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L’Accademia del Fitness Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis Lancet Neurology, 2010 The risk factors are relatively unknown, but the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D (through antioxidant mechanisms, regulation of neuronal calcium, increase in nerve conduction etc.) and the presence of its receptors and of the enzyme responsible for its activation inside the substantia nigra lead to the assumption that vitamin D is involved in Parkinson’s disease. In 30 years of observation, 50 cases of Parkinson’s Disease have been reported. Patients whose values of 25 (OH) D were at least of 50 mmol/L presented <65% risk of developing Parkinson’s Disease compared to those with levels lower than 25 mmol/L. (Serum Vitamin D and the Risk of Parkinson Disease Archives of Neurology, 2010.) The lack of vitamin D is also correlated to the development of depression. Higher levels of vitamin D are associated to a lower risk of depression. On the contrary, conditions of lack of vitamin D are linked to higher probability of depression, above all in people who had already suffered from this disease in the past. Association between low serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and depression in a large sample of healthy adults: the Cooper Center Longitudinal StudyMayo Clinic Proceedings, 2011). Wilkins and pupils have recently demonstrated a reduction in the cognitive function in elderly patients with vitamin D deficit. A sub-expression of VDR (vitamin D receptors) in the hippocampus cells has been demonstrated in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease. In animal samples an increase in the density of the hippocampal neurons with vitamin D supplement has been demonstrated. The relation between hypovitaminosis D and the slowdown of the speed of nerve conduction has been demonstrated, too. As for cardiovascular risk, individuals with myocardial infarction have shown levels of Vitamin D <15ng/ml, while values <30ng/ ml have been considered protective. Giovannucci et al, Arch Intern Med, 2008 In subjects with stroke, values of Vit. D=25 are within the average of age, with respect to protective levels if above the average of age. (Pilz et al, Stroke, 2008) There are correlations between the levels of vitamin D and the levels of aortic calcification, reduced if > than 30ng/ml Naves-Diaz et al, Osteoporos Int, 2012 More elevated levels of vitamin D are associated to fewer infections in the respiratory tract, whatever the season. Ginde et al, Arch Intern Med, 2009 The 1-25-hydroxyvitamin D is also a powerful immune modulator. Its capacity to stimulate the production of catecalcidin (peptide able to destroy various infectious agents, among which M. Tuberculosis). Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H,Wenzel L Tan BH, Krutzik SR, et al.’’Toll-like receptor triggering of vitamin D-mediated Human antimicrobial response.Science2006;311:1770-3 ‘A monthly supplementation of 100,000 U.I. of vitamin D makes respiratory rehabilitation more effective in patients with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)’. Vitamin D Supplementation During Rehabilitation In Pa-


tients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Intervention Study American Journal Of Respiratory And Critical Care Medicine, 2011 The supplementation with 1600 UI per day of vitamin D highly improves the symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: a clinical trial study Amestejani M, Salehi BS, Vasigh M, Sobhkhiz A, Karami M, Alinia H, Kamrava SK, Shamspour N, Ghalehbaghi B, Behzadi AH. Journal of drugs in dermatology, 2012 An adequate intake of Vitamin D is recommended during pregnancy. In pregnancy, 18% of mothers showed severe lack of serum levels of 25(OH)D, that is <11 µg/L (27.5 nmol/L); 31% was lacking [11 µg/L (27.5 nmol/L)< 25(OH)D < 20 µg/L (50 nmol/L)]. The low serum levels of 25(OH)D of mothers are associated to a reduced development of the bone mineral content (BMC) of the child at the age of 9 years old (p=0.0088 total BMC and p=0.03 lumbar BMC). Moreover, children born from mothers who lacked vitamin D have shown a lower deficit at the level of BCM compared to the one of children born from mothers who had a severe lack. Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Gale CR, Dennison EM, Boucher BJ, Arden NK, Godfrey KM, Cooper CMaternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study The Lancet, 2006 From the oncological perspective it is important to know that the mammary tissue – both normal and pathological – expresses 1.25(OH) D and its analogous ones inhibit in vitro and in vivo cell replication, implying its possible use in the therapy of mammary carcinoma. J. Cell.Physiol 1989;138:611-616 - Lancet 1989;1:188-191 There is a project aiming at evaluating the reduction of new cases of mammary carcinoma with the intake of 2000UI/day of Vit D3 Garland et al, Ann Epidemiol, 2009 Therefore, knowing the extraskeletal effects of Vit. D can be compared to observing an Iceberg on whose surface we see rickets and osteomalacia. Yet, looking deep down we discover a world of pathologies that cannot be treated without an adequate supplement of Vitamin D. Dott Giorgio Severgnini Surgeon specialised in Endocrinology and Metabolism Diseases

N. 10 - July 2013  
N. 10 - July 2013  

Wellness & Antiaging magazine