain kind of superpower in showing art to the world?

MD: Many people believe that, and if I take this to the extreme

“ 制度 藝 術 理 論”的嚴 肅理 論 。這 理 論聲稱,一 個事 物究 竟 是不是 術家賦予事 物的特 殊屬性而決 定的,而是由藝 術世界的集體考慮 所 決 定的。這是一 個非常有力的論點,也是一 個有力的分析,因為,到 最後,藝術作品中並沒有甚麼特殊的本質性區別因素。如果藝術家、

商業畫廊、美術館、藝 術評論、收藏家以及公眾都認為這是藝 術,這

就 是藝 術。然而這個理論的其中一 個問題 是,你 如何能夠成 為藝 術 界的一分子?你如何能夠為一 個事 物是否是藝 術作出決 定?所以 這 理論看起來只是一個自我循環的圈。

you could say that whether something is art or not is decided

我們也可以從 另一種角度批評這種理論:如果你要考慮的是 所有可

this argument the institution of the museum has a great

要 考慮藝 術家、畫 廊、藝 術品商人、美 術館、藝 術媒體、藝 術評論、

by the curator. According to this very extreme version of

deal of power. In the caricature version, when we decide to put something on display as art, the artists should consider

themselves lucky to be selected by Tate. I am caricaturing this

以就 這個問題 提出意見的人的話,你要 考慮的就 是 全世界。因為你 策 展 人以 及公眾的所有意見 。在你要 考慮 所有人的意見的時 候,你 就幾乎回到了原點,沒有任何進展。

position specifically because I don’t think it’s true.

在 某 種 程 度 上,這比 較 準 確 地反映了我 們 現在的狀 況,即,現在 有

From the 1950s onwards philosophers writing about art

開,口中 聲 稱:“ 我不 同意,對 我 來 說,那 不是 藝 術 作 品”。在 這個

developed the “institutional theory of art” in which they argued

that whether something is a work of art or not, does not depend on anything that’s inherent in the work. It also doesn’t depend

on the efforts that the artist puts into making the work, or special attributes that the artist gives the work that they made. Rather,

whether something is art or not depends on a collective decision by the art world to consider it art. It is a very powerful argument as well as powerful critique, because according to it ultimately

there’s nothing essential in the artwork that really makes it art. If the artist, commercial galleries, museums, art critics, collectors,

很 多的藝 術 作品 得到了一 部分人的 認可,但 另一 部分人可能 轉 身離

時候,你可以提出這個問題:“這是不是藝 術作品,是一 個重要的問 題嗎?”你也可以對問題稍作改 變,提出:“ 如果你把它當作藝 術作 品,那會怎麼樣?”如果你 簡單地說,好吧,藝 術家把這件東西帶到 這個世界上,而我們在一 個畫 廊中觀 察 這個事 物,但你 仍不能確 定

這是不是藝術作品。然而,當你把這事物當作藝術作品來對待,這時 你的世界觀就發生了改變,你的思想發生了改變,你觀察世界上其他 事物的方式也得到了改變。我認為這是超越這個困境的有效方法。

回到你的問題:策 展 人 是否有着巨大的權 力?我們可以輕易地說明

這 並不是事實。策 展 人不能在 美 術館空間內扔進 隨便甚麼東西,人


and the public all agree that it is art, then it is art. One of the

們也不會自動地前來觀賞。這沒有這麼簡單。我們需要承認,這是一

world? How do you make the decision whether something is art?

要把這事物視作藝術”而沒有人同意、公眾也不前來的話,那你就有

problems with this theory is how do you become part of the art It could be seen as a very self-referential theory.

Another criticism that could be made on the basis of the

constituency of the art world is that you are practically looking at the whole world, because you are talking about the artist,

the art gallery, the dealer, the museum, the art journalist, the

art critic, the curator and the public. The moment you include

everybody you are back to square one. To some extent, it quite accurately reflects where we are now, which is that there are

many works of art which some people consider to be works of

個非常複雜的生態系統,這裡有着一種生態學,如果你提出, “我想

問題了。你並沒有巨大的權力。你只有在一個既定的認可範圍內進行 實踐的能力。在這個認可範圍內,你可以嘗試改變人們的想法,並改

變 人們關 於眾事 物是 否是藝 術的想法。我一定不會否認,有些 人能 夠更 好地 完 成 這个工作 。有些 人非常擅長 說 服 他 人,並很 好地 提出

為“為甚麼這個事物可以是藝術”的論點,而人們隨之開始關注該事 物的發展。然而,有的時候,這 是 更 大的一 個問題,非常困難,有時 候 會突 然出現 大 量的特定新藝 術形式,而過了幾年之後 沒有人再去

關心這種藝術形式了。所以,關於策展人是否有着巨大的、永久的權 力,我的回答是否定的。

art, but other people might just simply turn around and say ‘I

在藝 術家的世界 觀中,策 展 人有着次 要或者更低的重 要性 。而 藝 術

ask ‘Does it matter?’ You could change the question around a

最重要的事。

don’t agree, for me it isn’t a work of art.’ At this point you could little bit and say ‘what happens when you consider it as a work

家改 變了我們觀看世界的方式,這 是非常重 要的。這 是藝 術 世界中

of art?’ If you consider it as a work of art, that can change the

ART.ZIP:作為一名機構策展人,你的策展原則是甚麼?

in which you think, change the way in which you are able to

在 過 去-在 一 些 重 要的 美 術 館內 仍 然 是 這樣 的- 你 需 要 有一 個以

way in which you look at the world, that can change the way see other things in the world. I think this is a very useful way of trying to cut through this dilemma.

But to come back to your question, whether the curator has a

superpower. The curator can’t just put anything in the museum, and people will not just come automatically and accept it. It’s

not as simple as that. I think we have to assume that it’s a very complex eco-system, where, if you are making a proposition, saying ‘I want this work to be considered art’ and nobody

agrees with you, and the public doesn’t come, then you’ve got a

problem. You haven’t got a superpower. You only have the ability to work within a certain horizon of expectations. And within that

horizon of expectations, you can try and change what the people think, and change what people consider art or not. Some people are very good at doing this slightly more radically than others,

some people are very good at persuading others and presenting a good argument for why something should be seen as art, and

get other people to see it. But sometimes it is a much bigger task, it is much more difficult; and other times you have something

that becomes incredibly popular as an art form and then a few years later nobody cares about it anymore. So is there a simple superpower, a superpower that has permanent effects? No.

The way in which the artist sees the world, and changes the way

in which we see the world, is really powerful. Curators are playing

a secondary or even third level role to this.. That’s one of the most important things in this.

MD:我 認 為 研究 工作是非常重 要的。最 近 幾年有了一 些改 變,但 是

研 究 為 基 礎 的 高 等 學 位 才 能 在 一 個 像 泰 特 的 機 構 之中工作 。我 知

道 關 於 策 展 實 踐 的 大 學 專 業 是 在 最 近 幾 年 才興 盛 起 來 的,而 對 於 美 術 館 工作 來 說 最 重 要 的 技 能 就 是 研 究 技 能,這 總 是 我 們 工作 的

中 心 。這 技 能 對 於 泰 特之 類 的 美 術 館 來 說 無 比 重 要 。我 們 有 兩 個 主 要的工作:建 立 館內藝 術 作品收 藏,以 及 進 行展 覽 。這 兩點 是同 樣 重 要的,如果你不能 夠了解所有藝 術家的重 要性,你就 無法決 定

到底 要為哪位藝 術 家舉 辦展 覽 。舉 例 來 說,為 甚麼 我 們 要為 瑪 琳·

杜馬斯(Marlene Dumas)舉辦展覽?甚麼樣的因素影響了這樣的

決 定 ?所以,你 必須 要了解世界 範 圍內藝 術 創作 的狀 況,你 需 要了 解 繪 畫 在 當 代 藝 術 中 的 角 色 。為 甚 麼 我 們 要 在 現 在 ,當 大 部分 藝

術 家 都 不 再進 行 繪 畫 創 作 的 時 候,為 一 位 繪 畫 藝 術 家舉 辦 大 型 個 人 展 覽?如果我們想要聚焦 於 繪 畫的話,為甚麼選 擇她?所有這 些

因 素 都 是 與 研 究 工作 有 關 的,都 是 與 關 於 全 球 藝 術 世界 的 理 解 有 關 的 。為 甚 麼 要 在 泰 特 美 術 館 進 行 這 樣 的 展 覽 ?倫 敦 市 內 的 其他 大型機構包括還沃德畫廊(Hay ward Galler y)以及皇家藝 術學會

(Royal Academy of Ar t s),他們舉辦不同類型的展覽,有着不 同的判斷標 準,然而他們也是 大 量地依 賴研究 工作的。與 其他 現在

在 進 行 創 作 的 藝 術 家 相比,甚麼 讓 瑪 琳·杜 馬 斯脫 穎 而出?這 總 是 與某 些理論相關的,我 現在希望談談共時 性(s ynchronic)以 及 歷

時 性(diachronic)兩點 。共時 性的討 論要關照在一 個 時間 點內發

生的所有事情。所以我們要去察看這位藝 術家在當下這個時刻中的 位置。而歷時性的討論則意味著在時間長河中的發展-過往的歷史

中,有甚麼能夠告訴 我們,瑪 琳·杜 馬是目前正確的選 擇 。不僅僅 是

正確的選擇,我們需要基於許多實際的因素進行決策-美 術館的國 際 運作狀 況、美 術館在倫敦 市內進行的工作狀 況、以 及我們完成這 樣的一次大型展覽的契機等等。

因為,如果我們去 做一 個沒有甚麼人感興趣的藝 術家的大型展覽,

如 果 我 們 不 能 在 藝 術與 特 定 觀 眾 之 間 建 立 聯 繫,那 就 是 一 個 大 問


ART.ZIP: What’s your curating principle as an institutional curator?

題。所以,杜馬斯的展覽能夠獲得廣泛好評,我們真的感到非常非常

maybe it’s still the case in major museums, to work in an

們在最初就知道,展覽只能吸引少量的公眾。但是那仍然是值得的,

MD: I think research is incredibly important. Until very recently,

institution like this you needed a university qualification that was research-based. I think curatorial studies programmes have only

高興。在另一些時候,我們進行著一部分很困難的策展實踐,因為我 因為該藝術家的作品在當下以及在歷史中都是有着重要位置的。

come into play quite recently, and the most important skill you

ART.ZIP:你覺得機構策展人身份帶來了甚麼局限性嗎?

ability to carry out research, as it always underpins the work that

時意味著很 大的便利以 及許多制約。對於 個人 來說,你需要弄明白

need to have as a person working in a museum like this is the we are doing. Here we have two main strengths in relation to

art, one is the building of the collection, and the other one is the

making of exhibitions. Both equally depend on research. You can

not make a decision about which artist is in need of an exhibition, unless you are able to judge what the alternatives are. Why we

would choose Marlene Dumas, for example, as an artist? What are the factors that go into making that decision? And so you really need to understand the global picture of art making, and you

need to understand what the role of painting is in contemporary art. Why would we do a big solo show of an artist who paints

now when so many others do not? And why her if we are looking at painting? All those factors ultimately are based on research, on the understanding of the international situation of the art

MD:我認為,對於所有在美術館機構之中工作的人來說,這份工作同

這個機構是否是 你想要為之付出的地方,這裡的工作 對你來說 是否

理想。在機構工作的優點是,這裡提供了很多資源,在這裡有着很多

作為獨立 策 展 人很 難能夠獲得的資源 。作為一名獨立 策 展 人,你需 要 花費 大 量的時間尋找合 作夥 伴、資 源、為了下一 個項目去尋找資 金支持。然而,當你在這麼做的時候,你的每一個合作夥伴都有他們

自己的想法。所以一 個機構可能會說:“這是一 個非常好的項目,但

是 你能不能 這樣 做呢?”他 們又說:“ 噢,不 行,這次 展 覽的贊助方

希望這樣 做。”在最後,就算你是獨立於機構外,你的項目還 是受到 了多方面的制 約。我 覺得,人們有時 過 於 浪 漫地 想像一 個 獨立 策 展

人的工作,就像他 們會過 於 浪 漫地 想像一 個藝 術家的工作 一樣:藝 術家是完全不受外部制約的人,而他或她工作室的創作是完全不受 外部世界影響的。

world. Why do this at Tate? Other large venues in London like

無論是藝 術家或是獨立 策 展 人,他們的現實肯定不是 這樣的。對於

of exhibitions, always with research-based approach, but they

着一種 穩 定性,讓工作的開展 變 得更容易些。我們也不能 忘記在一

Hayward Gallery or Royal Academy of Arts, they do different kinds have their own criteria for making decisions. What makes Marlene Dumas a really significant artist for us to show in relation to other art that is being made now and other art that has been made? In theoretical terms, I would talk about the synchronic and the

diachronic. The synchronic means everything that’s happening

at the same moment in time, so we need to see where the artist

機構策 展 人 來說,制度性的制約幾乎是 一種 先決 條 件,所以 反而有 個大型機構中工作帶來的曝光度、資源以及責任。對我來說,這是我

每天都 在惦 記的事情,而 我 想我的同事一定也都是 這樣 想的:我 們 在為一 個有着非常重要的國際地位的機構工作,因此當你在作出一

個選擇的時候-比如選擇合作藝術家的時候-你總要清楚你對於公 眾有着重要的責任。

fits into the picture, and the diachronic refers the developments

在 英 國,這 是 一 個非常明 晰的關 係:泰 特 是 一 個 國家 美 術館,而 這

that suggest that to show Marlene Dumas at this point is right.

仔細 地考慮自己的 行為,而對 我 來 說 這 是 一 件好事,因為在面對 制

across time - historically, what are the historical developments

意味 著在 最後我們是 對全世界公眾負責的。這 意味 著,你需要非常

“When I am in China, I am always struck by the different ways in which people respond to art. One very positive thing is the belief which comes across from many people that contemporary art is meaningful, and it can actually make a difference. I would consider that to be a really important motivation. It would be far too easy to say that being an artist means that you are a painter and you produce very large paintings or very large sculptures and you become rich. It would be such a simplistic understanding of what the art world is, also of the way in which art impacts on people and seeing that people believe in the power of art is inspiring.” “在中國,我總是被人們對藝術的不同反饋而打動,其中一個非常積極的方面是許多人相信當代藝術是有意義的,是能改變世界的。我認為 那是當代藝術非常重要的動力來源。有時候人們太容易斷定藝術家創作大型繪畫或雕塑是為了並能夠變得富有,這是對藝術圈、藝術影響 力的一種粗淺認知。”


Guerrilla Girls , Do Women Have to be Naked to Get Into the Met. Museum? 1989 Copyright Š Guerrilla Girls, courtesy www.guerrillagirls.com.


We could unpack this a lot more, in terms of the way in which

museums work internationally and in London, by thinking about what chance we have got of actually making an exhibition that

約時你應當了解自己的責任,你真正地感受到了你對於公眾的責任, 而你也需要捍衛自己在進行的項目。

the public wants to see. Because if we do a really significant

這已經偏離了你的問題,但我經常想,當你在一個制度語境內為當代

make that connection between the art that we put on show and

主要角色是成 為藝 術家與 機構之間的聯繫,讓工作 項目變 得更 好。

exhibition of the artist and nobody is interested in it, if we can’t the section of the public that we hope will come to see it, then we have a problem. So for Dumas, we are really, really happy

that there are incredibly positive responses to the show. And sometimes we do some other exhibitions which are perhaps more difficult, where we know in advance that we will get a

much smaller number of people coming to see the exhibition,

but it’s still worth it, because of where the artist’s work fits at this moment in time and across time.

ART.ZIP: Do you see any limitations for an institutional curator? MD: I think for everybody who works in an institution there are

tremendous advantages and sometimes also disadvantages. As an individual, you need to make the decision whether that is

where you want to be, and whether that is what you want to do. In terms of the advantages, there are quite simply the resources, there are certain things you can do when working in an

institution that are very, very hard when working independently. When you are working independently, you have to spend a lot

of time trying to find partners and resources, the money for the next project. And when you do that, each of the partners you

藝 術工作時-無論是獨立於機構之外還是受雇於某機構-你的一 個 在面對制度要求時,你不能削弱或全盤否定一個項目,而需要捍衛來 自藝 術家的理 念、概 念以 及項目的實 施 過程,你也需要為藝 術家 進

行協調。他們在與你工作時也與你分擔了面對公眾的責任。在制度、 邊界以及限制內你如何能夠保證全面地實施藝術家的理念以及藝術 作品的潛力-這是一件非常有趣的事。

ART.ZIP:你是如何看待在泰特之中策展角色的演變的?

MD:我 想你 會 對 我們的新場館充滿興 趣的。因為,這 是我們 構思了 許久的計畫。在剛才,我討論了共時性和歷時性,而我們也要討論,

現在的藝 術世界之中究竟發生了甚麼?我們要考慮如何把當代 藝 術

世界之中發生的事件與藝 術史聯繫起 來,尤其是與 泰 特美 術館的館 藏 所 代 表的藝 術史聯繫 起 來 。我們現在正在目睹的,的確 是全 球化

的常態化 。在 幾年前 或 幾 十 年前,全 球化 是 讓 人 興奮的、新 鮮 的, 那時的我們也在 艱 難 地與之相抗 衡。在現在,無論 我們在討論甚麼 理 念,我們不可能不 把這個理 念 放 入全 球化的語境 之中去考慮。因

此,這 種常態化 是非常重 要的。歷 史 上,泰 特的建 立 是 一種非常重 要 的事件,而在今 天,在 建 立泰 特 新館之 時,我 們 意 識 到 泰 特 的 館 藏不足以 支 撐這個新館,因為我們的館藏非常集中地代 表了歐洲以

及北 美 藝 術。因此,稍帶 誇 張地 說,在 20 0 0 年之前,國 際 藝 術 意味

work with will have their own ideas, so you’ll find an institution saying ‘that’s a very good project, but can you do it more like

this?’ or somebody who sponsored the exhibition will want to

add their suggestions, so by the end of it your project is subject

to constraints, even when you’re working independently. I think people sometimes romanticize the work of the independent

curator in the same way that people romanticize the work of the

artist: the artist is somebody who is completely free from external influence and works in his or her studio. That is obviously not the

case, and it is not the case for an independent curator either. And for institutional curators of course, the institutional constraints

are, to some extent, a given, so there’s a certain continuity that makes it sometimes easier to develop new projects. We also

cannot forget the visibility, the resources and the responsibilities that come with working in a big institution. For me that is

something I think about every day, I think all my colleagues are the same, we know that we work for a museum that has a big

international standing and so when you make a decision about

“For me from the very beginning, art has always worked as two-way communication, or communication with many people, it is not just about a simple relationship between the owner of work of art and the use that they make of it, art has a much wider impact than that. In Europe, where art was used from the middle ages in churches, or from the nineteenth century onwards in public galleries and public places, there is a sense that art is meant to be seen by the people, you can see it for free, without having to own it, and that is really important, I think that’s really significant. ”

what to do, which artist to work with, you are always aware

“對我來說,藝術從一開始就是一個雙向溝通,又或是多人溝通。

the British case, it is a very clear relationship: Tate is a national

的影響力。在歐洲,中世紀時藝術在教堂裡出現,19世紀開始就在公

that you have the responsibility, in our case, to the people. In

museum, and that means we are ultimately responsible to the

public, to everyone. That means you need to think very carefully

藝術不是關於藝術品擁有者及其使用的簡單關係,藝術有比這更大 共畫廊和公共空間出現,因此我們可以看出藝術的本意就是讓人觀 看的,你不必擁有它,你可以免費欣賞它。這才是重要的。”


about which way you operate and I think largely that is a good

著歐 洲以 及北美藝 術。在 20 0 0年後,我們意識到,我們的知識體系

feel the responsibility to the people and you need to be able to

泰 特 美 術館新館開幕之時,我們 希望向 你 們呈現,全 球化的常態化

thing because when you are faced with constraints, you ought to defend the project.

This is not quite what your question started out as, but I often think that when you are working in an institutional context,

whether it’s a freelance or as an employee of the institution, one of your main roles in working with contemporary art is to be an

intermediary between the artist and the institution, with a view to making the project better. It is not to reduce the project or cut it

down in response to institutional demand, but it’s to defend the

有着許多需要彌補的不足,我們也需要為之付出許多努力。因此,在 是 如何發生的。我們想要包羅萬象,我們不會將 視 線 聚焦 於 任 何一

個 地區 。我 們不會 說:“看,這 是 一 個巴西藝 術家,噢,這 是多麼有 趣啊。”我們會關注一 位巴西藝 術家 是因為巴西藝 術家在 某個時期

帶來了最 具 影 響力的作品 。我們 也可能 會關注日本 藝 術家,中國藝 術家,因為他 們在 某個領域有着很高的成 就 。我們不會因異 域 風情

而歡 欣 鼓 舞,我們只因為事實上他們的作品很 重要而關注他們 。我

想,在1 5 年 前,我 們 大 量 地 在 討 論 有關 異 域 風情 的 慾 望;現 在,我 們在更多地考慮事實。

concept, the idea and the realization of the project from the artist

ART.ZIP:你是怎麼看待藝術家與策展人的關係的?

by working with you they share the responsibility to the public.

些展覽之時,藝術家已經不在人世了,所以你需要通過研究確保你能

to the institution. And you have to mediate with the artist, so that This is a very interesting aspect - how do you make sure the

vision of the artist and the potential of the artwork is realized to

the fullest in a particular context, where there are, as there always are, an apparatus, boundaries, and limits.

MD:我參與 過 歷 史性的展 覽-比如米羅(Miró)的展 覽-在 策 劃這 夠公正地、精確地以 及 正確地代 表這個藝 術家的創作生涯。在這個

框 架中,你可以自由地發揮你在策 展實踐中的好 奇心以 及 創造 力, 並嘗試以一種幫助理 解的方式呈現 這些作品,但 這種呈現 方式也必 須是嚴謹地、實在地與事實相聯繫的。

ART.ZIP: How do you perceive the evolution of curatorial roles

與當代 藝 術家工作則又 是另外一回事。因為藝 術家得以與你密切地

MD: I think you will be really interested to see what we do when

你必須清楚自己想要完成一 個甚麼樣的目標,以 及清楚甚麼是最 好

at Tate?

we open the new building. Before I talked about the synchronic

and the diachronic; in this context we are thinking about what is

going on in the art world right now. We are thinking how we can

溝通,他們的觀點就非常明顯了。作為一名策展人與藝術家協作時, 的工作 模 式 。對於 我 來 說,基於不同 的 語境,你 需 要嘗 試發 現不同 的、有效的工作方式。

connect what it is going on in the contemporary art world right

在理念層面,我的角色是要確保展覽理念盡可能地與藝 術家溝通清

Tate represents, throughout the collection. So what we are seeing

的委 託 項目中的藝 術創作是 如何發展的,等 等。藝 術家有着最 終決

now with the history of art, particularly with the history of art that now is really a normalization of globalization. Globalization a few years ago, a decade ago, was exciting and new and something we were struggling to get to terms with.

We are now in a situation that when we are talking about any

kind of idea, it is almost impossible to think about it as something where we don’t automatically take an international and planetary

楚,我在與藝 術家 進 行對話,來 討 論 他 們 的作品,特別是 他 們 在新

定權是一件很重要的事。所以,無論工作語境是雙年展、小型展覽、 公園內的公共空間、廣場、商場或 是 一 個停車 場的頂樓-無論你 在

甚麼環境中工作,你的工作職責都是與藝 術家進行溝通,協商,同時

也要與 所有外部因素相 協商。你需要 考慮 這 些關係 。你的工作 重心 是對所有由你帶領 至藝 術家的關係保 持意識,並關照這關係中的所 有其他關連者。

dimension into consideration. So normalization is very important.

這個關係中的另外一 件有趣的事是,當你在與一 個當代 藝 術家合作

modern and contemporary art, we realized our collection was

人都可能進入到一個危險的境地:策展人有一個展覽理念,而他嘗試

When Tate Modern opened as a museum of international

very much focused on European and North American art. So

before 2000 - this is a little bit of exaggeration, although it is still surprisingly accurate description of what we had before 2000 international art, meant European and North American. It was

after 2000 that we realized we had many gaps in our knowledge

的時候,你同樣在面對既有的藝 術作品 。我 知道在很多 情 況下策 展 從藝 術家的作品中尋找闡釋這個理 念的方法。對於 我 來說,這 是 一

個有關優先值的問題。如果你覺得自己有一個特別棒的點子,這個點 子本身幾乎就是个藝 術品,而你因此把別人的藝 術作品當作創作 材 料來使用-我不喜歡這種工作模式。我覺得這是一種不敬的做法。

that we needed to address and fill and we’ve worked hard on

我在 進 行 策 展工作時,我 希望發展一種 與藝 術家合 作的方式,以讓

show you how a normalization of globalization can happen. We

作 為一名策 展 人,如果我因為某個主 題嘗試 展出某件作品,而 藝 術

that. So when the new building opens, we really want to try and do not make a “special” case for it, we don’t say, “look, there’s a Brazilian artist, oh, that’s so exciting”. No, there is a Brazilian

藝 術家感到他們作品的重要獨特性得到尊重。因為這真的很重要。

家同意的原因是 想要在某個雙年展中出現,而並不是作品本來就俱 有這個含義。那是錯誤的,這不應該發生,我也認為很多藝術家不會


“A museum in particular is both a place of production of knowledge and the production of art, but also a place of dissemination and of making public the most contemporary knowledge, the newest kind of knowledge as well as more historical development. So we are always looking back at history and finding new paths through history. ” “博物館是一個知識生產和藝術生產的地方,也是向公眾傳播最當代的知識的地方,無論是最新的知識還是歷史發展知識。我們總是在回 顧歷史,並通過這樣的歷史回顧來尋找新的方向。”

artist because a Brazilian artist was making the most significant

認 可 這 種 事情。舉 例 說 明,我 覺得合 適 的 策 展 方 式 是:我有一 個 概

artists over there, because they were the ones who made the

我意識到我的概 念與他 們的作品不 符,我 就 應當承認我 是 錯的,我

work in that context. And we display Japanese artists, Chinese

most significant work in that area. Not because there is an exotic excitement about that, but because that is actually the fact. You

could also talk about it as the fact of globalization rather than the

desire of globalization. I think 15 years ago we were talking about something that was much more an exotic desire and now we are talking of something that is more of a fact.

ART.ZIP: What do you think of the relationship between artist and curator?

MD: I’ve worked with historic exhibitions, like the Miró

念,認為這三個藝術家是最合適的,然而隨著我的研究工作的進行, 應當修正我的概 念 。我 覺得這 是 正確的溝 通 和有意義的對話,你甚

至可能說這裡有着某種辯證的過程。即:我有一 個初步的想法,我去

徵 詢藝 術家的意見,測試我的初步想法,並意識到我的初步想法需 要修正。當我引入更多藝術家時,我的想法就更應再作適當調整。如 果我認為展 覽是以與藝 術家 對話或共同協作的過程為基 礎的,那麼

展覽的最 終呈現 則會體現 這種共同合作的過程。但如果我一開始就 確 定一種觀 點,然 後帶著這 種觀 點 和不同的藝 術家 對話,那麼展 覽 的呈現 和概 念也會發生 變化,因為他 們 都是 共同發展的。我認為這 是非常有意思的過程。

exhibition, where the artist is no longer alive, so you yourself,

ART.ZIP:在進行公眾拓展工作的時 候,作為一名策展 人,你是如何

work of the artist fairly, accurately and correctly. And then within

M D : 對 我 來 說 ,這 是 一 個 很 重 要 的 任 務 。這 可能 也 與 我 的 背 景有

through research, need to make sure that you represent the

that you can give rein to your curatorial curiosity and creativity,

and try to show the work in a way that helps the understanding

and experience of the work, but it needs to be tight, very solidly about facts.

When you are working with contemporary artists, the situation is very different, because the artist is there, and you work in partnership with them. As a curator working in partnership

with an artist, you really need to think about what the project

is, what you are really trying to achieve, and how you can best

achieve that. So for me, depending on the context in which you work, you will need to find different ways of helping the project become realized. On a conceptual level, my role is to make sure

幫助觀眾理解藝術作品的?

關-我供職 於 泰 特 美 術館的公共項目部門 。對 我 來 說,與公眾溝 通 是非常重要的工作。我覺得公眾在藝 術體 驗的多 個層面中扮演的角 色非常重 要。在 某 種 層面,你可以嘗試 進 行互 動或參與性藝 術 實踐 的“ 極 端 化”,以 鼓 勵 公眾積 極 地參與 進 藝 術 創作以 及藝 術 實 現 之

中來。但我覺得我們不需要那麼極端,因為公眾的角色在所有項目中

都是同樣 重要的。策 展 人的部份工作包括為展 覽-作為一 個有機體 的展覽-與公眾的流暢溝通去設計空間、提供信息、標簽、文字以及

進行其他能夠創造 展 覽體 驗的工作。一方面你需要創造關於單一 作

品的經驗,這一般是由藝術家決定的。藝術家會有一些想法,比如:

“我 創作了一幅畫,我們把它掛在牆上,你來看。”就算是 這 麼直接

的一 個 過程,也可以以許多的不同方式 來 進 行 經 驗 構建 。在 更 廣 大 的層面來說,我也要考慮一個展覽中的眾多方面共同帶來的經驗。

the exhibition project is as clearly communicated to the artist as

A R T. Z I P : 泰 特 美 術 館 在 通 過 甚 麼 方 式 改 變 其 館 藏 的 性 別 不 平 等

about their work and, particularly in a new commission, how that

MD:或許可以從一件軼事說起:2006年我在泰特工作的第一個月,我

possible and that there is a dialogue between me and the artist

work is developed. The artist obviously has to have the final say,

that is very important. So your role is very much about engaging

in conversation and negotiating with the artist, while at the same

問題?

和美國的行動主義團體游擊隊女孩(Guerrilla Girls)一起合作。我 們當時把工作坊稱為“Master

class”,而她們建議改為“Mistress

Class”,或者就簡單的“ Work shop”。這樣 俱有性別色彩的語言在


time it is about negotiating with all the external factors, whether

in which the exhibition as an organism communicates with the

or as a work that appears in public, somewhere in a park, in a

way that language provides information, through labels and texts,

you are making the work for a biennale, or for a small exhibition,

square, in a shopping centre or the top floor of a car park, it could be anywhere. You need to think about the relationships. So it is

very much about becoming aware of multiple relationships that you channel between the artist and all the other stakeholders in this relationship.

There is another really interesting aspect to the relationship when you are working with a contemporary artist, but you are working with pre-existing work. I think there are different approaches

where sometimes the curator can be in danger of having an idea or a concept for an exhibition and they look to artists for ways

of exemplifying their concepts. So for me there is a question of

audience it is about the way you design spaces, it is about the

and other ways of making the experience of the works of art and the exhibition itself part of the curatorial work. So on one hand you have the experience of the individual work of art, which is

normally determined by the artist. It sets certain parameters; for

example the artist will have an idea of how that should be done,

it could be in the most general terms that ‘I made a painting and

we hang it on the wall, you look at it’. But even with this very basic example, there are many different ways in which that experience could be structured. And then on a bigger scale there is the

question of the experience of the exhibition as a whole, with all the other dimensions to it.

priorities there. If you have such a strong idea that you practically

ART.ZIP: What steps is Tate Modern making to address the

your raw material, I don’t like that. I think that is not respectful to

MD: I should start with an anecdote: the first month I worked at

think your idea is a work of art and you use artworks almost as the artwork or the artist.

I am keen on developing a way of working with the artist, where

the artist feels the particularity and significance of their artwork is respected. Say I select three artists as the most significant ones in

relation to a curatorial concept but the more I study their work, the more I realize that my concept doesn’t quite fit, then my concept is wrong, and I need to adjust it. You could almost think of it as a

kind of dialectical process. I have an initial idea, I go to artists, test

my initial idea and I realize my idea needs to change. I bring more artists in, and then my concept needs to constantly tweak a little

gender imbalance of their collection?

Tate was in 2006, and I worked with the American activist group

the Guerilla Girls. We had called their workshop a master class and they suggested either to call it, provocatively, a “Mistress Class”

or simply a “workshop”. It is quite surprising how prevalent such

gendered language is and how it corresponded, even as recently as 2006, to gender biases in the art collection itself. The fact is, over the last few years, we have tried to address this, we are

trying to address this in a way without making a song and dance about it. We want to promote women artists, we want to make exhibitions with really good artists and we hope that we can

achieve a much better balance. And while, for example, last year,

more. So if I think about the way in which an exhibition comes

we had Malevich, Matisse, Polke, all men, this year it is all women,

realize that by the time the exhibition opens, it is the exhibition

coming up, you don’t have to have balance at every point, but it

together in the process of discussing and working with artists, I and concept that has emerged out of the process of working

together. If I started from the same initial idea the following day

we’ve got Dumas, we’ve got Agnes Martin and Barbara Hepworth needs to work out over time.

and talked to different artists, the exhibition and concept would

end up being different, because they are mutually co-developed. I think that is a really interesting process.

ART.ZIP: In terms of audience development what do you do as a curator to help audiences to understand the work?

MD: Due to my own background, because I come through the

20 06年就如此常見,以 及大家對此作出的反應,還有藝 術收藏上的

important. I think the way in which the public has a role to play

要證明我們並沒有“重男輕女”,但我們不會採用大張旗鼓的方式來

public programmes team of Tate, working with the public is really in the experience of art is absolutely essential and that happens

on many different levels. To some extent you could talk about the expectations of interactive or participatory art practice where the

audience are actively involved in the making of art, the realization of the art, but I think we don’t have to go to that extreme,

because it is equally significant in all projects. In terms of the way

性 別問題 都 讓 我 感 到驚訝。事實上,在 過去 幾年 裡,我 們 不斷 地 想 強調 。我們想要 推 廣女性藝 術家,我們努力和優 秀藝 術家一起合作 辦展,我們希望能取得更 好的平衡。舉 個例子,去年,我們的展覽有

馬列維奇(Melevich)、馬蒂斯(Matisse)、波克(Polke),全部都是男 性藝 術家。今 年都是 女性藝 術家,有杜 馬斯(Dumas)、艾尼斯·馬丁

(Anges Martin)、芭芭拉·海衛夫(Barbara Hepworth)。我們需要長 時間地去調整達到平衡,但不需要所有的事情都那麼強調。


CONSTRUCTING ART INTERVIEW WITH HUANG DU 對藝術本質的干預 專訪策展人黃篤

INTERVIEWED AND TRANSLATED BY 採訪及翻譯 x BOWEN LI 李博文 EDITED BY 採訪整理 x KE QIWEN 柯淇雯 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x HUANG DU 黃篤


Huang Du is an independent curator who lives and works in

Beijing, P.R. China. In 1988 he got his bachelor’s degree in history

of art from Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA) in Beijing. During 1991 and 1992, he studied history of art in Bologna University, Italy. In 2004 he received his Ph.D in Science of Fine Arts from

CAFA, Beijing, China. In 2006 he completed his Post-Ph.D research in Academy of Fine Arts of Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

From 1988 to 2001 he worked as an editor for Fine Arts (Mei

Shu) Magazine. Huang Du has published numerous critical

articles and essays on contemporary art, mostly on magazines and catalogues in countries including China, Japan, Korea,

Netherlands, Australia, Spain, Britain and others. As a speaker and jury member, he was invited to participate in many important international art symposiums and art awards of CCAA, Credit

Suisse Today Art Award 2010-2012 and Nissan Art Award 2013. -----

黃 篤,獨 立 策 展 人 。現 生 活 和 工作 於 北 京 。1 9 8 8 年 畢業 於 中 央 美

術 學 院 美 術史 系 。1 9 91-1 9 9 2 年 在 意 大 利 博 洛尼 亞 大 學 學 習藝 術 史。2004年獲中央美術學院美術學博士學位。2006年完成清華大學

美術學院博士後。1988年至2001年任《美術》雜誌編輯和副編審。

黃篤撰寫了許多當代藝術的評論文章,多發表於中國、日本、韓國、 荷蘭、澳 大利亞和英國等國的雜 誌 和圖錄 。他 還曾參加許多國際當 代藝 術研討會,並擔任多個國際藝 術獎項評委:如CCA A獎、瑞信- 今日藝術獎、臺新藝術獎、日本尼桑藝術大獎和藝術8獎等。

ART.ZIP: You have discussed the role of the curator frequently. On one occasion you mentioned Klaus Biesenbach’s – chief curator at large at the MOMA, director of MOMA PS1 –

background as a doctor, and Yuko Hasegawa’s – chief curator

of Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo – education in law. This

professional-versus-the-amateur problem is related certainly to the apparently simple but quite subtle question of interiority and exteriority. Bernard Stiegler’s recent talk in China also

involved this, the idea of the amateur – not to mention also

that this important philosopher was once a bank robber. But

artist-curator is perhaps more peculiar an identity. An artist is

in the art world, by definition, but stays from the curator in an

unique, dynamic and sometimes tense relationship. But before discussing your own practice, and the identity of the artist-

curator, I would like to first ask you to share with us your view of the current situation of the curator in China today.

HD: It is rather complex, the present situation of the curator in China. The whole of China, with all its politics, economy, and

culture is still in a time of substantial transition. Naturally, the

structure of the curatorial is effected. The curators of the older

generation have accomplished their historical missions, finished really important tasks. I think, the mission of the curatorial

practices in the 80s and the 90s are basically finished. In the new


millennium, with the popularization of the education of the

ART.ZIP:您在過往經常討論策展人身份的問題。您提到美國MOMA策

there is a great distance between the two, or one is better than

長谷川佑子(Yuko Hasegawa)是學法律出身的。這個問題與“專業”

curatorial, new curators emerge. But this does not mean that

another, that is not what I meant. I am pointing out that, with the social restructuring, there is a discursive change in the structure of the curatorial practice as well. The curatorial experience is of

course linked to the change in society. For instance, the so-called older generation, including Li Xianting, Gao Minglu and their

groundbreaking ‘89 exhibition – an important conclusion of the

art of the 80s. At that time, curatorial practices were very different; they mostly curate as critics or theorists.

I also think that, the later practices of this generation were still

to a greater extent related to the experience of the 80s. Curators like Fei Dawei and Hou Hanrou, on the other hand, with their overseas experiences, somehow distanced themselves and

their experiences from the domestic situation. They have the

international perspectives, and a good grasp of global culture,

politics and theories. But their positions also posed a big problem: from the end of the 80s to the end of the 90s, in this decade,

the decade of post-colonialism, when people used immigration culture, heterogeneity, the identity of the other or the idea of

difference to resist Eurocentrism, artists like Huang Yongping,

展人克勞斯·畢森巴赫(Klaus Biesenbach)是外科醫生出身;您提到

與“業余”這個貌似簡單但是實則深邃的問題是有關的——或“內部”

與“外部”起源的問題。最近貝爾納·斯蒂格勒(Bernard Stiegler)來 到中國美術學院做講座,其中一個主題便與這個問題有關(更不要提

這位重要的哲學家本身曾經因為持械搶劫入獄)。但藝術家策展人這 個身份特別有趣:本身是行業的一部分,但是與策展人身份有著獨特

的、有動態張力的距離與關係。作為一名資深策展人,您是怎麼看自己 的工作、身份的?

H D :目前 策 展 人在 中 國 當 下 的 狀 況 比 較 復 雜 。整 個 中 國 社 會 的 政 治、經濟以及文化仍然處在一個變革的時期。那麼,策展結構也在發 生巨 變。老 一 代 的 策 展 人 完 成了自身的歷 史使 命,完 成了很 重 要的

工作。8 0年代甚至9 0年代的策 展實踐的使命,我認為,已經基 本上

完成了。進入新的千年之後,隨著在藝 術院校中策展教育的普及,新 一代的策展人已經出現了。但這並不是說兩者之間有著嚴格的距離,

評 價 誰比誰 好,我 並 沒有這樣 的意 思 。我 所要 指出的是,隨 著社會 結構的變化,在 策 展實踐的結構之中發生了話語的變化 。策 展 經 驗

與社會轉 變 是有關的。比如說,我們稱 為國內老一輩策 展 人 如栗 憲

庭、高名潞,比如說由他 們策 劃的89大 展 ——對8 0年代 藝 術的很 重 要的總結。在那個時期,策展實踐非常不同,他們更多地以評論家或 理論家的角色進行策展實踐。

Chen Zhen, Cai Guoqiang and Xu Bing among many others

我也認為他 們後 期 策 劃的展 覽在 某程 度 上仍然 是 大 量地 與 8 0 年代

group of artists is dimming. This, on the other hand, is related

自身的經驗好像與國內的現實有著一些距離。他們有著國際性的視

were powerfully presented. But, the historical significance of this to the global change. That is, it is not only a change within the

European, American society, but is also a global transition. The

rise of the BRICs in the new millennium has changed the global economic, political order, also the cultural order. Therefore, the art that is dependent upon post-colonial culture and theory is

dimming as well. This is a structural change in the society. The latest situation that is happening in recent years is, there has been a rise of young curators with art history background or

artistic practice background – Qiu Zhijie is at once an artist and a curator; He Guiyan, Lu Yinghua, Fu Xiaodong, Bao Dong and Cui

Can Can studied art history. They are energetic, active, motivating young and new art, especially the artists born in late 70s or the 80s. This is the general situation of the curator in China.

ART.ZIP: In a conclusive statement as such, there is already a very interesting proposition: curator is therefore considered

的經 驗有關的。再比如說費大為、侯瀚如,他們移居到了海外,他們 野,有著對全球文化、政治以及理論的一個比較親近的把握。但是也 有一 個很大的問題:80年代後 期至90年代後 期 ——即後殖民主義盛

行的時期 ——這十年內,當人們用移民文化 、混 雜 性、他者或者差異 性來抵抗歐洲中心主義的時候,藝 術家黃永砯、陳箴、蔡國強、徐冰

等 等被很 好地推出。但 是 這一群人的歷史使命也走向了一種式 微的

狀態。這是伴隨著歐美社會的轉型發生的,也就是說,這不僅僅是歐 美 社會自身內部的轉型,而且 是 全 球化的轉型 。新 千年以後 金磚國 家的崛起改變了全球經濟政治秩序,同時也改變了文化秩序。因此,

依托於後 殖民文化以 及理論的藝 術也出現了一種 微弱的狀 態。這 是

一種社會結構的變化 。最近幾年的新變化是,一 些年 輕 策展 人的崛 起,他 們 有 藝 術史出身的,也有 藝 術 實 踐 背景 的 —— 邱 志 傑 同 時 是 藝 術家和策展人;學習藝 術史出身的有何桂彥、盧迎華、付曉東、鮑 棟、崔燦燦等等。他們充滿活力,帶動了年輕的藝 術,尤其是70年代

後期到80年代生人的新崛起的藝 術力量。這是目前中國策展實踐的 大概狀況。

a motivating force, not a force that follows; a curator leads,

ART.ZIP:在這樣的總括性話語裏面,已經出現了非常有趣的描述:策

retrospectively after its happening.

物,而不是簡單地、於事件之後對事件進行描述以及回顧的角色。

and does not simply or only conclude or assess the event

HD: I do think that curatorial practices should not only follow, but should indeed lead and look forward. Harald Szeemann,

for instance, curated the Live in Your Head: When Attitudes

Become Form in 1969; Jean-Hubert Martin curated Magiciens

展人被視作是帶動性的力量,而不是跟隨性的力量,被視作是領軍人 HD:我 覺得策 展 實踐 的確不是 跟 風的事情,是需要去帶 領,需要 有

前瞻性的。比如說哈羅德·史澤曼(Har ald S ze e mann)在1969年 策劃的《活在腦海中:當態度變為形式(L i v e in Yo ur H e a d: W h e n A t t i t u d e s B e c o m e F o r m)》;讓-於貝爾·馬爾丹(Jean-Huber t


de la terre in 1989; Achille Bonito Oliva and the Transavantgarde

Mar tin)在1989年的《大地魔術師(Magiciens de la terre)》展

phenomena are supported by theories or other foundations.

動” (Transavantgarde)等等。這些例子有著借鑒意義。所以藝 術

movement etc. – these are all very meaningful examples. So artistic Martin critiqued Eurocentrism; Oliva attempted finding force

unique to Italian art, traveling in time and space, integrating his

understanding of the Italian poetics, by looking back to medieval

Italian art. These are the instances where the curators utilized their sharp thinking. Other examples include the rise of Japanese Gutai, Mono-ha, and the rise of Monochrome in South Korea, et cetera.

覽,阿基萊·伯尼托·奧利瓦(Achille Bonito Oliva)與“超前衛運 現象都是由理 論或 別的根基作支 撐的。馬爾丹《 大 地 魔 術師》是 對

西方中心主義的批判;奧利瓦嘗試回歸到意大利中世 紀 藝 術之中去 尋找獨特的意大利藝 術的能 量,以穿越傳 統 和當代的時空,以融 入

他對於意大利詩學的理解。這些都是策展人有著敏感思想的例子。 再比如日本的“具體派” (Gutai), “物派” (Mono -ha)的崛起,韓 國的單色潮流(Monochrome)等等。

In China, for either constructing artistic phenomena or for

在中國,無論是 架構 藝 術現象還 是 提出具有思想性的潮流,我們 都

theoretical foundations and from art historical or genealogical

能 僅 憑 對藝 術作品的直 覺做判斷。直 覺固然重要,但 理性中的邏 輯

proposing meaningful intellectual trends, we need supports from foundations. Otherwise, we will not be able to determine the axis

of art, because intuition alone will not suffice. Intuition is certainly important, but reasonable, logical deduction and judgement are

necessities. This is related to the whole cultural system, genealogy

of knowledge, including thinking, context, such as Chinese history and the structure of Chinese culture. So, Chinese curators have to have wide perspective, and solid foundation of knowledge,

such as art history, politics and sociology, to be able to put art in a large structure and investigate it, and not just reading art in its

own limited, narrow realm. Only in such a way can a deep reading of art be meaningful, can one start to understand the happening and production of art. For instance, the the birth of Mono-ha is

closed connected to the post-war development of Japan in the late 60s. This is very much similar to the development in China in recent years, with events such as the Beijing Olympics and

the Shanghai World Expo etc. Japanese culture was following blindly European and American culture, so the emergence of

需要理 論基 礎 和藝 術史譜系的支 撐,否則無法判斷藝 術的坐標,不 推理和判斷更是必不可少的,這就聯系到文化系統、知識譜系,包括

思想、上下文關系,比如中國歷史以及中國文化的結構。所以中國策 展人需要具備開闊的視野和知識的基礎,如藝術史、政治學、社會學

等各方面,把藝 術放在大的結構下審視而不是孤立在視覺藝 術的狹 隘 範 疇,這樣才能 深度 解 讀 藝 術,對 藝 術 發生,生 產 方式 有本質的

理 解 。舉 個 例 子,6 0 年代 後 期日本“ 物 派”的產 生和戰 後 經 濟發展

密不可分,這和中國前幾年經濟高速發展很類似,如奧運會、世博會 等。當時日本文化盲從歐美文化, “物派”的出現在某種意義上是對

應歐美文化提出了日本的方式,使藝術重新回歸日本美學與哲學,如 日本哲學家西田幾多郎(Kitaro Nishida)的哲學還有禪宗思想等。

所以有人認為“物派”和意大利“貧窮藝 術”,美國“極簡主義”很相 似,但仔細解讀就會發現“物派”有其獨特的美學趣味。若把“貧窮

藝 術”理解成社會學意義的貧窮藝 術, “極簡主義”理解成絕對的形 式主義,你 會發 現“ 物派”恰恰不同,它強調的是物的自然性、狀 態 及關系,這與禪宗、寺院 和園藝空間,還有神道教密不可分。若策展 人將藝術放入結構中理解其本質,可能更加深入、精微一些。

Mono-ha was in a way the Japanese response to the Western

ART. ZIP:我 們本次專題源 於一 位藝 術家 策展 人 對傳 統策展 人 身份

unique to Japan, such as the philosophy of Ktaro Nishida and Zen

HD:我想藝 術家 策展人對傳統意義的策展人的不滿,就如同批評和

culture, bringing art back to an aesthetics and philosophy that is

Buddhist philosophy, et cetera. So, though some people consider

Mono-ha similar to Italian Arte Povera, American Minimalism, after a close reading one will realize that Mono-ha has a really unique aesthetics and taste. If Arte Povera could be understood as very

much sociological, Minimalism as absolute formalism, Mono-ha is very different, in that it stresses the natural materiality, state and relations of things, inseparable from Zen Buddhism, the spaces

的質疑。她認為傳統策展人不能對藝術作品施以正義,您怎麼看?

藝 術家、機構、策 展也永遠 是“ 敵 人”,那麼策 展 人和藝 術家也永遠

不可能是共同體,所以從 某種意義上來說 策展人對藝 術家而言也是

一 個“ 敵 人”—— 敵 對關系,因為策 展沒有絕 對的公正和正義 。策 展

人如同導演,一部電影不可能令所有人滿意,所有的角色不可能同等 重要。所以一 個展覽總有主次之分,像威尼斯雙年展,藝術家們不可 能有同等的空間和重要的位置。

of temple and garden, and Shintoism. A curator could go deeper

實際上某些策展也是權力話語的體現,當然我們有時會批判這種權

understand it from there.

個權力、職責,至於這個權力的使用是否客觀與公正就另當別論了。

and more accurate, putting art back to its structure and try to

ART.ZIP: The feature of the issue is inspired by an artist-curator’s dissatisfaction regarding the curator. She thinks that curator as such cannot do justice to artworks. What do you think?

HD: I think that artist-curator’s dissatisfaction regarding curator as

it is known today, is not unlike the fact that critic, artist, institution

力話語,但 這個社會必 然存 在這樣的藝 術系統,必 然 賦予策 展 人 這 因 為個 體 都 有自己 的愛 好、趣 味、審 美 判 斷,那自然 無 法 滿 足 所有

人。哪怕是裏程碑意義的展覽也無法避免批判的聲音,如當年的《大 地魔術師》,很多人都認為策展人把非藝術的東西引進來,導致展覽 不成體統。這背後實際上就是個權力話語的鬥爭。


and curator are all enemies to each other. Curator and artist

我個人認為,傳統策 展 人和藝 術家 策 展 人在判斷力和視 野上有不同

enemy – antagonistic, because there is no absolute fairness and

比如:對作品 細 微 處 的 解 讀、敏 銳的感 悟、藝 術 生 產 過程中對 材料

can never be a unity, so in a certain sense curator is the artist’s

justice in an exhibition. A curator is in a way like a director; a film

cannot satisfy everybody, and roles cannot be equally important. So there has to be order in an exhibition. Venice Biennale for

example, cannot grant every artist the same amount of space, and equally important position.

In fact, some curatorial practices are manifestations of power

discourses. Of course, we criticize this power discourse at work,

but this sort of system of art is necessary in the society. Curator’s power and responsibilities are granted, given; whether they are

的地方:藝 術家 策展人的優勢更多體現在對藝 術主體有自我判斷,

和空間的把握等。當然也有局限性,他們容易過度強調藝 術主體,產 生個人偏愛。相較而言,傳統策展人能更能從宏觀與微觀,整體與局 部兩個方面辨證地把握 展覽方向,即將藝 術潮流納入文化發展的結

構中,具有藝術發展的前瞻性。這可能是兩者微妙的區別。當然兩者 本質的區別還可能是在形而上或是形而下的問題了。傳統策 展 人思 想性,理論性更強些,思考社會學、政治學、跨學科問題可能更深入

些;藝 術家 策 展 人可能 更關註物質性和藝 術本身。說到權 力爭鬥的 話,藝 術家策展人也有自己的愛好,這實際上也是一種權力遊戲,並 不說藝術家當了策展人就沒有權力了,這是同等的。

in good use or not is another question. Every individual has his/

藝 術 家 策 展 人有一 段 時 期 很 盛 行,大 概 是 9 0 年 代 後 期 到 2 0 0 0 年

no exhibition could be perfect. Monumental exhibitions are

埃爾·奧羅斯科(Gab r ie l O rozco)、莫瑞吉奧·卡特蘭(Maurizio

her own preference, taste, aesthetic judgement, so naturally

criticized as well, such as the Magiciens de la terre. A lot of

people though the curator brought in an excess of non-art objects, and made it improperly. Beneath this was in fact a struggle of power discourses.

Personally, I think that curator and artist-curator are different in terms of judgement and perspective: artist-curators excel in judging the artistic subject: attention to details, sharp

初 。在 這 個 近 十 年 間 多人 都 策 過 展 ,如 著 名 墨 西 哥 藝 術 家 加 布 裏

C a t t e l a n)、蔡 國 強 還 有 邱 誌 傑 。當 卡 特 蘭 策 劃 柏 林 雙 年 展 時, 他 與 意 大 利 專 業 策 展 人 馬 西 米 利 亞 諾·吉 奧 尼( M a s s i m i l i a n o

Gioni)合 作,而不是單獨策 展,這 種 做 法相當聰明 。那個時期的美

國 也很 有 很 多 藝 術 家 進 行 策 展 實 踐 。但 是我 認 為 藝 術 家 策 展 人非 常有活 力,但 並 沒有產 生 深 遠 的影 響,這 是事實,與 專 業 策 展 人相 比較,他 們在理 論 和思想高度 上要欠 點 。這可以從 近 二十年的文 獻 展、雙年展的實踐 經 驗中得到證明。

understanding, brilliant grasp of the material and the space in

說到“外行”策展人,比如外科醫生出身的畢森巴赫創立了柏林雙年

they easily pay too much attention to the artistic subject and rely

接受 過專業訓 練,但我 相信 德國有紮 實的美 術 教育基 礎,自小的藝

the production of art, et cetera. But they are also limited, in that heavily on personal preference. Relatively, curator could better balance the dialectics of the micro and the macro, the whole and the part of an exhibition, assimilating the trends into the

structure of the cultural development, and can effectively lead

the development. There is a fine line between the two really. But

it could also be the difference between the metaphysical and the

展等重 要 機構,現在他 是 紐 約MOM A以 及PS1的主 理 。雖 然他 並 未 術環境培育了他極 好的美學感知。另外 長谷川佑子之前也是學法律 的,所以並不是只有專業出身才能成為策展人。人人都具備潛質,但

其中的尺 度 還 是要 把握的。所謂尺 度就在 於 策 展 人的能力,不光是 知識,如何籌集資金、與政府建立關系、與機構溝通、如何樹立權威 性等,所以策展是一個整體性的社會工程。

physical in nature. Curators are stronger in terms of the thinking

ART.ZIP:甚至我們可以將策展人身份和某種姐妹藝術門類作比較,

cross-disciplinary problems; artist-curators perhaps care more

HD:其實某種意義上策展人有點像導演,這個比喻不一定準,尤其在

and the theorization, thinking deeper in sociology, politics and

about materiality and the the art itself. Regarding power struggle, artist-curators have their own preferences as well, so in fact

is caught in another power game. It is not that an artist, after

becoming a curator, is not equipped with power. It is equal in this aspect.

比如說電影制作人或者說導演兼制作人這樣一個身份。

功能上,但僅做個比喻而已。因為從特點上:招募演員,從比喻的角

度 演 員就 是 藝 術家;籌 集 資 金,寫預 算計劃書;找 拍攝 場 地 如 同美 術 館或 其他空間,過 程 很相 似,只 是功 能不 一樣 。電 影 必 然 是 大 眾

化的,多半緊扣票房,商業性影響很 大;藝 術,尤其是嚴 肅的策展實 踐,更多還是非商業化的,如雙年展、文獻展和很多學術性展覽等。

Artist-curator was a very trendy idea from the late 90s to the

A RT. ZIP:近 幾年來開始出現了一 些“ 超 級 策 展 人”或者“ 明星策 展

curated shows, such as the famed Gabriel Orozco, Maurizio

卻有大量曝光率,展覽的焦點就是他們自身而不是某位或某幾位藝

beginning of the new century. In this decade many artists have Cattelan, Cai Guoqiang and Qiu Zhijie. When Cattelan was

working on the Berlin Biennial, he collaborated with Italian

curator Massimiliano Gioni, which is very smart. At that time, many artists in the United States also were focusing on

人”,對於策展人身份,您覺得這是個問題嗎?比如說不是專業出身, 術家。

HD:這就 涉及到策 展 人本身的角色 和他的影 響。我將策 展 人分三種 類型:一種是超級策展人,只要他一出現,這個展覽只談策展人,突

出策 展 人的思想,藝 術家只 是配角;另一種 是和藝 術家協商的策 展


张洹,裝置《创世纪》


2007《首届今日文献展》现场及王晋雕塑“骨”


developing curatorial practices. I think artist-curator has a unique

人,在這裏,策展 人和藝 術家是平等關系,他們通 過“共謀”實現了

with professional curators, artist-curators are lacking in degree

作品為核心 。現在的雙年展 都 希望物色有巨大影 響力的“ 明星或超

vitality, but has not been immensely influential in fact. Compared the theoretical and the intellectual. This is also proved by the Documentas and biennales in the last two decades.

Speaking of “amateur curators”, one example is, as we have already mentioned, Klaus Biesenbach who established the

Berlin Biennial, and is at the moment leading MOMA and PS1.

Although he was not professionally trained, I believe the German

展 覽的某種平 衡;最後一種 是突出藝 術家的策 展 人,展 覽以藝 術家 級”人物,這似乎和品牌營銷很像,必須保 持影 響力。這就 是我提到 的第一種 類 型,實際上策展人權力更大了,有點太像電影導演。但我 認為最重要的還 是展覽的構建,不管是在藝 術系統還 是社會學裏,

展 覽 是 否能引發 我們思考,是 否在我們的經 驗 之 外,是 否能 觸 動我 們的神經。如今有許許多多的展覽,很多看完我們都會感到失望,這 現象值得當下的策展人深思。

education system has granted him a friendly art environment in

ART.ZIP:另外還有一種學術策展人,比如說哲學家博裏斯·葛羅伊斯

Yuko Hasegawa was previously in law, also; so it is not that only

有考慮進 入當代 藝 術圈,汪民安最 近也將 在上海策 劃展 覽 。他們都

which he was able to develop a brilliant aesthetic perception.

those professionally trained could become a curator. Everybody

has the potential to be one, but there are of course standards to

meet. The standards mean the abilities of the curators: the ability of knowledge, of fundraising, of establishing relationships with

the authorities, institutions, and that of establishing one’s self et cetera. So curating is really a comprehensive, social job.

ART.ZIP: We perhaps can even compare the role of the curator with those found in sister arts, such as the role of the film producer, or director.

HD: In a way, yes, curators are like directors. It is not a very

precise analogy, but regarding each role’s functions, it works. Casting – inviting artists to participate; fundraising, writing

exhibition proposals; locating space for shooting, locating space for exhibition in museum or other venues… the processes are similar, they just function differently. Film industry has to be

populist, closely related to box office, commercially influential; art, on the other hand, especially those managed by serious

curatorial practices, is still to a large extent non-commercial.

This includes biennial, documenta and many other academic exhibitions etc.

ART.ZIP: In recent years, also emerging are concepts such as “super-curator” or “celebrity curator”. Do you consider this

problematic? Many labeled this way were not professionally

(Boris Groys)之前在中國策展,齊澤克(Slavoj Zizek)目前也

是 從 哲學或 文學批評背景出身,已在自己的專業領域 工作了幾十年 後開始策展實踐,您怎麼看這樣的身份轉變?

HD:策展是一項開放的工作,但它也是一項復雜的社會/文化工程。 策 展 的 工作 有 很 多 微 妙 的 地 方,我 們 今 天 談 到了很 多 偉 大 的 哲學

家,思 想 家,他 們 的 策 展 在 解 釋上都 非常 清 楚 到位,比如 法國哲學 家讓-弗朗索瓦·利奧塔(Jean Francois Lyotard)就曾在蓬皮杜策 過 展。但學 術型 策 展 人 對藝 術本身的把 握有些許局限,因為除了思

想和理論的解讀外,策展工作不僅需要解讀藝術本體的語言/觀念邏

輯及其關系,還涉及到對作品與空間、作品與作品、作品與語境的關 系巧妙處理,這很微妙:如何在空間內把展覽的安排合理有趣,甚至

讓人驚喜,是對策展的考驗。展覽不光只是寫篇好文章,也需要考慮

如何達到展 覽預 期的視 覺 效 果,從而給人很多啟發 性的東西。這裏 我想做一 個簡單比喻,如果把美 術館(或其他空間)比作身體,那麽

藝 術 作品 被比作 衣 服,怎樣 合 理 搭配 就 檢 測 著(策 展 )人的品味 或

(判斷)智慧。因此,一件作品放在不同位置的效果是截然不同的, 這使 得對藝 術作品的解讀會發生 變化,好比穿衣搭配,顏色搭配不 同導致了視 覺 效 果,從而導致 對東西的理 解 和品味的變化 。所以學

術策展人不一定能 解讀到作品在空間中的微 妙之處,尤其是空間的 關系,比 如 作 品 是 安排 在 墻角、空中、中間 還 是和 其他 作 品 產 生呼

應,這 是 一種 經 驗 之 談,很 難 描述,因 為 不同空間有不同的應 對方 法。就像拍一部影片,最失敗的做法是照搬模式,不斷的更新和應對

才是正解。倘若將北京尤倫斯藝 術中心(UCC A)的展覽突然轉移到 紐約現代藝術博物館(Museum of Modern Ar t)展出,這會是一項 很大的挑戰,不是作品往那一堆就可以了。

trained, but are very much exposed to medias and press as the

2003年我受邀出席了東京森美術館(Mori Ar t Museum)以“幸福”

HD: Again, it is a question of the role of the curator and his/

和皮耶·魯奇·塔基(Pier Luigi Taz zi)共同策劃,此次展覽讓我印

focus of an exhibition.

her influence. I think there are at least three types of curators: super-curator, who immediately becomes the focus of any

exhibition, with artworks and artists supporting his ideas by ways of illustration; the second kind of curators work in parallel with

the artists, with their relationships more marked by an equality. Through a “conspiracy” they get to realize a certain balance;

the last kind of curators pushes the artists to the foreground, with the exhibition revolving around the artworks. Biennials

(Happiness)為主題的開館展覽,由戴維·艾略特(David Elliott)

象深刻。在其中一間展廳裏擺放著傑夫·昆斯(J e f f K o o n s )作品

《熊和警察(Bear and Policeman, 1988)》,熊摟著警察,警察

看向熊;正 對面是 一 件北 朝鮮的石膏雕 塑作品,女子 手 捧土豆在 微 笑;而背後是一張小尺寸油畫作品,主題是北朝鮮人在稱土豆。這立 刻折射出一種關系——幸福的相對性:資本主義高度發達下美國幽默

的幸福觀 和北 朝鮮為了生存而出現的虛假的幸福觀 。作品間傳遞出 很微 妙的信息,專 業的策 展 總是能引發 很多的聯 想和思考。當然 不

是說反對 哲學背景的人 進 入 策 展 行業,我在嘗試 尋找,如何將 視 覺


today tend to secure a “super-curator” or “celebrity-curator”, in

藝 術的內在性充分展現出來,使 人 產 生 思考的 價值,而不是簡單的

influences. This is the first type at work; in fact a lot of curators

和諧,是否能建立有機的聯系,是否能產生有效的對話。從理論上說

a way that is perhaps not unlike branding, trying to maintain

are very powerful, a bit too much like a director. But I think the

most important thing is still the construction of the exhibition:

堆砌,需要考慮作品的輕重、大小、強弱、緩急,是否互相幹擾,是否 起來很容易,但實踐過程中需要相當豐富的經驗。

whether or not an exhibition can be inspiring, can be exterior to

ART.ZIP:在全球範圍內您有在關注什麼策展實踐的運動或潮流嗎?

the sociological. There are so many shows today, in which many

那還 是以 大 雙 年 展 或 文 獻 展 為 主 。不過 ,與 2 0 世 紀 8 0 、9 0 年 代 相

our experiences, can be intriguing, be it in the system of art or in are disappointing. This requires reflection.

ART.ZIP: Also we are seeing a number of philosopher-curators today, such as Boris Groys, Slavoj Zizek, and Wang Minan et

cetera. They were trained in philosophy or literature criticism,

and have been working in these fields for decades. What is your take of this?

HD: Curating is really a open task, but is also a complex social/

cultural project. Curating could be very subtle. We have talked

about a number of great thinkers today; they explain themselves and their shows very well. For instance, Jean Francois Lyotard curated a great show in the Centre Pompidou. But academic

curators are also limited, because curatorial practices involve

also close readings of the language of art itself, the logic of the

concept, its relations, and involve dealing with the relationships

between works, between works and spaces, and between works and contexts. This could be very subtle: it is a challenge for the

curators to make the arrangement reasonable, interesting, and

H D :在 我 看來,如果說全球 範圍內有什麽策展實踐的運動或潮流, 比,今 天的雙年展或 文 獻 展 不如以前那 樣 更 具明確的學 術 性、前瞻

性和影 響 力。對 我而言,現 在除了關 註以 上 所提 的大 展,我 現 在 更

關註金磚國家的藝 術動態,以 及 亞洲藝 術的生 態,因為這一區域的 藝術更顯得有活力。眾所周知,現在受全球金融危機的影響,除美、

英、德外,整個歐洲,尤其在藝 術文化方面受影響頗深。全球的發展 勢頭會向東方轉移,以中國為中心。當然中國社會本身也存在問題, 目前正 處在崛 起階段,盡 管現在尚未 達 到預 期的狀 態,但發展的速

度 是相當快了。我 親 身經 歷 過9 0年代的北京,當時舉 辦當代 藝 術展

覽是非法的,我們辦展覽只供內部觀摩,不然警察就會來查封。再看 現在的 雙年展,畫 廊 機構,私 人 美 術館還有整 個 藝 術 市 場(博覽 會

和拍賣行),這跟90年代比起 來,中國實際發展才十多年,所以這個 進程不容低估。展望未來,中國可能會有更大的發展,因為整個社會

正在 建 立一 個完 善的系 統,機制 也會跟著完 善。有些事情是我 們無 法預見的,比如上海自由貿易區的建立就是一次新的嘗試,其中涉及

到方方面面,也可能涉及到文化產業。其次,建立法制系統也是非常

重 要的,這會為中國藝 術打 下良 好的基 礎,它的建 立能讓 一 些模 糊 的事物明朗化。

surprising. The making of an exhibition does not only entail

ART.ZIP:可以和我們談談您最近的藝術項目嗎?

effect, and be inspiring. A simple comparison could be: the

(O n S h a r k s a n d H u m a n i t y)》。展 覽 持 續 了半 年之 久 。這 是

writing a good article, but also entail achieving a certain visual museum(or any other space) is the body, the artworks are the

clothes – how to dress well depends on the person’s(curator’s) taste, or (judgment)wisdom. An academic curator might fail

reading the spatial subtlety of the works, especially the spatial

relationships. For instance, shall I put a work in the corner, in the

air, or in the middle, so that it can respond actively to other works nearby? It depends on experience, and is hard to formulate, because all spaces are different. It is again like shooting a

film: the worst way is the old way, and constant renewal and

H D : 去年(2014)我在 摩 納哥海洋博 物 館 策 劃了展 覽《 鯊 魚 與人 類

一 個 國 際 性 的 展 覽,今 年 5月2 8日將 在 莫 斯 科 開 幕,9月將 在 中 國 國 家 博 物 館 與 觀 眾 見 面 。1 0 月,我 將 前 往 佛 羅 倫 薩 雙 年 展 擔 任 國 際 評 審 。目 前 我 也 正 在 策 劃 蘇 州 金 雞 湖 美 術 館 的 中 韓 年 輕 藝

術 家 的 展 覽 。去 年 年 底,我 被 邀 請 策 劃 2 01 5 香 港 藝 術 中心《年 度

旗 艦 展 覽(F l a g s h i p E x h i b i t i o n)》,前 幾 屆 的 策 展 人 分 別 是 陳 維 德(E u g e n e Ta n)、南 條 史 生(F u m i o N a n j o)等人 。另外 德

國魯爾區8個城 市的9 個美 術館聯合 組 織一 個超 大 型的中國藝 術 展 ,邀 請 我 擔 任 藝 術 顧 問,差 不多 是 這 樣 。

dealing are the right solution. Shipping an exhibition from the

就我個人經驗來說,策展工作存在很多困擾。外界看來中國很有錢,

question of logistics.

有很多阻礙,而資金又 是非常重要的一 環,基 本支出如展 覽搭建、

UCCA to the MoMA will have to be a challenge, not merely a

ART.ZIP: Are you following any international curatorial movement or trend at the moment?

HD: To me, if there is any movement or trend in the global curating, one still has to find it in the biennials and the

Documentas. However, compared with those in the 80s or 90s, the biennials and Documentas today are not that academic,

leading and influential anymore. Besides these exhibitions, in

但實際要策 劃一次 展 覽,本身的制約因素 還 是 很多。如申請 資 金就 技術支持、運輸、以及藝術制作等。


recent years I have been following closely the exhibitions in the

and understanding clearly the art. You have to pay attention to

because this area is very lively. As it is well-known, the global

use and transform the meaning of materials, works in spaces

BRICs nations, and the ecological environments of Asian art,

financial crisis influenced the whole of Euro American world, and by extension the art within. The global is moving towards the

East – China, specifically. But of course the Chinese society has

its own problems, still in its development, not yet reaching goal.

But at a very high speed already. I experienced Beijing in the 90s: exhibition of contemporary art was illegal, so the exhibitions were only for “internal reference”, or the police would come.

Now, in China, with the proliferation of biennials, galleries, private collections and the whole of the art market (including art fairs

the state of the works, that is, its means of production – how to and in contexts. I am still learning, watching closely the art of the realms unknown to me. I still need to learn about many

things, such as art in India, middle Asia, Latin America and Africa. For instance, I curated in 2012 a unit called Image Anxiety

in the Photo Espana. Although it was successful, during the

process I got to learn my limits. But this is also what is intriguing about curating: meeting the unknown, facing challenges and difficulties, and constantly try to overcome and go beyond.

and auction houses), it is already vastly different from a decade ago. This should not be underestimated. In the future, China

might see an even greater development, because the whole

society is building a complete system, while the institutions are developing themselves. Also there are unpredictable factors: the tax-free zone in Shanghai is a new attempt, for instance.

This involves many things, including the cultural industry. Also, a better legal system is very important as well, this will lay a solid

foundation for the further development of Chinese art, clearing things that were previously oblique.

ART.ZIP: What are you working on at the moment?

HD: In 2014 I curated in Monaco the exhibition On Sharks and Humanity. It lasted for half a year, and was very international in

nature. It will tour to Moscow and open on the 28th of May there, and will tour to the National Museum of China in September. In October I will be sitting on the international judge panel

for the Florence Biennial. Presently, I am working on curating

an exhibition that involves young artists from both China and

South Korea in Jinjihu museum in Suzhou. I was invited to curate the Flagship Exhibition Hong Kong 2015, following previous curators such as Eugene Tan and Fumio Nanjo. I was also

invited to act as the artistic consultant for a massive Chinese art

exhibition that involves 9 museums in the 8 cities of Ruhr area in Germany. That’s about it for now.

Telling from my personal experience, curatorial practices have its own problems. From the outside it seems China is very rich now, but curating an exhibition involves many things and is

therefore still very much limited. Funding is difficult, but funding is the most important thing, related to basic necessities such as installing, technical support, logistics, and creation et cetera.

The premise is of course passion and dedication. You have to

love your job, and you have to know it well as well. You can only love one thing if you know it well, otherwise the love could be superficial. Only can you be passionate about it after knowing

當然策展的前提是熱愛與勤奮。這份工作必須要喜歡,也必須要懂, 你只有很懂,才會喜歡,否則就是虛假的喜歡,葉公好龍那般。只有

透 徹的理 解 藝 術作品,你 才會熱衷這件事。你需要關心 藝 術作品的

狀 態,即生 產 方 式 ——如 何運 用和 轉 換 材料、作 品 在 空間 和 語境中

的意義等 等。不能孤 立的看問題,需要 考慮到全 球化背景以 及藝 術

潮流的變化等。目前我仍然在不斷更新 知識,密切關注我 未 知世界 的藝 術。我 對於很多方面的了解還 是不夠的,比如印度、中亞、拉 美

以 及非洲地區的藝 術。比如,2012年在“西班 牙國際攝影節(Photo E s p a n a ) ”上 ,我 曾 策 劃 了一 個 單 元 名 為“ 形 象 的 焦 慮( I m a g e

Anxiety)”。雖然我所策展的這個國際展很成功,但在策展過程中, 我也發 現自身知識的局限。當然 這也正 是 策 展工作的妙處,總是 遇 到未知的事情,面對挑戰和困難,不斷克服和超越。


OTHER VIEWS 眾說


“It was commented that artists can do without curators and writers etc, but not vice versa. Of course power structures are problematic but it is ridiculous to even speak of art today without recognising that visibility structures produce the work we examine . Art as we know it is produced by a complex web of actors and the further we go towards recognising and utilising this the better.”—Dr Becky Shaw, artist, research tutor at Sheffield Hallam University

“以前的觀點是,藝 術家沒有策展人和寫手也可以,但反之就不行。權力結構當然是有問題的,但是如果

到現在還不能意識到可見性結構確實構建了我們正在討論的作品,甚至是藝術,那才是荒唐的。我們所知

道的藝 術是一張複雜大 網上各個演員各司其職的產品,我們對此認識越深入,利用得越 好,對藝 術便 越 好。”——貝奇·肖博士,藝術家,謝菲爾德哈勒姆大學研究生導師


An artist is by definition the one who creates. And, by extension,

藝術家首先是從事創作的人。其次,藝術家是在自身中進行改變,進

resemble the definition of a new god. A shapeshifter shifting

帝一般。藝術家永遠在轉變她的形態。她不但不滿足現有的身份,更

the one who becomes - however much these two combined

shapes. She is not to be satisfied with the role and position given to her, but is to fight for always new territories, to claim not only from others but also from among the artists themselves. This is

perhaps also why the idea of a “super artist”(as the counterpart of the super curator) still remains unheard-of – she always already possesses the potential of being super.

An artist’s ambition of becoming the curator after a murder,

on the other hand, is nothing novel. “Kill the middle man”, has been for ages the motto par excellence in many business, big or small. (In a sister form of art, cinema, for instance, directors yell out “screw the producer” while the actors go “fuck the

director”. Zhang Yimou’s long-term suffering as a result of his

producer’s greed is also very recently revealed. The recent and unprecedented commercial success of Chinese firm Alibaba is also based on this: things are cheaper online because things

行德勒茲式生成的人。這雙重身份的結合讓藝 術家聽起來就像是上

勇於擴張新的領地,不僅與外人搶奪,也從夥伴們身上攫取。這也許 是為甚麼對應於“超級策展人”身份的“超級藝 術家”仍然是一 個陌 生的概念,因為她從來就擁有這種變為“超級藝術家”的潛力。

藝 術家自立為“ 策 展 人”不算什麼新 鮮 事。多年來,這 種“ 除 掉中間

人”的做法在各 行各業中也屢見不鮮(舉例來說,在與藝術密切相關 的電影行業中,導演嚷 著“幹掉製作人”,演員鬧著“幹掉導演”,而

中國著名導演張藝謀長期被貪婪的電影製作人欺壓的新聞最近也被

大量曝光;另外,近期獲得空前成功的電商巨鰐阿里巴巴也是基於這 個原則——網絡購物變得更加廉價因為沒有中間商的掺和。)如此看

來,要是中間人這樣的角色並不是必須存在的,也不是不可取代的, 甚至不是起著重要作用的話,那麼,策展人到底在做什麼?對於藝術 世界外部的人們來說,這可能是有關當代藝術界的最大謎團。

策 展 人 最基 本的工作 範疇就 是 照料 —— 照料藝 術家的實踐,照料藝

術作品。從 最表 層來看,這似乎是非常寄生性的工作。然而,或許我

ARTIST’S DISSATISFACTION “不安守本分”的藝術家 TEXT BY 撰文 x BOWEN LI 李博文 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x MICHELLE YU 余小悅


are of low quality, and/or are free from the touch of the middle

們仍然有必要指出這個事實:在世界上的許多地區,藝術家仍然不必

irreplaceable, what did the curator do? One of the biggest

不必假設自己的作品是無言的,被禁止進行表達與交流的,而為這些

man.) So if it is no longer a must, no longer a role active, essential, mysteries - not in, as it is mysterious for the exteriority of the field, but only - of contemporary art.

On the most basic level, the curator curates, that is, the

curator takes care of and for the artist, first and foremost, as parasitic as can be. It is perhaps still urgent (but what does “still urgent” mean, now that in this publication a certain

murder is anticipated?) to acknowledge that, there are still

places where artists are not forced to speak for themselves –

and this necessarily means for the artists to speak also for the

artworks, as if the artworks are mute, dumb, incapable of, if not

communication, at least expression – where artists consciously or

為自己言 說,做出解 釋 ——這當然也意味著,同樣地,這 些藝 術家也 藝 術作品做出解 釋 —— 在 這 些地方,藝 術家有意識或無意識 地遵循

馬蒂斯的教導,切下她們的舌頭,以讓藝術語言成為唯一起作用的語

言。只有這樣,藝 術家的身份才能夠被確立。換言之,或許我們仍然 有必要指出,無論是在舌尖之上或是在筆觸之上,我們關注的重點一 直是激進轉譯性的可能—— 我們究竟是否能夠通 過語言對藝 術施加

正義,如果可以的話,我們究竟要使 用何種語言。以向你承諾,繪畫 的真相。然而,不是每個人都能成為傑拉德李希特,真誠地期待著自

己的作品能夠超 越作為一 個個體的自己,並真誠 地相信藝 術家再說

什麼都比作品遜色;也不是任何人都能成為呂克圖爾曼,畫作與談話 一樣 迷人,彷彿他就是研究自己的歷史學家,歸檔者,無論他是否想 要這種身份。這種角色之間、話語之間的“不對稱”引人思考。

unconsciously follow the doctrine of Matisse, cutting the tongue

這本出版物在前幾期的專題裡討論過現今英國藝 術教育的問題,而

become the only language used. That is, so that the artist can

練,這幾乎是 過分的,強 迫性的——敲開藝 術家的嘴,讓他們吐出話

out, so that the art can successfully, for however brief a moment,

become the artist proper, if there ever is such a thing. It is perhaps still urgent to acknowledge that, translatibility in its most radical is always already involved in any speaking-of-the-artwork, with tongue, pen or paintbrush, in which the visual and even the

verbal demand justice in, of and for itself. To promise to you a

truth in painting. Not every artist is Gerhard Richter, anticipating sincerely an art that is “better” than the artist, beyond the

artist, leaving therefore the artist’s own word questionable and

inadequate; but not every artist is Luc Tuymans either, speaking with formidable elegance of formidably elegant paintings

that are in fact his own, as if he is his own historian, archivist,

voluntarily or not. What is at stake here is dissymetricality itself, between roles and between languages.

UK art education today, as has been previously addressed here in

this quarterly, leaves the impression that it trains and encourages

artist to talk and speak, almost excessively and forcefully. To crack a mouth up, to undo, tear open and make hole in a silence. As

if, after J. L. Austin, How To Do Things With Words Regarding Art becomes a core course. Artists or future artists alike reckon it is only appropriate and necessary to talk about and speak

of their works, to perhaps compensate for their insecurities or

英國藝術教育給人的印象就是要鼓勵並加強藝術家說話和交流的訓 來,打 破 沉靜。我們幾 乎要想像,在J.L .奧 斯 汀之後,某 種《有關藝

術的以言行事(How To Do Things With Words Regarding Art)》 一定會在教育機構中大 賣。出於不安 全 感,或出於宣稱作品的新的

意義的需要,藝 術家和藝 術學生們通常把這種面對藝 術作品時進行

的解釋視為是合適的、必要的。對我個人來說,作為一名短暫從事過

表 演藝 術 實踐 的人,這 種 言 說的必 要性 是 讓 人惋惜的。因為,絕 對 地 新穎 的 創作 在 被懷 疑前早已一次 又一次地 發生 。幸運的是,英 國 狀 況並沒有以一種驚人的速 度在全世界快 速地發展開來。世上仍然

有相當多的藝 術家如幾千年前的那位特 殊的山洞住民一般,在進行 藝術創作的同時保持緘默。

無論如何,正 正因為這個狀 況的出現,才有了策 展 人為藝 術家 進行

言 說、解 釋這一回事。然而,策 展 人 絕 對不是藝 術家的“代 表”,因 為策展人與藝 術家是異質的——策展人無論如何不進行任何形式的 創作。策 展 人不是藝 術家的“代 表”,而是中介,為那些不能 夠或不

願 意言 說 的藝 術家—— 即那些不願 意向 邏 各斯投 降的藝 術家—— 發 言。因此,策 展 人同時是藝 術家的中介,也是 邏各斯的中介,協調了

藝 術家-理 性二元 對立關係的兩端 。這 種 做 法 總是有待 考 量的,甚 至大多情況下都不是積極的。這裡涉及的是另一種“不對稱”:邏各 斯理性與激進地異質的他者─ 藝 術家,後者無助又無奈地依附於前 者。寄生關係中的寄生主與寄生物發生了顛倒。

declare to themselves and others the significance of this art

其次,策 展 人 照料 機構及制度的利益。藝 術家 通常都忙 於自己的藝

small time performance artist of some sort, it is nothing less than

畫 廊、展 覽 又或 是 某個收 藏 。它們 也很可能 是既 挑 剔又 貪 婪的。就

that is created anew today. To me, very personally, as a former

lamentable, simply because of that it takes place anew, before it is questioned anew. But fortunately, the universalization of

this specific situation is taking a very slow pace, and there are

still a good number of artists worldwide practicing in a way that reminds of the ecstatic silence of that specific caveman, and all those that follow in the history of art.

術 實踐,基 本無暇 顧 及合作 機構的利益—— 無論這機構是博 物 館、

算藝術家有這樣的時間和精力─這樣的閒暇和能力不禁讓人懷疑她 們的水平 ─ 他們也應該不受任何限制地去創作,就如同關於藝 術家 的神話所說的一樣:藝 術家在自由中創作,創作出自由。而策展人,

為了平衡藝術家和機構雙方的利益,他正是在雙方談判、交涉、交易

中起 緩 衝 作用的核心人物,一 個真 正的中間人。在 她 規 劃出自身的 欲望領地之前——然而這並不一定是工作或身份的目標——策展人首


Judith y Holofernes (Goya)


Hence curator’s job of speaking for them. Absolutely not,

other hand, perhaps is exactly the task of the curator. Finishing: if

create; but as their agent. For those who cannot or is unwilling to

of the curator before her own becoming-the-curator, I am not

however, as their representative, because the curator does not

speak, that is, in short, for those who do not wish to surrender to

Logos, she is to speak for them as both the agent of the artist and of the Logos. Which is always a problematic thing, and not even in most cases positively so. Another dissymmetry: Logos and its radical other – the later helplessly clings onto the former. The logic of the parasite is flipped upside down.

And, on the other hand, the interests of the institution. Artists, caught in their own practices practically do not have time

or energy to deal with the interests of the institution, be it a

museum, a gallery, an exhibition or even a collection that could be both picky and greedy. Even if they do – and this availability or ability is immediately suspicious on all levels – actively, they should be freed from the given limits, for, as the myth has it,

the artist works in – and out of, one might even add – freedom.

the question today is, as it is radicalized above, the artist’s murder attempting to argue that it is ridiculous as it apparently is. I find

it most interesting – in all sense of the word – just as interesting as the curator’s murder of the artist. The guest editor of this

issue responded, in a meeting, to the question of “how about

curator becoming artist?” by stating everybody wants to be the artist because it is hip, hot, awesome – so the curator should

not be allowed. My wonder was simply that, do you not realize

that in fact curator is the hip, hot, awesome thing today, as your arrogation has it? I am also reminded now of a recent dinner,

during which one of the most respected female curators in the world today jokingly called herself and a number of artworld

professionals including one of the most esteemed gallerists in

China “failed artists”, all trained initially as artists and later became something else.

Considering and attempting to link the interests of the artist and that of the institution, as the middle man proper, the curator is the buffer, locus of negotiations, bargains, deals. Before she is

territorialized – which is not strictly speaking a goal, not even a

先就作為他人欲望領地的其中一 個場址被非領地化了,因為從 某 種

of others’ interests, provisional, temporary, but essential, because

藝術的某種真相有關。換句話說, “醜惡”被放置於策展人身體中。

necessity – she is first and foremost deterritorialized as the locus

the expression and projection of desires onto others pertain to, in a minor way, a certain truth of art. In other words, the ugliness is

reserved here in the senses of the curator. The curator’s art is ugly by nature, according to the aesthetics of the day.

And the interests of the curator herself. A body territorialized by her own desires proper, playing God. It is ugly enough and well-known enough a fact, I do not think I should go into it in-depth here. Before the actual but unlikely outbreak of the war between

the artists and the curators or even before the actual but no

意義來說,將欲望投射在他者身上,又或者在他者身上表達欲望,與 按照當下的美學來說,策展人的藝術,本質上就是醜陋的。

再次,策 展 人需要照料自己的利益 。一 個 被自身欲 望 所 領地化的人 扮演著上帝的角色 。如此 醜陋 又 人儘皆 知的事實,我 想也不必 再作 深入探討。在藝 術家與策 展 人的戰爭面前,在藝 術家取代 策 展 人 這

一現實 發生 之前,我們已經討 論了兩個陣營之間緊 迫而重 要的“ 職

業 責任 劃分”。一 些比 較 簡短的例子:放 蕩 不羈的 傳奇人物 傑 克·比

爾博(Jack Bilbo),既是藝術家,艾爾·卡朋(Al Capone)的保鏢,

自傳作家,同時又是畫廊主,曾舉辦畢加索、梵高、雷諾、庫貝爾、克 雷等人的展覽;而亨利·達格(Henr y Darger)則畫完畫就死了。

less unlikely replacement of the curator by the artist – unlikely

在 這 個 狹 小 的 空 間 裡 ,我 們 羅 列了至 少三 種 策 展 人 所 涉及 到 的 利

speaking for long now the urgent and important differentiation

讓 策 展 人 分裂或 扭曲,但 是 另一方面,處 理不同利益關係的政 治經

since they are very much mutually dependent – we have been between and among the two parties. Take names that are somehow esoteric for instance, in passing: the legendary bohemian Jack Bilbo, artist, bodyguard of Al Capone and

author of a number of autobiographies, was also a gallerist and produced exhibitions of works by Picasso, Van Gogh, Renoir,

Courbet, Klee, among many others. Henry Darger drew and died. Really briefly, we have shown at least three interests that are at work in the body of a curator. By no means do these interests

co-exist in harmony. It is the struggle of the interests that distorts this body, but the political economy of different interests, on the

益,這些利益在很多 情 況下是不能 和諧共 存的。正是 這些利益爭奪

濟行為也許正正是策展人的真正任務。最後,如果問題是,在今天,

就 如以 上 所說的那麼極 端,藝 術家為了自立為策 展 人而“ 除 掉策 展 人”,我 沒有 嘗 試 在 這 篇 文 章 中聲 稱 這 是 荒 謬 的 —— 因 為它顯 然 如

此。對我來說,更有趣的是,這期的客座編輯曾這樣回應關於“策展 人 變 成 藝 術家 ”的合 理 性 及可能 性問題:她 說,大家都想成 為藝 術

家,因為藝 術家很“ 酷 炫 ”,而策 展 人 並不是 。我的疑問是,您是否 意識到策展人在今天也是那麼地“酷炫”?我也想起,在最近的一次 私人晚宴上,當今國際藝 術界其中一 位最受尊重的女性策展人半開

玩 笑地 聲稱,自己 和一堆藝 術專 業 人士(包括中國其中一 位 最 敬 重

的畫廊主)都是“失 敗的藝 術家”,並正正因為她們都是“失 敗的藝 術家”,她們才跑去做別的工作了。


Bound by Laura Robinson

WHO’S DRIVING? THE ARTIST AS CURATOR 由誰掌舵? 藝術家策展人

TEXT BY 撰文 x BECKY SHAW 貝奇·肖 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x SUDONG CAI 蔡蘇東 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x KIRSTEN LAVERS 科爾斯頓·萊弗斯


Becky Shaw

貝奇·肖

Becky Shaw has been making publicly commissioned artworks

貝奇·肖自1 9 9 3 年以 來 一直 接 受 公 開 委 託 從 事 社 會 領 域 的 藝 術 創

relationship between the individual and the social, focusing on

業 和 教 育 問 題 。其 創 作 遵 循 基 於 過 程 或 現 場 藝 術 的 傳 統,對 語 境

in the social realm since 1993. These works critically examine the contexts of care, industry and education. The works sit within

a tradition of process-based, or live art and involve scrupulous attention to context. Works have been commissioned by, or

produced at organisations including Grizedale Arts, Sainsbury

Centre for Visual Art, In Certain Places, Air/Cocheme Fellowship,

Hayward Gallery, ICIA, Sculpture Space Utica USA and Amstelveen Art Incentive Prize NL. In 1998, Shaw completed a practice-based doctorate, and between 2000-2006 she was co-director of Static Gallery, Liverpool. Shaw writes as part of her practice and as a

means of exploring the wider visual art infrastructure. Dr. Becky

Shaw is currently the postgraduate research tutor for the Art and Design Research Centre at Sheffield Hallam University.

作 。她 的 作品 批判 地 審 視了個 體 與 社會 的關 係,關 注 社會保 障、產

有著細 緻的洞察。她受眾多組 織委 託 創作,同時也在許多組 織中從 事創作。這些組織包括:格裏茲戴爾藝術機構(Grizedale Ar t s)、

塞恩斯伯裡視覺藝術中心(Sainsbur y Centre for Visual Ar ts)、

定點藝術(In Cer tain Places)、Air/Cocheme Fellowship、海沃 德畫廊(Hay ward Galler y)、ICIA藝術機構、美國尤蒂卡雕塑空間

(Sculpture Space Utica USA)以及荷蘭阿姆斯特爾芬藝術激勵獎

(Amstelveen Ar t Incentive Prize NL)。1998年,肖獲得了以實踐

為主的博士學位,20 0 0年至20 0 6 年,她是利物浦靜態畫 廊(Static

Galler y)的總監之一。作為藝術實踐的一部分,她也從事寫作,並將

寫作視為一種探索更寬泛意義上的視覺藝術的方式。貝奇·肖博士目 前是謝菲爾德哈勒姆大學(Sheffield Hallam University)藝術設 計研究中心 (the Art and Design Research Centre)的研究生導師。

Kirsten Lavers

科爾 斯 頓·萊 弗 斯

A former nurse Kirsten Lavers studied at Dartington College

科爾斯頓·萊弗斯當過護士,後就讀于達靈頓藝術學院(Dar ting ton

both the Visual Performance and Performance Writing degree

講授視覺表演(Visual

of Arts graduating in 1991 and subsequently taught there on

courses. Kirsten’s work rarely appears in galleries and is always

made in response to a specific site or public space often including photography, video, sound, performance as well as objects that she has made or gathered. Kirsten’s approach is collaborative,

closely involving the people whose space she is responding to as well as other artists. In 2001 Kirsten installed a black London taxi

cab in her front garden and for the next 8 years hosted a range of

eye-catching exhibitions made especially for Taxi Gallery by over 30 national and international artists. Kirsten was neighbourhood artist for the Orchard Park housing development (north of Cambridge)

working with the early residents on a number of projects including hand made road signs, an urban beach, and the commissioning of 8 artists to create a temporary art trail through the development . Kirsten has recently been involved with public art projects for

Hundred Houses Society and the NW Cambridge Development. She is currently focusing on a series of live drawing projects entitled ‘Admitting the Possibilities of Error’.

College of Ar ts)並於1991年畢業,畢業後她繼續在該學院任教,

Per formance)和表演寫作(Per formance

Writing )學位課程。科爾斯頓很 少在畫 廊中展出作品,而是根據特 定的展出場地或公共空間創作,其作品包括攝影、視頻、音頻、表演 以 及自己 製作或 收 集的物品 。科爾斯頓的創作強調合 作,需要與 展

出空間 的 提 供 者以 及 其他 藝 術 家 緊 密 協作 。2 0 01年,她 把 一 輛 黑 色的倫敦計 程車置 放 於她的前院,在 接下來的八年 裡,她 專門為計 程車畫 廊舉 辦了一系列吸引眼球的展 覽,參與 者為來自本國及海外

的30多名藝 術家。科爾斯頓 是位 於劍橋北部的果園房產(Orchard

Park housing development)的社區藝術家,與早期入駐的居民

合 作 開 展了一系列 項目,包 括自製 的 路 標 、城 市沙 灘 ,以 及 委 託 八

位藝 術家設計一貫穿園區的臨時藝 術小徑。科爾斯頓目前正在參與 “百家協會” (Hundred Houses Society)和劍橋西北部開發工程 (NW Cambridge Development)的公共藝術項目。她當前正在進 行的工作是名為《允許犯錯的可能(Admitting the Possibilities of Error)》的一系列現場繪畫項目。


Every self-respecting young artist at some point or other takes

每位年輕藝 術家到了某個時候,總會躍躍欲試組織一 個藝 術項目或

others. Curation is now a multi-functional word expressing

放的 行為,又可指 和藝 術家親密合 作開 發 新項目,或 是在空曠 倉庫

the wheel and organises a project or group show that involves the role of the person who looks after a collection of artworks, the person who decides which objects sit next to each other

in an exhibition, the person who works closely with the artist to develop a new project, to the person who displays their

colleagues’ or friends’ work in an empty warehouse. The Taxi

Gallery is led by an artist, Kirsten Lavers, and it is interesting to ask whether an artist working as curator represents any significant

development from established curatorial practices. By exploring

the role of the curator, then focusing on the relationship between

一次群展。 “ 策 展”如今一詞多義,既可指照看藝 術品、確 定 展品擺

展廳里展出同事或者朋友的作品。計程車畫廊(The Taxi Galler y)

是由藝術家科爾斯頓·萊弗斯(K ir s te n L a v e r s)創立的。藝術家同

時充當策 展 人的角色,是否是既定 策 展慣例的一種 進 步?這個問題 很有趣 。下文 將通 過討論 策 展 人的角色 範圍,聚焦藝 術家和策 展 人

之間的關係,探討“藝 術家策展人”模式是否維持了傳統的“藝 術家 策 展 人”關係(不管是 什麼樣的關係),還 是帶來 新風 貌 。為了探索

其中的微妙之處,我們訪問了不同的策展人/藝 術家,讓他們來說說 各自工作的方方面面。

artist and curator, the following text will ask whether artist-

我 們 經常說 策 展 人(寫手、批評家 等 等)是 決 定 誰能 進 入藝 術 世界

(whatever these are) or offer something different. To explore the

機會,而通 過 和這 些 業已成名的機構 合 作,藝 術家們 的 價值也得以

curator models maintain conventional artist-curator relationships subtleties, a small number of different curators/artists were asked to describe their aspects of their practice.

We often talk of curators (and writers, critics etc) as gatekeepers to visibility in the artworld. Opportunities to work with

reputable organisations normally happen through a process of

endorsement, when artists are validated by working with other

recognised establishments. As the person who has some control over what represents art of the highest quality, the curator is

an arbiter of taste, appearing to have the authority to represent a society’s values. As a result of this, artists, and theorists etc,

are often critical of, and frustrated by, this power relationship.

However, the curator’s role and control over artistic visibility is

complex. The (good) curator is the intersection between artist and audience, a go-between looking to ensure the audience is given the best possible opportunity to engage with an

之門的守門人。藝 術家通常由於被賞識因而獲得和知名組織合作的

證明。作為擁有何為最 佳藝 術最 終 判定權的人,策 展 人 是品味的仲

裁 者,其似乎 擁 有代 表社會價 值 觀 的 權 威 。因 此,藝 術家和理 論 家 等 等,通常 對 這 種 權 力關 係 抱著批判 的態 度,同 時 也不免沮喪 。然 而,策展人對於藝 術家能否進入藝 術視野的影響和控制確實複雜。

好的策 展 人 是藝 術家和受眾之間的交 叉中樞,他是 一 位中間人,保

證受眾能夠盡可能地獲得品味藝 術家作品的機會,同時也保證藝 術 家能夠盡可能地與受眾交流。現在藝 術家們嘗試著佔領 這個重要的

領地,他們運營自己的畫 廊,等 等,但 是同時,現今也有一股藝 術家 當家做主,直接和受眾愉快交流的潮流,他們所憑借的,便是所謂的

“關係式的”或“參與式的”做法。如此,策展人還有何用呢?當然, 還 是 大有用武 之地的,當有 機構參與 其中時,還 是需要 有人 起 到調

和藝術家和機構之間關係的作用,保證項目成功舉辦。但是,這些做 法,加上 二十世 紀七十年代以 來學院 批判的作風,同時 還有對於文

化 權 威的總體批判,都使得人們對於策 展 人權力的信心 和信念有所 下降。

artist’s work, and that the artist has the best possible chance

而如今,一場關於 博 物 館藏品的爭論也揭示了這 種不 確 定性。許多

territory by running galleries etc, but there is also a gradual

收藏品味。博物館質疑以往的權威,擔心他們對過去/將來的見解是

of communicating to an audience. Artists seek to occupy this movement towards artists taking control and delighting in

this relationship with an audience, through practices deemed

‘relational’ or ‘engaged’. So where does this leave the role of the curator? Not redundant of course, as when institutions become

involved with these kind of practices they still need someone to mediate the relationship between the artist and the institution

and to make sure the project is a success. However, the advent

of these practices, plus 1970s onwards practices of institutional

critique, and a general critique of cultural authority have all led to a decline in confidence or belief in the power of curators.

One contemporary debate about museum collections, reveals this uncertainty. Many museums have been getting rid of

their collections, concerned that the objects will reveal their

own vision and connoisseurship. They doubt their authority,

博物館正在清理館藏品,擔心這些藏品所代 表的是博物館的眼光和 錯誤的,同時認為他們不應該對未來橫加如此大的影響。因而,策展 人不再是 文化的守門人,他們無論 給 策展品施加什麼見解都如履薄 冰 。這種“不干涉”的做法對於未 來而言是令人擔憂的,到頭來很可

能導致博物館要麼空空如也,要麼其藏品都是保險平庸之流 1 。也許

當今許多旨在“給 予藝 術家更多空間”的藝 術家領 銜 項目或者其他 策展做法到頭來也會落入 此窠臼,忘記了正是 衝突的見解之間的角 力才可能產生令人興奮的東西。

身兼策展人的藝術家採取的做法往往和領著工資的專職策展人並無二

致,但他們的初衷卻是不同的。藝術家策展人試圖要做的是讓他們所 尊重認同的藝術實踐(也包括他們自己的)得到曝光的機會。這是一種

掌控藝術傳播流程的嘗試,而不是反受其制約。馬薩·羅斯勒(Martha Rosler)道出了傳統藝術家和策展人或藝術分銷人之間的不同:

“藝 術家能夠聚 集神秘的能量 創作,但 其他人 只能 做 選擇 。選擇勝


Kirsten Lavers © cris cheek

concerned that their vision of the past/present might be wrong and that it ought not shape the future so heavily. Rather than

being the gatekeepers of culture they have become nervous of

於創造,選 擇帶來 許多益 處,包括 給 選 定的藝 術家作品帶來更多的 受眾”2

imposing any views whatsoever. This ‘hands off’ approach has

自己開畫廊的藝 術家這麼 做 是因為他們相信自己能比策展人干得更

museum collections . Perhaps the current artist-led projects or

許 多策 展 人本身 也曾是藝 術家),或者 他 們 認 為自己不受體制 化的

worrying implications for the future, leading to empty or safe 1

other curatorial practices which seek to ‘give space’ to artists also fall into the same trap, forgetting that the battle between two

conflicting visions might actually generate something exciting. Artists operating as curator generally adopt the same practices as

好。這或 許 是因為他 們覺得自己能 更 好地 理 解 藝 術家的需求(儘 管

規範或壓力所限。有些藝 術家認為他們能夠突破那些一再重複出現

的傳統等級觀的束縛。如果可以找到新的結構,那是令人興奮的,但 問題是,許多人重複著老一套,卻單單因為這是“藝 術家領銜的”便 宣稱自己是與眾不同的。正如利亞姆·吉利克(Liam Gillick)指出:

used by their salaried colleagues, but their reasons for taking this

“由藝 術家組織的活動比由畫廊組織的活動更有價值,這種看法與

to gain visibility for practices they respect, including their own. It

點 固化了一種 思 維,即藝 術家們 本質 上都是有趣 的,他 們比 其他 人

action may be different. Artists function as curators in an attempt is an attempt to own the process of distribution rather than be

subject to it. Martha Rosler indicates the conventional differences

當前對藝 術領域進行的尖銳激進的重新審視背道而馳,因為這種觀 (尤其是藝術商人)有著不同(更高的)道德水平”3

in the roles of artist and curator or distributor:

也許由藝 術家 策 展的出品看上去並無不同,但 是卻有著不同的社會

‘Artists may channel mysterious energies, but others get to

希望通過提供一 個藝 術活動和對話的聚焦點,使得他們所處的地區

make the choices. Choice trumps creation, and choice is linked to all rewards, including an enlarged audience for the chosen artists’ work’2

後 果 。藝 術家 之 所以設 立 畫 廊或者策 展項目原因之一,是因為他 們

更加富有藝術活力。藝術家里卡多·巴斯鮑姆(Ricardo Basbaum) 認為“ 類 藝 術家”4 或者從事策 展、寫作 等 等的藝 術家確實 創造出一

些不同的東西,激活了一系列的網絡,使得這種做法得以在非體制化

的圈子里流傳。正是這種對於關係的的感情差異使得藝 術實踐已經 遠遠超出藝術作品本身所帶來的影響。


Round In Circles by Lesley Halliwell

Rant Score by Rupert Mallin


Artists who set up galleries also do it because they believe they

“藝 術家 策 展時,他們沒有辦法避免在策 展項目中摻雜 進自己的藝

because they feel they understand the needs of artists better

很有可能成 為關係網裡另一 個項目的紐 結,促進‘感覺’和‘感情’

may be able to do it better than curators. This belief may be

(although many curators have also been artists) or because they think they are free from institutional conventions or pressures.

Some believe they can do it in a way which does not involve the repetition of what is perceived to be conventional hierarchies. If novel structures are found this is exciting, but many repeat the

same structures but claim to be different simply on the grounds of being artist-led, as Liam Gillick suggests,

‘the idea that a show organised by an artist is essentially more

術 追 求:對 我而言,這 就 是藝 術家 策 展的 優 勢和獨 特 性 。一 個 項目

能量的傳播,——這股能量可被理解為藝術界裡的的流動力量,不管 是經濟上的還是流通意義上的。”5

利亞姆·吉利克也指出,藝術家主導的活動可以促進藝術家之間的交 流,而且比體制化的做法更有效:

“不要說藝術家很反對自己被某個體系所代表,那是老調子了,現在 他們已經有了自己的一套方法論,使得對話能夠持續不斷地發生”6

worthy than a show put together by a gallery works against a

最 重 要的是,有些 藝 術家 之 所以從事策 展 是因為,像 其他 策 展 人一

the sense that it reinforces the idea that artists are fundamentally

感興趣,就如羅賓·克拉斯尼克(Robin Klassnik)和他的馬特畫廊

pointed and radical reassessment of how art could now be in

interesting and operating under a different (read higher) moral code than anyone else, especially art dealers’

3

While the product of an artist curating may not look different, there can be different social outcomes. One reason for artists

setting up galleries or curatorial projects is the desire to energise

their locality by providing a focus for artistic activity and dialogue. Artist Ricardo Basbaum believes that ‘etc-artists’ , or artists that 4

curate, write etc, do create something qualitatively different,

activating a series of networks, which enable the circulation of

樣,他們對於他人的藝 術實踐或者創作新作品的思維發散 過程非常 (Mat t ’s Galler y)一樣。

使得作為策展人的藝 術家(或者實際上就是作為策展人的策展人) 改 變“工作 者”和“ 創作方式的擁有人”傳統結構的唯一 情 況 是,他 們發現了不同的運作方式,同時舊的定義不再符合時代:

“ 策展人 變成了文化生產複雜大網上的普通一員,這張大網定義了 我們應該如何把當下的活動放到語境之中,因此整個過程都是流動 變化的”7

practice through non-institutionalised structures. It is the actual

尼 古 拉 斯 · 伯 瑞 奧 德( N i c o l a s

is achieved in the art work itself,

人”。這 個 詞 最 有 效 地 描 述了涉及 創 作由始 至 終 的 方 方面 面,像 所

affect on relationships which is different, above and beyond what

‘When artists curate, they cannot avoid mixing their artistic

investigations with the proposed curatorial project: for me, this

is the strength and singularity they bring to curating. The event can have a chance to become clearly embedded in a network

of proximate knots, enhancing the circulation of “sensorial” and

”affective” energy - a flow which the field of art has managed to comprehend in terms of its economy and circulation.’5

B o u r r i a u d )在《 後 期 製 作

(P o s t p r o d u c t i o n)》中 描 述 到,有一 些 從 業 者 的身 份 是“ 製 作

有的商品一樣,創作 從一開始就 包含了傳 播 的概 念 。伯瑞 奧德 的討 論 涉及 藝 術 家 的 領 地 問 題 ,但 卻 極 少 提 及 策 展 人—— 但 這 些 實 踐

實際 上 是二者的交 集,或 是二者可以 無 分界域 地 進 行共同合 作 。然

而,許多 伯瑞奧德 描述的項目依 舊只能在 大 型機構中才能 發生。策

展 人從 未被 提 及,但 是我認 為他 們 還 是參與 其中的。有的人可能 會 爭 論 道,這樣 一 個由“ 製作人”主導 的易變 的 世界會使 得 藝 術 中 技

術 獨 特 性和差 異性 流 失 。然而,可能 在現 實中 技 術 不是 獨 特 的,但 是一 個簡單的社會差異性便足以符合機構的需要。

Liam Gillick also testifies to artist-led activity as a force for

貫穿策展活動始終的總是著藝 術家和策展人的關係,這種關係甚少

than in institutional practices:

係是通過合同固定下來的,其中講清了支付條件和任務,但在藝術家

generating communication between artists, to a greater extent

‘not to say that artists are resistant to being represented by that

system, more that they have developed their own proven means by which a dynamic discourse can take place’6

Most importantly, some artists curate because, like some curators,

被討論,在作品中不(也不應該)可見。在正式的畫廊語境中,這種關 策展朋友作品的情況中,卻甚少有簽署合同的意向。然而,不管是紙

面或者非正式合同都無法對個人策展人 所制定的獨特環境,氛圍和 期許,以及和藝術家形成的關係負責。這樣的關係里通常都有著權力

結構,因為總有一個人負責著一個作品的流通(或藝術家的錢包), 所以這樣的關係從來都不是黑白分明的,而是有著可以探索的空間。

they are deeply interested in and committed to the practices of

為了理 解 科爾斯頓·萊 弗斯在計程車畫 廊中的藝 術家 策 展 人 是否異

for example, Robin Klassnik and Matt’s Gallery.

金會(FACT-Foundation for Ar t and Creative Technolog y)的資

others, or the discursive process involved in forming a new work,

於策展人的角色,我們給科爾斯頓和利物浦藝 術與創意科技藝 術基


The only time artist as curator (or indeed curator as curator)

深策展人凱里·漢德(Ceri Hand)提了三個問題。我們也向凱利·拉

means of production’ is when they find a different structure of

成自己作品的藝術家,比如在QSL項目中,藝術家和作家被委託解讀

changes the conventional structure of ‘worker’ and ‘owner of the operation and the definitions become irrelevant:

‘a curator has become just another individual in the complex

奇(Kelly

Large)提問了同樣的問題,她是一位利用策展過程來形

一 份 音 頻 播放列表(由凱 利·拉奇自己完成),從而完成一 個無 線電 廣播作品。

web of cultural production that defines how we contextualise

“你和與你合作的藝術家關係‘平等’嗎?”

and change’7

科爾斯頓把和藝術家合作的過程看作是一種“交流”,當藝術家和策

current activities and therefore the whole process is open to flux

As Nicolas Bourriaud describes in ‘Postproduction’, there

展人開始了合作的關係,接下來便是通力協作,

are a range of practitioners who are working as ‘producers’.

“每 一段 關 係 都是 一 個 對 話,一系列 的 階段 或 步驟,在 其中,藝 術

creating a ‘production’ from beginning to end. The distribution

象,試 驗以 及 採 納 他 人的反饋或者建 議 ——力求獲 得如何進 行項目

This word describes most effectively a process which involves

is incorporated, like any commodity, in its conception. Bourriaud discusses this as the territory of artists, seldom mentioning

家或作為項目發起人的我會率先提議,建議,起草,設定時間表,想 的統一意見”

curators, and yet these practices are the terrain of both, and

科爾斯頓 似乎認為平 等 是理 想的狀 態,但有趣的是,平 等不是 一開

distinction. However, many of the projects Bourriaud describes

的並行不悖的關係。

perhaps the arena where both can work together without still take place in large institutions. The curator is never

始就存 在的,而是 必須爭取和建 立的,其 和作品的創作之間是 奇妙

mentioned but I suspect they are still involved. Some might

“每 個 項目都是非常不同的 —— 但 總的來 說,基於共識 和尊重各自

of unique skills and important distinctions. However, perhaps

出都能實現平等。”

argue that such a fluid world of ‘producers’ would lead to a loss in reality the skills are not unique, but simply a socially created

的職 權範圍之 上, ‘我們’ (藝 術家和策 展 人)力圖做到從計劃到展

distinction serving the needs of institutions.

當 問 及平 等 問 題 時,科 爾 斯 頓 似乎 把 其 看成 是 一 種 值 得 追 求 的 東

Throughout the range of practices encompassed in curating

為“平等”是個誤稱。

there is always a relationship between an artist and a curator,

西,儘 管 其 基 於不 同 的 專 業 範 圍 有 著 不 同 的 意義 。凱 里·漢 德 卻 認

and this relationship is rarely discussed and is not intended

“平等似乎暗示著你需要達到某種程度的相同性……我不認為這是

the relationship is contracted, to clarify conditions of pay and

事自己的創作,藝 術家與策展人之間是有著某種程度的共同經驗和

to be visible in the resulting work. In a formal gallery context

tasks, whereas in the situation of an artist curating a show with artist friends there is no desire for contracts. However, neither the paper, or social, contract accounts fully for the unique

environment, atmosphere and expectations created by an

必要的,甚至是理想的——我不想成為藝術家,我認為藝術家樂於從 共識,比如說有著 類 似的理 想—— 找到最 佳 方式 來 把 藝 術家作品傳 達給更多受眾(不管本來有多少)……對我來說,藝術家的角色完全 取決於這個藝術家是誰以及他們工作的方式。”

individual curator, and then the form of the relationship that is

大 型 組 織 里藝 術家和策 展 人(或 組 織)之間的關 係取 決 於 合同,因

normally has a power structure purely because one person is

關係,

developed with the artist. It seems that this relationship, which in charge of the distribution of the work (or the purse strings) is

此這種關係可能會更 加嚴格。但 是,凱 里·漢德也描述了一種靈活的

never black or white, and has enormous potential to be explored.

“依 我 的 經 驗,和 藝 術 家 之 間 有 著 好 的工作 關 係 意 味 著 你 們 互相

In order to understand whether Kirsten Laver’s role as artist-

奮的東西,而這些東西是 你自己一 個人或者和其他人合作無法實現

curator of Taxi Gallery is different to role of a curator, three

questions were put to Kirsten and also to Ceri Hand, Senior

Curator at FACT, Liverpool. The same questions were also put to

尊重各自的長 處 和想法,意識 到合 作可以帶 來 新的,甚至 是令人 興 的……‘ 權 力’的平 衡在 創新 過程中一直 變化不定……如果你一開 始就走對了方向,那麼這就將是一段有趣的過程……”

Kelly Large, an artist who uses curatorial processes to form her

相比之下,當問及凱利·拉奇與藝術家的關係是否“平等”時,她說,

are commissioned to interpret an audio playlist (built by Large

“可能不是吧?我一 般 會讓參與 者在我設 定的框 架里操作,或者幫

work, for example in the project QSL, where artists and writers herself) resulting in a radio broadcast work.

助我 構建 框 架。儘 管是我做的場景設 定,但 是參與人的協助也起到


In contrast, when asked if the relationship between artists and herself is ‘equal’, Kelly Large says,

了推 動項目發展以 及 影 響最 終 結果的作用。因此 我會說,在已經設

定的場景中我 和參與者之間對項目的不同階段所帶來的影響是一直 變動的”

‘No? Usually I ask participants to operate within or contribute to

“ 策 展 人”、 “藝 術家 策 展 人”和“使 用策 展 方式 創作的藝 術家 ”這

manner in which the participant engages help shape the project

不 確 定,時刻變化的關係,仿佛方程 式中的每 個人都會依 據他人的

a framework I have set up. Although I create the situation, the development and outcomes. So I would say that the ability to

affect the circumstances that have been set up shifts between me and the contributors at different stages in a project’

All three- the ‘curator’, the ‘artist-curator’ and the ‘artist who

uses curation’- have a different opinion of equality. However all describe a relationship that is never concrete but always shifts,

三位 對平 等 都 有著不同的看 法。但 是在他 們的描述中,總是有一種 變 化而變 化 。但 是,在 所有這 三種 關 係中,策 展 人都是 藝 術 可見性

的安排者。在計程車畫廊中,關於時間安排、畫廊項目情況、存檔記 錄和展出“ 準文本(推廣計劃,和展出有關的開幕式、講話、表演等 等)”的決策都是由科爾斯頓負責的,儘管藝術家也有建議的權力。 至 於布展安裝 則是藝 術家的工作,如有必 要,科爾斯頓也會 提 供幫 助。類似的,凱利·拉奇也指出,

each person in the equation responding to the other. However, in

“最 終我決 定參與者的貢獻是如何展現出來的——我把他們的貢獻

In the Taxi Gallery, decisions regarding timing, situation in the

因而 項目總體 上 是 凌 駕於 個人作品之 上的。因而最 終的這段‘ 管弦

all three relationships the curator remains the broker of visibility.

gallery programme, archiving and documenting and ‘the paratext of the exhibition (its framing through publicity, associated event opening, talk, performance etc)’, are Kirsten’s responsibility,

用來調和一種觀念(而不是找一 個觀念/主題來調和一系列作品), 樂曲’發出的是我的‘聲音’,這種 個人 對於作品的語境化意味著我 有著‘最終決定權’……”

although the artist is given space to suggest alternatives etc.

The installation is the task left to the artist with Kirsten’s support where necessary. Similarly, Kelly Large indicates,

‘ultimately I decide how the participants contributions are

‘played out’ in the world – I use the contributions to mediate

an idea (rather than find an idea/theme to mediate a group of

works) so the project as a whole is privileged over the individual works. So the final ‘orchestration’ is my ‘voice’ and this personal contextualisation of the works means I have the ‘final say’..’

The Successful Relationship When asked what qualities lead to successful or unsuccessful

curatorial relationships Kirsten points out that prior knowledge and trust are significant factors. However, Kirsten also indicates

that working with friends makes the dynamic ‘harder to negotiate and unravel equitably’. It seems too much intimacy can lead to a struggle for power rather than more equalness. Kirsten

notes that one experiment in working with an artist who she

shared no common values with was difficult, but not necessarily unsuccessful artistically. Ceri Hand also indicates that difficult relationships can be fruitful,

‘Sometimes it’s exciting & challenging to work with people that

Find Out More:

of timing/sense of humour etc. from & it can add something to

www.kirstenlavers.net

you have very different ideas/morals/belief systems/politics/sense your practice, develop you in some way & sometimes you should


‘Is the relationship between you and the artists you work with ‘equal’?’

成功的關係

Kirsten sees the process of working with an artist as an

當問及什麼樣的特點 會帶來成 功或者不成 功的策展關係時,科爾斯

working relationship, leading to joint working,

朋友合作使得這種關係動態“更加難以平等地協商和直言利害”。似

‘exchange’, a moment when either artist and curator initiate a

‘Each relationship is a conversation, a series of stages/steps in which at different times, either the artist or myself as project

initiator takes the lead to propose, suggest, draft, time-table,

imagine, experiment and make …. remaining open to response or suggestions from the other – working towards a sense of shared agreement on how to proceed.’

Kirsten does seem to consider equality as desirable, but it is

interesting that equality is not something that is in place from

the outset, but is something that is strived for and built, strangely parallel to the construction of the work.

‘Each project is very different – but generally, equality - based on

agreement upon, and respect for, demarcated areas of control - is what ‘we’ (artist and curator) attempt to arrive at as the project develops towards exhibition.’

When asked about equality Kirsten seems to see it as something

頓 指出先在的知識 積 澱 和信任 是關鍵因素。但科爾斯頓也提出,和

乎關係越親 近,越會 導致權力的爭奪而不是帶來平等。科爾斯頓提 到了有一次 她 和一 位 與 她 並 無 相 同 價 值 觀 的 藝 術 家合 作 的艱 難 經

歷,雖然這樣的合作未必會帶來藝 術上的失敗。凱里·漢德認為艱難 的關係也可以結出豐碩的成果,

“ 有 時 候 與 和 你 有 著 不 同 想 法、道 德 觀、信仰系 統、政 治見 解 、時 間 觀 念 、幽 默 感 等 等 的人合 作 是 令人 興 奮 和 極 具 挑 戰 的 。這 能 給

你 帶 來 新 的 東 西,讓 你自己有所 進 步,有 時 就 該 相 信自己,大 膽 往 前沖!”

對於凱里來說,信任、誠實以及做好對話的準備是很重要的因素。 “……至少設立一套關於行為關係的原則(也可以不言明)……” 非書面或者不言明的原則很可能招致災難,但是在這樣的情況下,如 果雙方都準備在協商中“跑完全程”,那麼這些原則就是有作用的。

角色 定 義

worth pursuing, although based on separate areas of expertise.

當問及角色 和職責 是 如何定義的,科爾斯頓說,這兩者故 意不進 行

‘Equality somehow infers that there would be a level that you

“網 站上的‘藝 術家 須 知信息’已經包括了我作 為 項目發 起 人能 夠

desirable - I don’t want to be an artist & I presume the artist is

人的角色……保證核心任務的同時,在每個展 覽項目中依據特定的

Ceri Hand sees the term as a misnomer,

would reach, a sameness...I don’t think this is necessary or even happy doing what they are doing, however there are levels of

shared experience & understanding from both parties, presumably

定義,

提 供的東西的簡述,除 此 之 外,我們故 意不明確界定藝 術家和策 展 需求和不同的藝術家個性,我的角色是會變化的。”

with a similar desire in mind - that of finding the best way of

與此類似,凱里·漢德認為“當你開始工作或者某種程度上投身其中

big or small that may be)…. For me the role of the artist is totally

展關係是 很 清晰的,比如 使 用現有材料的情 況等 等,但 是 她 和科爾

communicating the artists work to a wider audience (however dependent on who that artist is and how they like to work..’

時,所有的關係實際上都是在界定角色”。凱利·拉奇說,一些她的策 斯頓都指出,有時,角色變換是不可避免的:

The relationship between artist and curator (or organisation) at

“ 策 展 活 動 和 藝 術 創 作 的 某 些 方 法 是 很相 似 的 —— 兩 者 都包含 研

perhaps it might be expected to be more rigid. However, Ceri

身兼藝 術家和策 展 人兩 職 。當這樣的對話 形成了,策 展 人和藝 術家

a large organisation will be subject to contract, and therefore Hand, also describes a fluid relationship,

‘In my experience a good working relationship with an artist means that you both respect each others strengths & ideas, recognising that together you can make something new &

究 、提出問 題、使 用現 有的 形式 等 等 。和我 合 作 過 的 許 多人每天 都

的身份是 很 難辨別的,想要 把兩種 身份區分開來也是 行不通的。這

種 身 份 的 變 化,以 及 由 此帶 來 的 地 位、所有 權、作 者身 份、傳 播 和 接 受 問 題 讓 我 覺 得 非 常 有 趣,這也 許 就 是 驅 使 我 如 此 工作 的 緣 由 吧 。”——凱 利·拉奇

hopefully exciting, that perhaps either one of you wouldn’t come

“ 在 我 工作 的 各 個 方面 我 對 這 些 角色 的 定 義 是 模 糊 的,因 此 在 畫

all the time throughout the creative process...if you have set off

以協 商 和 決 定 的,而 我 們 採 用 的 對 話 和 交 流 方 式已 在 前 文 有 所 提

to by yourselves or with anybody else...the ‘power’ balance shifts on the right foot then this is an interesting process...

廊 的 語 境 里 ,在 任 何 一 段 關 係 中,我 們 角 色 的 本 質 和 職 權 都 是可 及。”——科爾斯頓·萊弗斯


Transmutation by David Kefford

just trust your gut & steer clear!’

Kelly Large indicates that some of her curatorial relationships,

Trust, honesty and being prepared to pursue the dialogue are

both her and Kirsten note how sometimes the very basis of roles

important to Ceri,

‘...or at least establish a set of guidelines (that can often be kind of unspoken) with which to embark on that relationship...’

Unwritten or unspoken guidelines can often be a recipe for disaster, but it seems that in these contexts, it works if both parties are prepared to ‘go the distance’ in negotiation.

Definition of Roles When asked how roles and responsibilities are defined, Kirsten indicates that they are deliberately left undefined,

‘Roles of artist and curator are deliberately not clearly defined beyond the brief sketching out of what I can offer as project initiator in the “info for artists” section of the website…….

Whilst retaining core features my role shifts in response to the particular needs and personality of the artist involved in each

such as the use of an existing material are very clear but then can shift:

‘certain approaches to curatorial activity and artistic production are very similar –both practices can involve research, posing

questions, reusing existing forms etc. Many of the people I work

with operate as both artists and curators on a daily basis anyway.

When these kinds of dialogue are created the roles of curator and artist can be very hard to distinguish and the separating of the

roles becomes defunct. I am interested in this shifting of position

and the issues of status, ownership, authorship, transmission and reception it produces which is probably why I work in the way I do.’—Kelly Large

‘I blur these roles within all aspects of my practice so within

the context of the gallery the exact nature/remit of our roles is negotiated and arrived at, for each relationship, through

the conversation and exchange process described above.’ — Kirsten Lavers

exhibiting project.’

Ceri Hand does not describe the same shifting boundaries

Likewise, Ceri Hand says that ‘all relationships are about defining

description of the fluid process of negotiation is remarkably similar.

them when you are embarking on them or in them to an extent’.

between roles of artist and curator, however, beyond this the


Who’s Driving?

art is never produced by one person8. In a discussion at Static,

Liverpool, Pete Clark9 pointed out that ‘the tail wags the dog too

It seems that whatever the kind of practice- ‘curator’, ‘artist-

much’- i.e. that we give curators, writers etc too much authority

never concrete but is constantly re-interpreted and shifting. It

realm. It was commented that artists can do without curators

curator’ or ‘artist using curatorial activities’- the relationship is seems though, that in all examples, the curator, by definition, holds the strings of distribution so this power basis is rarely dismantled.

‘issues of connoisseurship and validation are still problematic when a organisation/individual selects artists to work with, regardless of whether they are an artist-curator/artist-led-

and responsibility for creating the artist’s work in the social

and writers etc, but not vice versa. Of course power structures are problematic but it is ridiculous to even speak of art today

without recognising that visibility structures produce the work we examine . Art as we know it is produced by a complex

web of actors and the further we go towards recognising and utilising this the better.

organisation. The relationship between those who control the

For the Taxi Gallery, the quality of the relationship with artists

don’t naturally creates positions of more power or less power’

work itself. This might be because there is a greater emphasis

mediation/ distribution/ visibility mechanisms and those who --Kelly Large

However, perhaps this power relationship isn’t a bad thing. ‘Equality’ probably is, as Ceri Hand indicated, irrelevant, or

impossible bearing in mind the significance of distribution

and visibility structures. All three examples here indicate that

harmony is also not vital and in fact a certain amount of control and knowledge is important, otherwise ‘no one is driving’’ and

the project may lack direction or structure. A difficult relationship doesn’t necessarily lead to a bad project, but a preparedness to dialogue is seen to maximise the opportunity to communicate, for both artist and curator. Perhaps, indeed, seeing the

relationship as a colliding of views (although not ‘colliding of

drivers’!), rather than any dissolution can lead to exciting results. None of these ‘curators’ thought they were simply working to give space or opportunity for artists- all described a far more

robust and active relationship where their own input mattered to the outcome. Perhaps having people who are prepared to justify

their own beliefs and use their power to communicate work they believe to be significant is also important.

It seems that the processes and artist relationships of an

‘artist working as curator’ (like Kirsten) do not represent any

significant departure from the activities of a salaried curator like Ceri Hand. Kelly Large’s activities differ more, being less about a negotiation. Issues of ‘gatekeeping’ or ‘quality arbitration’ remain in place for all three ‘curators’ although to different

degrees. Where activities differ is perhaps their impact on artist’s and community networks, as Basbaum indicated at the outset.

However, perhaps measuring Kirsten’s or indeed Ceri’s or Kelly’s

activities in relation to a norm is irrelevant anyway, when what is of interest is the dynamic relationship that can develop, leading to a new work shaped by the curator as well as the artist.

Perhaps we are moving closer, finally, to the recognition that

seems to occupy as much, if not more significance than the

on the cab’s relationship with the community, or because the relationship is only ever between two people- as there is no

institution to mediate the relationship, as at FACT. However, further than that, it seems that the very relationship and its nuances are a process of construction akin to the artwork. It would be interesting to view each Taxi Gallery show as

an articulation of a different relationship, the cab literally

providing a structure that the artist can choose to inhabit,

dominate or do battle with. It seems that, within the context of Bourriaud’s ‘production’-based practices there is a real

opportunity for the curator-artist relationship and its’ power

relationship to become recognised and critically articulated as part of the work’s context.


凱里·漢德並不像之前二位認為的,藝 術家和策展人的角色有著變化

像科爾斯頓這樣“從事策展人工作的藝術家”和領薪的策展人如凱里·

者十分相似。

不同。利用策展方式創作的藝術家凱利·拉奇在相比之下就顯得更與眾

的邊界,但是,除此之外,其對極具變化的協商過程的描述卻與前二

由誰掌舵? 似乎不管是何種實踐 ——“ 策展人”的、 “藝 術家策展人”的抑或是“ 利用策展方式創作的藝術家”的——其中的關係總是不固定的,總是 可以被重新解讀和變化的。但是,在所有這些例子里,策展人按理說 總是掌控著分配大權,因此這個權力基礎是幾乎無法動搖的。

“當組織或者個人選擇藝 術家進行合作,鑒賞能力和藝 術價值確定

的問題依舊是複雜的,不管他們是‘藝 術家 策 展 人’還 是‘藝 術家主 導的組 織’。那些掌控調節、分配、可見性機制的人和那些沒有掌控 特權的人之間的關係自然就形成了權力高低的地位”-凱利·拉奇

然而,這種權力關係並非壞事。如凱里·漢德所說, “平等”是不合時 宜的,不可能的概念——想想分配和可見性結構的重要性便不言自明

漢德相比,她們的做法以及和別的藝術家之間的關係似乎並無特別的

不同,因為她甚少涉及協商的問題。 “守門人”或“質量仲裁者”的身份

在三位“策展人”身上都有不同程度的體現。他們活動的不同更多體現 在對於藝術家和社區網絡的作用上,正如巴斯鮑姆一開始提及的。但 是,或許把科爾斯頓或者凱利、凱里的活動與一種規範作衡量對是文

不對題,我們更感興趣的是其中不斷發展的動態關係,及其如何形成 由策展人和藝術家共同促成的新作品。或許我們正愈發意識到,藝術 從來就不是單個人創作出來的8 。在利物浦靜態畫廊(Static Gallery)

的一次討論中,皮特·克拉克(Pete Clark)9指出“尾巴搖狗搖得太厲害

了”——意思是,我們給予策展人、寫手等等太多權力和職責讓他們在 社會領域創造藝術家的作品。以前的觀點是,藝術家沒有策展人和寫 手也可以,但反之就不行。權力結構當然是有問題的,但是如果到現在 還不能意識到可見性結構確實構建了我們正在討論的作品,甚至是藝

術,那才是荒唐的。我們所知道的藝術是一張複雜大網上各個演員各 司其職的產品,我們對此認識越深入,利用得越好,對藝術便越好。

了。這三個例子都說明了和諧並不是最重要的,實際上一定層度的掌

對於計程車畫廊而言,和藝術家的關係似乎與作品本身的地位相比,如

方向和結構 。對藝 術家和策 展 人而言,艱 難的關係並不一定會 導致

係更受重視,又或是因為這種關係只涉及兩人——沒有機制可以調和

控和專業見解是關鍵的,否則便“無人掌舵 ”,這樣一來項目便沒有 不好的項目,但是樂意對話確是最大化溝通效果的契機。也許,把這 種關係看成是觀點的碰撞(而不是‘掌舵人的碰撞’!),而不是觀點

的溶解,確實更可能帶來令人興奮的結果。這裡沒有一位“策展人”

認 為 他 們 會 簡 單 地 把 空 間 或 者 機 會 給 予 藝 術 家—— 在 他 們 的 描 述 中,這都是 一段 更 具 活力的關係,在 其中他 們自己的因素 都對 結果

起 著重 大的作用。或 許 他 們是 要 有人證明自己的信念,利用他 們的 力量去傳達他們認為重要的東西——這種想法也是很重要的一點。

-----

果不是更重要,起碼也是一樣重要。這也許是因為計程車和社區的關 這種關係,正如利物浦的藝術與創意科技藝術基金會(FACT)一樣。但 是,比這更深遠的是,這種關係及其微妙之處正是藝術作品構建過程 中與生俱來的。如果把每個計程車畫廊的展出都看作是一段不同關係

的表達,那會是很有趣的體驗,計程車切切實實地提供了一個藝術家可

以選擇居住、支配或者對抗的結構。似乎,在伯瑞奧德的基於“生產” 藝術實踐的語境里,確確實實存在著使得“策展人-藝術家”關係及其 權力關係得以承認並且在作品中得以清晰傳達的可能性。

-----

1.

Jenkins T (2004) ‘Use it or lose it’ The Spectator, 7 February. p.35.

Reference

2.

Rosler M (2003) Someone Says… The Next Documenta Should Be Curated By an

Bourriaud N (2001) Postproduction. Lukas & Sternberg.

Artist. Copyrights Jens Hoffmann and Electroni Flux Corporation. http://www.e-

Gillick L (1993) Curating for Pleasure and Profit. Art Monthly. June. P.15-18.

flux.com/projects/next_doc/cover.html.

Hoffman J (2003)The Next Documenta Should be Curated by an Artist (including

3.

Gillick, L (1993) Curating for Pleasure and Profit. Art Monthly. June. P.15-18.

Basbaum, R and Rosler M (2003)

4.

Basbaum, R “I love ‘Etc Artists’’ The Next Documenta Should Be Curated By

http://www.e-flux.com/projects/next_doc/cover.html.

an Artist. Copyrights Jens Hoffmann and Electronic Flux Corporation. http://

Jenkins T (2004) ‘Use it or Lose it’ The Spectator, February 7. p.35.

www.e-flux.com/projects/next_doc/cover.html

Static (eds Shaw B and Sullivan P) EXIT REVIEW. Static, Liverpool.

Basbaum. R“I love ‘Etc Artists’’ The Next Documenta Should Be Curated By

Wolff J (1981) The Social Production of Art. Macmillan, London.

5.

an Artist. Copyrights Jens Hoffmann and Electronic Flux Corporation. http:// www.e-flux.com/projects/next_doc/cover.html. 6.

Gillick, L (1993) Curating for Pleasure and Profit. Art Monthly. June. P.15-18.

7.

Gillick, L (1993) Curating for Pleasure and Profit. Art Monthly. June. P.15-18.

8.

See Wolff, J (1981) The Social Production of Art. Macmillan, London.

9.

Pete Clark in (eds Shaw B and Sullivan P) (2003) EXIT REVIEW. Static, Liverpool.


TEXT BY 撰文 x SHAHEEN MERALI 莎壬·莫拉裏 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x BOWEN LI 李博文

THE STORIES WE TELL PERFORMANCE ARTISTS AS CURATORS 我們講述的故事 作為策展人的行為藝術家

Matthew Barney, CREMASTER Cycle, 2007 5-channel video sculpture with 5 flat screens, Color, sound Videostill, Courtesy Sammlung Goetz, © Matthew Barney


In many cases artists whose practice is predominantly

在很多情況下,主要進行表演行為實踐的藝 術家們往往因他們作品

tone of their work. Using identity as a primary credential, this

這個問題帶來的結果以 及面對的期許,即行為藝 術家在更 廣大的話

performance based, are recognised by the autobiographical

article will address the consequence and expectations in terms of how certain performance artists are often framed, marketed and

dramatically characterised within the wider discourse; a path that

中的自傳式 敘事而為人 所了解 。本 文以 身 份問題為主 要 線索,討 論 語之中經常需要面對的限制性框 架、市場行為以 及 戲 劇化評 價等; 這 是如此的一 條道 路,行為藝 術家中的一 些人從 此開始了某種 形式 的自我策展實踐,以在藝術世界中展現自身。

The term artworld itself is one coined by the presently

藝 術世界(ar t world)這個詞彙 是由俱有影響力卻不再對藝 術世界

definition has been glossed as follows: something is a work of art

“丹托的定義 是 這樣的:某 物只有在滿足以下條 件之後才是藝 術作

disillusioned and yet influential art critic, Arthur Danto, “Danto’s if and only if (i) it has a subject (ii) about which it projects some

attitude or point of view (has a style) (iii) by means of rhetorical ellipsis (usually metaphorical) which ellipsis engages audience participation in filling in what is missing, and (iv) where the

work in question and the interpretations thereof require an art

historical context.” It has been argued as to how clause iv) makes the definition institutional.leads some to a form of self-curation and a way of making themselves visible in the artworld.

In mining this definition further towards the subject of artists

抱有幻想的重要藝術評論阿瑟·丹托 (Ar thur Danto)創造出來的。 品:(i) 該事物有主題 (ii) 該事物有關於該主題有一定的態度或視角 (有一種風格) (iii) 該態度或視角(或稱風格)使用著一種修辭缺失

(一般是比喻性的),這缺失通過觀眾的參與填補空缺,(iv) 而這作

品以 及相 關的解 讀需求著 一種藝 術史的語境 。”人們 關 於第四 點 如 何能夠體系化整個定義存在爭議。

在探究這個定義對於作為策展人的藝 術家的具體意義時,我們必須 詢問一 個更加一般性的問題:什麼藝 術家被稱作“ 行為藝 術家”,是 否就是那些“進行表演行為的藝術家”?

as curators, one has to ask a more general question; which

我的論點是,這些藝 術家中的許多人以 這樣一種 顯著的方式 被體製

‘artists who perform’?

指向性的。因此,以上的數個條件,包括一 個自傳式的解讀均可在藝

artists are termed Performance artists or should they known as

I would argue that one of the key ways a number of these artists

化:自傳式附錄對於他們作品的呈現、接受以及歷史化來說,仍然是 術家身份認定上使用,尤其是行為藝術家。

are institutionalised is by an autobiographical appendix that

“自傳式 ”標 簽 最 顯 著的例子包括充滿激 情的德 國藝 術家 約瑟夫·

received and historised. So all of the above clauses including the

(Luf t waf fe)。同年,他作為一名空軍無 線電操作員接受了軍事訓

remains indexically linked to the way their work is presented,

distinct one of an autobiographic reading are applicable to artists but specifically to performance artists.

博伊斯(J o s e p h B e u y s)。在1941年,博伊斯誌願參加了德國空軍

練,後在一次 飛 機 失事 事件中存活下來,被 墜 毀 地 居民以 油 脂 和毛 氈包裹所拯救。這些生活經歷一直出現在他的藝術實踐之中。

One of the prime examples of such an autobiographical tagging

他寫道:“然而,在飛機失事後 於雪地中發現了我的是他們(當地韃

1941, volunteered for the Luftwaffe. He began his military training

我在昏 迷 之中,過了整 整十二天才 於一所德 國 戰 地醫院中蘇 醒 。所

would include the passionate German artist Joseph Beuys, who in as an aircraft radio operator in 1941 and the perennial bind of

surviving a plane crash and on rescue being wrapped in fat and felt to keep him alive remained deeply ingrained.

He wrote, “Yet, it was they (the Tartars) who discovered me in the snow after the crash, when the German search parties had given

up. I was still unconscious then and only came round completely after twelve days or so, and by then I was back in a German field hospital. So the memories I have of that time are images that

penetrated my consciousness. The last thing I remember was that it was too late to jump, too late for the parachutes to open. That must have been a couple of seconds before hitting the ground.

靼人),而德國搜救部隊那時已經放棄我了。在他們發現了我的時候 以我所擁有的關於那段時間的回憶穿透了我的意識。我清醒時記得 的最後 一 件事是,現在 跳 機已經 太 遲了,降 落傘已經不能 完全打開

了。那一定是墜機幾秒鐘之前發生的念頭。幸運的是,我沒有綁安全

帶 —— 我一直不 喜 歡 綁安 全 帶,更喜 歡自由活 動……我 的朋友 綁了 安 全 帶,而他 則因為衝 擊力被打得粉碎 —— 事後 幾 乎 找不到他的屍 首。但我肯定 是在 飛 機 墜地 之後 撞出了擋風 玻 璃,而這 讓 我得以 活 下來,儘管我的頭 顱以及下巴受傷了。飛機機尾整個翻起,而我則被

埋 於雪地之中。這 是韃靼 人在幾天後發現我的時候 我的模 樣。我記 得 有聲 音在 說: ‘水( Vo da)’,還有毛 氈 或 是帳 篷,以 及 刺鼻的芝

士、油脂以 及牛奶的味道 。他 們用油脂 包 裹我的身體以讓 我 重新 獲 得體溫,並用毛氈進行保溫。”

Luckily I was not strapped in – I always preferred free movement

在博伊斯的例子中,他的生平成 為了他自我 重新 解讀的主 題 並不是

on impact – there was almost nothing to be found of him

起 源,也 為他慣常使 用的奇 特創作 材質—— 他在 許多激 烈的公共 行

to safety belts… My friend was strapped in and he was atomized

一 件不合 邏輯的事;這段 經 歷成 為了博伊斯藝 術家身份的神話般的


Stuhl mit Fett (Fat Chair), Joseph Beuys, 1981, Wooden chair with fat


afterwards. But I must have shot through the windscreen as it

為藝術實踐中經常使用毛氈和油脂——提供了解讀的關鍵。

saved me, though I had bad skull and jaw injuries. Then the tail

上 述 的 經 歷 指引博 伊 斯 通 過自主再 現、知 識 以 及 組 織 的 回 歸 解 決

the Tartars found me days later. I remember voices saying ‘Voda’

Student Party),自由國際創造力大學(Free International University

flew back at the same speed as the plane hit the ground and that flipped over and I was completely buried in the snow. That’s how (Water), then the felt of their tents, and the dense pungent smell of cheese, fat and milk. They covered my body in fat to help it

regenerate warmth, and wrapped it in felt as an insulator to keep warmth in.”

It is not inconsistent with Beuys’ work that his biography would have been subject to his own reinterpretation; this particular

story has served as a powerful myth of origins for Beuys’ artistic

了他 的 心 理 困 境 。在 這 之後 ,博 伊斯 建 立了德 國 學 生 黨(G e r m a n

for Creativity)以及跨學科研究機構(Interdisciplinary Research)並

於1976年參加了德國國會(German Bundestag)競選。在進行先鋒藝

術實踐質料以及方法使 用的宏觀景觀繪 製的時候,自傳式內容以及 自我掌控成為了對保守意識形態世界有效對峙的必經之路。

我想要指出,對於進行表演行為藝 術實踐或嘗試繼承先鋒藝 術創作 軌跡的藝術家來說,自傳式存在是刷新民主意識形態的必要策略。

identity, as well as providing the interpretive key to his use of

追隨博伊斯腳步的一代藝術家顯著地使用了另一種由藝術家主導的

central to an array of acrimonious public acts.

是藝術團體,而不是協會;更多的是群體以及合作運動,而不是國際

unconventional materials, amongst which felt and fat were

The above encounters led Beuys to resolve his dilemma by

對於存 在或在場意識進 行的運 動。接下來的幾十年內,建 立的更多 範圍內關於特定理念形成的聯盟。

modes of autonomous representation, in a repatriation of

在 這 些 團 裏 ,其 中 一 個 最 重 要 的 是 黑 山 學 院( B l a c k M o u n t a i n

the German Student Party, the Free International University

為 我 們 提 供了一種 集體標 誌 。舞 蹈家 / 編 舞 家 莫 思·坎 寧安(M e rce

knowledge and organisation. Beuys subsequently founded

for Creativity and Interdisciplinary Research and in 1976 ran

for the German Bundestag (parliament). In mapping a legacy

where avant garde materials and methods are used in art, the autobiographical and self governance become a necessary

portal to a successful confrontation to and with the conservative ideological artworld.

The autobiographical presence for artists who are committed to performance or an avant garde trajectory is, I would like to

suggest, a necessary strategy as an act of renewal of democracy. A second form of artistic-led mobility towards presence is evident in the generation that followed Beuys; decades which saw the formation of groups rather than associations, collectives and

C o ll e g e)。在 這 裡,各 個 跨 學 科 的 藝 術 家 之 間 的 敘事或 因 果 聯 繫

Cunningham)、編曲家/音樂家約翰·凱奇(J o h n C a g e)、藝術家 羅伯特·勞申伯格(Rober t

Rauschenberg)以及巴克明斯特·福樂

(Buckminster Fuller)是學院中的佼佼者。凱奇的學生艾倫·開普 羅(Allan Kaprow)定義了偶發藝術(happening)並以此開始藝術 實踐 。壓 縮黑山學院的藝 術 實踐 至 某個簡單的敘 述 是不可能的,同

樣不可能的是 壓縮凱奇或 坎寧安的長 期、有著重要影響的藝 術生涯 至一兩句話。他 們的作品充滿實驗性,在 許多不同的層面上 進 行創

作。黑山學院吸引了一大批日後在 美國產 生了重要影 響的視 覺 藝 術

家、作曲家、詩人、設計師,他們的志趣眾多而龐雜,包括“致力於民 主管理,並相信藝術對於學習的經驗來說是無比重要的。”

在一 個沒有嚴格邏輯確認性或評 判標準的藝 術世界中,美學問題或 市場以及機制問題的解決方案都不是那麼地明晰。

cooperatives rather than an International coalition around ideas.

但是,作為一名策展人,在與藝術家們交流的時候,我可以評估他們

One of the most important was the Black Mountain College,

性遺產。藝 術家群體建立能夠為贏得公眾以及藝 術機構的認可進行

from which a narrative or causal relation to each other as

interdisciplinary artists, provided a collective marking. Dancer and choreographer Merce Cunningham and composer and

musician John Cage emerged alongside Robert Rauschenberg

能夠索取的各種可能性——包括自傳式 標 簽以 及群體 建立等的歷史 有效的準備,並為他們的藝 術實踐獲得創作資金以及獲得展覽機會

做出鋪 墊。藝 術史框 架以 及 集體社 交行為能夠為理 念 推 廣、明確目 標等為了曝光率以及持續性而進行的行為提供便利。

and Buckminster Fuller. A student of John Cage, Allan Kaprow,

自博 伊斯、黑山學院 開始,我 們 逐 漸 生 活工作 於 物 價日益高昂的城

condense the work at Black Mountain College, or Cage and

扭轉了權 威者對於藝 術的控 制,從而改 變了藝 術 實踐 者的狀 況 。藝

later termed and held the first happening. It is impossible to

Cunningham’s extensive and influential careers, experimental by nature and committed to a multifaceted approach. The college

attracted a faculty that included many of America’s leading visual artists, composers, poets, and designers, whose interest was

市之中,租 賃安排逐漸 變 得 不可持 續;藝 術與 奢 侈品的共生 狀 態也

術生 產者需要與藝 術工業 競爭,而後者不成比例的力量 擾亂了包括 信任、善意、慷 慨、慈善、資助 行為、媒體 接 觸以 及 進 入私 人或國家 收藏的機會在內的許多傳統因素。


in an allowance for complexity including that “committed to

在 許多案例中,畫 廊主或他 們的助理 們 介入了許多的關 係 。正 是因

to the experience of learning.”

一直在我們的關係之中尋找安全感,儘 管越 來越明顯的事實是我們

democratic governance and to the idea that the arts are central

In an artworld where there is no logical certainty, judgments,

whether aesthetic or concerning how to evolve in a market or institutional practice are not clearly provable.

Having said that, in my position as a curator and in my

conversations with artists, it is possible to evaluate the potential

為這種破碎的人際關係,藝 術理 念 逐漸被符 號的經 濟所代替。我們 為了這個獨特的生活領域建立的模式也已與現實脫節。

從一 個策展實踐的角度來說,我希望提出以下幾個讓人興奮的理念

展示及 於當代 環境中運作的模式,這些模式能夠讓藝 術家重新以一

定的速 度 進行 發展。更 重要的是,這些模式能夠為藝 術製作 者以 及 活躍於策展實踐之中的人們保留某種獨立性。

that they have been able to source, including the historical legacies

我提出以下的這 些 潮流,以暗 示這 些 脆 弱的關係意味 著:在 進 行 邊

latter have certainly provided cohesive steps towards a form of

踐的藝 術實踐 ——的藝 術家 必須承認在過去二十年內發生的轉 變,

of autobiographical tagging and in the formation of groups. The recognition that accommodates their practice to be embedded into funding and exhibiting structures. Frameworks, as well as collective networking, allow for the distribution of ideas and

緣藝術實踐——行為藝術、數碼藝術、非物質藝術甚至是作為政治實

並必須在自己的工作中加入自我組織這個行為。在很多情況下,他們 都遊離於機構策展人以及收藏家的雷達之外。

address the goal for visibility and continuity.

在兩大重要改 變之中,第一 個重大改 變 是藝 術家講座以 及論文的出

Since the times of Beuys and the Black Mountain College, we

在這裡,我主要想要關注的是那些自視 運作於行為藝 術語境內的藝

find ourselves living and working in increasingly expensive cities with rental arrangements gradually becoming unmanageable; combined with art and luxury cohabitation, the control of art

現;這是90年代藝術理論與藝術實踐之間出現的倫理邊界的縮影。 術家。在上世紀70年代、80年代甚至是90年代開始進行行為藝 術以 及現場藝術的藝術機構並不能如我們意識到的一般關注這種模式。

has to a large extent reversed within its stakeholders, resulting

大 量 進 行 寫 作 的 藝 術 家 之 中 ,主 要 包 括 :西 托 · 斯 特 爾( H i t o

industry whose disproportional use of its prowess has disturbed

Gillick)以及拉比·姆魯埃(Rabih Mroue)——這些藝術家都以一種

in art practitioners. Its producers are in competition with the art the course of trust, good will, generosity and a great deal of other traditional factors, including philanthropy and patronage, access to media, and the entry to both private and state collections.

In so many cases it is the gallerist or its assistants who mediate many of the relationships and it is in this broken interpersonal relationship that ideas have gradually been replaced by an economy of signs. We continue to look for security in our

relationships, although it is increasingly obvious that our models

for that area of life are also not matching up with reality very well. From a curatorial perspective what has been interesting to note

down are the following modes of presenting ideas and operating in this contemporary setting that allow for the artist to recover

Steyerl)、哈倫·法洛基(Harun

Farcoki)、利亞姆·吉利克(Liam

全 球 的視 野 進 行寫作,與焦 慮 文化的現 實 相 吻 合,呈現了一種 模 擬 社會意識的告誡式敘事。

一 個有關市場以及體系對於展覽策劃給予的支持的因素是,藝 術家 實踐的崛起往往是與e-flux的郵件訂閱服務密不可分的。E-flux日益

龐 大的大 型數據 庫以 及 激 進的、實驗性的理 念-這些是e -flux 編輯

團隊作為全球藝 術機構的專業推廣中介的重要行為-已經有效地為 大批 藝 術家提 供了一系列的機會 和有利環 境;e -f lux 成 功 地 將對於

批評人、演講 者、表 演者以 及 進 行 影像 創作的藝 術家 來 說 重 要的數 據和潛能聯繫了起來。在最初,e-flux的期刊以及會議會呈現一群相

近的藝 術家,進而這些藝 術家被推廣至各藝 術機構由策展人策劃的 展 覽 之中,這 些藝 術家的作品繼而被相 應的收 藏 所購買,最 終為商 業藝術市場帶來回報。

their pace of development but, even more importantly, preserve

這一種 基 於 一 群 知 識 份 子 共 同 協作 完 成 的當代 模 式 在 最初只 是由

actively involved in its curatorship.

Ar ts)以及蓋迪基金會(Getty

a sense of independence both as producers and amongst those

I state the following trends by implying that these fragile relationships have meant that artists who are involved in

包括賽恩斯博利視覺藝術中心(Sainsbur y Centre for the Visual Foundation)在內的數個機構進行

支持,但迅速地,包括frieze雜誌在內的藝術刊物也參與到了這個潮 流之中-frieze希望在近年建立一個獨立的藝術教育體系。

marginalised practices, including performance work, digital and

在此總結這種協作實踐模式:在市場以及策展活動之內的視角以及

had to accept change in the last two decades and to incorporate

供橋梁。在這個意義上,這種模式構造了一種網絡,在這種網絡之中

ephemeral artists or even those involved in art as protest, have

self organisation as a working reality. Often they find themselves

藝 術服務能夠非常有效地將數據、信息等與正在崛起的相關哲學提

一大批藝 術家得以規律性地在世界範圍內的眾多相關美術館以及機


outside institutional curators’ and collectors’ radars. The first of the two changes is in the rise and use of lectures and

構之中進 行展 覽活動,並在藝 術 教育機構之中教 授 策 展課程;這 種 話語框架被認可是與現實相關的,甚至在市場中造成了影響。

essays by artists; a foreshortening that stems from the nineties

第二 種 有 著相 對小 影 響 力 的 平 臺 更 多地 與 地 域 話 語 相 聯 繫,而 不

refer here to artists who see themselves in a performing context,

式 的 內 容 對 虛 構 的 或 非 虛 構 的 場 所 做 出 反映 ,進 行 行為 式 授 課 、

production of ethical frontiers between art theory and practice. I a mode not necessary considered as such by organisations who

initiated performance or live art from the 70s, 80s and even the 90s.

是 與 政 治 話 語 相 聯 繫,這 種 模 式 被 稱 作 是 擴 展 中 的 敘 事 。這 種 模

裝 置 藝 術 並 製 作 收 藏 級 別 出 版 物,代 表 者 包 括 藤 原 西 蒙(S i m o n Fujiwara)以及斯拉夫和韃靼(Slavs & Tar tars)。

Prime practioners of the essay performers include, Hito Steyerl,

這些藝術家依賴基金會、雙年展、藝博會的委託製作項目,並同時與

cautionary tales approximating a social consciousness from a

的創作過程允許 他們在不同的層面上進行藝 術實踐-自我策展、出

Harun Farocki, Liam Gillick and Rabih Mroue- all present global perspective, dovetailed to the culture of anxiety.

商業畫廊合作。他們的作品包括物件、影像等,但更重要的是,獨特 版物、物件、影像或紀實錄像等都被當作商業產品被售賣。

A relevant factor to consider in terms of the market and the

在過去,提交研究成果作為藝 術實踐的策略一事往往只是與高等教

these artists’ practice emerged in correlation and association

的不可靠的、迷惑性的平衡;斯拉夫和韃靼(Slavs & Tar tars)的地

institutional support that initiates curated exhibitions, is that

with the pioneering e flux, email subscription service. E flux’s ever increasing meta database and progressive experimental ideas, a

thrust from e flux’s editorial board as a professional promotional agency for global institutions, has effectively provided a series

of opportunities and settings for a group of artists; linking data

育機構的研究經費相聯繫,因為這行為往往是基於策略重組而做出 域語言學網狀包裹研究或藤原西蒙(Simon Fujiwara)引人深思的 旅程-包括調 查考古、旅 行、以 及性 別研究等-則依 賴 對於 特定相 關 性的 發 覺;他 們 的努力贏得了資助 者持 續的投 入,而這 繼而為他 們帶來了重要的策展獨立性。

and potentials which have for these critical writers, speakers,

對於 藝 術家 創作 過 程的 癡 迷以 及 對於 困 難 計畫的支 持對於 資助 者

number of analogous artists were presented through e flux’s

以及計畫作出貢獻;馬休·巴尼(Matthew Barney)的行為作品向宏

performers and video based artists been important. Initially a journals and conferences and progressively created access

for curating institutional exhibitions, followed by their work in

compatible collections, resulting in successful ventures into the commercial market.

Such a contemporary model based on a campus of assembled

intellectuals working with a directed agenda, was the domain of

來說有著非常有趣的角色-資助者因而作為合作製作者對藝 術實踐 大的《懸絲(C r e m a s t e r Cy c l e s)》系列的轉變就是這種角色的代 表性體現,藝 術家電影也因此得以成為大型電影作品。《懸絲》系列 是作為電影長片由巴尼的紐約畫廊主芭芭拉·格拉德斯通(Barbara Glads tone)製作的,這系列影像作品被 視作是藝 術家實 現 策 展 野

心的典範,也被視作是 處理一 個困難的、工業化了的藝 術類 型的重 要成就。

endowment institutions including the Sainsbury Centre for the

很快 變 得明朗的是,作為淩駕於不受限制的集 結之上的權威的藝 術

to art publications including the proposed art education facility

約新當代藝術博物館三年展(New Museum Triennale)與他人共同

Visual Arts or the Getty Foundation but has rapidly been devolved to be established by frieze magazine.

As a conclusion to this first wave of associative practices, perspectives and art services inclusive of the market and

curating have been highly effective in productively linking

data to an emerging philosophical rim. To this extent, it has

shaped a network for a large group of artists who are regularly programmed by related museums and institutions and teach

家往往傾向於使用這種模式。瑞安·特雷卡丁(Ryan Trecartin)為紐 策劃的《包圍觀眾(Surround Audience,2015)》提供了一種裏程 碑式的環境安排,這安排“反映了有關多現實的感覺,或,最起碼,回 應了這樣的一種 想法:數碼科 技已經完全把我們體 驗 世界的方法切

割得支離破碎。”特雷卡丁的作品展於威尼斯雙年展,他也接受了來 自德國柏林KunstWerk、倫敦Zabludowicz收藏等機構的委託創作 項目。這些成就允許 他將自己的群體參與意識置入 紐約藝 術家群體 Dis Collective之中,並共同擔任2016年柏林雙年展的策展人。

on predominantly curatorial courses throughout the world; a

最後,我想要 指出,藝 術家群體在近幾年的活動通 過 允許藝 術家 進

emerged in the market.

了一種特定的生產方式。

framing of discourse that finds itself made relevant and has even

A second and lesser emerging platform is once more related

to discourses with an emphasis on geographies rather than to

行自我抉擇,並對固有階級性的“不可見”以及“無力感”宣戰,加強

許多藝 術家團體成功地進入了策展領域,而他們作為策展人的存在

於藝 術領域越發重要。他們與身邊的環境進行著相似的選擇-這環


political address, as such designated as expanding narratives. The

境包括藝 術市場。我個人相 信,團體的角色的重 要性不僅 僅在 於有

places, achieved through performative lectures, installations and

藝術家生涯的細微解讀而建立的。

content is articulated and reflective of fictional and non-fictional

collectable publications, embraced in the work of Simon Fujiwara

利於進行社交;藝 術家團體是基於他們對於國家內以致 於國際層面

and Slavs & Tartars.

這些團體包括:Raqs

These artists rely on commissions by sympathetic foundations,

蘭卡);Rungrupa(印度尼西亞);Chelpa Ferra(巴西);Ar tist s

biennales, art fairs and concurrently work with commercial

galleries. Their work is collected in the form of objects, videos but, more importantly, the process allows them to realise their ideas on multiple, including self curatorial, platforms from which the

relics as publications, objects, video or documentary material are released as commercial stock.

In the former times presenting research as a strategy for artistic practice, had remained the sole domain of research funding

from higher education institutions, as it is often a precarious and beguiling balance based on strategic re-formulation; Slavs’ and

fearless

Media

Collec tive、Campe

and

the

collec tive(印度);沒頂公司(中國);Theer tha(斯裏

Anonymous、Slavs

&

Tar tar(德國);geletin(奧地 利);The

Otolith Group、Archive of Modern Conflic t、United V isual Ar tist s(英國);

Dumb Type(日本);Chto Delat、AES+F(俄羅斯);Dis、K-Hole、 Exteriority、Bernadette Corporation、Clair Fontaine、Bruce High

Quality Foundation、 Etoy Corporation、 YAMS、 以及年代更為

久遠的Goat Island、Ant Farm、guerrilla girls(美國);GCC Gulf Coperation Council( 海灣地區),以及Arab Image Foundation(黎 巴嫩)。

Tartars’ regional linguistic web-like encasing or Simon Fujiwara’s

這 些藝 術家往往 是 跨學 科進行 實踐的,他 們很快因思想性、關於權

sexuality are dependent on revealing specific correlations; their

以“參與轉向”為出發點完成的對歷史的重新書寫。

intriguing journeys involving gumshoe archeology, travel and

instigations have won over funders willing to stay the course, a

威絕對歷史的聳動性重新評估而為人所熟知。他們的活動包括大量

condition that allows a great deal of curatorial independence.

在很多情況下,藝術家的生涯時而前進,時而停頓-無論是銷售、媒

The fascinating absorption in the artists’ process alongside the

他 藝 術家的目光,但同時也要 接受策 展 人的審 視 。藝 術家仍然 被視

empowering of difficult projects has played an interesting role

for the funders who often contribute as co-producers; a role that

came to the fore in the undertaking of the ambitious Cremaster

Cycles spurred by the performance work of Matthew Barney, a testament to artists’ films as major film works. The Cremaster Cycle was produced as films by his New York gallerist, Barbara Gladstone and is viewed as a tour de force for the curatorial

ambition of an artist and an achievement in terms of tackling a difficult and industrialised genre.

It is fast becoming obvious that artists who preside as an

體關注、作品的規模或甚至 是 批判性評 價。所有的這 些 都吸引著其 作是許多研究的主體,尤其是他們展出的作品以及這些作品被 展出

的方式 、地 點,或 是 他 們與 某 些 特定目標-商業的或 是 其他 類 型的 目標-的距離等。

嘗試追求商業成功或甚至嘗試通過諂媚式行為的累積獲得成功的藝 術家能夠很輕易地被控制著藝 術工業發展軌 跡的人物收 編麾下。在

最 近,進 行行為藝 術以 及視 覺 藝 術 創作的藝 術家許漢 威(Terence Koh)短暫而耀眼的職業生涯便 是一 個很 好的例子-他在大西洋兩 岸 都 舉 辦了重 要的美 術館展 覽,在商業 畫 廊獲 得了成 功,與流行明 星有著緊密的聯繫,然而這一切都不能為他保全持續的藝術實踐。

authority over unrestrained assembling are operating in this

讓 人驚訝的是,許漢 威不是第一 個,也肯定不是 最後 一 個因為感 情

Museum Triennale, Surround Audience (2015) provides a

術家也需要承受體制化了的名聲的壓力,而突 如其來的商業 成 功 也

definitive mode. Ryan Trecartin’s, co-curation of the New

generational setting that “grapples with this sense of multiple

realities, or at least the idea that the digital has diced and sliced the ways in which we experience the world.” The presence of

Trecartin’s work at the Venice Biennale and major commissions at KunstWerk, Berlin and Zabludowicz Collection, London amongst others, has permitted inserting his sense of a community of

interlocutors including the New York based Dis Collective as the forthcoming curators of the Berlin Biennale (2016).

Finally, I would suggest that the recent presence of the

上以 及生理 上無法承受 壓力而放 棄了行為藝 術的人。許多其他的藝 可以為事業帶來損害。


artists’ collective has enforced a sense of production by self-

major exhibitions on both sides of the Atlantic, to commercial

powerlessness.

did not protect his practice.

determination, a battle against hegemonic invisibility and

galleries as well as his involvement with pop celebrities, all of this

Many collectives have successfully ventured into the curatorial

Surprisingly, Koh is not the first or last to emotionally and

in the arts. Some of the choices they have made have

many others have to live up to the storyline as institutionalised

realm and their presence has been incrementally persuasive

synchronicities to others around them including the art market. I personally believe that the role of the collective is not solely

physically surrender to the pressures of performing as a lifestyle, tags or instant commercial success can become toxic.

based on networking but the gentle observation which guides

A balanced, persistent and measured approach, one you are

careers in their national state and, later on, their standing in the

can be had and each conversation does not need be a test but

the intuitive nature of how they have understood and read artists’ international artworld.

These collectives include Raqs Media Collective, Camp and the fearless collective (India); MadeIn Company (China);

Theertha (Sri Lanka); Rungrupa (Indonesia); Chelpa Ferra (Brazil); Artists Anonymous, Slavs and Tartar (Germany); gelatin (Austria); The Otolith Group, Archive of Modern Conflict, United Visual Artists (UK);

compelled towards is needed. One wherein many conversations rather a coming together of ideas and experiences. There is

no set career path in the arts. It might even be seen by some as incoherent, a process that unfolds on its own timeline,

dependent as well as moving at an independent pace that needs maintaining but not necessarily without critically speculating its myths and ones own mythologizing. What better field to test

oneself than to curate and work experimentally to make sense of the whole?

DumbType (Japan); Chto Delat, AES+F (Russia); Dis, K- Hole,

In other words, be one of the people who has something—not

Quality Foundation, Etoy Corporation, YAMS, and slightly earlier

who once in a while tests historical and curatorial contingency.

Exteriority, Bernadette Corporation, Claire Fontaine, Bruce High collectives Goat Island, Ant Farm, guerrilla girls (USA); GCC Gulf

just aesthetically, art historically, or career-wise—at stake, but one

Coperation Council (Gulf and beyond) and the Arab Image Foundation (Lebanon).

Often multidisciplinary, they quickly become known for

thoughtful, provocative reassessment of the absolute history of authorship that inadvertently questions who presents

representation. A large amount of their activities include rewriting from a participative turn that shapes histories rather than history towards an allowance for complexity.

In many cases, artists’ careers do progress in leaps and bounds, whether in terms of sales, media attention, the scale of work or

藝 術家需要一 個平 衡的、持 久的、經 過 規 劃的創作方法,藝 術家 必

eye from other artists, but also from places where the artists’

會,這 些 交 流 不 必是 對於 藝 術家自身的測 試,而應當是 分享眾多理

even critical acclaim. All of these do attract the apprehensive

career is under scrutiny by roving curators. The artists’ remains a subject of research, specifically what and how artists’ work is

programmed and placed or of their proximity to specific goals, commercial or other.

An artist who approaches the idea of success as sales of work

or even by accumulative adulation can as easily be reined in by

須 督 促自己去 尋 找 這 樣 的 一 種 方 法 。這 種 方 法 帶 來 許 多 交 流 的 機 念與 經 驗 的平臺 。在藝 術 領 域中,沒有既 定的職 業 規 劃 。有些 人甚

至可能 會認為這種 狀 況 是非邏 輯的。這個過程在自身的生命之中展

開,依賴於其他事物,同時也保持著一種獨立的步伐,也需要藝 術家 批判性地考慮 這領域之中的諸多神話,以 及自身關於自己所講 述的

神話。有甚麼比這個領域-在這領域中,人們得以實驗性地進行創作 以及策展實踐-更好的理解世界的領域嗎?

‘circuit breakers’ that maintain the steady course of development.

換句話說,在 這個領域中,你將 擁有某 些 獨 特的事 物-不僅 僅 是 美

whose career was short but meteoric is a key example - from

挑戰歷史性的以及策展性的不確定性。

The recent case of performance and visual artist, Terence Koh,

學上的事 物,可以 是藝 術史中的 知識,或 是 擁 有一 個事 業-但也將


FLUXUS

THE UNDEFINABLE

“激浪派”無法定義? TEXT BY 撰文 x QIWEN KE 柯淇雯 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x BOWEN LI 李博文

Compared with the well-known Dadaism, Futurism, Surrealism – the art

上世紀的藝術圈內,若“達達主義(Dadaism)”、 “未來

Joseph Beuys.

熟能詳的名詞,那略顯生澀的“激浪派”似乎是因為沾了

movement Fluxus, as obscure as it was, probably owns its fame chiefly to

In the previous decades, the definition of the Fluxus was already difficult

enough a problem for the followers and the historians. And, time only proves

主義(Futurism)”、 “超現實主義(Surrealism)”是耳 約瑟夫·博伊斯(Joseph Beuys)的光,才逐漸被藝術機 構及公眾所聽聞及認同。

that all efforts have been in vain. There are at least four reasons for this: firstly,

在過去幾十年裡, “定義‘激浪派’”一直是激浪者們熱

movement were scattered around the globe, they were also not interested in

論理據,大致可以從四個層面分析:首先它不存在組織

Fluxus is not an organization. Besides the fact that those affiliated with the

the idea of having a clearly structured organization. Secondly, there was no

single manifesto – there was at least five. George Maciunas, recognized as the

founder of the Fluxus movement, presented at least five manifestos from 1961

to 1966, but everybody else were not satisfied and had reservations. There was no unified style – this is rather easy to understand, as one of its slogans was

“freedom, personality, experimentalism”. Lastly, Fluxus in this way inherited and refreshed the essence of pre-war Avant-garde – anti-art,anti-art sensibility,antiestablishment, anti-commercialism,anti-institutional. No wonder really, it is really hard to start a conversation about it today.

議的頭號難題,然而時間證明了一切都只是徒勞而已。 一說,且不提激浪者們分布松散的外因,他們對歸屬組

織或流派的行為是排斥的;其次,激浪派沒有統一宣言。 盡管激浪創始人喬治·麥素納斯(George Maciunas)在

1961-1966年期間先後草擬了五份宣言但激浪者們均持 保留態度;也沒有統一風格——這並不難理解,統一也就

違背了其口號“自由、個性、實驗主義”;最後,激浪派繼 承和刷新了戰前先鋒藝術的精髓——反藝術、反規律、反

理性、反常規,所以要自立門戶、成为一个独立的艺术流 派是相當困難的。

In this way, it also renders arguments about it rather meaningless. As Robert

這樣看來,爭論的确是无意义的。正應了羅伯特·沃茨

is.”Perhaps undefinability is one of its biggest feats.

麽,也許它本就該這樣子。”換個角度想, “無法定義”

Watts has it:“The best thing about Fluxus is that nobody knows what it

THE STRANGE ORIGIN OF THE FLUXUS The term fluxus finds its root in Latin: flow, flux, flowing, fluid. Fluxus as it is

known today was first used as the title of a cultural magazine, published by

(Robert Watts)的話: “沒有人知道激浪派到底是什 也正是激浪派的一大特色。

“激浪派”的荒誕由來 “fluxus”一詞源於拉丁語,意思是流動的、無常的、搖


Fluxus 50 live documentiert © Stadtmuseum Wiesbaden

Maciunas and friends in New York in 1960. Due to

differences in political views among the publishers they stopped the magazine. After this, Maciunas’ AG Gallery had only a very short life as well.

Fleeing from his debts, Maciunas went back to the

continent in 1961. Inspired by the new atmosphere of the art scene there Maciunas wanted to pick up again the magazine business. In the year of 1962, Maciunas produced a music festival under the

same name as a fundraising and promotion event for the magazine that was to come.

UNCONSCIOUS ABSURD A certain Fluxus spirit was present as early as in

the 60s – artists and intellectuals scattered around the world were unconsciously or rather aimlessly creating works or experimenting by themselves,

擺的。 “fluxus”最早用於一本文化類雜誌名稱《激浪派》,這是1960年麥素納斯和好

友在紐約創辦的。後因政治分歧停止出版,隨後成立的AG畫廊也因經濟不景氣而終止 運營。1961年為了躲避債務麥素納斯逃回歐洲,全新的藝術氛圍讓他重燃了出版刊物 的夢想,基於提升雜誌知名度和募集資金的需要,1962年同名音樂節應運而生。

discontinuously. The most influential one among

無意識荒誕

Experimental Composition course, who exerted

其實激浪精神早在20世紀60年代就出現了,只是當時散落世界各地的成員們無意識或

Brecht, Al Hansen among many others. Only

作精神教父的約翰·凱奇(John Cage)的“實驗音樂(Experimental Composition)”

them was of course the great John Cage and his immense influences on Dick Higgins, George

when the Fluxus music festival took place did the members realized that they were not alone and

were in fact practicing in the spirit of Fluxus.Since then, they become known as the Fluxus-people,

無目的地進行著單獨、不連續的創作實驗。其中影響最為深遠的當屬被一部分成员视

課程,這為當時紐約先鋒派藝術家如迪克·希金斯(Dick Higgins)、喬治·布萊希特 (George Brecht)、艾爾·漢森(Al Hansen)等人帶來了曙光。直到激浪音樂節的正式

聚首,成員們才紛紛意識到過去幾年的藝術活動屬於激浪的範疇,也是從那時起他們 開始被稱作“激浪者(Fluxus-people)”,並以激浪為標誌繼續活躍在藝術舞臺。


Dick Higgins, Danger Music No.2, 1962. Performance at Fluxus Internationale

Festspiele Neuester Musik, Wiesbaden 1962. Photograph by Hartmut Rekort

and started working actively in the art world.

CONSCIOUS ABSURD With the first music festival undergoing in 1962, the founder

Maciunas, without knowing clearly what could define the Fluxus, claimed: “Let’s Fluxus!” Artists following this rather absurd figure started a series of eccentric, unconventional acts, known also as the Neo-Dada.

MONUMENTAL EVENT AS THE BIGGEST SCANDAL? In 1962, the four-weeks long The Fluxus International Festival of

Very New Music took place in the Wiesbaden Museum. This was

the grand opening of the Fluxus, but it already irritated a number of artists and medias because it was prepared only in a short

time and was not well-organized. But the biggest scandal was Philip Corner’s Piano Activities(1962). Corner was not there,

有意識荒誕 1962年首屆音樂節已經在如火如荼地進行中,在創始人麥素納斯尚不 明確激浪派的概念時,他毅然高調宣布: “讓激浪派成立吧!”在這個荒

誕創始人的號召下藝術家們開始了一系列離經叛道的行為,也可以理解 為“新達達(Neo-Dada)”。

裏程碑事件是最大的醜聞? 1962年在德國威斯巴登博物館(Wiesbaden Museum)舉行了為期

四周的“激浪·國際最新音樂節(The Fluxus International Festival

of Very New Music)”。這是激浪派的開端,盡管籌備倉促引起了部 分藝術家與媒體的不滿,但菲利普·科納(Philip Corner)作品“鋼琴

行動(Piano Activities,1962)”確是城中最大的醜聞。當時表演者科

納並未到場,事件起因是運輸經費的短缺,以麥素納斯為首的四位著 名藝術家利用在場工具對那架三角鋼琴大肆發泄,各種即興的節奏合 成樂曲,直到整架鋼琴被摧毀殆盡。這次“偶發事件”在德國人眼裏 是褻瀆了肖邦摯愛的樂器,同時也引起了在場觀眾的陣陣騷動。

to be sure; Maciunas and three other artists, furious about the

但這些出格之舉的影響力卻是出乎意料的。這次音樂會吹響了反傳統

and tools found on-site. They did not stop the impossible

徑,激浪派迅速向全歐洲乃至全球蔓延開來。

financial shortage, abused the grand piano with equipments

improvisation until the piano was shattered to pieces. This event

was considered by the German as a violence against the favourite instrument of Chopin, and immensely agitated the audience.

The impact of the event was, however, surprisingly phenomenal.

的號角,將“新音樂(New Music)”推至風口浪尖。憑借著此等破壞行

無孔不入的激浪精神

“激浪不是:一運動、一歷史性時刻、一組織;激浪是:一觀念、一作 品、一趨勢、一生活、一變化的激浪者。 “——迪克·希金斯


This music festival kicked off the whole traditional event, and

羅伯特·沃茨也曾說過他所見、所聞之處都是激浪。激浪就像是一張網,網

Fluxus promptly spread in the whole of Europe.

在隨後的日子裡不斷有人自投羅網,也有人偏愛在網邊遊徊。

brought New Music to its height. Through activities as such

羅了全世界,也網羅了各路人馬,有畫家、雕塑家、音樂家、作家、建築師等。

OMNIPRESENT FLUXUS

當然 蠱惑人心的“愚民 政 策”絕 對功不可沒——“人 人都是藝 術家”;拒

Fluxus is not: a movement, a moment in history, an

圖,它模糊了生活和藝術,藝術家和觀眾的界限。對於藝術創作,激浪派

organization. Fluxus is: an idea, a kind of work, a tendency, a way of life, a changing set of people who do Fluxworks. –Dick Higgins

Robert Watts said that there were Fluxus wherever he went, whatever he saw. Fluxus was like a web, connecting all –

painters, sculptors, musicians, authors, architects – a great

number of them fell in voluntarily, but a greater number of

絕“高雅藝術”走進“平凡藝術”; “生活即是藝術”等標語勾勒出一幅藍

主張簡易、有趣、不矯飾、注重作品本身、不需要技巧及無止境的聯系,這 又從根本上降低了藝術的門檻,倡導全民參與。

手段高明的激浪者

喬治·麥素納斯(George Maciunas),激浪派創始人,創辦激浪商店使藝術 品量產化,使得藝術不再只是上流社會的玩物。

them oscillated in and out.

約翰·凱奇(John Cage),美國著名實驗音樂作品家,被視作激浪精神之

“ANYTHING CAN BE ART AND ANYONE CAN DO IT”—GEORGE MACIUNAS

沒有任何音符,演奏會受現場環境與觀 眾行為影響,觀 眾從四分半的寂

父。 “實驗音樂”打破了一切既定的音樂法則,其代表作《4′33″(1952)》 靜中去感受一切。他的哲學觀點是音樂的本質不是演奏而是聆聽。

Fluxus blurred the boundary between life and art, and that

喬治·布萊希特(George Brecht),美國觀念藝術家、作曲家、化學家。他發

creation, Fluxus encouraged simplicity, humor, anti-mannerism,

方式廣泛傳播。

between the artist and the spectator. Regarding artistic

focused on the work itself, and did not care for techniques and unlimited associations. This fundamentally freed art from its pedestal and encouraged participation of all.

明了一種藝術形式“事件樂譜(Event Score)”並以郵寄藝術(mail art)的 馬塞爾·杜尚(Marcel Duchamp), “實驗藝術”先驅,他的作品《手提箱裡 的盒子(Boîte-en-valise, 1935-41)》催生了另一種激浪藝術形式“激浪盒

SMART FLUXUS George Maciunas was considered the founder of the Fluxus. He also opened the Fluxus shop through which art became

John Cage was an influential experimental musician, and

was considered the father of the Fluxus. Experimental music broke all set limits, with the 4’33”(1952) as its example par

excellence. The performance of 4’33” did not involve a single note, and the audience has to feel four and half minutes of

silence in which his/her own sound and the environment are brought to the foreground. Cage’s philosophy had it that the nature of music is not performance but the act of listening.

George Brecht was an American conceptual artist, composer and chemist. He invented the Event Score and started spreading art in the form of mail art.

Marcel Duchamp was also considered a Fluxus-people. As an avant-garde artist, his Boîte-en-valise (1935-41) gave birth to

Photography by George Maciunas.

the upper class.

Simultaneous performance, 1964, by Ben Vautier and Alison Knowles.

subject to massive productions, and was no longer a toy of


1965. (Photograph by Minoru Niizuma. © Minoru Niizuma. Courtesy Lenono Photo Archive, New York)

Cut Piece (1964) performed by Yoko Ono in New Works of Yoko Ono, Carnegie Recital Hall, New York, March 21,

another art form of Fluxus: Fluxbox. Fluxbox and Event Score were the two most popular form of Fluxus art.

Dick Higgins came up with the term Intermediate Art.

In the spirit of the Fluxus, Higgins promoted the idea of an art form that breaks the boundary between music, performance, visual art, and literature.

Other representatives include Ay-O, Allan Kaprow, Al

Hansen, Alison Knowles, Joseph Beuys, La Monte Young, Nam June Paik, Yoko Ono among many others.

A CAT AND MOUSE GAME? Thanks to its denial of traditional institutions, this

avant-garde, revolutionary movement of art started

in the 1960s has always been on the border between

the mainstream and its outside. Firstly, in its attitude, it despised the high art – Maciunas argued for the noncommercialization of art in his manifestos. Secondly, Fluxus art was chiefly in the form of performance,

sketching or readymade, and was therefore in fact not

子Fluxbox”。 “激浪盒子“和“事件樂譜”是激浪者 最常采用的攜帶或郵寄作品形式。

of inherent commercial value then. The early Fluxus

迪克·希金斯(Dick Higgins),杜撰了新詞“中介藝

only a handful of collectors devoted their time and

表演、視覺藝術、文學等各領域的界限,形成跨媒

artworks were mostly anonymous or very much private; money to support this unlikely art movement.

術(intermediate art)”。激浪派倡導打破音樂、 體的綜合性藝術。

Beuys was not very much directly involved in the formation

另外積極發揚激浪精神的代表人物還有Ay-O、艾倫·

slogan “Everyone is an artist”, Fluxus was fighting against

艾莉森·諾爾斯(Alison Knowles)、約瑟夫·博伊斯

of the Fluxus. Shared with the major Fluxus movement the art, against institutions, while Beuys infiltrated deep into

the system. Without Beuys, Fluxus perhaps would not be as influential a strange movement of art.

As the Fluxus was becoming evermore powerful, an

卡普羅(Allan Kaprow)、艾爾·漢森(Al Hansen)、 (Joseph Beuys)、拉蒙特·揚(La Monte Young)、白 南準(NamJune Paik)、小野洋子(Yoko Ono)等。

貓鼠遊戲?

irreconcilable break happened from the inside. The

這場盛行於1960年代的先鋒藝術革命一直迂迴在

for the safe placement of the art and its exhibitions, they

檻——傳統藝術機構。首先,在態度上,它拒絕高墻

Fluxus had secured its position in history, but, ironically, had to come back to institutions and to observe the

rules. After five decades, though the movement has yet

completely fulfil its original goal, its spirit still drives and inspires the younger generations.

主流藝術以外。主要原因是它摒棄了最直接的門 內的藝術,麥素納斯在他的宣言中也主張藝術的非

商業化;其次激浪藝術主要由行為表演、草圖或者 現成品構成,在當時並不具備商業和收藏價值。所 以早期的激浪藝術作品是以匿名和私人的方式存


在,只有少數私人藏家願意花時間和金錢去支持激浪藝術。 文章開頭提及了激浪派重要代表約瑟夫·博伊斯,他是分離在激浪派之外的一位特殊人 物。同樣打著“人人都是藝術家”的旗號,激浪派在進行反藝術、反機制的獨立活動,而 他卻是深入藝術機制內部的。盡管與激浪派理念相違背,但是不可否認因為博伊斯的 影響力世界漸漸認識激浪派,並開始認真審視這門“不入流”的藝術。

隨著激浪派影響力的加深,內部開始察覺到一個不可調和的矛盾。激浪藝術已經成為上 世紀60年代不可或缺的代表,諷刺的是,若出於對作品妥善保存和系統展示的考量,他

們似乎不得不回歸到藝術機構中,繼續遵循牆內的遊戲規則。如今激浪派已走過半個世

Art, New York. The Gilbert and Lila Silverman Fluxus Collection Gift. © 2012 Estate of Robert Watts

“Purge the world of bourgeoisie sickness, “intellectual,” professional and commercialized culture, purge the world of dead art, imitation, artificial art, abstract art, illusionistic art, mathematical art, PURGE THE WORLD OF “EUROPANISM!” PROMOTE A REVOLUTIONARY FLOOD AND TIDE IN ART, promote living art, anti-art, promote NON ART REALITY to be fully grasped by all peoples, not only critics, dilettantes and professionals.” - George Maciunas, from the Fluxus Manifesto

Robert Watts.Yamflug / 5 Post 5. 1963. Offset on gummed and perforated paper. The Museum of Modern

紀,雖然沒有完全達成最初的理想,但它的精神持續激勵著後代朝這個目標前行......


A BRIEF HISTORY OF CURATING

《策展簡史》

Lunchbox by Monbento ©ART.ZIP

TEXT BY 撰文 x BOWEN LI 李博文 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x QIWEN KE 柯淇雯


An interesting attempt, through a number of interviews

資深策展人漢斯·烏爾裏希·奧布裏斯特(Hans Ulrich

book a deliberately fragmentary history of curating, full of

訪 談 資料,他刻意將策 展 史 編 撰 成 松散的片段,其中

with veteran curators Hans Ulrich Obrist drafts in this

amusing stories and anecdotes. The form of this peculiar book is outstandingly interesting, resonating with many philosophical and literary thematics of import.

Understandably, in this publication that is in fact an anthology of 11 interviews HUO conducted a while

back – already this transformation and repetition of the

proper name of the author, which is very typical of HUO’s publications, is alarming – the task and responsibility

of narrating a general and generalized brief history of

curating is left up to the preface. Only the author of the

preface is granted with the right and authority to speak as

if to speak outside of the field he is speaking of is possible.

Obr is t )在本書中進 行了有趣的嘗試——根 據 大 量的

充滿了耐人尋味的奇聞軼事,並與許多重要的當代哲 學及文學命題相呼應。

《策展簡史》實際上是“HUO”在過去的許多年內11次 訪談的文選,而這個名字縮寫極度頻繁的出現聳動了某

種傳統的歷史敘事方式-。序言部分交代了編撰這本廣 義上策展史的任務和使命,而這重要的解釋性內容不出 現在正文之中則加深了本書作為對於某段歷史回顧的實

驗性質。所有正文不選擇正面地、絕對地回答的問題,都

可以在克裏斯多夫·切利克斯(Christophe Cherix)完成

的序言中找到答案。在此基礎上,正文部分進行了深入 的建設和解構。

Not that the history and the question of the role of the

讓人驚訝的,小漢斯沒有把這本書當作與當代 藝 術展

but Christophe Cherix provided a constructed base,

展實踐,仿佛整本書就是一個展覽,他徹底將“展覽”

curator are left completely untouched in the interviews, provisional or not, on which further constructions and

destructions become possible in the space of the book. Carefully, one is to leave this book with an impression

that, curatorial practices is already at work in this book, as if this book is itself an exhibition – freed from the limited

definition of this term. Cherix’s position in the book even proposes excitingly the possibility of curatorial practice within curatorial practice. That is, a curatorial practice

覽完全不同的形式來處理;他已然在書中進行了某種策

這個詞從限定的解釋中解放出來。切利克斯甚至還提 議了一項頗具挑戰的可能性——處於策展實踐中的策展

實踐,就像是“俄羅斯套娃”:在展覽中得以繼續策展 的策展實踐。也只有這種做法,才能明確地為策展實踐

的獨立性給出方案——這策展實踐不再是絕對依附於 藝術甚至於展覽之上,而是一種獨立的、能夠在自身之

中繼續發展的學科。以近期一個代表性的展覽為例,倫 敦海沃德畫廊(Hayward Gallery)《歷史再現:七位藝

術家眼中的英國(History Is Now: 7 Artists Take On


mise en abyme: curating curating (curating and it goes on).

Br itain)》就 巧妙地 采 用了類 似的“套

independence curatorial practice or curating (the difference

內進行有着豐富多樣性的策展實踐。

Only this possibility, one is tempted to assert, can justify the between the two is still today baffling to many), from art

娃”模式,在一 個大的策 展實踐框 架之

and from exhibition. A recent inspiring example of this is the

文選中時間的線索同樣不失 趣味。儘管

Hayward Gallery, London, curiously titled in a similar fashion.

令人不禁想起 斯蒂芬·霍金(S t e p h e n

exhibition History Is Now: 7 Artists Take On Britain in the

The time of the book is no less interesting. Firstly, for a book ambitiously titled “A Brief History Of...”, recalling Stephen

Hawking’s great work, it in fact can be read against any linear sequence. Of course this is only made possible by the nature

of the form of anthology (and this form somehow cannot help but add to the suspicion that HUO has been reluctant about

writing a book proper), but this peculiarity of the publication again opens a very interesting path, betraying to a certain

extent the testimonies made by HUO himself and the veteran curators: as a discipline and profession that is related to art, and especially to the radicalization of it, curating meets

historical or historicist readings of itself more with a deflection. Also, the second layer of the time of the book: the curators

listed here in the book are – or were – not young. In a book titled as such – forgive us for speaking of the title time

and again, but the significance of the title really cannot be underestimated, perhaps more significant than titles that

do not attempt to pose confrontational problematics to the

totality of the book – there is an absence of younger curators, those exposed more to the future than the complex past; but the ages of the curators present in the book (the youngest

was Anne d’Harnoncourt, born in 1943) support the structure of an, indeed as title of the last chapter has it, “archeology”:

a younger person seeking knowledge, truth and history that are from the past, distant, remote, on the verge of being

forgotten, buried for good with the deceased, and are subject to a retrieval that could only be fragmentary. In a way, not

unlike Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi in Derrida’s Archive Fever. “To

書名《XX簡史(A Brief History Of...)》 H a w k i n g )的著作,但事實上它沒有鮮 明的時間導覽順序,讀者可以根據閱讀習

慣從任意章節入手,這與文選這種書籍形

式自身的特性有關(或多或少惹人懷疑筆

者不願編撰一本嚴格意義上正統的書籍)。 有趣的是,這種另闢蹊徑的做法在一定程 度上背離了作者本人和其他資深策展人的

初衷:作為一門與激進藝術相關的學科和

專業藝術實踐在這本書中躲閃了歷史性 的或歷史主義式的解讀。

其 次 ,書 中 列 舉 的 全 是 老 一 輩 策 展 人,其中最年 輕的是安妮·德·哈農庫特

(Anned’Harnoncourt),出生於1943 年。 (原諒我需要重提書名這件事,但本

書 書 名與 內 容 的 獨 特 對 立 關 係 不 容 小 覷)一本以“簡史”命名的書籍全盤忽略 了新興策展人們,這些未來的棟梁之材。 但老一輩策展人所處的時代正好呼應了

本書的最後章節的名稱,《考古》:出生 於上个世紀60年代的HUO在“考古”,在

遙遠的過去中探詢知識、真相以及歷史, 以從 遺忘、埋葬以及死亡之中挽救這些

過去,儘管這種挽救行為只能打撈起歷

史的碎片。在某種程 度上,HUO就像是 雅克·德裏達(Jacques 案狂熱(Archive

Derrida)於《檔

Fever)》之中描述的猶

太 歷史學者尤瑟夫·耶魯沙爾米(Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi)-為了一個譜系的位 置而不遺餘力。 “謹以此紀念安妮·德·哈


the memory of Anne d’Harnoncourt, Walter Hopps, Pontus

農庫特、沃爾特·霍普斯(Walter Hopps)、蓬杜·於丹

already this second list of absence and mourning counters

茲·梅耶(Franz Meyer)和哈羅德·塞曼(Harald Sze-

Hulten, Jean Leering, Franz Meyer, and Harald Szeemann” – the first list of presence, increases its own length, counts itself again and again patiently. It already negatively but actively

answers the call for the death of the curator. Independent and

parasitic at once, the death of the author needs no extraneous force other than that of time.

But certainly, an auto-affection is not absent in a book of such nature. Nobody else is as familiar with all of the interviews

(Pontus Hulten)、讓·裏爾寧(Jean Leering)、弗朗 emann)。這份悼念性的、有關“不在場”的名單急 切或耐心地等待著回應書中的另一份名冊-“在場”

名單,既消極又主動地宣布了策展人以及這種特殊 身份的死訊。無論是獨立的或是寄生的, “策展人”

的死亡-如果作者的死亡、藝術家的死亡、哲學的死 亡一般-都只是時間問題而已。在這個意義上,這本 書在直接地、毫不避諱地討論著歷史。

included in this publication, but perhaps nobody else is as

然而,毋庸置疑的是,作者的自戀躍然紙上。沒有人

the interviews were conducted quite a long time ago, a good

經驗,但可能也沒有人會像他一樣對這些人物事件

interested in the interviews in its totality as well, given also that number of them already published previously. In this sense,

this is also an archeology that pertains to the author himself, digging up previous efforts that are hopefully to gain more importance as time goes, as life goes.

The form of the recently published Ways of Curating

會像作者一樣熟悉所有的訪談內容,所有的第一手 有著如此濃厚、持續的興趣。另一方面,這些訪談發 生於很久之前,其中好多也已經發表過。從某種 層 面而言,這就是一門針對奧布裏斯特先生本人的考

古學,隨著時間的推移和生活的繼 續,作 者再次挖 掘之前的功績,希望有更重大的收獲。

(Penguin Books, 2015) by the author soon proved to be no

小漢斯最近出版的《策展的方式(Ways of Curating)

post-preface, and is very much autobiographical, narrating

度的品讀價值。序言本身並沒有採用一般的“後序”

less interesting. The prologue itself resists the usual form of HUO’s life since when he was sixteen, while involving a

number of important names. To some people’s delight, HUO does not “believe in the creativity of the curator. I don’t think that the exhibition-maker has brilliant ideas around which the works of artists must fit. Instead, the process always

starts with a conversation, in which I ask the artists what their

unrealized projects are, and then the task is to find the means to realize them.” Or, in another place, “...curating follows art.” To my delight, the Latin etymological root of curate is also

introduced: curare – to take care of, as I have written in a recent article also included in this issue. Also, more importantly,

perhaps, this author who writes as if he is in fact curating in writing, remembers on this occasion the great David Weiss, truly extending the list of remembrance that he started.

(企鵝出版社(Penguin Books),2015)》同樣具備高

形式,而是以自傳體的形式敘述了作者與藝術家的關 係,在藝術中的生涯-打16歲之後的生活開始說起。

其中也提到了很多重要人物。令人欣喜的是,作者有着 很明確的、政治正確的觀點: “我不相信‘策展人的創

造力’這回事。我不認為策劃展覽的人有什麽奇思妙

想能完全匹配藝術家的作品。策展應當從對談開始, 首先我會問藝術家有什麼未實現的計劃,然後我再想 方設法實現它。”文中另一處也提到: “……策展尾

隨著藝術。” “策展”, “curate”一詞在拉丁語詞源中 為“curare”-照看、關照,在本期專題的另一篇文章中

我也提到了這點。對於我來說,更重要的是,這位成功 地將寫作轉變為某種策展實踐的人物也沒有忘記在這 本書的開頭向偉大的藝術家大衛·魏斯(David Weiss) 致敬,真正地延續了藝術、死亡與歷史的關係。


TRUTH FROM HEART: INTERVIEW WITH DU HUALIN

內心的真實:專訪杜華林

“家鄉人的狂歡──賽狗” ,2013

INTERVIEWED BY 採訪 x CHEN MENG 陳檬 PHOTOGRAPHED BY 攝影 x ZHANG YIHONG 張一弘 DIRECTED BY 策劃 x WU YUYAO 吳玉耀 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x YU CHANG 于暢


ART.ZIP:Since when did you take to photography?

ART.ZIP:您是從什麼時候開始喜歡攝影的?

the age of five and my dream had been to be able to study in academy of

前後七年,考了三次,以西北五省第一名的專業成績考上

D:I have been fond of fine arts since I was little. I started to learn painting at fine arts. So within seven years, I took part in the examination three times and was finally admitted to Xi’an Academy of Fines Arts with the highest

professional course score throughout the five provinces of North West China. My first choice was oil painting, unfortunately, it did not recruit students

that year. At that time, it was quite difficult to be admitted to a university.

杜:從小喜歡美術,5歲學畫,願望就是要考入美術學院。 了西安美院。油畫是最好的選擇,但那一年不招生。當時

考上大學很難,在老師勸說下勉強上了西安美術學院工藝

系學平面設計。大學選修課有攝影,攝影和美術是相通的, 都是二維空間,可以相互感悟。

Therefore, after a lot of persuasion of the professor, I was reluctant to enrol in

ART.ZIP:您是如何看待早期國外的攝影作品?

of our optional courses and I believe that both photography and painting

前的黑白攝影拍得不好,懂攝影的人,有畫面感的,卻對

Graphic Design in Technological Design Department. Photography was one belong to two-dimensional space and are thus interrelated.

ART.ZIP:What is your perspective on the oversea early photography works? D:When photography was first invented, it was black and white. Laymen did

not think of black-and-white photograph that much of excellence. However,

professionals and the adept did think highly of the pictures taken in that era,

杜:最初攝影術發明的時候是黑白片,普通人也許覺得以 那個時代的作品非常欣賞,因為上上個世紀許多美術史上 的大師都在參與攝影,德加(Degas)、庫爾貝(Courbet)、籍

裏柯(Gericault)等等,他們把握了攝影中的場景、光線、模 特、動態、道具、服飾等等,操作機械的“攝影師”只是按 下快門。

because in 19th century many great masters in fine arts history, like De-gas,

ART.ZIP:中國人開始怎麼接觸了攝影?

good command of sets, light, models, motion, props and costumes, unlike

事,拍照大多是名人的事情,儀式感很強,很認真對待。早

Courbet, Gericault, were very interested in photography, and they had a

many mechanical photographers--the only thing they know was clicking. ART.ZIP:What about Chinese photography? When did it start?

D:In late Qing Dynasty or even in the period of Republic of China(1912-1949), taking a picture in the photographic studio was a big event in one’s life. Generally, only celebrities had the chance to do so. They took it quite

seriously, like participating in a ritual. Most of the portraits were dignified and of serious looks, hardly with any other facial expressions. Since the exposure time was really long, the model needed to remain still for quite a while. At

杜:清末甚至是民國,去影樓拍照都是一個人一生中的大

期的人物攝影多是端莊嚴肅的,幾乎沒有表情,曝光時間 很長,需要“模特”固定下來。當時沒有燈光設備,全靠自

然光,窗口光有局限,就必須有天窗,照相館都設在房子 的最高層,也成了“影樓”這個名詞的來歷。現在人人有手 機,都會拍照,都喜歡拍,不管拍的好不好,高興就可以。 ART.ZIP:攝影最吸引您的是什麼?

杜:對攝影的愛好源於對美術的熱愛,喜歡視覺的東西。

that time, lighting equipments were unavailable and only natural light could

ART.ZIP:因為喜歡繪畫所以才喜歡攝影?

storey where skylight could compensate the limited lighting provided by

設計為生。劉半農說過攝影容易入門,很不幸,只好拿攝影

be utilized. Therefore, photo studio was originally often set on the topmost windows. That was why we often referred to photo studio as a “storied

building”. Nowadays, people just enjoy taking pictures with their mobile

杜:小時候想做畫家,無奈上了美院卻學了設計,後來並以 來過過癮。

phones whenever they like, whether they are skilfully professional or not.

ART.ZIP:那為什麼不直接從事繪畫?

ART.ZIP:How does photography attract you the most?

要很長的時間來磨練功底,現在做不到了,畫不出名堂了。

D:My interest in photography originates from my passion for fine arts. I like visual stuff.

杜:搞設計時間太長了,這個職業毀了我的夢想,繪畫需 攝影相比繪畫容易操作,耗精力小。但骨子裡並不喜歡攝 影,只是玩玩,玩物喪志了。

ART.ZIP:Can we just presume that you love photography simply because

ART.ZIP:攝影有很多流派,就像繪畫有很多流派一樣,您

D:I always wanted to become a painting artist when I was a child. Instead,

杜:好像是法國人最早形成一種風格叫“畫意攝影”,它更

you like painting?

things didn’t turn out the way you expected, I ended up studying design in

the academy of fine arts and thereafter make a living by being a designer. Liu Bannong, who published the first book on the art of photography in China, once said it is not hard to learn the rudiments of photography, but you are probably just able to take it as a treat or favourite pastime.

的偏愛是?

美一些,追求“畫”風,甚至連畫的筆觸都在模仿,像畫,我

更喜歡。目前科技發達,後期製作可以造出一些“畫意”。臺 灣的郎靜山就是攝影手工時代的暗房大師,現在可以叫“

後期”畫意大師吧。電腦出來的“畫意”,特別是缺乏美術 功底的攝影師做的後期畫意,沒有個性,千人一面了。


痛處──家,2013

ART.ZIP:Why don’t you switch to painting as your professional career as

ART.ZIP:您平時喜歡拍攝什麼題材?

D:I have spent too much time in design industry, which practically

樣,老外和中國人不同,他們瞧不起風景、靜物畫家之類。畫

you love it so much?

destroyed my dream of an artist. Painting requires persistent efforts and years of accumulation, which I failed to persevere and now unlikely to

make it. Compared with painting, photography is easier and less timeconsuming. It does not take tremendous amounts of efforts either.

Honestly, I am not passionate about photography. I just do it for fun, which kills the ambitions.

ART.ZIP:Like painting, photography has many schools. What is your preference?

D:The school “Pictorial Photography”, which might be originated from

France, seeks to mimic the beauty of painting. It is very similar to painting

杜:喜歡拍人物。有點像過去的西方畫壇大多喜歡人物畫一

家選模特和普通人心中的美是有差距的,主要要有特點,我 拍照也一樣。我常常很喜歡老家質樸的原始的,滿臉皺紋的 農民,拍出來有味道,有特點, “土”味十足,也親切,也許因

為我骨子裡太土了,常常忽略了都市美,有種人很固執,老喜 歡從前的味道,我就是。

ART.ZIP:一方水土造一方人,其實人都是生活在過去的, 更多的人都是從“過去”提煉精華而不是未來。

杜:或許可以講我對視覺的感情偏好,大多來自於幾十年的 繪畫功底,所以也在無意間左右著自己的審美趨向。

in many ways, even in brushwork, and it is my favourite style. Now, with

ART.ZIP:有種說法“繪畫過濾現實”“攝影拷貝現實”您怎

production. Long Chinsan, a Taiwan darkroom expert, who is proficient

杜:有人說過藝術比歷史還真實,我覺得也是,寫“歷史”的

the advanced technology, we could create pictorial effect through post in photo processing, now could be called a “post” pictorial photography

master. However, the pictorial effect created by computer, especially those pictures processed by photographers with little aesthetic sense, is pretty monotonous and lack of individuality.

麼看待攝影的真實?

人要講回避,相對搞藝術的自由些,各類藝術都差不多吧,

各有各的過濾與真實。比如新聞攝影講究紀實,畫意攝影講 究畫面,但是兩者同時又都有人為的成分存在,不管出於什

麼原因。新聞紀實攝影也會帶有明顯的個人偏向性,你選擇


ART.ZIP:Do you prefer any particular subject in your

的瞬間、人物、動態、光線、氛圍等等都是有意無意人為的,一個事物在不

D:I like taking photos of people. You know, unlike Chinese

所謂真實是在每個人的心裡。

photography?

artists, many in the West prefer figure painting and hold scenery or still life painting in contempt. Most artists

have various standards for beauty when they are looking for models. They value the peculiarities of the models.

同的瞬間可以呈現完全不同的表像,也會因此導向不同的本質。所以可以說 ART.ZIP:您覺得中國和外國的攝影作品有不同嗎? 杜:單從畫面來講,就像中國畫和外國畫的區別。

So do I. I like to take pictures for the plain and rustic

ART.ZIP:繪畫和攝影對你的設計有影響嗎?從您的攝影作品中能感覺到

strong characteristics. I find their wrinkles affable and

杜:所有與造型有關的藝術沒有繪畫功底是挺難想像的,繪畫是對造型藝

farmers in my hometown, who just naturally own the unpretentious, maybe because this kind of natural bond to rural areas is in my blood. So I am not very keen on

metropolis beauty. Sometimes I could be very stubborn about my preference for the old and primitive flavour.

您的職業風格嗎?

術簡易而最有效的訓練方式。攝影和設計都是一種圖形藝術,平面設計有 圖文,也是圖形,對圖文的把握也是對審美功底的考驗。或許我的攝影裏能

偶爾看出平面設計的影子,人有某種個性和某種文化背景,做事的時候都會 自然而然的流露,掩飾不住。種瓜得瓜,種豆得豆就是這個道理。

ART.ZIP:People are shaped and influenced by the land

where they were brought up. Actually many people live in the past, they like to extract essence from the past history rather than from the future.

D:Maybe my preference for visual stuff is related to my

decades’ practice of painting . It has subconsciously affected my aesthetic appreciation .

ART.ZIP:There is a saying “painting filters reality, while photography copies reality”. What do you think of the reality brought by photography?

D:Some people say that art holds more reality than history

does and I agree. People have to avoid certain things when recording history, while comparatively speaking, art has more freedom. I think different types of art are similar,

they all filter and at the same time preserve the reality. For

example, news photography, very similar to documentaries, emphasizes on the record of actual events, while pictorial

the same time, both of them will reflect the photographer’s personal inclination, out of various reasons. Even news

photography, the aim of which is to record reality truthfully, is largely affected by personal preference in terms of the chosen moment, figure, motion, light and atmosphere.

One object or subject could be presented quite differently

when it is captured in different moments, which will in turn convey different messages. We could say that reality is in each individual’s mind respectively.

ART.ZIP:In your opinion, how do the photography works of China differentiate from those of other countries?

D:From the single aspect of image, the distinction is

similar to the difference between Chinese paintings and foreign paintings.

同學,2013

photography stresses tableau or screen image. However, at


ART.ZIP:Do painting and photography have an impact

on your design? Does your design style reflect from your photography works?

D:With no painting practice and persistent training, it is hard to

produce any outstanding formative arts or plastic arts. Painting can

be a simple structure of fine arts or plastic arts, and apparently is the

most effective way for the training. Both photography and design are graphic art. The image and text of graphic design necessarily need a good aesthetic sense.

I suppose my photography works mirror some features of my graphic design. What you do is naturally affected by your personality or your

cultural background, you just can not hide it. Just as the proverb goes, as you sow, so shall you reap.

ART.ZIP:Currently, modern media are booming. As a graphic print

medium, photography might have its own limitations. Do you think it will be replaced by other media?

D:Take Chinese calligraphy as an example, neither Chinese people nor foreigners need it in terms of daily utility, but it survives nevertheless. Different from machines, art will be not substituted by newer or

stronger version, because art cannot be categorized into superior art or inferior art, and there is no such thing as “art progress� or art evolution.

Can you say photochrome is better than black-and white photography and the latter will be substituted? No. Prior to the invention of

photography, painting plays an important role in recording actual

events or visual images. However, after photography came into being, the status of painting is not swayed at all, because not only can

painting record events, also painting is irreplaceable because it can deliver emotions. Therefore, no matter how media are developing, photography will be preserved for its own noticeable elements. ART.ZIP: How do you cultivate yourself in photography? Du:Though China has a large population and numerous

photographers, it still lag behind many countries in terms of

photography. Most people just like to take photos, but lack a basic understanding of the essence of photography. And professional

photographers focus their attention on the brand or model of camera

they use, or things like aperture and speed. It is just like the artists who only care about brush or paper they use. Actually, the tools are not

the most important part and their function in improving your artistic

skills is limited. Those who create cameras are not necessarily the good photographers. Art, such as painting and calligraphy, needs to be

inherited. So does photography. You are a success if 90% of your works are influenced or inherited from your predecessors and only 10% of

them are created by yourself. But if only 10% of your works are inspired or inherited from the predecessors and the rest 90% are created by yourself, you will fail. The hardest part is how to learn the 90%.


老同學的目光,2014 老同學的目光,2014

ART.ZIP:現代媒介很發達,攝影是一種平面媒介,也許存在

ART.ZIP:你如何提高自身的攝影修養呢?

杜:比如中國的書法,從純粹的使用功能,外國人不需要它,

大國,很多喜歡攝影的人缺乏基本的對攝影本質的理解,同行交流的時

局限性,攝影會被其他更新的媒介取代嗎?

中國人也不需要它,但它仍然存在,藝術不像機器,新的取代

舊的,強的淘汰弱的,藝術不同,無高下之分,也沒有“藝術 進步”這一說,你能說彩色照片比黑白照片好嗎,乾脆把它

取代了,不能。攝影沒有發明前需要繪畫,因為繪畫可以紀實

視覺,但有了攝影繪畫並沒有受到影響,因為繪畫不僅能紀

實,更能傳情,而且這個“情調”他物代替不了,不管媒介怎 麼發展,攝影也會以攝影的情調而生存。

杜:中國人多,拍照片的人也多,但我覺得中國仍然屬於比較落後的攝影

候常常注意力放在你用什麼相機?用什麼光圈、速度之類,就好比畫家 交流的時候只關心你用什麼筆,用什麼紙一樣。器材只是工具,會用就

行,無需深究,造相機的人未必能拍出好的照片,器材從本質上提高不 了你。繪畫、書法等等藝術都是需要傳承的,攝影也需要傳承。你的作品

裡面,百分之九十是前人的,百分之十是自己的,你就成功了;如果你的

作品裡面,百分之十是前人的,而百分之九十是自己的,那你就什麼都不 是。難就難在這百分之九十的學習。


MAVERICK

INTERVIEW WITH ZHU TIAN

造反有理 專訪藝術家朱田

Portrait by Claudio Cazzara. Courtesy Academy Now

TEXT BY 撰文 x HARRY LIU 劉競晨 EDITED BY 編輯 x NICHOLAS ANDERSON 尼克拉斯·安德森 TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x CAI SUDONG 蔡蘇東 IMAGE COURTESY OF 圖片提供 x TIAN ZHU 朱田


Zhu Tian, graduated from the Royal College of Art MA Sculpture, won the 2015

畢業於英國皇家藝術學院雕塑系研究生的朱田獲得了

new works for the event in Londonewcastle Project Space. Before the winner

外七位提名藝術家為此獎項新創作的作品於5月在倫敦

Catlin Art Prize. Together with the other seven nominees, she is staging her

announcement, Zhu and her works have claimed keen interest from various quarters. Her growth as a Chinese artist and unique artistic logic is a special

showcase of what the younger generation of British Chinese artists can achieve on the foreign soil.

Zhu Tian has a Chinese nickname “Tiantian” (literally meaning “sweetheart”),

2015年度英國卡特琳藝術獎(Catlin Art Prize),她與另

新城堡空間(Londonewcastle Project Space)與大家 見面。在公佈得獎消息前,朱田的藝術創作已經受到了

各方的積極關注。作為一名華人藝術家,朱田獨特的成 長歷程和創作邏輯展現了年青一代旅英華人藝術家的別 樣風貌。

which probably cause some of her elders to expect a sweet and fair lady. In fact,

朱田,小名甜甜,以“甜”為名應該是長輩們對她寄予的

and exquisite face. However, in conversation, the sharpness upon her brow

看上去,她確實是一位標準的江南美人,嬌小玲瓏的身

at first sight, she does appear a proper Chinese fair lady with her dainty figure

clearly differentiates her from others—she is a different kind of “honour student”. Before coming to Britain, Zhu was following a standard Chinese “honour

期望,愿她能出落成一位甜美可人的佳麗,的確,第一眼 材、標緻甜美的面容,但交談起來她眉宇之間的英武之 氣卻讓她顯得格外不同,她是不一樣的“三好學生”。

student” pathway but what distinguished her from others was that under the

在來到英國之前,朱田看似是在走一條標準的“中國式

had not been stifled, or to put it another way, she was so cunning as to strike a

習成績的掩護下,她的“叛逆”精神和對文藝的熱愛沒

cover of excellent academic performance, her rebellious idea and pursuit of art balance—in order to win more freedom for herself and create the possibility to “rebel”, she had to maintain a good enough academic record as a bargaining chip; luckily for her, excelling in exams was no big deal.

In college, Zhu felt utterly disappointed with the stiff and ossified Chinese

higher education. In one exchange program with a Hong Kong university,

三好學生”的道路,但不同於其他人的是,在優異的學

有被扼殺掉,或者說她狡猾地找到了這兩者之間的平衡 ─ ─為了能夠給自己留有更多的自由空間和“造反”的 可能性,她必須保證能有足夠優異的成績來作為博弈的 籌碼,畢竟,對她來說搞定考試成績並不是很難的事。

直到進入了大學,中國大學教育的死板和僵化徹 底讓


she for the first time experienced the western higher education

朱田感到了失望,在一次到香港交換學習中,

served as the prelude for her move to the UK; and it was also such

教育模式深深地吸引了她,這便是她到英國留

system, whose openness deeply attracted her and which in fact an advanced education model that inspired her to re-consider and re-plan her professional career. After arrival in Britain, Zhu

applied for Economics with her financial education background, but she knew for sure that she would not proceed further in this orientation—what she was craving for was the world of art she was already deeply in love with. Thus, a detour to achieve her

dream was taken; soon after she graduated with a BA in Economics from the University of Nottingham, she took an MA in Sound

Design in Bournemouth University, and later engaged herself in work related to sound design in London for a few years. It was

not until 2008 that she first embarked on artistic creation under

the context of contemporary art by taking part in the exhibition “ ” in the Victoria & Albert Museum, which profoundly changed

the course of her life. The unlimited possibilities in contemporary art creation deeply moved her and from then on, Zhu Tian finally came to a clear realization of her calling as an artist.

Zhu Tian’s experience and her art career form a strong contrast with other Chinese artists in Britain as well as those Chinese art

她接觸到了西方的高等教育體系,這種開放的

學的前奏,也正是這種新式的教育模式,開啟 了她對自己職業生涯的考量和重新規劃。在來

到英國之後,雖然是以金融相關的知識背景申

請的經濟學課程,但她知道自己不會在這個領 域發展,她的志向是在她所熱愛的文藝世界當

中。於是一條“曲線救國”的道路展開了,從諾 丁漢大學的經濟學本科畢業后,她又取得了伯

恩茅斯大學(Bournemouth University)聲音 設計專業的碩士學位,而後又在倫敦從事了幾

年與聲音設計相關的工作。直到2008年,在這 一年,朱田參與了維多利亞和阿爾伯特博物館

(Victoria & Albert Museum)的《中國當下設 計(China Design Now)》的展覽,這是她第一

次在當代藝術語境之下進行藝術創作,而這次

的經歷深刻地改變了她的人生軌跡。當代藝術 創作中的無限可能性深深地打動了她,從這一

刻起,朱田明確了她的發展方向─ ─成為一位 藝術家,至死方休。

students who study in the UK. Zhu was still a teenager when she

朱田的經歷和從藝的過程與其他的駐英藝術家

which enabled her to quickly fuse the conflicts and collisions

和他們相比,朱田在十幾歲的時候就來到了英

first set foot in Britain, her values and logics not yet fully formed,

between eastern and western cultures, and bring into being a logic

system featuring a harmony of western and Chinese characteristics. Thanks to her outstanding academic performance and mastery of English, she was able to merge into British society and have

access to a large volume of first-hand professional information.

Most importantly, her rebellious attitude and independence could be brought to full play in a country which encouraged individual endeavor and critical thinking; at the same time, she did not

receive any Chinese artistic education or undergo formal training

and professional molding in fine arts, therefore she was free from technical and intellectual limitations, which in turn seamlessly

prepared her for the core values of art education in the west. All of

these make Zhu Tian the way she is today, a young artist with great potential. Instead of saying she is destined to pursue art without herself knowing it, it would be fairer to conclude that it is the

relentless devil inside her who demands to justify itself and remain rebellious that spurred her on the road of art with no turning back.

及留學英國的中國藝術類學生都有很大的不同, 國,她尚未完全成型的價值觀和內部邏輯可以使 她更快地將東西兩種文明的衝突和碰撞進行快

速的融合和雜糅,建構一個中西合璧的邏輯體 系;此外優異的學習成績和英語基礎也讓她能

夠更快地融入英國社會和汲取大量的一手專業

諮詢;最重要的是,她內心的叛逆和獨立在英國

這樣一個鼓勵個人發展和提倡批判精神的國家 中正好可以被良性地放大;同樣,她並沒有接受

過中國的藝術教育,沒有受過科班的模具化的專

業美術訓練,這也使得她沒有太多技術上和思想

上的包袱,可以無縫連接西方藝術教育的核心價 值。以上的這些特質造就了今天的朱田,一個充

滿潛力的青年藝術家,如果說她是在命運的安排

下冥冥之中走上了藝術的道路,或許更應該說, 是她心中那個永不停歇的“小惡魔”為了能夠名

正言順地不停“折騰”和永葆“叛逆”本色而驅 使她走上了藝術的不歸路。

Zhu is versatile in her art and adopts a wide range of media,

朱田的創作多種多樣,採用的媒介也是不一而

commonly used. Her works also cover a variety of themes, so it

且她的作品內容題材也非常豐富,很難將她簡單

among which; performance, sculpture and installation are most is hard to classify her into any certain types. Her works this year

however, do give us some clues for what she is interested in and the creative logic she employs.

同,行為、雕塑、裝置都是她常用的表達方式,而 地歸結為任何一種藝術家,不過從她今年的作 品當中,我們或許可以看出一些她所關注的領域 和創作邏輯。


Selling The Worthless (2014)_Video

DISDAIN BODY AND EMBRACE SPIRIT SELLING THE WORTHLESS, 2014

對肉體的不屑、對精神性的崇尚 《賤賣品(Selling the Worthless, 2014)》

In this work, Zhu staged a social networking auction for her body, where

在這件作品中,朱田將她的身體通過社交媒體的平臺進

of 0 yuan. At the same time, she also put her dreams for sale with extremely

個部份,起拍價是0元;但同時,她也打算將自己的夢境

anyone could bid on any part of her body in A4 size with the starting price

high prices. She views the body as nothing more than a carcass, a container, even a prison, but dreams are a unique landscape created by her free spirit,

which thus has a direct bearing as to what is personal and valuable to her as an individual. In this sense, the superiority of dreams’ epiphanic nature over

標價出售,但售價會非常之高。她覺得,肉體對於她來說 是一具驅殼,一個容器,甚至是一個監獄,而夢境則是

她自由靈魂創造出來的獨特景象,真正牽涉到她作為一 個個體所有的隱私和有價值的東西,對比之下,肉體凡胎 與靈光一現之間高低自見。

Bullshit (2013)_Sound Installation

earthly body is all too apparent.

行拍賣,任何人都可以出價來競拍她身體上A4大小的一

QUESTION AND CHALLENGE AUTHORITY BULLSHIT!, 2013

對權威的質疑和挑釁 《扯/胡說/胡說八道! (Bullshit!, 2013)》

This work is a perfect reflection of Zhu’s idea that any scene, action or sound

這件作品印證了對於朱田來說,任何的場景、行為和聲

and contempt for established rules in this work has become iconic of Zhu. She

表現出來的黑色幽默和對既有規則的鄙視成了她標誌

can be an instrument and procedure for her artistic practice. The black humor

音都是實施她藝 術創作的一 個工具和環節,作品之中


played a recording shouting “Bullshit!” at random intervals from concealed

性的符 號 。她 將一 個錄有以隨機間隔大喊“ Bullshit( 放

to comment on the works and the audience was filled with expectations,

人士開 始 點 評 藝 術家作 品的 時 候,在觀 眾 們 翹首以盼、

speakers pre-installed at the venue. When critics and authorities began

her recording set in—it is not difficult to imagine how the derisible and fragile relationship between the authority and audience was suddenly shattered when “Bullshit!” arose out of nowhere interrupting the self-

important commentaries by “masters” in which the audience had totally lost themselves. The mere thought of it can instantly prompt one to laugh.

虛 席以待 的 時 候 ,她 開 始 播 放 這 件 作 品 。可以 想 像 ,在 觀 眾安 靜地 聆聽“大 師 ”品評 的 時 候,當“大 師 ”沉 醉 於

高 高 在 上“ 指 點 江 山 ”的 美 妙 時 刻,一 句 不 知 從 何 而 來 的“ B ull s h i t( 放 屁 )!”打 破了可笑 和 脆 弱 的 權 威 和受 眾之間的關係,不禁讓人忍俊不禁。

CONFLICT BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND THE MASS TIE, 2014

個體和集體的衝突 《捆綁/關係(Tie, 2014)》

In a group exhibition in Vienna, Zhu deliberately changed her exhibition

有一次在維也納的群展當中,朱田有預謀地在開展之前臨時

center of the exhibition conspicuously tying herself to a chair on a tall plinth

人眼球的行為表演─ ─將自己綁在一個柱子的頂端,並邀

plan before the opening. She put on an eye-catching performance in the

and inviting audience to interact in any way they like. However, she never

disclosed her intention—to test how other participating artists responded to such an unexpected incident and what conflicts, if any, would happen

among the artists as a collective, and the curators and artists as individuals. Not surprisingly, such an act caused a stir in the exhibition and among the artists, some of whom protested while others supported it; meanwhile,

the curators were busy arguing with artists and coordinating a response.

Tie (2014)_Performance

屁)!”語音的播放器 悄悄地置 於展 廳,當批評家和權 威

改變了展覽計劃,要在展廳顯赫的中央位置來實施一個奪

請觀眾以他們任何願意的方式與她互動。但其實她未向眾 人揭露她的真正意圖,其實是想測試其他參展藝術家在面 對這樣突發事件的時候會作出什麼樣的舉動,而且驗證一下

在藝術家群展中,藝術家群體、策展人和作為個體的藝術家 之間的政治會發生什麼樣的衝突。果不其然,這樣的變動讓

本來平靜的展覽和藝術家們躁動起來,有的表示不滿,有的 表示支持,而策展人則不停地與大家爭論和協調,最後這件


In the end, the work was pushed from the center of the venue where she

作品的展示位置從朱田要求的展廳中央不斷地被邊緣化,

of the exhibition. What’s more, the official introduction of the work never

覽介紹中對這件作品的闡釋也並沒有體現出這種深度的內

revealed the depth of it, and this is also why Zhu was willing to adopt

performance art—“you have to be on the spot where there are always

uncertainties which ensure different outcomes every time; the immediacy and directness of such confrontation is what other media are short of”.

最終被勒令禁止在展覽開幕當天呈現出來。而且官方的展 涵,這也是朱田非常願意採用行為藝術的方式進行表達的 一個原因: “必須在現場,總會出現各種不確定的因素,每

一次都會有不同的效果,這種短兵相接的真實和直接性是 其他藝術媒介不具備的。”

CHALLENGE THE ESTABLISHED RULES MONEY(2015-) ,

對既有規 則的挑 戰 《錢(Money, 2015 -)》

This is a performance piece intending to last from April 1 (2015) to the day

這是朱田今年4月1號開始的一個計劃持續到死的行為作品,

yet notorious topic; money is taboo and it is considered impolite to ask how

都不願意去談的話題, “錢”成了一種禁忌,詢問對方存款的

the artist dies. In her opinion, regardless of culture, money is an inescapable

much one has. As an artist, Zhu is also nagged and fettered by money issues, and she copes with them by publishing a report of all the money she has on a monthly basis. Anyone can demand a copy of her bank statement in any given month to see her income and expenditure. She is well aware of the

potential risk in doing this, and even met with tremendous opposition from

her family, but she is quoted as saying “I resent money so much, which is the biggest shackle and obstacle in my life so far, and I have this strong impulse to battle with it, I want to see what influence it exerts on my and our life.

Publishing my finance is a way to intentionally observe it from a long-term

perspective of a distant third party and to present myself as an experimental

object which hopefully can entail a chance to re-consider money issues for us, and if it will bring disaster to me, then just let it be, fuck it!” She said she would carry on with the work for her lifetime, whether you believe it or not.

在她看來,在各種文化當中, “錢”都是一個繞不開、但大家

多少往往被看做是一種無禮的表現。作為一位藝術家,朱田

也同樣被錢的問題所困擾和束縛,而她所採取的行動就是 ──每月公佈自己所有的存款金額數,任何人都可以向她索 取她當月的銀行帳單,看到她的各項支出和收入。當然她也 深知這樣的行為有巨大的潛在危險,甚至受到至親家人的極

力反對,但用她的原話來說: “我恨死錢了,錢是目前我人生

受到的最大的束縛和阻礙,我有種很強烈的想跟它死磕的 沖動,我想看看它和我、我們的人生到!底!是什麽樣的關 系、能產生什麽樣的影響。公布我的存款狀況是想借這個行 為,以第三方的距離對它(錢)做長期有意識的觀察,並把自 己作為一個實驗對象提供給大家對關於錢這個事思考的契

機。如果這個決定會給我帶來災難,那就讓它來吧,去他媽 的。” 她說她會將這件作品做一輩子,不管你信不信。

Money, 2015﹣

demanded to stage her work and eventually banned on the opening day


Top right: Cling To A Curator (2015), Performance with Laura Petrillo (Academy Now)

Bottom right: Cling To A Curator (2015), Performance with Zavier Ellis (Charlie Smith London)

TAKE LIFE LIGHT-HEARTEDLY CLING TO A CURATOR (WORK IN PROGRESS, 2015) In her recent artistic practices, Zhu has employed ridiculous

measures to express her objection to the existing systems of

exhibition and art. She stripped naked and held the curators she collaborated with like a koala, with cling film binding them tight

together. A naked artist and a neatly dressed curator tied to each

other—it is such an absurd sight and though it might not look good, it does depict the reality of the current art circle that young artists

should try every means possible to cling to curators so as to attract

more attention and opportunities. Zhu has once again brought the typical British humor and sarcasm into full play.

用戲謔的手段來調侃生活 《抱大腿/緊貼策展人(Cling To A Curator (work in progress, 2015))》 在最近的藝術實踐當中,朱田採用了一種很滑稽的手段來表達她對當下展

覽體制和藝術界規則的意見:她把自己脫光,用考拉的姿勢環抱住與她合 作的策展人,並用保鮮膜將他們倆牢牢地捆在一起。一個是赤裸裸的藝術

家,一個是衣冠革履的策展人,被綁到一起的樣子的確很荒謬,但這就是一

個對當下藝術界現狀赤裸裸的描畫─ ─青年藝術家就得不顧一切地與策 展人緊密地結合到一起才能得到更多的關注和機會──哪怕場面並沒有那 麼好看。朱田將這種典型的英式幽默和諷刺發揮得淋漓盡致。


ART.ZIP: How do you comment on your work? Are there any issues and

ART.ZIP:你怎麼看待你自己的創作?有沒有特別關注的問題

ZT: At this point, I try not to think too much about my work as a whole.

ZT:目前為止我很少去總結自己的作品,我現在只是剛剛開始,

directions you are particularly interested in?

I am just starting out, and I am still exploring many subjects and media. The only thing I am sure of is that my art is a life-long undertaking, and I am extremely averse to stability and a predictable future. I get bored very easily, and only making art can sustain the adventurousness and

instability that I crave. As for the direction my art is taking, I have very few restrictions and plans; I’m instinctively skeptical and anti-authority. I tend to ask ‘Why?’ or ‘Why not?’ The more I am told not to do certain things,

the more I have to try them out to see what on earth will happen. When faced with stock answers and established systems, I always have this

irresistible desire to poke them, to try and bring what is underneath to

the surface. Maybe there is an anarchic punk in me? I think there needs

to be someone like me in society to balance the system. So, in my work, I often question the existing rules and default practices, and engage with power-related issues.

ART.ZIP: It is difficult to discern your Chinese background from your works, have you ever considered your identity as a Chinese artist?

ZT: Absolutely not. I have never considered it, because the categorisation of people according to “countries” is a rather dated notion that needs to

be left behind. We live in a highly mobile and fluid time and any attempt to define ourselves based solely on a certain nationality or culture is just wishful thinking. I am not a sociable person, either in China or the UK; I

am very skeptical of the idea of collectivity, especially when they reach a certain consensus in their opinions. My work simply represents me

as an individual. I feel very reluctant to be categorised under any labels

(like Chinese, British, immigrant, post-colonist or even male/female), but rather as a person, a lone particle in a strange world.

ART.ZIP: Are you interested in any artists and media in particular? ZT: Yes, I like many artists, such as Francis Alys from Belgium, Bruce

Nauman, Martin Creed and Tehching Hsieh. I am very fond of Michael

Landy’s ‘Break Down’. I like it so much that I wish it was my own work.

I have often imagined myself abandoning all earthly possessions but

Landy really did it! He fucking did it for real! That is incredible! In terms

of media, I seem to feel more and more attracted to performance art as

I become more aware of its advantages. When you have a question and decide to ask it through performance, it provides you with answers of some sort. It’s a living process. To some extent, you are no more than an operator; the performance work has a life and development of its

own. Whereas with most other media, there’s less dynamism, you start with a question and it often ends there. To me, a work that is beyond

its maker is a work with life. A work born from meticulous control and manipulation is at best a mere confession of the artist.

和方向?

我對很多題材和媒介都很好奇,想作各種各樣的嘗試,我唯一 能確認的就是藝 術是我想要持續的工作內容,我特別害怕既 定的未來和穩定的狀態,也特別容易覺得無聊,只有藝術創作

可以讓我保持一種冒險和不穩定的狀態。對於創作的方向,我 沒有給自己作任何限定和規劃,但我脾氣很佞,遇事情總是會 問“為什麼”或者“為什麼不”,越是被告知不能或者不讓幹

的,我就越想去嘗試,看看到底會發生什麼。對那些既有的答 案或者體制,我總是覺得需要做點什麼,用手指去捅一捅,看

能不能捅出些隐藏在表面下的问题来,我的本質裡應該是帶有 粗糙的朋克和少量無政府主義精神的吧。我覺得需要有我這樣

的人存在,才能保持系統的平衡,所以我作品當中經常會對很

多既有的規則和默認的行為模式發起挑戰,也會有關於權力關 係的討論。

ART.ZIP:在你的作品當中很難看出你的中國背景,你有沒有考 慮過身為中國藝術家這樣一種身份的問題?

ZT:完全沒有,我從來沒有考慮過這個問題,我覺得以“國”來劃 分人群的概念是很過時的、需要趕緊被淘汰的。在我們現在所 處的這個流動性這麽強的液體時代,想要以單一的某個國籍和

文化來定義自己幾乎是一廂情願的事。我從來都不是一個合群 的人,在中國的時候是這樣,在英國也是,我很抵觸集體這個概

念,人群對我來說很可怕,特別是當人群的意見達到某種統一 時是最可怕的。我的創作僅僅只是以我作為一個個體出發,並

不希望被套到更大的群體性概念中去,什麽中國的英國的移民 的後殖民的,我甚至連男性女性的標簽都不想要,就是一個 “人”, 地球上莫名其妙存在的一顆粒子。

ART.ZIP:有沒有喜歡的藝術家和藝術表現方式?

ZT:嗯,我有很多喜歡的藝術家,比如比利時的法蘭西斯·艾里 斯(Francis

Alys),布魯斯·諾曼(Bruce

Nauman),馬丁·克

利德(Martin Creed),謝德慶。最喜歡的一件、嫉妒到恨不得 是自己的一件作品,就是邁克·蘭迪(Michael Landy)的《崩潰 (Break Down)》,我曾在腦海里無數次地演習,想像自己拋去 一切物質束縛的場景,但他是真的這麼去做了!牛逼炸了!在藝

術表現形式上,我好像越來越受行為的吸引。我越來越看到行 為的優勢,它在你產生並提出一個問題的時候幾乎能在執行這 個行為的過程中立刻給你某種答案,相對來說,你只是一個被

動的執行者,這個行為事件的本身才是高於你、真正有生命的主

體。而其它任何的藝術形式,幾乎在你提出問題的同時,就產生 了一種固化的局面。對我來說,作品淩駕於作者之上的才是真 正有生命的作品。創作者操控局面精打細算嚴格控制產生的作

品頂多只能算一次作者的自白,除非你是異於常人的偉大之人, 不然意思就不大。對我來說這些都是次等品。


Photo by Claudio Cazzara. Courtesy Academy Now

FIND OUT MORE: Catlin Art Prize Now entering its ninth year, the Catlin Art Prize is an annual event showcasing the most promising art school graduates one year on from their degree exhibitions. The Prize is unique in providing the artists (short listed) with the time and opportunity to develop their practice, encouraging them to demonstrate their progress by producing a new body of work to be exhibited at

Londonewcastle Project Space, London. The selected artists are taken from The Catlin Guide and

are considered to be producing work of an outstanding quality, which demonstrates their capacity to make a significant mark in the art world during the next decade.

The curator of the Catlin Art Prize is the independent curator and art writer Justin Hammond. Catlin Group Limited is an international specialist property/casualty insurer and reinsurer and a

leading underwriter of art insurance, both in the United Kingdom and worldwide. Catlin underwrites fine art insurance for a wide variety of clients including museums, dealers, exhibitions and private collections.

www.artcatlin.com


Dirty (2015)_Installation

卡特琳藝術獎 今年是卡特琳藝術獎的第九個年頭,每年卡特琳藝術獎都會從當年的全英最優秀 的藝術學院應屆藝術畢業生當中甄選出40位優秀畢業生,並為其中8位入圍藝術 家提供資金和場地來創作新的參展作品,這些藝術家是被業內關注并有潛力成為 卡特琳藝術獎策展人是藝術評論家、獨立策展人賈斯汀·哈蒙德(Justin Hammond)。 此獎項的冠名贊助商是科特林集團,這是一家國際範圍內專業類財產和意外保險 公司,其在全世界範圍內的藝術保險領域居於領導地位。卡特琳藝術保險的客戶 非常廣泛,包括了很多博物館、藝術經銷商、展覽以及私人藝術收藏品。 www.artcatlin.com The Catlin Art Prize 2015, 8th-30th May Londonewcastle Project Space, 28 Redchurch Street, London E2 7DP

My Dearest Wish (2015)_Installation

未來優秀藝術家并改變藝術史走向的傑出才俊。


ESSENTIAL EXPERIMENTS ZHANG PEILI— ON THE POSSIBILITY OF ALTERNATIVE READINGS

必要的實驗

張培力——探討另一種閱讀的可能性 TEXT BY 撰文 x XUHUA ZHAN 湛旭華 EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY 編譯 x CHRIS BERRY 裴開瑞 XUHUA ZHAN 湛旭華

The artist Zhang Peili brought his work ‘30 x 30’ to the 1988

1988年,黃山現代藝術討論會上,藝術家張培力帶來了

audience to be locked up in a room watching his new work for three

鎖的房間裡三小時不停歇地觀看他的新作——以家用攝

Conference of Contemporary Art in Huangshan. He intended for the hours nonstop. Shot with a home video camera, it is a 180-minute video that shows a pair of gloved hands repeating the process of

breaking a mirror, then gluing it back together, and then breaking

it again. However, people lost patience in less than 10 minutes, and

the premiere of China’s first video art work was abruptly interrupted. Shot from a fixed position without any post-production editing or

post-dubbing, this piece not only launched video art in China, but also

一件作品《30X30》,按藝術家的設想:觀眾將被關在反

影機拍攝的180分鐘錄像裡重復播放一雙帶手套的手不 斷地摔碎一塊鏡子,然後粘合,再摔碎的過程。但放映不

足10分鐘後,影片就被焦躁的觀眾打斷了。這件以固定機 位拍攝,無後期配音和剪接的作品成為最早的一件中國 當代移動影像作品和中國當代藝術史上一個被不斷討論 長久的話題。

became a topic of hot debate for years to come.

張培力無法被簡單地歸類為一個“錄像”或“新媒體”藝

Zhang Peili cannot be neatly labelled as a “video artist” or “new media

斷挑戰各種先驗觀念的工作方式上,他甚至不願被定格

artist,” and he does not like to be geopolitical labels like “Chinese”

either. Looking beyond the Chinese origins of his source materials, Zhang Peili’s art takes the objects themselves as givens. His work interrogates media conventions and the relationship between

individual agency and dominant ideology, including a variety of

術家。也許,因為其獨有的警覺的思維方式正體現在不 於中國人的身份或被地緣政治化概念解讀。如果抽離他 作品中“國產”的那些元素——它們只是在他的世界能順

手拈來的創作“物質”而已。正如沒有誰會為一塊油畫 布打上東西方標簽之分。

‘ism’s. Zhang keeps emphasizing that his art “never specifies any

張培力一直強調他的工作‘從來不制定任何原則,只是

with a term like “experimental”: “An experimentation with principles

在: “有原則的實驗並不是實驗,放棄的實驗也許是實

‘principles’ but only some ‘concrete facts.’” He is even uncomfortable is not experimental at all; abandoning experimentation may be

more experimental.” His work communicates his philosophy and

logic: casting doubt on dogmatism, mainstream perceptions and assumptions, and instead verifying through his practice.

一 些 具體事實 ”甚至“ 實驗 ”這 類 詞 都讓 他 感到不自

驗” (見黃專文)。剝離中國化特定語境的解讀,可以看

到藝術家自己對事物的態度是客觀自然的,他的作品體

現了他的哲學思想與邏輯:對教條主義、主流認知等各 種先驗觀念提出的簡潔理性卻鋒利的詰問並以藝術反復


To Zhang Peili, photography, film clips and video are the “source elements

驗證,同時展開另一種閱讀的可能性。

screening entitled “Essential Experiments: Zhang Peili” to present an

拍攝、電影素材和影像 對張培力而言是 一種“ 創作元

parts. First, there are the 80s’ and 90s’ work that embodies the concept

張培力》集中回顧張培力的移動影像創作。這次展覽分

for his creation.” This May, the British Film Institute (BFI) is holding a

overview of Zhang’s video art practice. The show is divided into three

of boredom and the aesthetics of manipulation through video’s medium specificity: “30 x 30”, “Document on Hygiene No. 3”, and “Water—The

Standard Version from Cihai Dictionary.” Second there are works made

from 2000 onwards which generate “multiple possibilities for reading through “revisionary montage” and “re-creation with found footage

from old films”: “Actors’ Lines”, “Last Words”, and “Happiness”. Finally,

outside the screening room, there is the cake installation work “07 May

—27 May” that analyses the relationship between the virtual and realist

properties of images through an experiment with ‘Liveness.’ .

I have a conversation with Zhang Peili prior to the BFI exhibition. ZXH:You started out painting in oils, and then turned to video art. Why? ZPL:The art media keep changing. As you know Chinese only use ink and watercolour. Oil painting, print and photograph are all from the West.

When we were studying oil painting in the 1980s, we didn’t know about video art, but then we discovered that art had greater possibilities than we could realize. It was very exciting. But it also had something to do

with personality. I like to look beyond the place where I now stand, and I’m always eager to try new possibilities.

素”,2015年5月英國電影協會(BFI)將以《必要的實驗: 三部分:80-90年代以錄像制作體現無聊和控制美學的: 《30X30》、 《(衛)字3號》, 《水-辭海標準版》;2000

後以“影像蒙太奇修正”手法,用50-70年代老電影素材

創造“不同的閱讀可能性”: 《臺詞》、 《遺言》、和《喜 悅》;還有用“場景性”實驗剖析影像的虛擬和真實之間 邏輯關系的影像裝置作品《5月7日-5月27日》。

借著這次BFI的展覽,我們邀請了藝術家談談他的創作。 ZXH:您早期學習油畫,後來轉到錄像藝術。是什麽驅 動了這個創作上的改變?

ZPL:藝術家使用的媒介手段一直在改變中:最早中國只 用水墨,後來西方傳來油畫和版畫,後來有攝影,這都有

別於中國的傳統藝術媒介。80年代之前學油畫時,我們 還不知道錄像藝術,原來藝術的可能性比我們了解的多

得多。等有了技術和物質條件,為創作提供了刺激,驅動

了新的嘗試。用什麽手法創作跟個人態度有關:有些藝

術家對媒介態度較穩定,我可能不太安分——對於自己 已經習慣、太熟悉的事缺乏興奮,當有新的可能性總想 去嘗試。簡單說是外部條件和內在條件決定。


30x30 1988

ZXH:Although China was not very open in the 70s and 80s,

ZXH:在七八十年代,當時的信息不是很開放,但也有一些資料能通過

most influential?

術家影響比較大的?

some examples of new media art got through. Who was

ZPL:We knew people were working with video, but we couldn’t get to see the works. We knew about Nam June Paik and Bruce Nauman, but we only had journals and low quality photos to

go by. When it comes to influence, perhaps other things such as philosophy, literature, films, dramas and art theories were more important. For example, we could watch some great films, like Wenders’ Paris, Texas. All those long takes were something

we had not seen before. I was among the very few who had the patience to finish the screening. Other film such as The

Godfather, and Once Upon a Time in America were popular

amongst artists. I was amazed by Ingmar Bergman, and The Tin

Drum is my another one of my favourites, which I have watched

several times. We also exchanged videos amongst ourselves of films like 8½, Blow-Up, and Last Tango in Paris.

各種渠道了解。當時有哪些電影作品和藝術家對中國第一代新媒體藝 ZPL:實際是我們當時受到的影響是多方面的,不僅是錄像藝術(Video

Art)。80年代早期我們已知道國外藝術家用錄像創作,但當時我們只看 到一些文獻和模糊圖片,如白南準和布鲁斯·諾曼(Bruce Nauman),但沒 看過作品。當時的影響更多來自哲學,文學,電影,戲劇,藝術理論。 這跟

早期西方油畫傳到中國不一樣,西方人企圖讓油畫能融入到中國的欣賞

習慣中。影院當時能看到一些不錯的電影,如娜塔莎·金斯基(Nastassja Kinski)主演的《德克薩斯州的巴黎(Paris,Texas)》。當時我驚訝於這部 電影沒有很炫的情景、動作和拍攝手段,卻有很多長鏡頭,前所未見。但

觀眾覺得片子很悶,最後影院只剩下我。除了電視臺和影院公映的,更多 在錄像廳看到如《美國往事(Once Upon a Time in America)》和《教父 (The Godfather)》等影片。看到英格瑪·伯格曼(Ingmar Bergman)的電

影比較晚,但那是讓我最激動的; 還有《鐵皮鼓(The Tin Drum)》、我看 了很激動,看了好幾遍。 再後來大家常交互錄像帶看如《8½》、 《巴黎最 後的探戈(Last Tango in Paris)》和《放大(Blow-Up)》等。


ZXH:You used home video cameras to make videos, then footage from old

ZXH:您使用錄像制作,使用電影片段,到後來用錄像裝

media what are most concerned about?

ZPL:我最關注的是新的可能性——新的語言的可能,在

films, and now you do video installations. When you are using different new ZPL:All I care about is new possibilities- the possibilities for creating a new

language. I hate repeating myself or others’ ideas. Abandoning the old for the

new is an important attitude in art. All the revolutions in the history of art stem from the desire for the new and dissatisfaction with the current situation.

置。在使用這些不同的新媒體創作元素中您最關注什麽?

創作中語言的重復——重復自己或別人都是很可怕。藝 術中的喜新厭舊是很重要的態度。所有的藝 術史上鬧

出來的一些事/藝術上的革命最基本的都是喜新厭舊, 不滿足。

ZXH:You insisted that we should not subtitle your works. Why?

ZXH:您的作品如《喜悅》、 《遺言》在國外放映不加字

fundamental aims and attitude of my works, and not to the dialogue in the film

ZPL:對於我來說,我希望觀眾關注的是我做作品的基本

ZPL:As far as I am concerned, I hope the audience will pay attention to the

clips. Adding subtitles would be superfluous. Furthermore, no attention at all was paid to the dialogue in the process of creating the works. In a film what

the characters say is important for articulating the narrative, but the dialogue is not important to my work. Whether there is dialogue or not is irrelevant to

the distinction between video art and film. For some artists’ works, dialogue is important, but not for mine. So, I am not trying to make a distinction between

art and film by insisting on no subtitles. It is just that they would be superfluous to the works.

AZXH:Can you tell us about your future plans for new work?

ZPL:I never make plans. I take it as it comes. But the new work has something to

幕,講講您的想法?

動機和態度,而不是使用的電影片段裡的臺詞,字幕加

在裡面是畫蛇添足。而且這個作品創作時本來就沒有考 慮對白的。對電影來說角色說什麽對電影陳述什麽故事

是重要的,但對於我來說,對白臺詞不重要。有沒有臺詞 不是區分錄像藝術和電影的絕對的標準,不是用於區別

電影和錄像藝術,對某些藝術家的作品來說:對白臺詞 是重要的;但對我的這些作品來說,對白臺詞不重要,我

並不是用不加字幕來區別這是藝術而不是電影。針對作 品而言,加字幕是多余的。

do with procedure. It will be another version of the Cake installation, in that it

ZXH:能談談您的新作或是未來的創作計劃嗎?

still working it out, but to sum it up, it will use procedures to challenge people’s

像《蛋糕》這個作品,我準備做另外一個版本,也是長時

will also be videoed for a long time and a procedure of real-time playback. I am observations of neutral objects, as well as their thinking about the uses of visual media and re-ordering of procedures for observation.

ZXH:This is your first time at the Chinese Visual Festival. Do you have any suggestions for the curators?

ZPL:The Chinese Visual Festival provides an excellent opportunity for artists to

ZPL:我從來沒計劃。最近考慮的作品跟程序有關系。好

間的記錄拍攝,中間增加了一個可實時回放的程序。這 還在構思階段。簡單一點說從程序上挑戰人對客觀事物

的觀察,對視覺媒介,重組程序在觀察中的作用和角色 的思考。

be known to the Western art world. Artists need this opportunity for mutual

ZXH:這是您第一次參加華語視像藝術節,您對這個以

European and American understanding of Chinese contemporary art is uneven,

節什麽建議?

dialogue with the outside world: communication helps understanding.

and there are mutual prejudices and knowledge – understanding requires

time. China’s politics is different from that of the West, but its economy has been very strong recently, and that has drawn many Westerners to want

推動中國獨立影像作品和當代藝術為目的建立的藝術

ZPL:我覺得華語視像藝術節給藝術家提供的機會很好, 藝術家很需要機會跟外界對等的交流,相互多了解對彼 此都有幫助。歐美各個層面對中國當代的了解不一樣,


to understand China more. Of course, should these circumstances be

西方對中國當代藝術的了解或偏見是相互的,了解需要時間。

much emphasis on national background and group consciousness has

多西方國家想要更多了解中國,但如果這個情況倒過來,那吸

reversed, then the interest will disappear. From this we can see that too nothing to do with artists, and I am quite resistant to the idea of being

included in group shows with other Chinese artists. Western critics do not concern themselves with whether an artist is British or American when they are studying other artists.

Prof. Chris Berry of King’s College London on Zhang Peili’s visit: I’m excited about Zhang Peili’s screening at the UK’s flagship venue –

the BFI Southbank – but not only because it introduces single channel

Chinese video art to British audiences. The BFI Southbank is a cinema, and

the “F” in “BFI” stands for “Film.” But Zhang Peili insists that his work should not be confused with film. Of course, the distinction between film and

video art was very clear when he began working. But in the digital age,

isn’t it more blurred? I’m looking forward to hearing Zhang’s opinions on

the distinction between video art and film today. And I also want to know why he is willing to show his works in a cinema environment.

Essential Experiments

中國政治形態跟西方很不一樣,但經濟近年又很強,這吸引很

引眼球的情況就不存在了。從這個上面講,比較忌諱過度解讀 國家背景,群體意識,這個跟藝術家沒關系。作品裡面帶國家

民族意識是另一碼事,不需要期待西方認同,藝術家把自己的

事情做好。很排斥動不動一個中國藝術家群展,西方在研究藝 術家他們不會以國家標簽區分這個是英國、那個是美國。

談到張培力的展覽,倫敦大學國王學院裴開瑞教授說:我們為 張培力教授這次在英國的旗艦級電影藝術機構——英國電影 協會南岸中心的展覽感到非常興奮。不僅因為把中國影像藝

術介紹給英國觀眾;BFI的‘F’指的是電影,但張培力的作品

不是傳統意義上的電影,作為藝術的影像與作為電影的影像

分界在張培力的創作之初就非常清晰。但在數碼時代,這個分 界是否開始變得模糊?我們期待傾聽張培力對今天影像藝術

與電影的身份標識的觀點。我也想了解他對在非美術館空間 的電影院放映他的作品的想法。

必要的實驗

“Essential Experiments” is a monthly programme of artists’ moving

“必要的實驗”是由英國電影協會南岸中心舉辦,關注於藝

every month and screens a wide variety of work form the full range of

實驗”每月舉辦學術放映從經典先鋒藝術到當代數碼作品等

image work at BFI Southbank in London. Essential Experiments takes place artist’s moving image practice from avant garde classics to contemporary digital works in order to provide the audiences with the context in which

the works were made and way of understanding them. Past programmes have included work by: John Akomfrah; Nathaniel Dorsky; Grayson Perry; Yvonne Rainer; Carolee Schneemann; Gillian Wearing; and many more.

“Essential Experiments” is curated by William Fowler, Curator of Artists’ Moving Image at the BFI National Archive and Helen de Witt, Head of BFI Cinemas.

In addition to “Essential Experiments: Zhang Peili”, the BFI will also host

術移動影像電影和先鋒藝術電影研究的長期項目。 “必要的 不同類型跨界藝術影像作品,通過放映、策展人、學者、藝術

家的交流講座促進觀眾對作品語境、創作思路的了解,探討影 像、電影與藝術的內在聯系和各種潛在可能性。過往學術放映

項目包括:約翰·亞康法(John Akomfrah);纳撒尼尔·多斯基 (Nathaniel Dorsk y); 格裡森·佩里(Grayson Perr y); 伊馮‧芮娜(Yvonne

Rainer);卡若琳·史尼曼(Carolee

Schneemann);吉莉安·韋英(Gillian Wearing )等藝 術 家 的 作 品 。項目策 展 人 是 英 國 電 影 協 會 資 料 庫 藝 術 家 移 動影像 策展人 威廉·福勒(William Fowler)和BFI影院負 責人海倫·德威特(Helen de Wit t)。

“Essential Experiments: Introducing Chinese Video Art,” featuring

2015年5月, “必要的實驗”攜手華語視像藝術節策展人湛旭

Gongxin, Jiang Zhi, Yang Fudong, Lu Yang, Zhang Ding, Peng Yun and

代移動影像藝術,合作策劃兩場專場映展: “必要的實驗:張

video art work by Chinese artist Yang Zhenzhong, Kan Xuan, Wang

Wu Xiaohai in May 2015. The programme is co-curated by Xuhua Zhan, curator of Chinese Visual Festival and Chris Berry, professor of King’s College London.

華和倫敦大學國王學院裴開瑞教授,首次把眼光投向中國當

培力”和“必要的實驗-淺談中國錄像藝術”介紹包括楊福 東、闞萱、王功新、楊振中、陸揚、蔣誌、彭韞、張鼎和吳嘯海 的影像藝術作品。


Happiness, 2006

Reference 1.Dal Lago, F.Gladston,P and Huang,Z.et al.(2011)Zhang Peili: Certain Pleasures. Minsheng Art Museum 2.CCAA. (2010) CCAA Lifetime Contribution Artist: Zhang Peili.CCAA 3.Dong,B.et al. (ed)(2010)Looking Through Film: Traces of Cinema and Self-Constructs in Contemporary Art.New Star 4.Minsheng Art Museum.(2011) Chinese Moving Image Art 1988-2011. Minsheng Art Museum 5.Meigh-Andrws,C.(2014)A History of Video . Bloomsbury 6.Rush,M.(2007)Video Art.Thames & Hudsono

參考文獻: 1.《張培力藝術工作手冊》,2008,編著:黃專/王景,嶺南美術出版社

2.《張培力:確切的快感》,2011,編著:Paul Gladston, 黃專,Francesca Dal Lago, Robin Peckham, 姚嘉善,民生現代美術館

3.《2010中國當代藝術獎 終身成就獎:張培力》,2010,CCAA

4.《從電影看:當代藝術的電影痕跡與自我建構》,2010,編著:董冰峰/杜慶春/ 黃建宏/朱朱,新星出版社

5.《中國影像藝術 1988-2011》,2011,民生現代美術館

6.《 A History of Video Art》,2014,編著:Chris Meigh-Andrews, Bloomsbury 7.《 Video Art》,2007, 編著:Michael Rush,Thames & Hudson


Art zip issue 13  

ART.ZIP is the first bilingual contemporary art magazine dedicated to bringing together the world of art in the UK and China. Distributed in...

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