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Legal Education Data Deck KEY TRENDS ON ACCESS, AFFORDABILITY AND VALUE


Foreword AccessLex Institute® offers this 2018 Legal Education Data Deck for the use of the legal education community, policymakers, and others interested in viewing a snapshot of certain data and trends organized around the three driving principles of AccessLex Institute’s research agenda: access, affordability and value. This is a living document that will be updated periodically—AccessLex Institute welcomes comments, criticisms and suggestions so that this document will be a useful tool to those whom we serve. In compiling this data deck, we have utilized publicly available datasets from third parties, including but not limited to the Law School Admission Council, the National Conference of Bar Examiners, the National Association for Law Placement and the American Bar Association Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar. We thank these and other organizations for making such data available. AccessLex Institute uses these data as the basis for the presentation, analysis and commentary contained herein, and takes sole responsibility for the quality and accuracy of such presentation, analysis and commentary.

AccessLex.org iii


About AccessLex Institute AccessLex Institute, in partnership with its 200 nonprofit and state-affiliated ABA-approved member law schools, has been committed to improving access to legal education and to maximizing the affordability and value of a law degree since 1983. The AccessLex Center for Legal Education ExcellenceÂŽ advocates for policies that make legal education work better for students and society alike, and conducts research on the most critical issues facing legal education today. The AccessLex Center for Education and Financial CapabilityÂŽ offers on-campus and online financial education programming and resources to help students confidently manage their finances on their way to achieving personal and professional success. AccessLex Institute is a nonprofit organization with offices in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and Washington, D.C. and with accredited financial counselors throughout the U.S.

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Law Students in the United States Fall 2017 J.D. Enrollment at AccessLex Institute Member Law Schools, by State 2,501 or more

1,001–2,500

501–1,000

500 or fewer

No J.D. enrollment reported

WA MT OR

MN ID

WI

SD

NY

WY NV

MI IA

NE UT

CA

AZ

CO

PR

ME

ND

PA IL

KS

OK

NM

IN

WV

MO

VA

KY

NC

TN AR

NJ DE MD DC

HI

SC MS

TX

OH

VT NH MA RI CT

AL

GA AK

LA FL

Note: This map includes only the 200 AccessLex Institute member schools as of 2017. Data Source: American Bar Association, 2018a. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org v


Table of Contents Access

1

Applicants, Admission and Matriculation in Law School Law School Applicants, Admits and Matriculants, 2004–2017

2

Law School Admission Rates, 2004–2017

3

Application and Admission Rates by Gender, 2013-2017

4

Total J.D. Enrollment by Gender, 1980–2017

5

Racial/Ethnic Diversity of Law School Applicants, 2013-2017

6

Admission Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Overall, 2013-2017

7

Law School Enrollment Percentage of Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded to Minority Students and Percentage of First-Year Enrolled Minority J.D. Students

8

Full-Time and Part-Time Minority J.D. Enrollment, 2009–2016

9

Highest Level of Parent Education Among Graduate Students by Type of Program, 2011–2012

10

Percentage of Students Enrolled in Graduate and Professional Programs Who Received Pell Grants as Undergraduate Students, 2011–2012

11

2007–2008 Bachelor’s Degree Recipients Who Completed Graduate Degrees by 2012, by Family Income in 2006 and Graduate Program Area

12

J.D. and Non-J.D. Enrollment, 2008-2018

13

J.D. Degrees Awarded Total J.D. Degrees Awarded at ABA-Approved Law Schools, 2004-2017

14

Percentage of J.D. Degrees Awarded to Ethnic Minorities, 1986-2017

15

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Table of Contents Affordability

16

Average Full-Time Tuition and Fees (in 2017 dollars) by School Type and Residency, 2011–2017

17

Percentage of Law Students Who Still Owe on Undergraduate Loans, 2011–2012

18

Percentage of Law Students Who Worked While Enrolled, by Year and Institution Type

19

Median Annual Earnings of Law Students While Enrolled, by Year and Institution Type

20

Value

21

Occupations Requiring Graduate or Professional Degree With Most Projected Job Openings, 2016-2026

22

Percentage of ABA-Approved Law School Graduates Passing the Bar on the First Try, by Month of Exam, 2008–2017

23

First-Time Bar Passage Rates for Graduates of ABA-Approved Law Schools by State, 2017

24

Change in First-Time Bar Passage Rates for Graduates of ABA-Approved Law Schools, by State, From 2016 to 2017

25

Recent J.D. Graduates by Employment Status, 2007–2016

26

Full-Time and Part-Time Employment of Recent J.D. Graduates, 2007–2016

27

Recent J.D. Graduate Employment by Sector, 2007–2016

28

Median Salary (in 2015 dollars) of Recent J.D. Graduates by Sector, 2007–2016

29

Median Salary (in 2015 dollars) of Recent J.D. Graduates by Employment Type, 2007–2016

30

1992–1993 Bachelor’s Degree Recipients Who Earned a Graduate Degree by 2003, by Whether or Not They Believe Graduate Education Was Worth the Cost

31

2007–2008 Bachelor’s Degree Recipients Who Earned a Graduate Degree by 2012, by Whether or Not They Believe Graduate Education Was Worth the Cost

32

Detailed Data Sources

33

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ACCESS


Law School Applicants, Admits and Matriculants, 2004–2017 The number of applicants and admitted applicants for all terms decreased slightly between 2016 and 2017.

Applicants

Admitted applicants

Matriculants

56,400

42,300 37,100

36,300

All Terms Ęť17

Source: Law School Admission Council, 2018a, 2018b and 2018c. American Bar Association, 2018a and 2018b. AccessLex.org 2


Law School Admission Rates, 2004–2017 Three-quarters of law school applicants were admitted in 2017. The percentage of admitted applicants for all terms dropped slightly between 2016 and 2017.

Percentage of Applicants Who Were Admitted

75%

All Terms Ęť17

Source: Law School Admission Council, 2018a and 2018b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 3


Application and Admission Rates by Gender, 2013–2017 Fall data trends have consistently shown increasing numbers of female applicants but male admission rates outpacing those of females. Data from all terms in 2017 indicate similar trends with gender gaps in both applicants and admission rates. Female

Male

100%

80%

80%

79%

80% 76%

74%

78%

76%

74%

78% 74%

60% 50% 49%

50% 50%

Fall 2014

Fall 2015

49%

53%

52%

51% 47%

46%

40%

20%

0% Fall 2013

All Terms 2016

All Terms 2017

Law School Applicants by Gender

Fall 2013

Fall 2014

Fall 2015

All Terms 2016

All Terms 2017

Law School Admission Rates by Gender

Data Source: Law School Admission Council, 2018a and 2018b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 4


Total J.D. Enrollment by Gender, 1980–2017 Prior to 2000, male and female J.D. enrollment moved inversely, with male enrollment falling as female enrollment increased. For more than a decade, they have moved in tandem. But in 2017, female enrollment surpassed male enrollment for the first time.

Male

Female

90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000

2017 2017

40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0

Note: Since 2014–2015, the American Bar Association has included “other” as a gender category. The enrollment reported for this category in 2014–2015 is too small to appear in this figure. Data Source: American Bar Association, 2018b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 5


Racial/Ethnic Diversity of Law School Applicants, 2013–2017 The proportion of law school applicants who identify as ethnic minorities remained stable between 2016 and 2017; however, some ethnic groups experienced increases.

Fall 2013

Fall 2014

Fall 2015

All Terms 2016

All Terms 2017

100% 90% 80% 70% 60%

64%

62% 62% 61% 62%

50% 40% 30% 20% 14% 15% 15% 15% 15%

10%

13% 13% 11% 11% 12%

10% 11% 10% 10% 11% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3%

0% Caucasian/ White

Black/ African American

Hispanic/Latino

Note: Applicants who identify as more than one race/ethnicity are reported in each. Data Source: Law School Admission Council, 2018a.

Asian

Puerto Rico

2% 2% 2% 2% 2%

American Indian/ Alaskan Native

.5% .5% .5% .4% .5%

Native Hawaiian/ Other Pacific Islander

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Admission Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Overall, 2013–All Terms 2017 Between 2016 and 2017, admission rates declined across nearly all racial/ethnic categories. Admission rates remained the same for white applicants.

Caucasian White

Asian

American Indian/Alaska Native

Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander

76% 73% 72% 71%

77%

78%

76%

68%

Puerto Rican

Overall admission rate

85%

71% 72%

83% 78%

76% 68%

71%

69% 70%

83%

75%

76%

72% 71% 68% 68%

75%

74% 67% 67%

67%

63%

61% 55%

Fall 2013

Black/African American

85%

84%

Hispanic/Latino

Fall 2014

57%

Fall 2015

56%

All Terms 2016

59% 54%

51%

All Terms 2017

Note: Applicants who identify as more than one race/ethnicity are reported in each. Data Source: Law School Admission Council, 2018b and 2018c. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 7


Percentage of Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded to Minority Students and Percentage of First-Year Enrolled Minority J.D. Students The increase in the proportion of first-year law school students who are minorities mirrors the change in the proportion among bachelor’s degree recipients over the past 6 years.

2010 - 2011

2011 - 2012

28%

29%

30%

2012 - 2013

31%

32%

Percentage of Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded to Minorities

2013 - 2014

2014 - 2015

33% 25%

26%

2016 - 2017

2015 - 2016

27%

30%

31%

31%

Percentage of First-Year Enrolled Minority J.D. Students

Data Source: American Bar Association, 2018b; U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, 2015 and 2016. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 8


Full-Time and Part-Time Minority J.D. Enrollment, 2009–2016 Minority students make up a greater percentage of part-time than full-time J.D. students, comprising 38 percent of part-time law students in 2016.

Full-time

Part-time

Data Source: American Bar Association, 2018a and 2018b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 9


Highest Level of Parent Education Among Graduate Students by Type of Program, 2011–2012 Recent estimates indicate that students who were the first in their families to go to college are in the minority among students enrolled in graduate programs. In 2011—2012, about 9 percent of law students had a parent whose educational attainment was a high school diploma or less. HS diploma or below

Associates/Certificate/ Some College

Bachelor’s degree

Master’s degree or equivalent

Doctoral Degree— professional practice

Doctoral Degree— research/scholarship

Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, NPSAS:12b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 10


Percentage of Students Enrolled in Graduate and Professional Programs Who Received Pell Grants as Undergrads, 2011–2012 The proportion of students enrolled in graduate and professional programs who received Pell Grants as undergraduate students varies by discipline. In 2011—2012, fewer than 25 percent of law school students previously received a Pell Grant to help fund their undergraduate studies.

Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, NPSAS:12a. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute.

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2007–2008 Bachelor’s Degree Recipients Who Completed Graduate Degrees by 2012, by Family Income in 2006 and Graduate Program Area Compared to the overall U.S. population, few 2007–2008 bachelor’s degree recipients who completed graduate degrees by 2012 came from lower income families. In particular, a high percentage of law school graduates come from high-income families. Of those who completed graduate degrees in legal education by 2012, two-thirds came from families earning $90,000 or more. $50k or less

$50k to $90k

$90k to $130k

$130k or more

*Estimated income distribution among all U.S. households. Calculated using those households reporting positive income on 2006 American Community Survey. Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, B&B:08/12a; U.S. Census, 2006. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute.

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J.D. and Non-J.D. Enrollment, 2008–2018 Non-J.D. students make up a greater share of law school enrollment than 10 years ago. The percentage of non-J.D. students has increased from 6 percent to 14 percent since 2008.

Percent J.D. enrollment

Percent non-J.D. enrollment

11%

89%

2016 - 17

14%

86%

2017 - 18

Data Source: American Bar Association, 2018b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 13


Total J.D. Degrees Awarded at ABA-Approved Law Schools, 2004–2017 The number of J.D. degrees awarded per year increased overall between 2004 and 2013, then began to decline in 2014. In 2017, about 35,000 J.D. degrees were awarded.

50k

37,173 34,991

2016 -17

Data Source: American Bar Association, 2018a and 2018b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 14


Percentage of J.D. Degrees Awarded to Ethnic Minorities, 1986–2017 The proportion of law degrees awarded to racial and ethnic minorities has increased over the last 30 years. In 1986-1987, 9.7 percent of law degrees were awarded to racial and ethnic minorities; in 2016-2017, that figure has grown to 29.8 percent.

29.8%

ʼ1 6-

ʼ1 7

9.7%

Data Source: American Bar Association, 2018a and 2018b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 15


AFFORDABILITY


Average Full-Time Tuition and Fees (in 2017 Dollars) by School Type and Residency, 2011–2017 Average tuition and fees for full-time students have increased across all sectors during the last 7 years. Since 2011, average full-time resident tuition and fees at public law schools have increased 9 percent; private law school tuition and fees have increased 8 percent; and public non-resident tuition and fees have increased 5 percent. Private

Public non-resident

Public resident

$46,240 $42,340 $39,670

$37,650

$24,220

$26,420

2016

2017

Note: Data presented are most recent as of March 2018. Figures shown are inflation adjusted using the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) from July of the year indicated, with 1982–1984 as the base years. The following schools did not report data in the given year, and are excluded from the average tuition and fees calculation indicated: Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico (2015 public non-resident); University of Puerto Rico (2015 public non-resident); and Atlanta’s John Marshall Law School (2014 private). Data Source: American Bar Association, 2018a. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 17


Percentage of Law Students Who Still Owe on Undergraduate Loans, 2011–2012 Nearly half of enrolled law school students are carrying undergraduate debt. In 2011–2012, the median amount of debt still owed among those with outstanding undergraduate loans was $18,000.

Percentage of law students who do not owe on undergraduate loans

Percentage of law students who still owe on undergraduate loans

55%

45%

Note: NPSAS is administered every 4 years. Data presented are the most recent available. Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, NPSAS:12a. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 18


Percentage of Law Students Who Worked While Enrolled, by Year and Institution Type More than half of enrolled law students reported annual earnings from off-campus employment, regardless of institution type. All Institution types

Public

Private nonprofit

Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, NPSAS:04, NPSAS:08 and NPSAS:12b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 19


Median Annual Earnings of Law Students While Enrolled, by Year and Institution Type While more than half of law students reported working, median annual earnings were fairly modest.

All Institution types

Public

Private nonprofit

Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, NPSAS:04, NPSAS:08 and NPSAS:12b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 20


VALUE


Occupations Requiring Graduate or Professional Degree With Most Projected Job Openings, 2016–2026 The latest occupational outlook from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects lawyer positions will have the most job openings among positions requiring a graduate or professional degree.

New (Added) Jobs Job Openings 0

Health Specialties Teachers, postsecondary

60,600

60k

36,700 56,100

80k 40,700

17,700 35,300 14,400

100k

120k

140k

105,700

86,400

25,800

67,100

Physical therapists

Nurse Practitioners

40k

65,000

Lawyers

Educational, Guidance, School, or Vocational Counselors

20k

84,800

72,000 70,500

Note: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Job openings from growth represent projections for job creation. Job openings from replacement are projectedbased on expected retirement and other employment departures. Data Source: U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017, October. AccessLex.org 22


Percentage of ABA-Approved Law School Graduates Passing the Bar on the First Try, by Month of Exam, 2008–2017 Overall first-time bar passage rates for graduates of ABA-approved law schools were higher in July than in February during the period from 2008 to 2017, but the gap has narrowed. July pass rates were 10 percentage points higher in 2008, and 14 percentage points higher in 2017.

February

July

100% 90% 80%

87% 77%

70%

85% 73%

83% 76%

83%

82%

81%

78% 73%

74%

74%

78%

75% 69%

78%

74% 66%

60%

64%

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Data Source: National Conference of Bar Examiners, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 23


First-Time Bar Passage Rates for Graduates of ABA-Approved Law Schools by State, 2017 In 2017, 75 percent of all first-time exam takers from ABA-approved law schools passed the bar. However, the proportion of these exam takers passing varies from state to state.

80% or more

75% - 79%

70% - 74%

69% or less PR

WA MT

ME

ND

OR

VT

MN ID

WI

SD

NY

WY NV

MI IA

NE UT

CA

AZ

PA IL

CO

KS

OK

NM

MO

MA RI CT NJ

WV

VA

KY

NC

TN AR

HI

DE MD DC

SC MS

TX

OH

IN

NH

AL

GA

LA

AK FL

Note: Bar passage is shown by the state of bar administration, not the location of the exam taker’s law school. Data Source: National Conference of Bar Examiners, 2017. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 24


Change in First-Time Bar Passage Rates for Graduates of ABA-Approved Law Schools, by State, From 2016 to 2017 Between 2016 and 2017, a majority of states saw decreases in first-time bar passage rates among graduates of ABA-approved law schools. Increase

Decrease

No Change PR

WA MT

ME

ND MN

OR ID

WI

SD

NY

WY NV

MI IA

NE UT

CA

AZ

CO

PA IL

KS

OK

NM

IN

WV

MO

VA

KY

NC

TN AR

NJ DE MD DC

HI

SC MS

TX

OH

VT NH MA RI CT

AL

GA

LA

AK FL

Data Source: National Conference of Bar Examiners, 2016 and 2017. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 25


Recent J.D. Graduates by Employment Status, 2007–2016 The majority of law school graduates obtain employment requiring bar passage, although the percentage has decreased since 2007. During the same period, the proportion of law school graduates obtaining a position where the J.D. is an advantage (but not required) increased. The proportion of law school graduates who are unemployed but seeking work increased from 6 percent in 2010 to 10 percent in 2011, and has remained fairly constant. Bar passage required

J.D. advantage

Unemployed-seeking

All others

Note: These data are based on law school graduates whose employment status was reported to the National Association for Law Placement (NALP) and may not be fully representative of the total law school graduating class indicated. In 2014, NALP changed the timing of the survey administration from 9 months post-graduation to 10 months post-graduation. Use caution when interpreting data and when comparing from year to year. Data Source: National Association for Law Placement, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 26


Full-Time and Part-Time Employment of Recent J.D. Graduates, 2007–2016 The percentage of employed law school graduates in part-time positions has decreased from the high of 12 percent in 2011.

Full-time

Part-time

Note: These data are based on law school graduates whose employment status was reported to NALP and may not be fully representative of the total law school graduating class indicated. In 2014, NALP changed the timing of the survey administration from 9 months post-graduation to 10 months post-graduation. Use caution when interpreting data and when comparing from year to year. Data Source: National Association for Law Placement, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 27


Recent J.D. Graduate Employment by Sector, 2007–2016 The distribution of employed recent J.D. graduates has remained fairly stable since 2011, with the majority of graduates working in private practice. Private practice

Business

Government

Judicial clerk

Public interest

Academic

Unknown type

Note: These data are based on law school graduates whose employment status was reported to NALP and may not be fully representative of the total law school graduating class indicated. In 2014, NALP changed the timing of the survey administration from 9 months post-graduation to 10 months post-graduation. Use caution when interpreting data and when comparing from year to year. Data Source: National Association for Law Placement, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 28


Median Salaries of Recent J.D. Grads The median salary for a recent J.D. graduate working in private practice was $100,000 in 2015, down from the high point of $144,000 in 2009, but continuing to increase from the low of $90,000 in 2011. Other sectors show smaller fluctuations. Median Salary (in 2016 dollars) of Recent J.D. Graduates by Sector, 2007–2016 Private Practice

Government

Judicial Clerk

Business

Academic

Public Interest

Unknown

Median

Note: These data are based on law school graduates whose employment status was reported to NALP and may not be fully representative of the total law school graduating class indicated. In 2014, NALP changed the timing of the survey administration from 9 months post-graduation to 10 months post-graduation. Use caution when interpreting data and when comparing from year to year. Figures shown are inflation adjusted using the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) from July of the year indicated, with 1982–1984 as the base years. Data Source: National Association for Law Placement, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 29


Median Salaries of Recent J.D. Grads Regardless of the type of employment, the median salary of recent J.D. graduates is less in 2016 than it was in 2007. Median Salary (in 2016 dollars) of Recent J.D. Graduates by Employment Type, 2007–2016 Bar passage required

J.D. advantage

Other professional

Non professional

Median

Note: These data are based on law school graduates whose employment status was reported to NALP and may not be fully representative of the total law school graduating class indicated. In 2014, NALP changed the timing of the survey administration from 9 months post-graduation to 10 months post-graduation. Use caution when interpreting data and when comparing from year to year. Figures shown are inflation adjusted using the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) from July of the year indicated, with 1982–1984 as the base years. Data Source: National Association for Law Placement, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 30


1992–1993 Bachelor’s Degree Recipients Who Earned a Graduate Degree by 2003, by Whether or Not They Believe Graduate Education Was Worth the Cost When surveyed 10 years after graduation, most 1992–1993 bachelor’s degree recipients who had since earned a graduate degree agreed that their graduate education was worth the cost, regardless of program type. Over 80 percent of law-related degree recipients felt their education was worth the money. Graduate education not worth its cost

Yes, graduate education worth its cost

Note: Data are shown by major/field of study as reported by the survey respondent and include all graduate degree types (i.e., master’s, professional, doctoral). Therefore, “law” includes J.D. recipients, but could also include Master of Legal Studies and similar recipients. Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study B&B:93/03. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 31


2007–2008 Bachelor’s Degree Recipients Who Earned a Graduate Degree by 2012, by Whether or Not They Believe Graduate Education Was Worth the Cost The perspectives of more recent graduate degree recipients are noticeably different. When surveyed 4 years later, 52 percent of 2007–2008 bachelor’s degree recipients who had since earned a graduate degree in legal professions and studies felt their education was worth the cost.

Graduate education not worth its cost

Yes, graduate education worth its cost

Note: Data are shown by major/field of study as reported by the survey respondent and include all graduate degree types (i.e., master’s, professional, doctoral). Therefore, “Legal professions and studies” includes J.D. recipients, but could also include Master of Legal Studies and similar recipients. Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, B&B:08/12b. Data presentation, analysis and commentary by AccessLex Institute. AccessLex.org 32


Detailed Data Sources American Bar Association. (2018a). Compilation – All Schools Data. Section of Legal Education – ABA Required Disclosures.

National Association for Law Placement. (2009). Class of 2008 national summary report [Data file].

Retrieved from http://www.abarequireddisclosures.org/

Retrieved from http://www.nalp.org/uploads/natlsummary2008.pdf.

American Bar Association. (2018b). Statistics. Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar.

National Association for Law Placement. (2010). Class of 2009 national summary report [Data file].

Retrieved from https://www.americanbar.org/groups/legal_education/resources/statistics.html

Retrieved from http://www.nalp.org/uploads/NatlSummaryChartClassof09.pdf.

Law School Admission Council. (2018a). Admitted Applicants by Ethnic and Gender Group.

National Association for Law Placement. (2011). Class of 2010 national summary report [Data file].

Retrieved from https://www.lsac.org/lsacresources/data/ethnicity-sex-admits

Retrieved from http://www.nalp.org/uploads/NationalSummaryChartforSchools2010.pdf.

Law School Admission Council. (2018b). Admitted Applicants by Ethnic and Gender Group (archive)

National Association for Law Placement. (2012). Class of 2011 national summary report [Data file].

Retrieved from https://www.lsac.org/lsacresources/data/ethnicity-sex-admits/archive-1

Retrieved from http://www.nalp.org/uploads/NatlSummChart_Classof2011.pdf.

Law School Admission Council. (2018c). Applicants by Ethnic and Gender Group.

National Association for Law Placement. (2013). Class of 2012 national summary report [Data file].

Retrieved from: https://www.lsac.org/lsacresources/data/ethnicity-sex-applicants

Retrieved from http://www.nalp.org/uploads/NationalSummaryChart2012.pdf.

National Association for Law Placement. (2008). Class of 2007 national summary report [Data file].

National Association for Law Placement. (2014). Class of 2013 national summary report [Data file].

Retrieved from http://www.nalp.org/uploads/1229_natlsummary07revised.pdf.

Retrieved from http://www.nalp.org/uploads/NatlSummaryChartClassof2013.pdf.

AccessLex.org 33


Detailed Data Sources (continued) National Association for Law Placement. (2015). Class of 2014 national summary report [Data file].

National Conference of Bar Examiners. (2012). 2011 Statistics. The Bar Examiner, 81(1): 16–19.

Retrieved from http://www.nalp.org/uploads/NationalSummaryChartforSchools2014Class.pdf.

http://www.ncbex.org/dmsdocument/146

National Association for Law Placement. (2016). Class of 2015 national summary report [Data file].

National Conference of Bar Examiners. (2013). 2012 Statistics. The Bar Examiner, 82(1): 16–19.

Retrieved from http://www.nalp.org/uploads/NatlSummaryClassof2015.pdf.

http://www.ncbex.org/dmsdocument/145

National Conference of Bar Examiners. (2008). 2007 Statistics. The Bar Examiner, 77(2): 16–19.

National Conference of Bar Examiners. (2014). 2013 Statistics. The Bar Examiner, 83(1): 16–19.

Retrieved from http://www.ncbex.org/pdfviewer/?file=%2Fdmsdocument%2F154.

Retrieved from http://www.ncbex.org/dmsdocument/144.

National Conference of Bar Examiners. (2009). 2008 Statistics. The Bar Examiner, 78(2): 16–19.

National Conference of Bar Examiners. (2015). 2014 Statistics. The Bar Examiner, 84(1): 18–21.

Retrieved from http://www.ncbex.org/pdfviewer/?file=%2Fdmsdocument%2F155.

Retrieved from http://www.ncbex.org/dmsdocument/164.

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