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Brenda Scholtz, André Calitz and Charmain Cilliers Several studies on the use of ERP systems in industry, report on their poor usability (Singh and Wesson, 2009; Yeh, 2006) and difficulties with learning to use these systems (Topi et al., 2005). Similar findings are reported in higher education, where students find that ERP systems are a challenge to learn and the complexities of the UI often force them to focus on the completion of the tasks without understanding how the tasks contribute to the underlying business concepts (Wang et al., 2009; Winkelmann and Leyh, 2010). Working with medium-sized ERP systems that are less complex than large scale systems such as SAP can still provide students with an understanding of the basic capability of an ERP system (Ask et al., 2008; Hustad and Olsen, 2011; Winkelmann and Leyh, 2010). This alleviates the problem of student frustration encountered while learning the ERP system (Scott and Walczak 2009). The Hustad and Olsen (2011) study reported that students were more satisfied with the lower learning curve of the Microsoft Navision ERP laboratory assignments compared to the assignments on the large, complex SAP system. Microsoft Navision is a Tier 2 ERP system and therefore classified as a medium-sized ERP system. The usability of a system has been defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) as the “extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use” (ISO, 1997). This standard identifies the three criteria of usability as the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which users within the organisation are able to accomplish their task before selecting a final solution. Nielsen (1993) describes usability as: “the quality attribute that assesses how easy user interfaces are to use”. According to Nielsen (1993) the components (or criteria) of usability are learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors and satisfaction. Studies of ERP system usability evaluations propose several usability criteria which can be used in the evaluation process (Costa, 2010; Van Norren, 2009). Usability criteria can be used to analyse the user experience and can help reveal patterns that may be hard or even impossible to see (Tullis and Albert, 2008). A usability criterion can be converted into several related heuristics which are guidelines or general principles that can guide a UI design decision or that can be used to evaluate a decision that has already been made (Nielsen, 1993). A literature review of studies of usability evaluations was undertaken with particular reference to ERP system usability evaluations and the criteria and heuristics used for these evaluations. Three criteria for testing the usability of open-source ERP systems in industry were proposed by Costa (2010) are the three proposed by ISO (1997) namely: effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. In another study of ERP systems usability in industry, Van Norren (2009) used the criteria of learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors and satisfaction; however the focus of this study was on cultural differences with regards to usability. A study by Singh and Wesson (2009) identified existing usability issues with a medium-sized ERP system, SAP Business One, by means of a heuristic evaluation using five categories of criteria, namely: navigation, presentation, task support, learnability and customisation. The Singh and Wesson (2009) study was the only study found which proposed and validated usability criteria for mediumsized ERP systems, and each of the five criteria recommended in this study is supported by several other studies. Navigation has been reported as a primary design issue in several other ERP usability studies (Calisir and Calisir, 2004; Mathews, 2008; Surendran and Somarajan, 2006; Topi et al., 2005), besides the Singh and Wesson (2009) study and can therefore confidently be used as a criterion for evaluating the usability of ERP systems. Navigation problems have been identified as one of the main barriers that prevent ERP systems from delivering their potential benefits to organisations (Matthews, 2008). The criterion of Navigation and Access to Information and its related heuristics aim to determine the ability to identify and access appropriate information, menus, reports, options and elements accurately and effectively. Presentation of Screen and Output, and its related heuristics aim to determine the appropriateness of the layout of the ERP system menus, dialogue boxes, controls and information on the screen for data entry and output generation (Singh and Wesson, 2009). Issues identified in usability studies of ERP systems relating to presentation include problems with the complexity of the screen display and problems in understanding and interpreting output from the ERP system (Costa, 2010; Singh and Wesson, 2009; Topi et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2009; Winkelmann and Leyh, 2010). The presentation criterion for ERP systems include consideration of how well the visual layout is designed.

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Usability Evaluation of a Medium-sized ERP System in Higher Education  

Abstract: The critical importance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in modern business has created a demand for ERP consultants...

Usability Evaluation of a Medium-sized ERP System in Higher Education  

Abstract: The critical importance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in modern business has created a demand for ERP consultants...