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american splendor The Residential Architecture of HORACE TRUMBAUER revised edition

MICHAEL C. KATHRENS Acanthus Press ACA N T H U S P R ES S


A mer ican Splendor The Residential Architecture of

Hor ace Trumbauer revised edition

Michael C. Kathrens Foreword Preface

Barbara Eberlein Henry Hope Reed

Research Consultant and Drawings Research Consultant

Richard C. Marchand Eleanor Weller

Acanthus Press New York : 2011


Acanthus Press llc 1133 Broadway, Ste. 1229 New York, New York 10010 212-414-0108 www.acanthuspress.com info@acanthuspress.com

Copyright Š 2002, 2011, Michael C. Kathrens All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in any part (except by reviewers for the public press) without written permission from the publisher. Every reasonable attempt has been made to identify the owners of copyright. Errors of omission will be corrected in subsequent printings of this work.

for this edition, 50 copies have been bound in leather and are numbered 1 to 50 No.

Frontispiece: Whitemarsh Hall, garden facade and parterre; photograph hand colored by Richard Marchand

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kathrens, Michael C. American splendor : the residential architecture of Horace Trumbauer / Michael C. Kathrens ; preface [by] Henry Hope Reed ; foreword [by] Barbara Eberlein ; research consultant and drawing, Richard C. Marchand ; research consultant, Eleanor Weller. -- Rev. ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-926494-61-9 (hardcover) 1. Trumbauer, Horace, 1869-1938--Criticism and interpretation. 2. Classicism in architecture. 3. Mansions--United States. 4. Country homes-United States. 5. Architecture, Domestic--United States--History--20th century. I. Marchand, Richard C. II. Weller, Eleanor. III. Title. NA737.T75K38 2011 728.8092--dc23 2011027107

Printed in China


Contents

Foreword Preface

Barbara Eberlein ~ 7 Henry Hope Reed ~

9

Introduction ~ 13 Grey Towers William Welsh Harrison Estate ~ 30 Chelten House George W. Elkins Estate ~ 37 Ballingarry Summer Residence of Martin Maloney ~ 41 Elstowe William L. Elkins Estate ~ 47 Lynnewood Hall P. A. B. Widener Estate ~ 55 The Elms Summer Residence of Edward J. Berwind ~ 69 Woodcrest James W. Paul Jr. Estate ~ 80 Chetwode Summer Residence of William Storrs Wells ~ 86 Edward C. Knight Jr. Residence ~ 92 Alice T. Drexel Residence ~ 97 I. Townsend Burden Residence ~ 101 Claradon Court Summer Residence of Edward C. Knight Jr. ~ 104 Willow Brook House Francis E. Bond Estate ~ 112 Woodburne Edgar C. Scott Residence ~ 117 Perry Belmont Residence ~ 121 George J. Gould Residence ~ 129


Mrs. A.L.T. Douglas Residence ~ 137 James B. Duke Residence ~ 140 El Pomar Grace Goodyear Depew Bungalow ~ 146 James Speyer Residence ~ 149 Ardrossan Robert L. Montgomery Estate ~ 156 Miramar Summer Residence of Mrs. George D. Widener ~ 164 Brooklands Walter B. Brooks Jr. Estate ~ 176 Charlton Hall David Dows Jr. Residence ~ 181 Cornelius Vanderbilt III Residence ~ 185 The Chimneys Country Residence of Howard C. Brokaw ~ 192 Whitemarsh Hall Edward T. Stotesbury Estate ~ 197 Mrs. Alexander Hamilton Rice Residence ~ 212 Rough Point Summer Residence of James B. Duke ~ 219 Ronaele Manor Eleanor Widener Dixon Residence ~ 225 Bloomfield George H. McFadden Jr. Estate ~ 233 Craig Hall Katherine Craig Wright MucklĂŠ Residence ~ 241 Lynnewood Lodge Peter Arrell Brown Widener II Residence ~ 245 Shadow Lawn Country Residence of Hubert T. Parson ~ 251 Briar Hill William McIntire Elkins Residence ~ 262 Marly Raymond T. Baker Residence ~ 266 Rose Terrace Anna Dodge Dillman Residence ~ 271 Selective Catalog ~ 283 Illustrations credits ~ 289 Acknowledgements ~ 290 Index ~ 291


Per ry Belmont R esidence 1618 NEW HAMPSHIRE AVENUE, NW Washington, D.C. · 19 06–19 08

notorious threesome. Ultimately Belmont and Jessie Sloane married in April 1899, on the very day the divorce decree came through for the former Mrs. Sloane. The Sloane family’s continued open animosity toward Jessie made it impossible for the couple to stay in the city. Abandoning plans to build a Trumbauer-designed Fifth Avenue mansion, the couple distanced themselves from the fray with two years of European travel. Upon their return, they settled in a more hospitable Washington, D.C., where Perry was already well established. Initially they rented a house on Scott Circle where they began entertaining on a lavish scale, with even the great Caruso crooning at one of their musicales. Within two years the Belmonts found this abode too modest for their social ambitions. It is not clear how the Belmonts met Sanson, but it is likely that while living abroad they were entertained in a Sansondesigned house.The Paul Le Baudy house on rue François I, Paris, has many design similarities to the Washington house, not the least of which is that they are both triangular in shape. Belmont imported the plans and turned them over to Trumbauer for modification and execution. The house stands on a detached, triangular-shaped plot just off Dupont Circle, the most fashionable residential area in the district at the beginning of the 20th century. Constructed of Indiana limestone, the building has two stories above a raised basement. Peeking above the roof balustrade and between elegantly swagged urns are the copper-clad dormers of the third floor. At the head of the house is a porte cochere, whose three openings are embellished with carved facial voussoirs. Its flat roof was used as an open terrace and was bordered by black decorative ironwork. The rusticated first floor supports a high piano nobile that features arched openings

This palatial residence was not designed by Horace Trumbauer but by the Parisian architect Ernest Sanson (1836-1918). The Trumbauer firm spent two years supervising the building’s construction, and there is evidence that Trumbauer altered the bedroom floor and service areas in the basement and third floor to accommodate American tastes and technology. The Philadelphia architect’s association with Perry Belmont began in 1902 when he was contracted to renovate both the millionaire’s New York town house and his Newport cottage. There was also discussion between them of creating a new Fifth Avenue mansion, but this project never reached fruition because of a scandal surrounding Belmont at the time. Perry Belmont was born in NewYork City on December 28, 1850, the son of international banker August Belmont and Caroline Slidell Perry of Rhode Island. Mrs. Belmont was the daughter of Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry and a niece of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry. Perry Belmont graduated from Harvard University in 1872 and four years later from the Columbia School of Law. In 1881 Belmont was elected to Congress, where he stayed until accepting the post of United States ambassador to Spain in 1888. Two years later he returned to New York, where he met society beauty Mrs. Henry Sloane. Mrs. Sloane was born Jessie Robbins, the daughter of Daniel Robbins of Brooklyn, a partner in the prosperous wholesale drug firm of McKesson & Robbins. In the early 1880s Miss Robbins married Henry Sloane of the W. & J. Sloane Company, importers of fine furniture and rugs. Henry Sloane was described by many as a pompous bore, whereas his wife was vivacious and charming. Belmont and Sloane fell in love, causing quite a public scandal. Edith Wharton even wrote a lightly veiled short story about the

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PE RRY AND JE SSI E RO B B I NS BEL M ON T, C.

1910

with delicate floral sculptural detail filling the spandrels. At strategic focal points, pairs of Ionic pilasters border the windows; on the sides of the structure, decorative niches are inserted between them. One enters the house through a domed, circular entrance hall that is illuminated by a large gilt-bronze lantern and coordinating wall sconces. Past the hall, the house is centered on a monumental two-story Caen stone-sheathed staircase hall. Screened by arches and columns, side ambulatories access the private apartments on the first floor and the main reception rooms on the floor above. In a typically French arrangement, the bedrooms are located on the first floor. There are large bedroom suites for both master and mistress of the house. Curiously for a house of this size, there is only one guest chamber, although it does have its own small sitting room. The first floor also included a library, a drawing room, and a family dining room. Upstairs, the grand “state” apartments consisted of a Louis XV reception room, a Louis XVI salon, a Venetian dining room, and an immense 30-foot-by-80-foot ballroom. In 1919 the Prince of Wales came to America on a state visit to officially thank American military leaders for their assistance during the First World War. Woodrow Wilson was ill at the time and could not receive the distinguished guest

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Perry Belmont

at the White House. Mr. Belmont generously offered the use of his home as headquarters for the prince and his retinue, personally covering all expenses. The Belmonts continued to use the house for the winter season until the end of the 1920s. With the onset of the Depression, the Belmonts closed the Washington residence, as well as Belcourt, their summer cottage in Newport, Rhode Island, and moved into a suite of rooms at the Ritz in Paris. In 1932 the American Art Association–Anderson Galleries auctioned the more important art pieces from both houses.The Washington mansion languished for several years as its owner vainly searched for a buyer. Belmont personally went in front of the District Zoning Commission in Washington to obtain a variance that would allow him to convert the building into six first-class apartments, stating: “I am sorry to be in this position, but I would rather see the building used than stand idle, a monument to depression.” The project did not come to fruition and Belmont finally sold the structure in 1935 to the General Grand Chapter of the International Eastern Star to be used as their world headquarters. Today, the International Eastern Star Temple is still one of the showplaces of the city and is maintained at a very high standard that would have pleased its original owner.


TO P : R E N DE RI NG O F NE W HAMPSHI RE AVEN UE FACA DE; BOT TOM : R ECEP T ION ROOM ; F O L L OW I N G PA G E S : V I E W U P N E W H A M P S H I R E AV E N U E

Perry Belmont

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123


124


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Perry Belmont

20 08


STAI R H ALL

Perry Belmont

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127


Dressing Room Bath Room

cl

Master Bedroom

cl

Pantry

Bedroom cl

B

Family Dining Room

El.

Service Stair

closet

Gallery Hall

Sitting Room

Stairs down to Squash Court

Bath room

Sitting Room

Guest Bedroom

Entrance Hall

Library Gallery

Porte Cochere

First Floor Plan

Venetian Dining Room

2–Story Pantry Service Stair

El.

Gal lery

Art Gallery Grand Salon

Petit Salon

Gallery

Second Floor Plan

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Perry Belmont

Balcony


Ronaele M anor ELEANOR WIDENER DIXON RESIDENCE Elkins Park, Pennsylvania · 1923–1925

With this in mind, Trumbauer rejected the highly structured classical orders in favor of the rambling and picturesque qualities of the Tudor Revival style. As a starting point, Trumbauer looked to the 15th-century architectural masterpiece Compton Wynyates, which is located a few miles north of Stratford-upon-Avon. One of the most romantic houses in the world, it has inspired countless imitators on this side of the Atlantic. Trumbauer’s Ronaele Manor was not a direct copy of Compton, rather a synthesis of the architect’s vision of the Tudor vernacular that was combined with decorative elements borrowed directly from the English prototype. The entrance projection is particularly close in appearance to the English original, with the crest over the portal changed to that of the Dixon family, which bears the motto “Fortune Favors the Bold.” The 114-acre Olmsted Brothers–designed estate had originally been the country place of the great 19th-century financier Jay Cooke. Called Ogontz after a Native American friend of Cooke, the house was later occupied by the Ogontz School for Girls, a fashionable finishing school. In 1915 the property was purchased by Joseph E.Widener as a gift to his niece Mrs. Dixon. Work on the new estate did not actually begin until 1921 when Trumbauer designed a Tudor style farm group for a portion of the property. Other structures designed for the estate were a garage and greenhouse complex, four staff cottages, and a charming tea house. All of these buildings were expertly fashioned by the firm in the same period styling of the main house and farm group. The sporting requirements of the 1920s dictated the construction of a swimming pool, tennis courts, and an indoor badminton court with adjoining dressing rooms.

Lynnewood Hall, the 110-room mansion that was the principal family seat of the Widener family, was the site for a wedding on June 20, 1912. One hundred invited guests made up of family and close friends witnessed an abbreviated ceremony, whose simplicity was not what one would have expected for the wedding of an heiress from one of the wealthiest families in the region. Indeed, the original plans for the union of Eleanor Widener and Philadelphia socialite Fitz Eugene Dixon were made on a lavish scale commensurate with the financial might of the participants. However, two months earlier, the bride’s father, George D. Widener, and her brother Harry died on the Titanic, which made this a more subdued celebration. George Widener was remembered stating, “When I die, never let my death interfere with the plans of the family. If there should be a wedding or a christening or a trip, I want it to go ahead on the appointed day.” So proceeded the wedding of his only daughter, and in keeping with the scaled-down celebration, the bride had no attendants, while her brother George Jr. stepped in for their deceased father to give away the bride. During the first 12 years of their wedded life the couple lived at Kulp House, at the intersection of City and Ogontz Avenues. In August 1913 Mrs. Dixon gave birth to a daughter whom she named Eleanor. It was a full decade before she gave birth to a male heir, Fitz Dixon Jr. By the time of her son’s birth, Mrs. Dixon was deeply engrossed in the plans for her new estate, Ronaele Manor, in Elkins Park—the name of the estate having been derived from spelling Eleanor backwards. According to the wishes of its chatelaine, Ronaele Manor was designed from the outset to be “less palatial than either Lynnewood Hall or Miramar (her mother’s Newport home) but equally impressive in its own right.”

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TO P : E N TRANCE FACAD E ; B OTTO M: LI B RARY

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Ronaele Manor


TO P : E N TRANCE HALL; B OTTO M: LI VI NG ROOM

Ronaele Manor

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STAI R HALL

Construction on the estate lasted almost a decade. As late as 1931, work was being completed on the brick property wall along Spring Avenue.The wall was punctuated by brick and limestone entrance piers that supported carved figures representing a lion and a dragon. The gateposts also supported a massive pair of studded wooden gates that when closed excluded any view of the outside world. The house proper was designed in 1924 and it took two years to complete.The overall effect it gave was one of great warmth enhanced by textural variety. The brickwork was in a diaper pattern fashioned from two different colored bricks, while the mullioned windows, doorway surrounds, and structural cappings were completed in limestone. Above the handsomely carved bargeboards was an enormous roof fashioned from several shades of slate. Towering over all of this was the house’s 28 chimneys that were arranged in either twin or triple stacks, with each set fashioned in a different brickwork motif. Also enhancing the Tudor effect was the building’s guttering, which was augmented by decorative leader heads that were very common in the 15th and 16th centuries. The two-story house was 173 feet long with

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Ronaele Manor

nearly 50 rooms. Notwithstanding its earlier style, the house contained modern conveniences, including an elevator, 13 bathrooms, and two washrooms. Of special note is Ronaele’s 93-piece collection of heraldic stained glass that graced its windows. These panels were culled from many important houses in England and were set into modern leaded glass windows. The collection is now owned by the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The house was entered through four-inch-thick carved oak doors whose panels are believed to have been the cheek pieces of choir stalls from an English monastery. First, one came upon a simply detailed stone-lined-and-paved entrance hall. Here, as in the other principal rooms of the house, the decoration was supervised by the English firm of Charles of London, under the direction of Charles Joel Duveen. Most of the principal rooms in the house were adorned with antique paneling. The living room’s beautifully detailed oak linen-fold woodwork came from a hunting lodge belonging to James I, while the library and morning room both reflected the world of the English Renaissance. Perhaps the most striking decorative element in the house was the


D I N I N G ROO M

richly modeled main staircase. Here the uprights supporting the balustrade were topped by lantern-like devices so typical of the Tudor era, with original examples found in houses such as Bickling Hall and Hatfield House. The staircase rose to a midpoint landing that was illuminated by a magnificent 14-foot-high bay of leaded windows, many with antique panes. Suspended from the carved plaster ceiling was an enormous two-tiered brass chandelier. On the second floor, the master suite consisted of two bedrooms, two baths, and a boudoir for Mrs. Dixon. The architect provided for a concealed wall safe in Mrs. Dixon’s bedroom, which was hidden in a built-in bookshelf behind rows of gold-stamped leather book spines. There were five other family and guest bedrooms on this level, each with its own bath, plus a two-room suite for the housekeeper. In the service wing were 13 staff rooms, a sewing room, and two bath complexes. On the mansion’s third floor were a children’s playroom, a cedar-lined room for clothing storage, a tailor shop, storage areas, and additional staff rooms. To maintain the estate, the Dixons had two housemen, two laundresses, two cooks, a kitchen maid, a butler, two

footmen, a parlor maid, Mr. Dixon’s valet, a lady’s maid for Mrs. Dixon, two chambermaids, three watchmen, a governess for the children, and the head housekeeper. In the garage complex were three chauffeurs plus a full-time car washer. Dozens more worked on the grounds and in the extensive greenhouses. During the 1940s the Dixons separated, with Mrs. Dixon retaining the estate. In 1950, after 27 years at Ronaele Manor, Mrs. Dixon moved to a much smaller residence in Chestnut Hill. She took with her many of the furnishings plus the paneling from the living room, which she reassembled at her new home. The property was subdivided, with a core 53-acre parcel going to the Christian Brothers. The religious order converted the house into a residence for student brothers and changed its name to Anselm Hall. By 1972 the number of student recruits had decreased to a mere 11, prompting the order to place the property on the market. It was soon purchased by a developer who demolished the house, despite its inclusion on the National Register, to make way for a housing development.

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T e rra c e

Alcove

Library

Living Room

Dining Room

Cold Room

Kitchen

Morning Room

Pantry

Recept. Hall

Servants’ Hall

Ladies’ Recept. Room

Men’s Room

First Floor Plan Laundry

Mrs. D’s Room

Service Porch B

B

B

B

Daughter’s Room

Guest Room

Governess’ Room

B

Guest Room

Blanket & Pillow Cl.

Dress Cl.

Boudoir Hallway

Mr. D’s Room

Guest Room

B

B

Maid’s Room

Linen Room

Hskpr’s Room

B

Hskpr’s Sitting Room

Maid’s Room

Maid’s Room

Maid’s Room

B

Maid’s Room

Man’s Room

Man’s Room

Second Floor Plan

B

Man’s Room Man’s Room

Man’s Room

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Maid’s Room

Man’s Room

Maid’s Room


Bloomfield GEORGE H. MCFADDEN JR. ESTATE Villanova, Pennsylvania · 1923–1924

He named the renovated house Bloomfield in honor of his wife’s stepfather. By 1923 the house was in need of enlargement because of the ever-increasing social activities of Mr. and Mrs. McFadden and their maturing children—two daughters soon would be making their debuts.This time the renovation project was given to Horace Trumbauer. In the course of enlarging the structure, Trumbauer was also able to effect a complete transformation, giving Bloomfield the air of a genuine late 17th-century French chateau. The only recognizable feature that was retained from the earlier house was a conservatory that jutted out rather incongruously from one end of the principal garden facade. With Trumbauer’s strict adherence to classical symmetry, one can be certain that this disquieting element was left at the insistence of the client. Sheathed in smooth Indiana limestone with a subtly contrasting trim of French Caen stone, the 35-room Bloomfield is one of the most imposing houses on Philadelphia’s Main Line, and certainly it is one of the most elegant. Giving it additional height and dignity is the structure’s soaring slate roof that periodically is punctuated with decorative stone dormers that extend down below the cornice line. Overall, the house’s aristocratic bearing has an authenticity one comes to expect in the architect’s mature work. The setting was enhanced by an Olmsted Brothers naturalistic park that was augmented by a series of formal gardens immediately surrounding the structure. Trumbauer collaborated on the interiors with Alavoine, the architect’s preferred decorator when working on French

George McFadden was born into wealth. His father, George H. McFadden, was the founder and senior partner of Geo. H. McFadden & Brother, one of the largest cotton brokerage firms in the world. The younger McFadden was born in 1873, and 20 years later he received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Pennsylvania and joined his father’s firm as a junior partner. Later on his other business interests included a trusteeship in the Penn Mutual Insurance Company and directorships in the Commercial Trust Company and the Girard National Bank. Because of his distinguished record during World War I—in both professional and personal capacities—he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal by General Pershing. McFadden was one of only two American civilian members of the armistice committee that convened in Paris at the end of the war. Athletic in nature, he was a leading American polo player as well as highly proficient in both tennis and squash. He was an avid clubman, with memberships in Philadelphia’s Union League and the Bryn Mawr Polo, Downtown, Racquet, and Merion Cricket clubs. In April 1906 McFadden married Josephine Burton, daughter of Bloomfield and Caroline Burton McIlvain, with whom he had four children. The couple initially inhabited a town house at 18th and Walnut Streets in Philadelphia. Needing more space to raise their children, McFadden purchased an estate in Villanova in 1911. The property, then named Pregny, originally had been developed in 1885 by naturalist A. E. Gallatin and adjoined his father’s estate, Barclay Farm. In 1912 McFadden hired the architectural firm of Zantzinger & Borie to revamp and enlarge the existing house, and it turned out to be a rather clumsy interpretation of an 18th-century French chateau.

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classical projects. On the first floor the rooms include a Caen-stone-lined and marble-floored entrance hall with a grand staircase at one end, a 44-foot-long Louis XVI style music room, and a Louis XV oak-paneled library. These three spaces have very high ceilings that are cleverly dovetailed into the fabric of the house. The remaining reception rooms on this floor are a small, paneled card room, a breakfast room with gracefully arched window and door openings, and a 37-foot-long main dining room encircled by Corinthian pilasters. On the second floor is a large master suite consisting of two bedrooms, two bathrooms, and Mrs. McFadden’s boudoir. Also, there was a large suite for their two daughters that included separate bedrooms, a sleeping porch, a dressing

room, a sitting room, and a governess’ room. In addition, there are three guest suites on this level. The McFaddens’ sons were housed on the third floor, each with his own bedroom plus a shared sitting room.Their rooms shared this floor with an additional guest room and staff accommodations. The latter included a room for the housekeeper, a valet’s room, six maids’ rooms, and a sewing room. McFadden died in 1931 from a heart attack that was induced by an electric shock he received when the steam cabinet in his bathroom short-circuited. His family continued to occupy Bloomfield until 1984, at which time the property was subdivided. Even with its expansive acreage shorn, the house still commands the neighborhood from its lofty knoll.

STAI RCASE

Bloomfield

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LI B R ARY D E TAI L, C.

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Bloomfield


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Bloomfield

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239


Loggia

Terrace

Breakfast Room

Card Room

Library

Dining Room

Music Room

Terrace

Pantry

Entrance Hall

Dressing Room

Pantry

Kitchen

First Floor Plan

Cold Room

Porch

Roof Terrace

B Boudoir

Guest Room

Mr. M’s Room

B

B Daughter’s Room Sleeping Porch

Corridor

B

Mrs. M’s Room

Corridor

Guest Room

Guest Room

B

B

B Dressing Room

Sitting Room

Second Floor Plan

Room

B

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Selective Catalog

1892 Country House for Joseph W. Seybert, St. Davids, PA, American Georgian. Demolished.

1898 Country House for William L. Elkins Jr., Elkins Park, PA, Tudor. Status unknown.

1892 Country House for John H. Watt, Wayne, PA, Queen Anne. Extant.

1898–1900 Town House for George A. Huhn, Philadelphia, PA, Modern French. Demolished. 1899–1900 St. Austell Hall, Country House for John Gribbel, Wyncote, PA, Tudor Revival. Demolished. 1900 Country House for T. E. Copeland, Jenkintown, PA, Elizabethan. Status unknown.

WENDELL

&

SMI TH,

18 93

1900–1902 Town House for Mrs. E.H.G. Slater, Washington, D.C., French Classical. Extant.

1893 House for Wendell & Smith, Overbrook, PA, Arts & Crafts. Status unknown.

1901 Alterations & Additions to the Town House of William Storrs Wells, New York, NY. Demolished.

1897 Breezewood, Country House for Mrs. G. R. Rebmann, Wyncote, PA, American Colonial. Extant.

1901 Alterations & Additions to the Town House of William K. Vanderbilt Jr., New York, NY. Demolished.

1898 Country House for George W. Elkins / Charles J. Cole, Elkins Park, PA, American Colonial. Extant.

283

Chapter Title

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283


1901–1902 Alterations & Additions to Town House of Ogden Mills, New York, NY, Venetian Gothic. Demolished. 1902 Seaweed Cottage, Alterations & Additions to Summer House of Thomas Dolan, Newport, RI, Colonial. Extant.

1904–1906 The Woods, Country House for James F. Sullivan, Radnor, PA, Georgian. Extant. 1905 County House for W. N. Steigerwalt, Merion, PA , Elizabethan. Extant. 1905–1906, Additions 1911, Georgian Terrace, Country House for George F. Tyler, Elkins Park, PA, Georgian. Extant.

D E E P DA LE ,

19 0 2

1902 Deepdale, Country House for William K. Vanderbilt Jr., Lake Success, NY, American Georgian. Extant. 1904–1905 Residence for Marie Eisenlohr, Philadelphia, PA, French Renaissance. Extant. 1904–1905 Oatlands, Country House of Hartman Kuhn, Devon, PA, Tudor. Demolished.

TH E WO O DS,

GEOR GIA N T ER R ACE

1905–1906 Town House for John C. Bell, Philadelphia, PA, American Georgian. Extant. 1905–1907 Country House of Charles E. Porter, Chestnut Hill, PA, American Georgian. Extant. 1906–1907 Country House for Morton Downs, Ambler, PA, Colonial. Extant.

19 04 – 19 0 6 GEOR GE HU FF,

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Catalog

19 06–19 07


1906 – 1907 Town House for George F. Huff, Washington, D.C., French Classical. Extant.

1908–1909 Town House for James B. Clews, New York, NY, French Classical. Demolished.

1907–1908 Paul Brook Hall, Country House of I. H. Silverman, Rydal, PA, Elizabethan. Demolished.

1909–1910 Fairholme, Alterations & Additions to Summer House of John R. Drexel, Newport, RI, Tudor. Extant. 1909–1910 High Gate, Country House for J. E. Watson, Fairmount, WV, Elizabethan. Extant.

PAU L B RO O K HALL,

19 0 8

1907–1908 Westwood, Country House of Henry M. Nathanson, Rydal, PA, American Georgian. Demolished. 1908–1909 Theodore Cramp Residence, Philadelphia, PA, French Classical. Extant. 1908–1909 County House for Benjamin C. Allen, Colorado Springs, CO, Jacobean. Demolished.

HIGH GAT E,

19 0 9 – 1910

1909–1910 Colkenny, Country House for Thomas P. Hunter, Haverford, PA, Tudor. Demolished.

1908–1909 Alterations & Additions to Country House & Stable of Edward R. Welsh, Wakefield, RI, Queen Anne. Extant.

COL EKEN N Y,

19 0 9 – 1910

1909–1911 Town House for Henry Welsh Rogers, New York, NY, French Classical. Demolished.

JAME S B. CLE WS,

19 0 8 – 19 0 9

Catalog

~

285


1910–1911, 1919 Westbury House Alterations & Additions to Country House of John S. Phipps Old Westbury, NY, English Georgian, extant

D U K E FA RMS,

1910

1910–1912 Otto Eisenlohr Residence, Philadelphia, PA, Georgian. Extant.

1910 Duke Farms, Country House for James B. Duke, Somerville, NJ, French Classical. Unbuilt. 1910–1911 Country House for C. J. Matthews, Langhorne, PA, English Georgian. Extant.

OT TO EISEN L OHR ,

1910 – 1912

1911 Almonbury House, Country House for Herbert S. Darlington, Villanova, PA, English Arts & Crafts. Extant.

C. J. M ATTHE WS,

1910 – 1911

1910–1911 Portledge, Country House of Henry P. Vaux, Bryn Mawr, PA, English Georgian. Extant.

A L M ON BURY H OU SE,

1911

1911–1913 Town House for Frank P. Mitchell, Washington, D.C., French Classical. Extant. 1912–1914 Country House for Sidney Frederick Tyler, Wyncote, PA, American Colonial. Extant. Portledge, 1910–1911

286

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1913–1918 Town House for Mrs. Amory S. Carhart, New York, NY, French Classical. Extant. 1913–1926 Erdenheim Farms, Alterations and Additions to Country House for George D. Widener II, Chestnut Hill, PA, American Georgian. Extant.

E RD E N H E I M FARMS,

1917–1918 Tullaroan, Alterations & Additions to the Country House of J. P. Grace, Manhasset, NY, English Georgian. Extant. 1917–1919 Clairemont, Estate of Morris L. Clothier, Villanova, PA, English Regency. Extant.

1913 – 19 2 6

1916 Interior Alterations & Additions to the Town House for Edward T. Stotesbury, Philadelphia, PA, English Georgian. Partially Extant. 1916–1918 Bonnie Blink, Country House for Henry Phipps, Great Neck, NY, Georgian. Extant.

CL A IR EM ON T,

1917 – 1919

1919–1921 Alterations & Additions to the Town House of Frank Frueauff, New York, NY, Classical. Demolished. 1920–1921 Maroebe, Alterations & Additions to Country House for J. H. Weaver, Merion Station, PA, French Classical. Demolished. 1922 Country House for J. Clayton Strawbridge, Merion, PA, Tudor. Extant.

B O N N I E B L I NK

1916 – 1918

1917–1918 Sunnybrook, Alterations & Additions to Country House of Isaac H. Clothier Jr., Radnor, PA, Colonial. Extant.

1922–1923 Country House for John C. Martin, Wyncote, PA, English Georgian. Extant. 1923-1924 Rylston, Country House of Arthur H. Lea, Wyndmoor, PA, Georgian. Demolished.

Catalog

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287


1929 Hunting Lodge for Franklyn Laws Hutton, Willtown Bluff, SC, Extant. 1929–1930 La Lanterne, Country House for James B. Clews, Brookville, NY, French Classical. Central Portion Demolished; Wings Extant. RY LSTO N,

19 23 - 19 2 4

1925 & ff. Summer House of Mrs. Horace Trumbauer, Standish, ME, Extant. 1926 Lares Country House of Abby Sutherland, Rydal, PA, Tudor. Extant. 1926 Country House for Henry D. M. Weir, Glenside, PA, Tudor. Extant. 1927 Alterations & Additions to Town House of George D. Widener II, New York, NY, French Classical. Demolished. 1927–1928 Stonybrook, Summer House for Edward C. Knight Jr., Middletown, RI, Tudor. Extant.

S TO N Y B ROO K ,

L A L A N T ER N E,

1929-1930

1930 Beaulieu, Alterations & Additions to Summer House of Cornelius Vanderbilt III, Newport, RI, French Classical. Extant. 1930 Belora Villa, Country House for Jan Carl Van Eck, Greenwich, CT, style unknown. Extant. 1930 City House for Herbert N. Straus, New York, NY, French Classical. Extant.

19 2 7 – 19 2 8 H ER BERT N. ST R AU S,

288

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Catalog

1930


Illustr ations Cr edits

William Morrison, 81 top, 156, 236 top, 284 bottom right Moss Archive, 132, 133, 134-135 Courtesy of the Museum of the City of New York, 103 bottom, 130, 138, 141, 148, 152, 153, 154, 186 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 61 New York Public Library, 31 bottom, 32, 229 top Newport Historical Society, 87, 90 Courtesy of Newport Restoration Foundation, 220 bottom, 221, 223 Pennsylvania State Archive, 54, 56-57, 198, 199, 202, 204, 205, 206,207 top, 209 Philadelphia Museum of Art, 170, 171, 172, 173 Courtesy of the Preservation Society of Newport County,70, 79, 99 top Private Collection, 222 Print and Picture Collection, Free Library of Philadelphia, 39 bottom, 52, 63, 65 bottom, 82,113, 115,144, 228 bottom, 229 bottom, 230, 231, 285 bottom left, 286 center left,287 top left Rare Book Department, Free Library of Philadelphia, 263 bottom Melissa Murphy Savarese, Photographer, 242, 243, 244 Society for the Preservation of Long Island Antiquities 287 bottom left Suffolk County Vanderbilt Museum, 284 top left Edward Van Altena, Photographer, 78, 174 Eleanor Weller, 12, 16, 24, 25, 26 bottom, 27, 29, 31 top, 33 top, 34 , 35, 38 bottom,46, 48 top, 49, 50, 62, 64 top, 65 top, 70 top, 81 bottom, 83, 88-89, 93, 109, 118, 119, 123, 127, 142, 143, 150, 158, 179, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193,194, 195, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 226-227, 252 top, 257, 263 top, 266 top, 269, 270, 272, 287 right 288 bottom right The Woolworth Company, 259 top.

Author’s Collection, 45 top, 68, 71bottom, 99 bottom, 168, 203, 248 top, 256, 275, 283, 288 bottom left © Ron Blunt Photography 2010, 267 bottom, 268 © Tom Crane 1987, 94, 95: 2002, 159; 2004, 160-161. 162; 2002, 286 bottom left. John Deming, 38 top, 58, 64 bottom, 66, 67, 72 bottom, 177 bottom, 284 bottom left and top right, 286 bottom right Detroit Institute of Arts, 280, 282, Mattie Edwards Hewitt Photographs, Copyright © 1996, 273, 274, 281 Courtesy of the Eastern Star Temple, Washington, DC, 126 Courtesy of Peter Edson, Photographer, Paul J. Mateyunas, Daniel Gale Realty Sotheby’s International Realty,182,183 bottom © Herb Engelsberg, 234-235, 236 bottom, 239 Courtesy of the Grosse Pointe Historical Society, 276, 277, 278, 279 Hillwood Museum, Washington, D. C., 100, 102 Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 45 bottom, 48 bottom, 51, 151, 228 top, 246-247, 286 top right, 288 bottom right Courtesy of Gary Lawrance, 220, top Courtesy of Libby Kerwin Real Estate, 105, 106-107, 110, 166167 Courtesy of the Library Company, Philadelphia, 200-201 Library of Congress, 26 top, 72 top, 73, 74-75, 77 bottom, 165, 169, 178, 208, 270 bottom Richard Marchand, frontispiece, 33 bottom, 36, 40, 42-43, 44, 45 top, 53, 84, 85, 91 96, 98, 108, 110, 114, 116, 120, 128, 136, 139, 145, 147, 155, 163, 175, 177 top, 180, 183 top, 184, 196, 210, 211, 218, 224, 232, 236, 238, 240, 243 bottom, 249, 250, 252 bottom, 254, 258 top, 255, 259 bottom, 260, 261, 265, 288 top right Martin Luther King Jr. Library, Washington, D.C., 124-125 Photograph by Stephen Mattos for the Preservation Society of Newport County, 76, 77 top

289

Chapter Title

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289


Ack nowledgments

As in an y b ook based on historical data, this work is permeated with the voices of others. Chief among these is that of James T. Maher, whose insightful work The Twilight of Splendor (1975) chronicled two of Horace Trumbauer’s major residential works. I thank Richard Marchand for his lucid floor plans and beautiful renderings that have helped make this work as handsome as it is, and for his constant encouragement. Eleanor Weller deserves praise for her research assistance and the use of her extensive photography collection. I am indebted to Theodore Dell for sharing his extensive knowledge on Rose Terrace and the Dodge collection. A special thanks to Barbara Eberlein for sharing her insights on the decoration of historic houses, as well as the photographs of her work at the Knight house and Ardrossan. From the many collections from which I culled information and images, I owe much. Included in this necessarily long list in Pennsylvania are Bruce Laverty at the Athenaeum of Philadelphia; Michael Sherbon at the Archives & Manuscripts Division of the Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission in Harrisburg; Joseph Benford, Curator of Prints & Photographs at the Free Library of Philadelphia; also at the Free Library, Joel Sartorius of the Rare Book Department; Jordan Rockford at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania; John H. Deming of the Hawksmoor Group; and Stacy Bomento at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. At the University of Pennsylvania were Chris Hanson and William Whitaker of the Architectural Archives; Sr. M. Anne Angelcyk, SDR of the Villa St.Teresa; and Martha W. Dale of Cabrini College. In Washington, D.C., I thank Carlos DiLaudo of the Argentine Embassy; Stephanie A. Brown, Archivist at the Hillwood Museum; Susan L. Malbin,Washingtoniana Division of the Martin Luther King Jr. Library; Gail R. Redman, Director of the Historical Society of Washington, D.C.; Walter E. Beach, Senior Fellow of the Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation; Ambassador

290

Andre Adam of the Belgian Embassy; and Alma Lynn Bane of the International Eastern Star Temple. Help and direction in the New York area were given by Marguerite Lavin, Rights & Reproduction Department at the Museum of the City of New York; Robert B. MacKay, Ph.D., Director, and Linda Dunn, both of the Society for the Preservation of Long Island Antiquities; Florence Ogg, Curator of Fine & Decorative Arts at theVanderbilt Museum; Lisa Bidell of the Watson Library at the Metropolitan Museum of Art; Gary Lawrence; and Ambassador Gert Rosenthal of the Guatemalan Consulate. Farther afield, Sylvia Inwood at The Detroit Institute of Arts; Joan Youngken, Associate Director & Curator of The Newport Historical Society; A. Bruce MacLeish, Collections Manager, and Robert B. Foley of The Newport Restoration Foundation; Nancy Wadell of the American Capital Corporation; and Paul F. Miller, Curator and Charles J. Burns, Associate Curator, of The Preservation Society of Newport County. Last, but certainly not least, I thank Glenn and Patricia Randall for their kind and gracious hospitality. Thanks to Randall Seale and Matt Magee for giving me the opportunity to write in the quiet of their beautiful country house; to my mother, Jean Kathrens, for continued moral support and for the much needed financial support that came at a crucial moment; and to Mark Heston Hooper, whose logistical help was much appreciated. To James Amodeo and Joseph Gordon, for proofreading early text, and Matthew Kohl and Bill Morrison for editing later versions. Lastly, I want to express my deepest appreciation to Barry Cenower of Acanthus Press for believing in this project. He recognized the passion I had for this subject and somehow convinced me that I could create a work that would successfully convey this passion to others.


Index

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations. A Complete Body of Architecture (Ware), 241 Abele, Julian F., 22–23, 25 Alavoine et Cie, 23, 25, 266, 272. See also Hitau, Edouard Alavoine, Lucien, 19, 22–23, 70, 197, 233, 237 Alice T. Drexel Residence (New York, NY), 97–99 Allard, Jules, 19–20, 23, 30, 47, 55, 58, 69–70, 86–87, 97, 104 Allen, Benjamin C., 21, 285 Allom, Charles Carrick, 22–24, 197, 203. See also White, Allom & Company Almonbury House (Villanova, PA), 286 Alnwick Castle (England), 30 Ambler, Pennsylvania, 284 American Art Association/Anderson Galleries, 122 American Country House, The (Aslet), 15 American Institute of Architects (Philadelphia), 28 Andrews, Phoebe, 87 Anselm Hall. See Ronaele Manor antiques, 14, 21, 28, 60, 105, 138, 150, 183, 206, 213, 272, 277–78. See also Duveen, Sir Joseph Arcadia University (Beaver College), 32 architects African American, 23 and European great houses, 28 of French classical revival style, 19 profession of, 13 social status of, 13, 16 training of, 16 working for Trumbauer, 22–25 . See also individual names architectural electicism, 17 architectural historicism, 13–14, 254

291

Architectural League of New York, 28 Architectural Record, The, 20 Architectural Review, The, 192 Architecture magazine, 59 Ardenrun Place (Surrey, England), 20, 156 Ardrossan (Villanova, PA), 20, 23–24, 120, 156–63. See also Montgomery, Robert L. art collections, 15, 18, 21–22, 28, 55, 59– 61, 63, 72, 92, 105, 122, 138, 153, 189, 197, 224, 241, 272. See also portraits art galleries, 15, 30, 47, 55, 59–60, 65 Arts & Crafts style, 283, 286 Ashbourne, Pennsylvania. See Elkins Park, Pennsylvania Aslet, Clive, 15 Astor, Caroline, 149 Astor Estate Office, 191 Astor, John Jacob V, 87 Astor, Mr. and Mrs.Vincent, 214 Astor, William Waldorf, 185 Atterbury, Grosvenor, 16 Atwill, Lionel, 178 Atwood, C. B., 185 Bagatelle (Bois-de-Boulogne, France), 213 Baker, Mrs. Raymond T., 266, 268. See also Dillman, Anna Dodge; Emerson, Margaret Baker, Raymond T., 266, 270. See also Marly Ballingarry (Spring Lake, NJ), 41–45, 55. See also Maloney, Martin ballrooms, 15, 64, 73, 132, 159, 188. See also specific houses Baptist Home of Maryland and Delaware, 178 Bar Harbor, Maine, 41, 203, 219 Barreda, Federico Luciano, 164 Barrett, William, 98 bathrooms, 77. See also specific houses

291

Beaulieu (Newport, RI), 164, 288 Becker, Martin, 25 bedrooms, 14, 77, 133. See also specific houses Belcourt (Newport, RI), 122 Belgian Embassy (Washington, DC), 270 Bell, Christopher, 164 Bell, John C., 284 Bellevue Avenue (Newport, RI), 69, 86, 101, 104, 164, 172, 219 Bellini, Giovanni, 60 Belmont, Mr. and Mrs. August, 121 Belmont, Mrs. Perry, 121–22. See also Perry Belmont Residence; Sloane, Mrs. Henry Belmont, Perry, 20, 121–22. See also Perry Belmont Residence Belora Villa (Greenwich, CT), 288 Benedict, E. C., 47 Benjamin Franklin Hotel (Philadelphia), 28 Bennett, Constance (Mrs. Philip Plant), 105 Berwind, Charles, 73 Berwind, Edward J., 19, 69–70, 72–73, 86, 101 Berwind, Hermine Torrey, 19 Berwind, Julia, 73 Bickling Hall (England), 231 Biddle, A. J. Drexel Jr., 87 billiard rooms, 32, 41, 47, 59, 82, 203 Biltmore (Asheville, NC), 17, 186 Blair, Wolcott, 183 Blaustein, Jacob, 178 Bloomfield (Villanova, PA), 22, 233–40. See also McFadden, George H. Jr. Boffrand, Germain, 98 boiseries, 59–60, 70, 87, 97–98, 168, 172, 189, 212–13, 268 Bond, Francis E., 20, 112, 114 Bond, Margaret (Mrs. Francis E. Bond), 112, 114


Bonnie Blink (Great Neck, NY), 20, 287. See also Phipps, Henry book collections, 15, 60, 164, 264, 268 Bottomley, William L., 262 Boucher, Francois, 212–13, 278 Branam, Alfred, 28 Breakers, The (Newport, RI), 18–19, 58 breakfast rooms, 15, 173, 239, 279. See also specific houses Breezewood (Wyncote, PA), 283 Briar Hill (Chestnut Hill, PA), 262–65. See also Elkins, William M. brick facades, 20–21, 23, 86, 101, 104, 112, 164, 181, 230, 241–42 Broadmoor Hotel (Colorado Springs, CO), 146 Brokaw, Howard C., 192. See also Chimneys, The Brokaw, Isaac V., 192 Brooklands (Owings Mills, MD), 20, 176–80. See also Brooks, Walter B. Jr. Brooks, Louise Cromwell, 176, 178 Brooks, Walter B. Jr., 20, 176, 178 Brookville, NY, 181, 192, 288 brownstone facades, 185, 188 Buckingham Palace, 23–24, 69 bungalows, 21, 146–47 Burden, Henry, 101 Burden, I. Townsend, 20, 101. See also I. Townsend Burden Residence Burden, James, 101 Burden, Mrs. I. Townsend, 101 Burton, Josephine, 233. See also McFadden, Mrs. George H. Jr. Cabrini College (Radnor, PA), 82 Caen stone, 30, 47, 58, 70, 97, 112–13, 122, 138, 168, 212, 233, 237, 266 Campbell, Colin, 104 card rooms, 104, 237 Carhart, Mrs. Amory S., 21, 287 Carlhian, André, 23, 60, 63, 104, 156, 168, 172, 203, 212, 245 Carlin, Martin, 277 Carnegie, Andrew, 101, 119 Carrère & Hastings, 13, 19, 47, 186 Carrère, John Mervin, 16. See also Carrère & Hastings carriage houses, 22, 33, 72, 82, 248. See also specific houses Carter, Boake, 203 Caruso, Enrico, 41, 45, 121 ceiling paintings, 30, 32, 59–60, 70, 72, 150 ceiling styles, 23, 37, 189 barrel-vaulted, 60, 80 beamed, 60, 150 coffered, 30, 70, 80 decorative plaster, 113, 156, 176, 231 domed, 122, 264 stained-glass, 253

292 292 ~~ Index American Splendor

strapwork, 30, 192 Cellini, Benvenuto, 60 chapels, 41 Charles of London, 230 Charlton Hall (Brookville, NY), 20, 181–84. See also Dows, David Jr. Chase-Lloyd House (Annapolis, MD), 241 Chateau d’Asnières, 19, 69 Chateau de Blois, 30 Chateau de la Norville, 213 Chateau de Villarceaux, 268 Chateau du Barry, 70 Chelten House (Elkins Park, PA), 18, 37–40, 47, 51, 212. See also Elkins, George W. Chester-le-Street, County Durham, England, 104 Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania, 22, 231, 262, 284, 287 Chetwode (Newport, RI), 20, 86–91. See also Wells, William S. Childs, George W., 16 chimneys, 117, 192, 230, 251, 262 Chimneys, The (Brookville, NY), 192–96. See also Brokaw, Howard C. Christian Brothers, 231 Christie’s, 279 Christopher, Prince, 219 Civil War, 14, 55, 119 Clairemont (Villanova, PA), 20, 287 clapboard, 16, 41, 82 Claradon Court (Newport, RI), 104–11, 167. See also Knight, Edward C. Jr. classical revival style, 13, 17–18, 20–21, 41 Clemenceau, George, 203 Clews, James B., 22, 285, 288 Close, Ed, 101 Close, Marjorie Merriweather Post, 101–02 Clothier, Isaac H. Jr., 287 Clothier, Morris L., 20, 287 Codman, Ogden, 19, 41, 150 Coeur, Jacques, 14 Cole, Charles J., 283 Colkenny (Haverford, PA), 285 Collegiate Gothic style, 22 Colonial style, 16, 283–84, 286–87 Colorado Springs, Colorado, 21, 146, 285 Compton Wynyates (England), 225 Conden, Joshua, 271 conservatories, 30, 32, 70, 76, 138, 162, 233 Cook, Henry H., 140 Cooke, Jay, 225 Copeland, T. E., 283 Cornelius Vanderbilt III Residence (New York, NY), 185–91. See also Vanderbilt, Cornelius III cortiles, 188, 253–56 Country Life, 20 County Tipperary, Ireland, 41

Coustou the Younger, Guillaume, 69 Craig Hall (Haverford, PA), 241–44. See also Mucklé, Katherine Craig Wright Craig, Hugh, 241 Cramp, Theodore, 20, 285 Cromwell, James H. R., 141, 203, 271 Cromwell, Lucretia “Eva” Roberts, 197. See also Stotesbury, Eva Roberts Cromwell, Oliver E., 197 Cumberland, Duke of, 181 curio rooms, 59 Dabo, Leon, 241 Dancing Couple, The (Steen), 60 Darby Borough, Pennsylvania, 117 Darlington, Herbert S., 286 Davis, Dwight F., 268 de Castellane, Boniface, 129 de Castellane, Mrs. Boniface, 129. See also Gould, Anna de Sagonne, Jacques Hardouin-Mansart, 19, 69 De Witt, Jacob, 70 Decoration of Houses, The (Codman and Wharton), 19 decorative arts, 14–15, 21–22, 55, 59–60, 86, 92, 105, 172, 206, 224, 268, 272, 277 Deepdale (Lake Success, NY), 20, 284 Deichelmann, Rosabelle and S. J., 264 della Robbia, Giovanni, 70 Depew, Grace Goodyear, 21, 146. See also El Pomar Descent from the Cross (Rembrandt), 60 Detroit Institute of Arts, 279 Devon, Pennsylvania, 284 Dictionary of American Biography, The, 24 Dillman, Anna Dodge, 21–22, 266, 270– 72, 274, 276–81. See also Dodge, Anna; Rose Terrace Dillman, Hugh, 271, 274, 277–78 Dimeling, Schrieber & Park, 92 dining rooms, 15, 23, 52, 94, 103, 126, 153, 173, 184, 191, 207, 231, 257, 269, 278. See also specific houses Dixon, Eleanor Widener (Mrs. Fritz E. Dixon), 22, 164, 172, 225, 231 Dixon, Fritz E., 164, 225, 231 Dixon, Fritz Jr., 225 Dodge, Anna, 206, 278–79. See also Dillman, Anna Dodge Dodge, Delphine, 266 Dodge, Horace E., 22, 266, 271–72 Dodge, Horace Jr., 271 Dolan, Thomas, 284 Dominican retreats, 37, 51 Dorrance, John T., 82 Douglas, William P. and Adelaide L. T., 137–38. See also Mrs. A. L. T. Douglas Residence Downs, Morton, 284 Dows, David Jr., 20, 181, 183. See also


Charlton Hall drawing rooms, 15, 18, 23, 34, 94, 108, 207, 223. See also specific houses Drexel, Alice Gordon, 98 Drexel, Alice T., 97–98. See also Alice T. Drexel Residence Drexel, Anthony J., 16, 80 Drexel, Frances Catherine (Mrs. James Paul), 80 Drexel, Francis N., 97 Drexel, John R., 20, 97–98, 285 Drum Moir, 16 Dublin, Ireland, 41, 55 Duchêne, Achille, 253 Duke, Ben, 140 Duke, Doris, 140–42, 222, 224 Duke Farms (Somerville, NJ), 286 Duke, James B., 21–22, 140–42, 219, 221–22, 224, 286. See also James B. Duke Residence; Rough Point Duke, Mrs. James B., 140–42, 219, 221, 224. See also Inman, Nanaline H.; McCredy, Lillian Duke University, 22, 142 Duveen, Charles Joel, 230 Duveen, Sir Joseph, 23, 86, 197, 271–72, 277 Dwight, Clara (Mrs. Edward C. Knight Jr.), 104 Earl A. Belmont, Inc., 82 Ecole des Beaux-Arts (Paris), 16 Edward C. Knight Jr. Residence (Philadelphia, PA), 13, 92–96. See also Knight, Edward C. Jr. Edward VII, King, 23 Edwardian style, 30, 59, 82, 86, 130, 158 Eisenlohr, Marie, 284 Eisenlohr, Otto, 286 El Mirasol (Palm Beach, FL), 203, 206 El Pomar (Colorado Springs, CO), 21, 146–47 Elberon, New Jersey, 41 Elizabethan style, 18, 23, 37, 80, 82, 283–85 Elkins, Eleanor (Mrs. George Widener), 18 Elkins, George W., 18, 37, 262, 283. See also Chelten House (Elkins Park, PA) Elkins, Mrs. George W., 262. See also Chelten House (Elkins Park, PA) Elkins, Mrs. William M., 264 Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, 16, 18, 22, 32, 37, 47, 51, 54, 63, 164, 225, 245, 262, 283–84 Elkins, William H., 51 Elkins, William L., 18, 23, 37, 47, 51, 58, 212, 262 Elkins, William L. Jr., 283 Elkins, William M., 262, 264. See also Briar Hill

Elms, The (Newport, RI), 19–20, 23, 30, 68–79, 86, 242 Elstowe (Elkins Park, PA), 18, 23, 46–53, 58, 212, 262, 264 Emerson, Margaret (Mrs. Raymond T. Baker), 266 enfilade, 41, 192 English 17th-century style, 117 English 18th-century style, 104, 153, 197 English Adam style, 130, 150, 176, 253, 264 English Cotswold style, 22, 104 English Renaissance style, 20, 80, 156, 230 entertaining rooms, 14, 21. See also specific houses entrance halls, 115, 142, 170, 179, 195, 205, 215, 229, 239, 267, 274. See also specific houses Erdenheim Farms (Chestnut Hill, PA), 22, 262, 287 Fairholme (Newport, RI), 285 Fairlawn (Newport, RI), 101 Fairmount, West Virginia, 285 Faith Theological Seminary, 63 Fearing, George, 164 Feast of the Gods (Bellini), 60 Federal style, 117, 158, 262, 264 Fennessy, Mrs. Edward H., 25, 27–28 Fifth Avenue (New York, NY), 101–02, 129–31, 140–41, 149–50, 185–86, 188– 89, 191, 212, 251, 257 Flagg, Ernest, 16 Flagg, Henry M., 19 Fleming, Ian, 114 floor coverings, 23 carpets/rugs, 59–60, 87, 141, 189, 213, 253, 268 marble, 146, 168, 176, 181, 192, 212, 237, 241, 245, 266 parquet, 189, 245, 268 floor plans, 14, 18, 21, 37, 47, 55, 86, 210–11. See also individual houses Florida, 146. See also Palm Beach Fontainebleau, 60, 277 Ford, David B., 174 Ford, Henry, 203 fountains, 59, 70, 112, 202–03 Four Seasons, The (Pajou), 202 François I style, 150 Frank, W. Edward, 19 Frank, William Ott, 19 Free Library of Philadelphia, 26, 28, 262, 264 French 17th-century style, 233 French 18th-century style architecture, 19–20, 23–24, 59–60, 69–70, 92, 97, 138, 149–50, 172, 212, 233, 245 interiors, 55, 59–60, 70, 138, 141, 150,

188, 194, 212–13, 277 French chateaux, 14, 19, 22, 30, 69–70, 213, 233, 268. See also specific names French classical revival style, 13, 19–20, 22, 86, 101, 197, 253, 283, 285–88 French neoclassical style, 22–23, 130, 164, 272 frescoes. See ceiling paintings Frick, Henry Clay, 186 Frueauff, Frank, 287 Furness, Frank, 197 furnishings, 21, 23, 59–60, 86–87, 130, 141, 153, 164, 172, 183, 206, 213, 231, 245, 254–55, 264, 268, 277–78 Gabriel, Ange-Jacques, 245, 266 Gainsborough, Thomas, 60, 141, 206, 221, 278 Gallatin, A. E., 233 garden designs, 15, 28, 58, 82, 87–89, 104–05, 181 for courtyards, 212, 214 English style, 202 formal, 13, 164, 192, 233, 264 French, 21, 253 integrated with house, 164 Italian Renaissance, 55 parterres, 21, 59, 172, 174, 200–203, 245 sunken, 19, 69, 78 on terraces, 19, 21, 176, 264, 266 walled, 112–13, 264 . See also parks, residential gate lodges, 21, 30, 33, 47, 82, 158, 203 Gay, Matilda, 153 George A. Fuller Construction Company, 198, 276 George J. Gould Residence (New York, NY), 129–36. See also Gould, George J. George V, King, 24 Georges Hoentschel library, 268 Georgian Court (Lakewood, NJ), 17, 130 Georgian style, 58, 69, 104 houses, 13, 17–18, 20, 23, 41, 112, 176, 192, 197, 202, 241, 262, 283–87 interiors, 23, 59, 101, 113, 156, 214, 221, 264 university buildings, 22 Georgian Terrace (Elkins Park, PA), 284 Germantown, Pennsylvania, 17 Gibbons, Grinling, 117, 156 Gibbs, Ralph, 92 Gilbert, C. P. H., 140, 251 Gilchrist, Edmund, 23 Glenside, Pennsylvania, 17–18, 30 Goldfarb, Larry, 92 Gothic Revival style, 20, 22, 37, 129, 213, 284 Gould, Anna (Mrs. Boniface de Castellane), 129 Gould, George J., 17, 20, 129–31, 133. See

C h a p t e r TI ni td le ex

293 ~ 293


also George J. Gould Residence Gould, Jay and Helen, 129 Gould, Mrs. George J., 129–31, 133. See also Kingdon, Edith Goury, Henry, 70 Grace, J. P., 287 Grand Tour, 15 granite, 17, 47, 219 Great Depression, 22, 122, 190–91, 203, 257, 262, 271 great halls, 35, 39, 49, 62, 84, 90, 148, 161, 187, 221. See also specific houses great houses American, 13–16, 22, 60, 174 description/definition of, 14–16 English, 14, 20–21, 55, 230–31, 241 European, 13–15, 22, 28 French, 14, 19 interior design and, 255 as vacation homes, 86 waning of, 22, 174, 271 . See also French chateaux Great Neck, New York, 287 Greber, Henri-Léon, 59 Greber, Jacques, 21, 59, 172, 202–03 Greek Revival style, 117, 188, 264 greenhouses, 37, 55, 70, 82, 225, 264 Greenhut, Joseph B., 251 Greenwich, Connecticut, 47, 101, 288 Grey Towers (Glenside, PA), 17–18, 30– 36. See also Harrison, William Welsh Gribbel, John, 283 Groombridge Place (Sussex, England), 181 Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan, 266, 271 grotesques, 37, 80 Guatemalan Consulate, 138 Gwynedd-Mercy College (Penllyn, PA), 114 half-timbered facades, 37, 80, 82 Hardwick, Marjorie, 114 Harrison, William Welsh, 17–18, 30, 32. See also Grey Towers Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library (Harvard University), 26, 28, 164, 168 Harvard University, 26, 28, 60, 121, 164, 168, 212, 262 Hastings, Thomas, 16. See also Carrère & Hastings Hatfield House (England), 231 Haverford, Pennsylvania, 241, 285 Hayward, Mr. and Mrs. William, 104–05 Hedworth, John, 104 Herter Brothers, 18, 21, 185, 188 Hewitt, George and William, 16 Hewitt, Mattie Edwards, 278 High Gate (Fairmount, WV), 285 High Renaissance style, 30, 47, 59–60, 70, 253 Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 23

294 294 ~~ Index American Splendor

Hitau, Edouard, 203, 266, 270, 272, 277. See also Alavoine et Cie Hoppin, Francis V. F., 19 Hoppner, John, 140, 206, 278 Horace Trumbauer Residence (Wynnefield, PA), 24, 28 Hôtel de Soubise, 98 Hôtel de Tessé, 21, 149, 153 Hôtel Rothelin-Charolais, 266 Houston, H. H., 16 Huet, Christopher, 213 Huff, George F., 20, 284–85 Huhn, George A., 20, 283 Hunt, Richard Morris, 14, 17–20, 23, 58 Hunter, Thomas P., 285 hunting lodge, 22, 288 Hutton, Barbara, 22 Hutton, Edward F., 101–02 Hutton, Franklyn L., 22, 288 I.Townsend Burden Residence (New York, NY), 100–103 . See also Burden, I. Townsend Industrial Revolution, 14–15 Inman, Nanaline H. (Mrs. James B. Duke), 140–42 Innocenti-Webel landscape firm, 105 interior decoration, 18–19, 23, 255 Baroque, 60 Chinese, 253, 264 Edwardian, 59, 82 Elizabethan, 37, 82 English 17th-century, 117 English 18th-century, 28, 104 English Adam, 150, 176, 253, 264 Federal, 117 François I, 150 French style, 18, 21, 23–24, 28, 59–60, 63, 92, 156, 203, 233 Georgian, 59, 101, 113, 156, 158, 194, 198, 203 Gothic, 37, 213 Greek Revival, 264 Jacobean, 192 Louis XIII, 59 Pompeiian, 253, 259 Queen Anne, 253 Regence, 47, 60, 141, 172, 188, 253, 268 Regency, 268 Renaissance, 18, 23, 30, 32, 60, 70, 86, 130, 150, 253, 255 Rococo, 18, 60, 98 Second Empire, 23, 253–54 Tudor, 37, 230–31, 253 Venetian, 23, 87, 122 Victorian, 18, 23, 59 . See also French 18th-century style; Louis XIV; Louis XV; Louis XVI interior decorators, 14, 18–20, 22–25, 30,

47, 55, 156. See also individual names International Eastern Star Temple, 122 Italian styles, 129, 164. See also High Renaissance; Renaissance Jacob, George, 277 Jacobean style, 21, 80, 192, 272, 285 James B. Duke Residence (New York, NY), 140–45. See also Duke, James B. James I, King, 230 James Speyer Residence (New York, NY), 148–55. See also Speyer, James Jansen (Paris, France), 87 Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, 283 jewelry collections, 60, 138, 206 John Burkhardt Ironworks (New York), 51 Johnson, G. Clarence, 23 Johnson, Philip, 21 Jules Allard et Fils, 23, 47. See also Allard, Jules Kahn, Albert, 272 Kelly, Felix, 105 Kelly, Gerald Festus, 280 Kent, William, 104 Kingdon, Edith, 129, 131. See also Gould, Mrs. George J. Klauder, Charles C., 23 Knickerbocker Hotel (New York, NY), 149 Knight, Edward C. Jr., 13, 20, 22–23, 92, 104. See also Claradon Court; Edward C. Knight Jr. Residence Knight, Mrs. Edward C. Jr., 104 Kolb, Lewis J., 92 Kuhn, Hartman, 284 Kulp House, 225 La Belle Epoque, 138, 271 La Lanterne (Brookville, NY), 288 Lakewood, New Jersey, 130 Land Conservancy of Elkins Park, 37, 51 Langhorne, Pennsylvania, 286 Lares (Rydal, PA), 288 Lea, Arthur H., 287 LeConey, William, 16 Ledoux, Claude-Nicolas, 138 Leeds, William B. and Nancy, 219 Lehman, Eugene H., 259 Lehr, Elizabeth Drexel, 149 Leinster House (Dublin, Ireland), 41, 55 Levitt, Nancy, 242 libraries, 15, 23, 52, 64, 76, 84, 110, 159, 190, 217, 228, 238, 263, 269, 277. See also specific houses limestone facades, 18, 21, 47, 55, 69–70, 97, 104, 121, 138, 140, 149, 164, 202, 233, 253, 277 grotesques, 37


interior walls, 130, 245 terraces, 268 trim/details, 20, 80, 86, 101, 146, 192, 230, 241 Little Flower Manor, 120 living rooms, 156, 172, 179, 181, 183, 192, 194, 229 loggias, 41, 47, 55, 59, 86, 104, 146, 202– 04, 221, 253, 264, 268 Long Island, New York, 15, 20, 22, 41, 181, 192 Louis XIII style, 59 Louis XIV, King, 22, 172, 213, 253, 270 Louis XIV style interiors, 58–59, 70, 92, 97, 101 Louis XV, King, 245 Louis XV style architecture, 20, 130 boiseries, 59–60, 70, 213 interiors, 18, 23, 30, 58, 87, 92, 98, 122, 141, 189, 237 Louis XVI style architecture, 20–21, 130, 138 boiseries, 168, 268 interiors, 60, 92, 97–98, 101, 122, 150, 153, 172, 212–13, 245, 253 music rooms, 141, 189, 237 Lowery, Joseph F., 22–23 Lyndhurst (Hudson River, NY), 129 Lynnewood Farm, 55, 63 Lynnewood Hall (Elkins Park, PA), 13, 18, 21–23, 54–67, 164, 172, 197, 212, 225, 245. See also Widener, Peter A. B. Lynnewood Lodge (Elkins Park, PA), 22, 245–49. See also Widener, Peter A. B. II MacArthur, Douglas, 178 Madonna and Child (della Robbia), 70 Maher, James, 24–25 Maine, 28, 41, 120, 203, 219, 288 Maison Alavoine (Paris, France), 25 Maison Labottière (Bordeaux, France), 21, 140 Maloney, Martin, 41, 45, 55. See also Ballingarry (Spring Lake, NJ) Manhasset, New York, 287 mantlepieces antique Adam, 150 Caen stone, 70, 112–13 marble, 59–60, 70, 86–87, 97, 104, 141, 150, 156, 158, 176, 241, 268 white marble, 92, 117, 178 wood, 113, 158 marble, 70, 104, 189 faux, 268 fireplaces, 141 pilasters, 150, 253 staircases, 72, 97, 112, 140, 241 trim, 112, 262 vestibules, 47, 58, 92 . See also floor coverings; mantlepieces

Marly (Washington, DC), 206, 266–70. See also Baker, Raymond T. Maroebe (Merion Station, PA), 287 Martin, John C., 287 Matthews, C. J., 286 McCall, John Augustine, 251 McCredy, Lillian (Mrs. James B. Duke), 140 McFadden, George H. Jr., 22, 233, 237 McFadden, George H. Sr., 233 McFadden, Mrs. George H. Jr., 233, 237 McGoodwin, Robert, 23 McIlvain, Bloomfield and Caroline Burton, 233 McIntire, John K., 262 McIntire, Stella E. (Mrs. George W. Elkins), 262 McKim, Mead & White, 13, 19 Mellen, Nathan C., 19 Mellon, Andrew, 61 Merion, Pennsylvania, 284, 287 Merion Station, Pennsylvania, 287 Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), 73, 206, 268 Middletown, Rhode Island, 22, 104, 288 Milburne house (Virginia), 262 Mill, The (Rembrandt), 60 Miller, William Starr, 191 Mills, Darius Ogden, 20 Mills, Ogden, 164, 284 Mills, Ruth Livingston, 20 Milnor, Frank B., 23 Miramar (Newport, RI), 20, 23, 164–75, 212–13, 225, 272 Miramar School for Girls, 174 mirrors, 30, 98, 150, 266 Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, 82 Mitchell, Frank P., 20, 86, 286 Mizner, Addison, 146, 271 Moale, Evelyn Byrd (Mrs. I. Townsend Burden), 101 Modernists/Modernism, 21, 24, 283 Monmouth College (West Long Branch, NJ), 259 Montgomery, Hope, 120 Montgomery, Mrs. Robert L., 158 Montgomery, Robert L., 20, 24, 120, 156, 158 Moorish-Spanish style, 271 Morgan, J. Pierpont, 137–38, 268 Morgan, Mrs. J. Pierpont, 137 morning rooms, 15, 82, 230 Morris, Casper, 262 Mrs. A. L. T. Douglas Residence (New York, NY), 137–39 Mrs. Alexander Hamilton Rice Residence (New York, NY), 212–18. See also Rice, Eleanor Elkins Mucklé, John Seiser, 241 Mucklé, Katherine Craig Wright, 241. See also Craig Hall Mucklé, Mark Richards, 241

Munn, Mary Paul, 82 murals, 70, 185, 194. See also ceiling paintings Museum of Fine Arts (Boston), 73 Museum of the City of New York, 153 music rooms, 15, 34, 46, 144, 189, 223, 255, 276. See also specific houses Muttontown Golf & Country Club (Brookville, NY), 194 Nathanson, Henry M., 20, 285 National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC), 61, 63 National Historic Landmarks, 32 National Register of Historic Places, 231 New Jersey Shore, 41, 45, 120 New York, New York fashionable areas of, 185 society of, 97–98, 101, 129–30, 149, 212 Trumbauer’s commercial project in, 28 Trumbauer’s houses/clients in, 20–23, 55, 86, 97–98, 101, 129–31, 137, 140, 149, 185, 212, 283–85, 287–88 . See also specific projects New York Post Building, 28 New York University Institute of Fine Arts, 142 Newbold, Mary Scott, 119–20 Newport, Rhode Island, 105 and historic preservation, 73, 224 prominent people of, 219 society of, 87, 97, 101, 104 summer “cottages” of, 41, 58, 122, 146, 164, 219, 272, 288 as summer resort, 19–20, 41, 87, 146, 219 Trumbauer’s houses/clients in, 19, 22–23, 55, 69, 86, 92, 104, 121, 164, 212, 284–85 Newton, Ernest, 20, 156 Oatlands (Devon, PA), 284 Ogontz School for Girls, 225 Olmsted Brothers, 225, 233 Orchard, The (Newport, RI), 164 Overbrook, Pennsylvania, 17, 283 Owings Mills, Maryland, 176 Pajou, Augustin, 202 Palais du Louvre, 149, 213 Palazzo Cornaro (Venice, Italy), 70 Palladian style, 21, 41, 55, 82, 104, 192, 197, 253 Palladian windows, 17, 20, 117, 156 Palm Beach, Florida, 19, 203, 206, 268, 271, 278 paneling, 23, 37, 82, 98, 117, 130, 138, 150, 153, 224, 278 antique, 189, 192, 212, 230, 245

C h a p t e r TI ni td le ex

295 ~ 295


Georgian, 113, 194 Louis XV style, 189 Louis XVI style, 245, 268 mahogany, 18, 30, 101, 241 oak, 32, 41, 59–60, 70, 80, 86–87, 112–13, 141, 146, 156, 237, 268 painted, 60, 181, 203 pine, 264 Regence, 268 Tudor, 221 walnut, 30, 41, 59, 70, 97, 156, 190 Panteleakis, Andrew, 174 Paris, France, 16, 25, 87, 98, 121–22, 149, 153, 251 parks, residential, 55, 202, 233 Parson, Hubert T., 22, 251, 253–55, 257, 259. See also Shadow Lawn Parson, Maysie Gasque (Mrs. Hubert T. Parson), 251, 253–55, 257, 259 Paul, A. J. Drexel, 82 Paul Brook Hall (Rydal, PA), 285 Paul, James W. Jr., 80, 82 Paul Le Baudy house (Paris, France), 121 Paul, Mrs. James, 80 Paul, Oglesby, 82 pavilions, 19, 55, 68–70, 80, 86, 156, 168, 188, 192, 202, 266 Peabody & Stearns, 219 Peabody, Gertrude, 245. See also Widener, Mrs. Peter A. B. II Penllyn, Pennsylvania, 112 Penner, Roy S., 172, 174 Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 82 Pennwalt Corporation, 209 Penrose, Spencer, 146 Perry Belmont Residence (Washington, DC), 121–28. See also Belmont, Perry Perry, Caroline S. (Mrs. August Belmont), 121 Perry, Matthew Calbraith, 121 Perry, Oliver Hazard, 121 Petit Trianon, 245 Philadelphia Museum of Art, 28, 61, 206, 213, 230, 262 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania architectural community of, 28 prominent people of, 97, 104, 146, 197 Trumbauer’s houses/clients in, 13, 20, 23–24, 92–96, 197, 283–87. See also Society; specific projects Philadelphia Stock Exchange building, 28 Philadelphia T-Square Club, 28 Philemon and Baucis (Rembrandt), 60 Phipps, Henry, 20, 287 Phipps, John S., 286 photography, 15, 278 Plant, Morton, 104 Plant, Mrs. Philip, 105 Plant, Philip, 105 Playa Riente (Palm Beach, FL), 271, 278

296 296 ~~ Index American Splendor

plutocrats, 14–15, 20, 41, 86, 117 Pompeiian style, 253, 259 Pope, John Russell, 16 porches, 47, 86–87, 112, 117, 158, 192, 237, 253, 264 porte cocheres, 37, 47, 59, 80, 121 Porter, Charles E., 284 porticos, 17–18, 41, 54–55, 59, 117, 199, 202, 253–54 Portledge (Bryn Mawr, PA), 20, 286 portraits, 14, 21, 60–61, 70, 140–41, 156, 206, 221, 268, 278, 280. See also specific artists Post, C. W., 101 Post, George Brown, 131 Pregny (Villanova, PA), 233 Preservation Society of Newport County, 73 Price, Bruce, 17 Prince, Ellin D., 149. See also Speyer, Mrs. James Prince of Wales, 122, 181 Prior Park (Bath, England), 55 Public Ledger newspaper, 16, 28, 241 Queen Anne style, 16, 41, 47, 181, 253, 283, 285

Rogers, Henry Welsh, 285 Roman temple, 41, 241 Romanesque Revival style, 19 Romney, George, 60, 206 Ronaele Manor (Elkins Park, PA), 22, 225–32. See also Dixon, Eleanor Widener roofing asphalt-tiled, 242 copper, 168, 176 hipped, 112, 117 mansard, 86, 97, 101, 138 red-tiled, 37, 80, 146 slate, 86, 92, 97, 112, 138, 181, 230, 233, 264 Rose Terrace (Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan), 271–82. See also Dillman, Anna Dodge Rosedale Hall (Glenside, PA), 17, 30 Rosenberg, Henry and Ruth, 178 Rough Point (Newport, RI), 219–24. See also Duke, James B. Rousset, Pierre Noël, 149 Rovensky, John E., 105 Rupp, Mark, 242 Rydal, Pennsylvania, 285, 288 Rylston (Wyndmoor, PA), 287–88

Rabenold, Charles, 23 Racquet Club building (Philadelphia), 28 Radnor, Pennsylvania, 80, 284, 287 Raeburn, Sir Henry, 140 Rainbow Hill Corporation, 178 Rainbow Hill (Owings Mills, MD). See Brooklands Randall, Glenn and Patricia, 105 Raynor, James A., 86 Rebmann, Mrs. G. R., 283 reception rooms, 14–15, 21, 63, 123, 132, 183. See also specific houses Regence style, 47, 60, 141, 172, 188, 253, 268 Regency style, 13, 20, 268, 287 Rembrandt, 60 Renaissance style, 18, 21, 23, 32, 55, 70, 86, 130, 146, 253, 255, 284 Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 206, 278 Rhode Island Episcopal Diocese, 172 Rice, Alexander Hamilton, 22, 172, 212–14 Rice, Eleanor Elkins Widener (Mrs. Alexander Hamilton Rice), 23, 168, 172, 212–14. See also Mrs. Alexander Hamilton Rice Residence Ritchie, Mrs. L. Carbery, 45 Ritz Carlton Hotel (Philadelphia), 28 River, James, 241, 262 Robbins, Daniel, 121 Robbins, Jessie. See Sloane, Mrs. Henry Robertson, Walter S., 262 Rococo style, 18, 60, 98

salons, 24, 90, 126, 144, 152, 172, 215, 268. See also specific houses Samuel T. Freeman auction house, 63 Sanson, Ernest, 121 Sargent, John Singer, 60–61 Sayen house (Villanova, PA), 158 schist, 37, 80, 117 Scott, Anna D. (Mrs. Thomas Scott), 119 Scott, Edgar C., 20, 117, 119–20 Scott, Edgar Jr., 120, 158 Scott, Hope M. (Mrs. Edgar Scott Jr.), 120, 158 Scott, Mary. See Newbold, Mary Scott Scott, Mary H. Sturgis (Mrs. Edgar C. Scott), 120 Scott, Robert M., 158 Scott, Thomas A., 119 sculpture/statues, 19, 21, 59, 63, 69–70, 80, 141, 202, 206, 253, 266, 268, 277 Seaweed Cottage (Newport, RI), 284 Second Empire style, 23, 97, 203, 253–54 Seeburger, Frank, 22–23 Sergent, Réné, 138 service facilities, 14, 21, 169. See also specific houses Seybert, Joseph B., 17, 283 Shadow Lawn (West Long Branch, NJ), 22, 250–61. See also Parson, Hubert T. Shepard, Mrs. Elliot F., 185 Shingle style/shingles, 17, 117 Silverman, I. H., 285 Sinclair, Guinevere (Mrs. George J. Gould), 131


Sisters of Mercy, 114 Sisters of the Community of the Daughters of the Divine Redeemer, 120 skylights, 30, 58, 86, 92, 97, 138, 140, 150, 245, 253 Slater, Mrs. E. H. G., 20, 86, 283 Sloan, Henry, 121 Sloane, Mrs. Henry, 121–22. See also Belmont, Mrs. Perry Sloane, Mrs. William Douglas, 185 Smith, Walter, 16–17. See also Wendell & Smith smoking rooms, 32, 58–60, 82, 194 Snook, John B., 185 Society, 13–15, 17, 86, 97, 192, 197, 203 Society for the Preservation of Long Island Antiquities, 15 solariums, 59, 150, 168, 253 Somerville, New Jersey, 286 South Africa, 146 South Carolina, 22 Spanish Colonial style, 21, 146 Spanish Renaissance style, 253 Speyer, James, 21, 149–50, 153. See also James Speyer Residence Speyer, Mrs. James, 149–50, 153. See also Prince, Ellin D. Spouting Rock Beach Association (Newport, RI), 101 Spring Lake, New Jersey, 41, 45, 55 St. Austell Hall (Wyncote, PA), 283 St. Davids, Pennsylvania, 17, 283 stables, 30, 37, 39, 55, 70, 112, 114, 120, 158 stained glass, 58, 230, 253 staircases, 130, 150, 194 grand, 32, 47, 59, 80, 117, 164, 231, 253 with iron railing, 176, 264 marble, 72, 92, 97, 112, 140, 192, 253–54 paneled, 113, 192 photographs of, 109, 143, 195, 205, 237 wooden, 156, 221 Standen, Edith, 60 Steen, Jan, 60 Steigerwalt, W. N., 284 stone facades, 30 Stonybrook (Middletown, RI), 104, 288 Stotesbury, Edward T., 21, 176, 197–99, 202–03, 206, 208–09, 253, 287. See also Whitemarsh Hall Stotesbury, Eva Roberts (Mrs. Edward T. Stotesbury), 176, 197–99, 202–03, 206, 209, 242, 268, 270–72, 274. See also Whitemarsh Hall Stratford Hall (Westmoreland County, VA), 262 Straus, Herbert N., 22, 288

Strawbridge, J. Clayton, 287 stucco facade, 176 Sullivan, James F., 20, 284 summer resorts, 41, 86, 146, 219. See also specific places sun rooms/porches, 15, 158, 176, 192, 253, 264, 270 Sunnybrook (Radner, PA), 287 Sutherland, Abby, 288 Szechenyi, Lazlo, 131 tapestries, 14, 59, 117, 150, 153, 172, 188–89, 206, 212–13, 221, 268, 278 Taylor, Roland and Anita, 114 tea rooms/houses, 69, 149, 203, 225 terraces, 37, 41, 59, 69, 71, 86–87, 121, 164, 168, 176, 178, 181, 192, 202–03, 264, 268 Thomire, Pierre-Philippe, 188 Thompson-Starrett Construction Company, 257 Thomson, George, 255 Tiepolo, 59, 70 towers, 17, 30, 80, 192 town houses, 14, 20, 22, 97–98, 101, 104, 119, 121, 212, 233, 283–88. See also specific house names Tracy, Frances, 137 Trench & Snook, 21 Treweryn (Penllyn, PA). See Willow Brook House trophy panels, 168, 253 Trumbauer, Horace 1920s/30s commissions, 22–23 awarded honorary degree, 28 background/education of, 13, 15–16, 18 civic/commercial projects of, 20, 22, 28, 142 collaborates with decorators, 21–23, 25, 27, 30, 55, 104, 150, 156, 233, 237 collaborates with landscape architects, 82 correspondence of, 272, 274, 276 criticism of, 24–25, 28, 274 death of, 29, 199 early work of, 16–21, 30, 86 English country house by, 21 expert skills of, 13–14, 17–20, 25, 47 fame of, 21, 55, 253 greatest successes of, 14, 19–20, 28, 69 and his firm’s architects, 22–23, 25 impact of, 13, 28 interiors by, 21, 92 library (personal) of, 18, 25 marriage/family of, 28 masterpieces of, 21–22, 197 meets clients’ needs, 14, 21, 192, 194, 198, 274 NY firm of, 21

as perfectionist, 19, 25, 27 and period design sources, 13–14, 18, 20–22, 28, 47, 58, 97, 225, 241, 253 personality of, 25, 27–28 Philadelphia firm of, 16, 18–19 photographs of, 16, 168 praise of, 20, 25, 198–99 prominent clients of, 14, 55 renovations by, 20, 121, 219, 233, 283–88 signature features of, 17, 41, 55, 86, 112, 192, 202 Trumbauer, Josiah Blyler (father), 15–16 Trumbauer, Mary Malvina (Fabel) (mother), 15 Trumbauer, Sara Williams (wife), 28, 288 Trumbauersville, Pennsylvania, 15 Tudor style, 13, 22, 37, 219, 221, 225, 230–31, 253, 266, 283–85, 287–88 Tullaroan (Manhasset, NY), 287 Twombly, Florence Vanderbilt (Mrs. Hamilton McKown Twombly), 214, 219 Tyler, George F., 284 Tyler, Sidney F., 286 Union League building (Philadelphia), 28 Upham, Dorothy Farrington (Mrs. Vincent Astor), 214 Van Dyke, 59–60, 63, 65, 221 Van Eck, Jan Carl, 288 Vanderbilt, Alfred, 186 Vanderbilt, Alfred G., 266 Vanderbilt, Alva (Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt), 137 Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 21, 185 Vanderbilt, Cornelius II, 19, 58, 186, 219 Vanderbilt, Cornelius III, 21, 186, 188– 91, 288. See also Cornelius Vanderbilt III Residence Vanderbilt, Cornelius IV, 191 Vanderbilt, Frederick, 22, 219 Vanderbilt, George W., 17, 186 Vanderbilt, Grace Wilson (Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt III), 185–86, 188–91, 214 Vanderbilt, Mrs. Cornelius II, 131 Vanderbilt, William Henry, 21, 185 Vanderbilt, William K., 14, 47, 137, 219 Vanderbilt, William K. Jr., 20, 283–84 Vaux, Henry P., 286 Venetian styles, 20, 87, 122, 284 Vermeer, Jan, 60 Versailles, 21–22, 60, 87, 98, 172, 203, 245, 253, 257 Victorian style, 15, 18, 23, 41, 59, 82, 120, 140, 185, 197, 221, 254 Villa Farnese (Caprarola, Italy), 47 Villanova, Pennsylvania, 20, 22, 24, 120, 156, 233, 286–87 Vitruvius Brittanicus (Campbell), 104 von Bulow, Mr. and Mrs. Claus, 105

C h a p t e r TI ni td le ex

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Wade, Angus, 47 Wakefield, Rhode Island, 285 wall coverings brick, 69 Caen stone, 47, 70, 97, 122, 138, 168, 188, 266 chinoiserie lacquered panels, 70 fabric, 59–60, 70, 82, 86, 117, 153, 156, 189 leather, 32, 59–60 limestone, 69, 245 marble, 47, 58, 60, 63, 92, 141, 172 painted, 32, 268 plaster, 146, 253 wallpaper, 113, 183, 224 . See also boiseries; murals; paneling Wallace, Sir Richard, 213 Walthawstone, 17 Ware, Isaac, 241 Warren, Whitney, 16 Washington, DC, 20, 55, 61, 73, 86, 119, 121, 124–25, 131, 164, 206, 266, 270, 283, 285–86 Waterman, Isaac, 104 Watt, John H., 17, 283 Watteau, Jean-Antoine, 203 Wayne, Pennsylvania, 16–17, 283 Weaver, J. H., 287 Wells, Annie, 86–87 Wells, William S., 20, 86–87, 101, 283 Welsh, Edward R., 285 Wendell & Smith developers, 80, 283. See also Smith, Walter; Wendell, Herman Wendell, Herman, 16–17. See also Wendell & Smith West Long Branch, New Jersey, 22, 41, 251, 259 Westbury House (Old Westbury, NY), 286 Westmoreland County,Virginia, 262 Westwood (Rydal, PA), 20, 285

298

~

Index

Wharton, Edith, 19, 41, 121 White, Allison, 73 White, Allom & Company (London, England), 23, 156, 219, 221 White House, The (Washington, DC), 41, 122 Whitehall (Palm Beach, FL), 19 Whitemarsh Hall (Wyndmoor, PA), 21–22, 197–211, 242, 251, 253, 272. See also Stotesbury, Edward T. Whitney, Harry Payne, 131 Widener Building (Philadelphia), 27–28 Widener, Eleanor, 55 Widener, Eleanor Jr., 55 Widener, Ella, 55 Widener, George D., 18, 22–23, 55, 60, 164, 212, 225 Widener, George D. Jr., 22, 55, 172, 225, 262, 287–88 Widener, Harry, 55, 60, 164, 225 Widener, Joseph E., 23, 55, 59–61, 63, 225, 245 Widener, Josephine, 55 Widener, Mrs. George, 28 Widener, Mrs. George D. (Eleanor), 164, 172 Widener, Mrs. Peter A. B. II, 245 Widener, Peter A. B., 18, 19, 23, 55, 60–61, 164, 212 Widener, Peter A. B. II, 245, 248. See also Lynnewood Lodge Widener, Peter A. B. Jr., 55, 203 William Baumgarten & Company, 18, 23, 30, 58–59, 251, 254–55 Williams, Agnes Helena, 28 Williams, Sara Thomson, 28. See also Trumbauer, Sara Williams Willow Brook House (Penllyn, PA), 20, 112–16 Willtown Bluff, South Carolina, 288 Wilson, Grace (Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt

III), 186 Wilson, Richard T., 186 Wilson, Woodrow, 122, 251, 266 windows, 17, 21, 112. See also Palladian windows; skylights; specific houses; stained glass Windsor Castle, 24, 98 Windsor, Duke and Duchess of, 214 Winfield Hall (Glen Cove, Long Island), 251 Wingwood House (Bar Harbor, ME), 203 wood-frame construction, 41 Woodburne (Darby Borough, PA), 20, 117–20 Woodcrest (Radnor, PA), 80–85 Woods, The (Radnor, PA), 20, 284 Woolworth, Frank, 251 World War I, 15, 21–22, 120, 122, 199, 233, 271 World War II, 206 wrought iron balconies, 92, 97, 131, 138, 149, 176, 192, 253 balustrades, 72, 130, 138, 140 doors, 69, 86, 97, 140, 168 fences, 58 gates, 51, 69, 146, 264 railings, 168, 264 skylights, 138 Wyncote, Pennsylvania, 283, 286–87 Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, 21, 197, 287 Wynnefield, Pennsylvania, 24, 28 Yellin, Samuel, 92 YMCA buildings (Philadelphia), 28 Young Girl with a Flute (Vermeer), 60 Zantzinger & Borie, 28, 233

American Splendor: Residential Architecture of Horace Trumbauer  

Horace Trumbauer (1868-1938) was one of the most influential residential architects in the country house era that lasted from the late 19th...

American Splendor: Residential Architecture of Horace Trumbauer  

Horace Trumbauer (1868-1938) was one of the most influential residential architects in the country house era that lasted from the late 19th...