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CONTENTS

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………...4 What is a skyscraper…………………………………………………………………………………...5  Introduction  Definition.

History………………………………………………………………………………………………..10  Removing the Obstacles  Modern Materials  The Forces of Nature  Building Badly  The Race for the Sky  Year-Wise History

Design & Construction…………………………………………………………………………….....16  Basic Design Considerations  Loading & Vibrations  Shear Walls  Steel Frames  Tube Structural Systems  Trussed Tube & X-Bracing 2|Page


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 Bundled Tube  The Elevator Conundrum Case Studies…………………………………………………………………………………………..22  Burj Khalifa Architects of Skyscrapers…………………………………………………………………………….29  Louis Henry Sullivan  Adrian D Smith Skyscrapers in India…………………………………………………………………………………..34  Introduction  Why don’t we have too many skyscrapers?  List of Skyscrapers in India Future of Skyscrapers around the World……………………………………………………………..47  Sky-Mile Tower  Azerbaijan Tower  Kingdom Tower Acronyms……………………………………………………………………………………………..54  CTBUH  LEED  AS+GG  SOM References…………………………………………………………………………………………….62 3|Page


SKYSCRAPERS-ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW

ABSTRACT

“The desires to reach for the sky runs deep in Human Psyche� An overall study of Skyscrapers including its History right from the early days, then studying about the design and construction methods followed by the famous architects of Skyscrapers. Continued by the impact of Skyscrapers in India and reasons for delaying the Skyscrapers progress in India, by studying the list of present and future Skyscrapers in the various parts of the Country. Future of Skyscrapers around the big cities of the world while looking at the projects of Sky-Mile Tower at Tokyo, Azerbaijan Tower at Azerbaijan, Kingdom Tower at Jeddah. Having a look at the two organizations of CTBUH (Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat) and LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) then top firms of Skyscrapers AS+GG (Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture) and SOM (Skidmore Owings & Merrill).

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What Is a Skyscraper?

DEFINITION A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of over 40 floors, mostly designed for office, commercial and residential uses. A skyscraper can also be called a high-rise, but the term skyscraper is often used for buildings higher than 150 m (492 ft.). For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft.), the term Supertall can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft.) are classified as Megatall. 5|Page


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One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls. These curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing and most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by the concept of steel frame and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls and a small surface area of windows. Modern skyscrapers often have a tubular structure, and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist lateral loads (wind, seismic, etc.). To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure and to transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks.

INTRODUCTION A relatively big building may be considered a skyscraper if it protrudes well above its built environment and changes the overall skyline. The maximum height of structures has progressed historically with building methods and technologies and thus what is today considered a skyscraper is taller than before. The Burj Khalifa is currently the tallest building in the world.

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High-rise buildings are considered shorter than skyscrapers.[citation needed] There is no clear definition of any difference between a tower block and a skyscraper though a building lower than about thirty stories is not likely to be a skyscraper and a building with fifty or more stories is certainly a skyscraper. The term "skyscraper" was first applied to buildings of steel framed construction of at least 10 stories in the late 19th century, a result of public amazement at the tall buildings being built in major cities like Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia, Detroit, and St. Louis. The first steel-frame skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building (originally 10 stories with a height of 42 m or 138 ft) in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. Some point to Philadelphia's 10-story Jayne Building (1849–50) as a protoskyscraper, or to New York's seven-floor Equitable Life Assurance Building, built in 1870, for its innovative use of a kind of skeletal frame, but such designation depends largely on what factors are chosen. Even the scholars making the argument find it to be purely academic. The structural definition of the word skyscraper was refined later by architectural historians, based on engineering developments of the 1880s that had enabled construction of tall multi-story buildings. This definition was based on the steel skeleton—as opposed to constructions of loadbearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicago's Monadnock Building. What is the chief characteristic of the tall office building? It is lofty. It must be tall. The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it. It must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exaltation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. —Louis Sullivan's The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered (1896) The Emporis Standards Committee defines a high-rise building as "a multi-story structure between 35–100 meters tall, or a building of unknown height from 12–39 floors"[6] and a skyscraper as "a 7|Page


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multi-story building whose architectural height is at least 100 m or 330 ft."[7] Some structural engineers define a high-rise as any vertical construction for which wind is a more significant load factor than earthquake or weight. Note that this criterion fits not only high-rises but some other tall structures, such as towers. The word skyscraper often carries a connotation of pride and achievement. The skyscraper, in name and social function, is a modern expression of the age-old symbol of the world center or axis mundi: a pillar that connects earth to heaven and the four compass directions to one another. A loose convention of some in the United States and Europe draws the lower limit of a skyscraper at 150 m or 490 ft. The tallest building in ancient times was the 146 m (479 ft) Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt, built in the 26th century BC. It was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the 14th century AD Lincoln Cathedral being conjectured by many to have exceeded it. The latter in turn was not surpassed until the 555-foot (169 m) Washington Monument in 1884. However, being uninhabited, none of these structures actually comply with the modern definition of a skyscraper. High-rise apartments flourished in classical antiquity. Ancient Roman insulae in imperial cities reached 10 and more stories. Beginning with Augustus (r. 30 BC-14 AD), several emperors attempted to establish limits of 20–25 m for multi-story buildings, but met with only limited success. Lower floors were typically occupied by shops or wealthy families, the upper rented to the lower classes. Surviving Oxyrhynchus Papyri indicate that seven-story buildings existed in provincial towns such as in 3rd century AD Hermopolis in Roman Egypt. The skylines of many important medieval cities had large numbers of high-rise urban towers, built by the wealthy for defense and status. The residential Towers of 12th century Bologna numbered between 80 to 100 at a time, the tallest of which is the 97.2 m (319 ft) high Asinelli Tower. 8|Page


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A Florentine law of 1251 decreed that all urban buildings be immediately reduced to less than 26 m. Even medium-sized towns of the era are known to have proliferations of towers, such as the 72 up to 51 m height in San Gimignano. The medieval Egyptian city of Fustat housed many high-rise residential buildings, which Al-Muqaddasi in the 10th century described as resembling minarets. Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described some of them rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top floor complete with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them. Cairo in the 16th century had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to tenants. An early example of a city consisting entirely of highrise housing is the 16th-century city of Shibam in Yemen. Shibam was made up of over 500 tower houses, each one rising 5 to 11 stories high, with each floor being an apartment occupied by a single family. The city was built in this way in order to protect it from Bedouin attacks. Shibam still has the tallest mudbrick buildings in the world, with many of them over 30 m (98 ft) high. An early modern example of high-rise housing was in 17th-century Edinburgh, Scotland, where a defensive city wall defined the boundaries of the city. Due to the restricted land area available for development, the houses increased in height instead. Buildings of 11 stories were common, and there are records of buildings as high as 14 stories. Many of the stone-built structures can still be seen today in the old town of Edinburgh. The oldest iron framed building in the world, although only partially iron framed, is The Flaxmill (also locally known as the "Maltings"), in Shrewsbury, England. Built in 1797, it is seen as the "grandfather of skyscrapers�, since its fireproof combination of cast iron columns and cast iron beams developed into the modern steel frame that made modern skyscrapers possible. In 2013 funding was confirmed to convert the derelict building into offices.

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THE HISTORY OF SKYSCRAPERS

The desire to build big is nothing new. Big buildings have been used to show off power and wealth; to honor leaders or religious beliefs; to stretch the limits of what's possible; and even as simple competition among owners, families, architects, and builders. Some of the most dramatic buildings of the past include the pyramids in Egypt, the skinny towers stretching towards the sky in Italian hill towns, and the gothic cathedrals of France. While these types of buildings may look very different from each other, they all have one thing in common. They were built with masonry or stone walls supporting most of the weight (so-called load-bearing walls), including that of the floors, the people, and everything the rooms contained. Because of this, the height of these buildings was limited by how massive and heavy they had to be at the base.

REMOVING THE OBSTACLES Two developments in the 19th century paved the way for a whole new type of building: the skyscraper. The first was the development of a safe elevator. Primitive elevators of various designs had been used for centuries, and starting in the mid of 19th century, steam-operated elevators were used to move materials in factories, mines, and warehouses. But these elevators were not considered safe for people; if the cable broke, they would plummet to the bottom of the elevator shaft. Then in 1853, an American inventor named Elisha Graves Otis developed a safety device that kept elevators from falling if a cable should break. This new development had an enormous impact 10 | P a g e


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on public confidence. And later in the century, the switch to an electric motor made the elevator a practical solution to the problem of getting up and down tall buildings. The second development took place in Chicago. In 1871, Chicago suffered a devastating fire. In the years that followed, however, instead of recovering slowly, the city experienced explosive growth, and it quickly began to strain against its natural boundaries. By the 1880s, the available land for new buildings in this area could not keep up with demand; the only alternative was to build up. But in order to achieve the desired height, construction techniques had to change. A new method of building was developed that used a grid of steel beams and columns that were strong enough to support any stresses or forces a building might experience, including both the weight of the floor and the building contents, as well as the force of wind or even, in some areas, earthquakes. And with this new building method, the skyscraper was born and the race for the tallest building began.

MODERN MATERIALS

Since the birth of the skyscraper, builders and engineers have continuously looked for ways to improve building methods and materials, in order to make structures stronger, taller, and lighter. Skyscrapers are built to last, so they must be made of materials that are strong; durable; resistant to the sun, wind, rain, frost, and snow; and affordable. Concrete is one of the most common materials, beyond the steel supports, because it is enormously versatile. Its composition can be changed depending on the needs of the building. It can be reinforced to make it stiffer and stronger by setting steel mesh or bars into the concrete. And additives can make it set or harden faster or slower depending on the needs of the design. Another very important material is glass. Because the steel skeleton now supports the main loads of the building, the outer skin only serves to keep the weather out and let light in, the more light the better. So glass walls became very popular beginning after World War II, because they are 11 | P a g e


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weatherproof while providing ample natural light, and also because they are so much lighter-and cheaper-than masonry or concrete.

THE FORCES OF NATURE But as buildings became taller and lighter, particularly the modern glass boxes that are so popular, skyscrapers began having trouble with the wind and they began to sway, some more than two feet in any direction! Engineers came up with new solutions for this problem, first installing diagonally braced steel trusses between central elevator shafts to create a stronger core, and then moving most of the beams and columns to the outside edge of the walls in order to make a stiff tube. A more unusual solution was devised to control sway in the 1970s called a tuned mass damper. This is a giant concrete block or weight, mounted with springs and shock absorbers on a lubricated plate, designed like a pendulum to move in one direction when a computer senses the structure has begun to move in the other, in order to counterbalance the motion.

BUILDING BADLY

Of course, with new technological developments, problems can occur. One dramatic and very visible example was the John Hancock Tower in Boston, now considered the city's most spectacular building. The structure is a tower of mirrored glass. But almost from the beginning, the glass panes failed. The problem started during a winter gale in January 1973 while the tower was still under construction, when huge panels of glass, each weighing 500 pounds, shattered and fell to the street below. 12 | P a g e


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The streets and sidewalks were roped off as engineers tried to figure out what was going wrong. By April at least 65 panels had fallen and been replaced by plywood. Theories and rumours persisted, including that the tower was swaying too much, causing the windows to pop out, or that the tower's foundation was settling so significantly that it broke the windows. The truth was that the material itself failed. The window units had been manufactured using a fairly new process and the design was fatally flawed. Ultimately, all 10,344 windows had to be replaced and the building has been safe ever since.

THE RACE FOR THE SKY In the early 20th century, corporations built skyscrapers for the promotional value to increase name recognition. Among the early skyscrapers in Manhattan were the Metropolitan Life Insurance Tower (700 feet, 50 stories), the Woolworth Building (the world's tallest from 1913-1930 at 792 feet, 60 stories), the Bank of Manhattan (927 feet, 71 stories), and the heavily decorated Chrysler Building (briefly the world's tallest in 1930 at 1046 feet, 77 stories). The Chrysler Building soon lost its crown to the Empire State Building, built during the Depression by a real estate developer, which reached a stunning 1,250 feet and 102 stories. The Empire State Building would reign supreme among skyscrapers for 41 years until 1972, when it was surpassed by the World Trade Centre (1,368 feet, 110 stories). Two years later, New York City lost the distinction of housing the tallest building when the Sears Tower was constructed in Chicago (1450 feet, 110 stories). And twenty-four years after that, for the first time the tallest skyscraper was no longer in the United States at all, but in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, where the Petronas Towers were built in 1998 (1483 feet, 88 stories). Taipei 101, completed in Taiwan in 2004, which tops out at 1,670 feet and 101 stories, held the title as the tallest building in world until January 2010, when the Burj Khalifa (formerly called the Burj 13 | P a g e


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Dubai), in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, became the world's tallest building at 2,716 feet (828 meters) and 160 stories. The Burj Khalifa contains the world's fastest elevators, 20.7 acres of glass, and is expected to use about 250,000 gallons of water per day

YEAR-WISE HISTORY

1855 Sir Henry Bessemer patents an affordable method of mass-producing steel: blowing oxygen through molten pig iron to remove impurities. The innovation changes architecture from the ground up.

1857 A tall building's not such a marvel when you have to take the stairs. Elisha Otis makes the skyscraper a realistic proposition by designing the first truly safe passenger elevator for New York City's five-story E.V. Haughwout department store.

1885 At 10 stories high, Chicago's Home Insurance Building isn't the tallest structure in town. But it's the first to use structural steel in its frame and to be called a skyscraper.

1903 A Cincinnati reporter stays up all night waiting for the 15-story Ingalls Building, the first reinforced-concrete skyscraper, to collapse. It's still standing. The reporter isn't.

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NYC reaches for the stars with the Empire State Building, completed in 410 days. The Art Deco marvel is the first to exceed 100 floors; it's the tallest until 1972.

1933 The Empire State Building gets its big break, in King Kong, when the giant ape climbs atop it and plummets to his death. In the 1976 remake, Kong meets the same fate at the World Trade Centre

1973 Chicago's on cloud nine when the Sears Tower becomes the world's tallest building, at 1451 feet. In 2009 the structure is renamed Willis Tower and adds retractable all-glass balconies.

1998 The 1483-foot Petronas Twin Towers, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, become the world's tallest buildings. The towers connect via a sky bridge that retracts during high winds.

2010 Dubai's 2722-foot colossus, the Burj Khalifa, surpasses Taipei 101.

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DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION The design and construction of skyscrapers involves creating safe, habitable spaces in very tall buildings. The buildings must support their weight, resist wind and earthquakes, and protect occupants from fire. Yet they must also be conveniently accessible, even on the upper floors, and provide utilities and a comfortable climate for the occupants. The problems posed in skyscraper design are considered among the most complex encountered given the balances required between economics, engineering, and construction management. One common feature of skyscrapers is a steel framework from which curtain walls are suspended, rather than load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Most skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables them to be built taller than typical load-bearing walls of reinforced concrete. Skyscr apers usually have a particularly small surface area of what are conventionally thought of as walls. Because the walls are not load-bearing most skyscrapers are characterized by surface areas of windows made possible by the concept of steel frame and curtain wall. However, skyscrapers can also have curtain walls that mimick conventional walls and have a small surface area of windows. The concept of a skyscraper is a product of the industrialized age, made possible by cheap fossil fuel derived energy and industrially refined raw materials such as steel and concrete. The construction of skyscrapers was enabled by steel frame construction that surpassed brick and mortar construction starting at the end of the 19th century and finally surpassing it in the 20th century together with reinforced concrete construction as the price of steel decreased and labour costs increased. The steel frames become inefficient and uneconomic for supertall buildings as usable floor space is reduced for progressively larger supporting columns.[49] Since about 1960, tubular designs have been used for high rises. This reduces the usage of material (more efficient in economic 16 | P a g e


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terms - Willis Tower uses a third less steel than the Empire State Building) yet allows greater height. It allows fewer interior columns, and so creates more usable floor space. It further enables buildings to take on various shapes. Elevators are characteristic to skyscrapers. In 1852 Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, allowing convenient and safe passenger movement to upper floors. Another crucial development was the use of a steel frame instead of stone or brick, otherwise the walls on the lower floors on a tall building would be too thick to be practical. Today major manufacturers of elevators include Otis, ThyssenKrupp, Schindler, and KONE. Advances in construction techniques have allowed skyscrapers to narrow in width, while increasing in height. Some of these new techniques include mass dampers to reduce vibrations and swaying, and gaps to allow air to pass through, reducing wind shear.

BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Good structural design is important in most building design, but particularly for skyscrapers since even a small chance of catastrophic failure is unacceptable given the high price. This presents a paradox to civil engineers: the only way to assure a lack of failure is to test for all modes of failure, in both the laboratory and the real world. But the only way to know of all modes of failure is to learn from previous failures. Thus, no engineer can be absolutely sure that a given structure will resist all loadings that could cause failure, but can only have large enough margins of safety such that a failure is acceptably unlikely. When buildings do fail, engineers question whether the failure was due to some lack of foresight or due to some unknowable factor

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LOADING & VIBRATIONS

The load a skyscraper experiences is largely from the force of the building material itself. In most building designs, the weight of the structure is much larger than the weight of the material that it will support beyond its own weight. In technical terms, the dead load, the load of the structure, is larger than the live load, the weight of things in the structure (people, furniture, vehicles, etc.). As such, the amount of structural material required within the lower levels of a skyscraper will be much larger than the material required within higher levels. This is not always visually apparent. The Empire State Building's setbacks are actually a result of the building code at the time, and were not structurally required. On the other hand, John Hancock Center's shape is uniquely the result of how it supports loads. Vertical supports can come in several types, among which the most common for skyscrapers can be categorized as steel frames, concrete cores, tube within tube design, and shear walls. The wind loading on a skyscraper is also considerable. In fact, the lateral wind load imposed on super-tall structures is generally the governing factor in the structural design. Wind pressure increases with height, so for very tall buildings, the loads associated with wind are larger than dead or live loads.Other vertical and horizontal loading factors come from varied, unpredictable sources, such as earthquakes.

SHEAR WALLS A shear wall, in its simplest definition, is a wall where the entire material of the wall is employed in the resistance of both horizontal and vertical loads. A typical example is a brick or cinderblock wall. Since the wall material is used to hold the weight, as the wall expands in size, it must hold considerably more weight. Due to the features of a shear wall, it is acceptable for small constructions, such as suburban housing or an urban brownstone, to require low material costs and 18 | P a g e


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little maintenance. In this way, shear walls, typically in the form of plywood and framing, brick, or cinderblock, are used for these structures. For skyscrapers, though, as the size of the structure increases, so does the size of the supporting wall. Large structures such as castles and cathedrals inherently addressed these issues due to a large wall being advantageous (castles), or ingeniously designed around (cathedrals). Since skyscrapers seek to maximize the floor-space by consolidating structural support, shear walls tend to be used only in conjunction with other support systems.

STEEL FRAME By 1895, steel had replaced cast iron as skyscrapers' structural material. Its malleability allowed it to be formed into a variety of shapes, and it could be riveted, ensuring strong connections. The simplicity of a steel frame eliminated the inefficient part of a shear wall, the central portion, and consolidated support members in a much stronger fashion by allowing both horizontal and vertical supports throughout. Among steel's drawbacks is that as more material must be supported as height increases, the distance between supporting members must decrease, which in turn increases the amount of material that must be supported. This becomes inefficient and uneconomic for buildings above 40 stories tall as usable floor spaces are reduced for supporting column and due to more usage of steel.

TUBE STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS A new structural system of framed tubes was developed in 1963. Fazlur Khan and J. Rankine defined the framed tube structure as "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation. Closely spaced interconnected exterior columns form the tube. Horizontal loads (primarily wind) are supported by the structure as a whole. Framed tubes allow fewer interior 19 | P a g e


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columns, and so create more usable floor space, and about half the exterior surface is available for windows. Where larger openings like garage doors are required, the tube frame must be interrupted, with transfer girders used to maintain structural integrity. Tube structures cut down costs, at the same time allowing buildings to reach greater heights. Concrete tube-frame construction was first used in the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartment Building, completed in Chicago in 1963, and soon after in the John Hancock Center and World Trade Center. The tubular systems are fundamental to tall building design. Most buildings over 40stories constructed since the 1960s now use a tube design derived from Khan’s structural engineering principles, examples including the construction of the World Trade Center, Aon Center, Petronas Towers, Jin Mao Building, and most other supertall skyscrapers since the 1960s.The strong influence of tube structure design is also evident in the construction of the current tallest skyscraper, the Burj Khalifa.

TRUSSED TUBE & X-BRACING Khan pioneered several other variations of the tube structure design.[citation needed] One of these was the concept of X-bracing, or the "trussed tube", first employed for the John Hancock Center. This concept reduced the lateral load on the building by transferring the load into the exterior columns. This allows for a reduced need for interior columns thus creating more floor space. This concept can be seen in the John Hancock Center, designed in 1965 and completed in 1969. One of the most famous buildings of the structural expressionist style, the skyscraper's distinctive X-bracing exterior is actually a hint that the structure's skin is indeed part of its 'tubular system'. This idea is one of the architectural techniques the building used to climb to record heights (the tubular system is essentially the spine that helps the building stand upright during wind and earthquake loads). This X-

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bracing allows for both higher performance from tall structures and the ability to open up the inside floorplan (and usable floor space) if the architect desires.

The John Hancock Center was far more efficient than earlier steel-frame structures. Where the Empire State Building (1931), required about 206 kilograms of steel per square metre and Chase Manhattan Bank Building (1961) required 275, the John Hancock Center required only 145. The trussed tube concept was applied to many later skyscrapers, including the Onterie Center, Citigroup Center and Bank of China Tower.

BUNDLED TUBE An important variation on the tube frame is the "bundled tube", which uses several interconnected tube frames. The Willis Tower in Chicago used this design, employing nine tubes of varying height to achieve its distinct appearance. The bundled tube structure meant that "buildings no longer need be boxlike in appearance: they could become sculpture.

THE ELEVATOR CONUNDRUM An important variation on the tube frame is the "bundled tube", which uses several interconnected tube frames. The Willis Tower in Chicago used this design, employing nine tubes of varying height to achieve its distinct appearance. The bundled tube structure meant that "buildings no longer need be boxlike in appearance: they could become sculpture.

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BURJ KHALIFA

Official Name: Burj Khalifa Bin Zayed

Also Known As: Burj Dubai

Also Known As: Tower Of Khalifa

Formerly: Burj Dubai

Built: 2004-2010

Cost: $4,100,000,000

Designed By: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Type: Skyscraper

Stories: 206

Maximum Height: 2,717 Feet / 828 Meters

Location: No. 1, Burj Dubai Boulevard, Dubai, United Arab


SKYSCRAPERS-ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW

INTRODUCTION It is the tallest tower in the world. Construction began on 21 September 2004. Height of the Tower is 828m (2717ft). The total cost for the Burj Khalifa project was about US$1.5 billion. 24 | P a g e


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The tower is designed to withstand high winds and seismic events.

INSPIRATION Designers were motivated by the Hymenocallis genus's spidery, layered form. A Hymenocallis flower showing six spokes, as pattern for the three-lobed design. The Burj Dubai makes use of a "buttressed core" and has a modular, Y-shaped structure.

ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN The tower is designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Adrian smith was chief architect for Burj Dubai. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core.

CONSTRUCTION The tower was constructed by a Samsung Engineering & Construction. Over 45,000 m3 (58,900cu/yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes. 192 piles, with each pile is 1.5 metre diameter x 43 metre. More than 50 m (164 ft) deep. The concrete pressure during pumping to this level was nearly 200 bars.

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A combination of several important technological innovations and innovation structural design methods.

Foundation Podium Structural System Exterior Cladding Spire Mechanical Floors Window Washing Bays Broadcast Floors Mechanical, Electrical & Plumbing Fire Safety Elevators & Lifts

FOUNDATION The superstructure is supported by a large reinforced concrete mat. The mat is 3.7 meters thick. A high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations. 26 | P a g e


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Cathodic protection system under the mat, to minimize any detrimental effects form corrosive chemicals in local ground water.

EXTERIOR CLADDING Aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels and stainless steel vertical tubular fins. 26,000 glass panels used. Withstand Dubai's extreme summer heat. World War II airplane engine was used for dynamic wind and water testing.

SPIRE Telescopic spire comprised of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet). The spire is integral to the overall design. The spire also houses communications equipment.

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL &PLUMBING The tower's water system supplies an average of 946,000 litres (250,000 gallons) of water daily. At peak cooling, Burj Khalifa will require about 10,000 tons of cooling. 27 | P a g e


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Dubai's hot, humid climate combined with the building's cooling requirements creates a significant amount of condensation. The tower's peak electrical demand is 36mW, equal to about 360,000 100 Watt bulbs operating simultaneously.

ELEVATORS & LIFTS 57 elevators and 8 escalators. World's fastest elevators at speed of 64 km/h. World's highest elevator installation.

WORLD RECORDS Tallest building in the world. Tallest free-standing structure in the world. Highest number of stories in the world. Highest occupied floor in the world. Highest outdoor observation deck in the world Elevator with the longest travel distance in the world. Tallest service elevator in the world.

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LOUIS HENRY SULLIVAN

Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924)[1] was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers"[2] and "father of modernism".[3] He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School. Along with Henry Hobson Richardson and Frank Lloyd Wright, Sullivan is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture".[4] "Form follows function" is attributed to him although he credited the origin of the concept to an ancient Roman architect. In 1944, he was the second architect in history to posthumously receive the AIA Gold Medal.

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Buildings 1887–1895 by Sullivan: Martin Ryerson Tomb, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago (1887) Auditorium Building, Chicago (1889) Carrie Eliza Getty Tomb, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago (1890) Wainwright Building, St. Louis (1890) Wainwright Tomb, St. Louis Charlotte Dickson Wainwright Tomb, Bellefontaine Cemetery, St. Louis (1892), listed on the National Register of Historic Places (shown at right),[26][27][28][29] is considered a major American architectural triumph,[30] a model for ecclesiastical architecture,[31] a "masterpiece",[32] and has been called "the Taj Mahal of St. Louis." Interestingly, the family name appears nowhere on the tomb. Union Trust Building (now 705 Olive), St. Louis (1893; street-level ornament heavily altered in 1924) Guaranty Building (formerly Prudential Building), Buffalo (1894) Buildings 1887–1895 by Louis Sullivan, with Dankmar Adler until 1895: (256 total commissions and projects) Springer Block (later Bay State Building and Burnham Building) and Kranz Buildings, Chicago (1885–1887) Selz, Schwab & Company Factory, Chicago (1886–1887) Hebrew Manual Training School, Chicago (1889–1890) James H. Walker Warehouse & Company Store, Chicago (1886–1889) 30 | P a g e


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Warehouse for E. W. Blatchford, Chicago (1889) James Charnley House (also known as the Charnley–Persky House Museum Foundation and the National Headquarters of the Society of Architectural Historians), Chicago (1891–1892) Albert Sullivan Residence, Chicago (1891–1892) McVicker's Theater, second remodeling, Chicago (1890–1891) Bayard Building, (now Bayard-Condict Building), 65–69 Bleecker Street, New York City (1898). Sullivan's only building in New York, with a glazed terra cotta curtain wall expressing the steel structure behind it. Commercial Loft of Gage Brothers & Company, Chicago (1898–1900) Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Cathedral and Rectory, Chicago (1900–1903) Carson Pirie Scott store, (originally known as the Schlesinger & Mayer Store, now known as "Sullivan Center") Chicago (1899–1904) Virginia Hall of Tusculum College, Greeneville, Tennessee (1901)[34] Van Allen Building, Clinton, Iowa (1914) St. Paul United Methodist Church, Cedar Rapids, Iowa (1910) Krause Music Store, Chicago (final commission 1922; front façade only)

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ADRIAN D SMITH

Adrian D. Smith (born August 19, 1944) is an American architect who has designed many buildings including the world’s two tallest structures: Burj Khalifa in Dubai and Jeddah Tower, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. He was the lead architect of some of the world's most recognizable buildings including Trump International Hotel & Tower in Chicago, Illinois; Jin Mao Tower in Shanghai, China and Zifeng Tower in Nanjing, China. 32 | P a g e


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In 2006, Adrian founded Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture (AS+GG), which is dedicated to the design of high-performance, energy-efficient and sustainable architecture on an international scale. In 2008, he co-founded the MEP firm of Positive Energy Practice (PEP), which specializes in the environmental engineering of highperformance, energy-efficient architecture. Prior to starting AS+GG, Adrian was a Design Partner at the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) from 1980 to 2003 and a Consulting Design Partner from 2003 to 2006. Projects Smith designed have won over 125 awards including 5 international awards, 9 National American Institute of Architects Awards, 35 State and Chicago AIA Awards, and 3 Urban Land Institute Awards for Excellence. He was the recipient of the CTBUH 2011 Lynn S. Beedle Lifetime Achievement Award. Smith's work at SOM has been featured in museums in the United States, South America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. He is a Senior Fellow of the Design Futures Council. In May 2013, he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Letters Degree from Texas A&M University.

FAMOUS BUILDINGS BY SMITH: BUILDING

YEAR

CITY

COUNTRY

FIRM

Burj Khalifa

2010

Dubai

UAE

SOM

Jeddah Tower

2020

Jeddah

Saudi Arabia

AS+GG

Jin Mao Tower

1998

Shanghai

China

SOM

Trump International Hotel

2009

Chicago

USA

SOM

Zifeng Tower

2010

Nanching

China

SOM

Pearl River Tower

2011

Guangzhou

China

SOM

NBC Tower

1989

Chicago

USA

SOM

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SKYSCRAPERS IN INDIA

India has become one of the hot spot in Asia for big construction companies such L&T, DLF, Tata Projects, Gammon India and Hindustan Construction. Indian cities are undergoing a massive construction boom, with hundreds of high-rises and more than 100 super tall skyscraper under construction. Most of the major Indian cities are having at least one tallest building and many are under construction. These tall skyscrapers are the new land mark of India as well as the achievements for the green cities. There are list of tallest building are under construction in all major cities of India, such as India tower Mumbai, Palais Royale, Supernova Noida and Burj Al Hind in Calicut. India might not be home to a Burj Khalifa or Shanghai Tower, but it has own set of skyscrapers to tout. It comes as no surprise as majority of these comes in the vertical city of Mumbai. Of a total of 87 skyscrapers in India 75 are from Mumbai.

WHY DON’T WE HAVE TOO MANY SKYSCRAPERS? We can have them anytime we want, it's not that we don't know how to build skyscrapers or we are not capable of building them. We are restricting height for many reasons. Unlike western countries where you see tall skyscrapers and get mesmerized, having them here in India would be challenging. The climate we have here is unbearably hot in some months. Add to that the urban heat islands. And mind it, the temperature scale in this graph is from a European climate. 34 | P a g e


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.

Elevated temperature from urban heat islands, particularly during the summer, can affect a community's environment and quality of life. While some heat island impacts seem positive, such as lengthening the plant-growing season, most impacts are negative and include:



Increased energy consumption: Higher temperatures in summer increase energy demand for cooling and add pressure to the electricity grid during peak periods of demand. One study estimates that the heat island effect is responsible for 5–10% of peak electricity demand for cooling buildings in cities.



Elevated emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases: Increasing energy demand generally results in greater emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from power plants. Higher air temperatures also promote the formation of ground-level ozone.

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

Compromised human health and comfort: Warmer days and nights, along with higher air pollution levels, can contribute to general discomfort, respiratory difficulties, heat cramps and exhaustion, non-fatal heat stroke, and heat-related mortality.



Impaired water quality: Hot pavement and rooftop surfaces transfer their excess heat to storm water, which then drains into storm sewers and raises water temperatures as it is released into streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes. Rapid temperature changes can be stressful to aquatic ecosystems.

LIST OF SKYSCRAPERS IN INDIA:

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Skyscraper is a building that has a minimum height of 125m. Our very own skyscraper have crossed the 254m mark and there are close to another 100 in the pipeline with the tallest giving the Burj Khalifa run for its money. The tallest is the twin tower located in Tardeo, South Mumbai which holds the record for being the tallest residential building in India, with 60 floors. The term ‘Residential Building’ is referred to a structure where a minimum of 85 percent of total floor area is used for Residential purpose. Adding to the list in Mumbai, The luxurious Lodha Belissimo in Mahalakshmi with 48 floors and two elegant towers of Orchid Enclave in Central Mumbai, with 50 floors each as well as Vivarea with 45 storeys each, are of the same category as of twin towers.

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THE IMPERIAL (TWO TOWERS): The Imperial is a twin-tower residential skyscraper complex in Mumbai, India that are the tallest completed buildings in the country. The towers are located in Tardeo, South Mumbai. Construction was completed and the towers were inaugurated in 2010. The Imperial is located in Tardeo, Mumbai. Imperial Towers, designed by Mumbai architect Hafeez Contractor as his most recognizable project to date, were designed as Mumbai’s tallest towers. The Imperial Twin Towers are built on former slum land where the current re-development model of builders providing free land and rehabilitation to slum dwellers in exchange for rights for property development, was first put into practice on a large scale. This model was used for slum and mill land redevelopment across the city, and across India as a whole.

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LODHA BELLISSIMO: Lodha Bellissimo is a tower located in Mumbai, India developed by Lodha Group of Mumbai. It is the second tallest residential tower in India, with a height of 222 meters. Expected floor count is 48 floors. The construction was completed by late 2012. Lodha Bellissimo is a 648 feet tall 48-storied residential tower amid large pristine landscaped terrain in the heart of Mumbai. Much befitting its exotic name Bellissimo ('most beautiful' in Italian), the gently-contoured sea-wave inspired faรงade and wave-like roof element make for a stunning elevation.

The fully air-conditioned elegant main entrance lobby dotted with attractive greens and cascading water walls, stands atop a 73 feet high stilt and commands splendid views of the landscaped garden and the sea. Ensuring riveting vistas from the very first level of the tower.

The residences are spacious, bright and airy, with expansive glazing bringing in abundant natural light. The unique curvilinear architecture ensures cross ventilation and breathtaking views from all the rooms. Wide sun-decks extending from both sides display the lush verdant Race Course and the glistening ocean beyond to the west and the exquisite recreational garden to the east. There is a beautiful Sky Garden on every fourth storey of the elevation.

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ORCHID ENCLAVE: Orchid Enclave is a pair of residential towers in Mumbai, India. They would are the fourth tallest residential towers in India, standing with a height of 210 meters, surpassed by the Imperial Towers, Palais Royale and Lodha Bellissimo, all in Mumbai. Floor count is 47 floors, with five extra floors for parking.

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KOHINOOR SQUARE: Kohinoor square is a 52-story 203-metre (666 ft.) semi-twin, mixed-use skyscraper located on the land previously owned by Kohinoor Mills in Shivaji Park, Mumbai, India. It is situated at the junction of LJ Road and Gokhale Road. It is one of the first 41 | P a g e


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skyscrapers in India to achieve a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) gold rating for environmental sustainability. The Kohinoor Square complex comprises a main skyscraper and a residential skyscraper which are for mixed use. Houses, hotels, residences and a high-end shopping malls are being constructed by the Kohinoor Group under Kohinoor CTNL Infrastructure Corporation. The main skyscraper is about 52 floors 203 meters (666 ft.), and the residential skyscraper is about 35 floors 142 meters (466 ft.). The first five floors of the main building will be used for a high-end shopping mall, and the remaining 47 floors of the main building will be utilized for a five-star hotel and commercial offices. The first 15 floors of the residential building will be used as a parking garage for both the buildings, and the remaining 20 floors will be residences. It will have 40 elevators and 12 escalator in the main building and 8 elevators in the Residence Building provided by Otis. Kohinoor Square project cost around â‚š21 billion (US$310 million), including â‚š4 billion (US$59 million) for the land. The whole complex houses an area of 2,750,000 sq. ft. (255,000 m2), with the main building housing a total floor space of 2,120,000 sq. ft. (197,000 m2), with an average area of 40,000 sq. ft. (3,700 m2) per floor plate and has an average height of 3.8 meters (12 ft.) per floor. The whole complex can accommodate more than 2000 vehicles in the Car Parks located in the 1st to 15th floors of Residence Building with the Innovative technology such as efficient driveways and intelligent traffic management system. The main building houses spacious lobby and double height landscaped Sky Gardens and a double height terraces with floor to ceiling glazing on every alternate floor to act as tranquil and refreshing breakout zones. The building design makes it environmentally friendly, using technologies such as floor-to-ceiling insulated glazing to contain heat and maximize natural light, and an automatic daylight dimming system. The tower also features a greywater system, which captures rainwater for reuse. Kohinoor Group Pvt Ltd. states that the building is made 42 | P a g e


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largely of recycled and recyclable materials. Air entering the building is filtered, as is common, but the air exhausted is cleaned as well. The Kohinoor Square Building is one of the first Skyscraper building in India to achieve a Gold (LEED) Certification from Green Building Council.

FUTURE OF INDIAN SKYSCRAPERS

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INDIA TOWER: India Tower (previously known as the Park Hyatt Tower; also known as the Dynamix Balwas Tower or DB Tower) is a 126-story, 718-metre (2,356 ft) supertall skyscraper that began construction in the city of Mumbai, India, in 2010. The tower was originally planned for completion in 2016, but construction work was put on hold in 2011 due to a dispute between the tower's developers and Mumbai's civic authorities. The Dynamix Balwas realtor Group first proposed the project, under the name of Park Hyatt Tower, in 2008. The Dynamix Balwas proposal would have been an 85-storey tower with a height of 301.1 meters (988 ft.). The project was subsequently dropped, before being revived and amended in 2010. In January 2010, the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation authorized the tower's construction on a site located at Charni Road in Girgaon, southern Mumbai, just north of Mumbai's historical CBD (Central Business District). Site preparation work commenced in late 2010. However, in May 2011 Mumbai's civic building proposals department issued a stop-work order due to a payment dispute with the developers, halting the tower's construction indefinitely. But it was cancelled on 16 October 2015.

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WORLD ONE TOWER: World One is a supertall residential skyscraper under construction in Mumbai, India. It is located in Lower Parel within Mumbai on the 7.1-hectare (17.5-acre) defunct Shrinivas Mill site. The project will cost ₹20 billion (US$300 million) and is expected to be completed in 2016-17, becoming the world’s tallest residential tower. World One's architect is Pei Cobb Freed & Partners and the structural engineer is Leslie E. Robertson Associates. Apartment prices in World One start from ₹75 million (US$1.1 million) with the most expensive being as much as ₹500 million (US$7.4 million), while Lodha Group anticipates total revenue of ₹50 billion (US$740 million) from the sale of these apartments. Rising 120 stories above Central Mumbai, World One is the tallest of three signature residential towers that form the core of Lodha Place, a 17-acre mixed-use development. World One’s unique cloverleaf plan and three-tier elevation is a decisive response to the singular challenge of creating an iconic super-tall residential tower on a dense site. Additional sustainable features include green roofs, Dark Sky–compliant exterior lighting, recycled content, and local materials. Efficient handling of water includes rainwater harvesting, gray water treatment and recycling, and black water sewage treatment plant. 45 | P a g e


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GIFT DIAMOND TOWER: The Diamond Tower is crowning centerpiece of India’s largest greenfield megaproject, the Gujarat International Finance Tech-City (GIFT) The 87-floor Diamond Tower will be India’s largest commercial tower and is the largest announced tower in the GIFT skyline. Designed by ECADI Architects, the master planners of many of Shanghai’s newest projects, Diamond Tower was designed as the centerpiece signature tower that will cap the new GIFT CBD skyline. The tower is called “The Diamond Tower” to mark Gujarat state’s eminence as the diamond capital of the world. It takes its design cues from the cut facets of a traditional Indian-cut diamond and is a tip of the hat to the state’s diamond industry, which had initially fueled much of Gujarat’s industrialization and still remains a huge economic stimulus to the state. The various cuts and facets in the tower’s shape are designed to reflect and refract the light on the tower similar to a cut diamond, helping it achieve its goal of being one of the world’s brightest and most eyecatching towers when it catches the light of the sun.

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FUTURE OF SKYSCRAPERS AROUND THE WORLD There's something inherently absurd about skyscrapers. They defy gravity and high winds. They require years of challenging high-altitude construction. They're dizzying to look at—from the ground and from their top floors, where a sense of vertigo is inevitable. They beg the question: Why do they have to be so tall?

Because cities need more space—and plenty of bragging rights. A skyscraper, after all, is the ultimate monument to technological genius. “They assume an iconic position within the cityscape,” Edward Orlowski, a professor of architecture at Lawrence Technological University, told me in an email. “Each city wishes to hold the distinction for the tallest, the most unique, and the most innovative skyscraper.”

In other words, tall buildings send a message for the city they're located in: We're risk-takers. We're innovators. Look at us! And whatever the message, a tall building sprouting in a city skyline is a dramatic feat. It's no wonder having a skyscraper immediately makes a city look more like a city. What’s happening to a skyline is often how people can tell which cities are booming.

"The skyscraper has always represented ambition, idealism, and power." 47 | P a g e


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Just look at Shanghai. Since the late 1980s, the city's financial district has steadily grown from an unremarkable cluster of buildings into a forest of skyscrapers. In a little more than 25 years, an influx of investors and of people moving into the city—increasing the population by about 10 percent each year between 1993 and 2013, to a total of more than 23 million residents today—transformed the area from a city of the past into a city of the future. "Shanghai is the beacon for the futuristic look," said Russell Gilchrist, the design director and senior associate at the architecture firm Gensler. "It's usually considered the epicenter of the future of tall buildings." Gilchrist should know. Gensler is behind the newest addition to Shanghai's skyline: Shanghai Tower, a colossal 2,073-foot-tall skyscraper set to become the third-tallest building in the world (after Dubai's Burj Khalifa and Tokyo's Skytree) when it begins operations in mid2015. It boasts 121 floors, nine dividing sections, and a twisting facade. As its designers call it, the tower will be a “vertical city”—it looks like a city street turned to point upward, with each of the nine sections serving as a “block.” With its massive height, the tower will eke in just ahead of the Abraj Al-Bait Towers (1,972 feet) of Saudi Arabia and Taipei 101 (1,671 feet) in Taiwan. It dwarfs the 1,776-foot tower at One World Trade Center, the tallest tower in the United States. But even as architects continue to build skyscrapers, the goal of building taller ones has changed. Designing the skyscraper of the future isn't so much about scraping or even piercing the sky, but using it to make its space more efficient than ever. “The ‘tall building’ embodies that futuristic Blade Runner city, but I'm not necessarily convinced you need tall buildings to evoke that,” Gilchrist says. “We're striving for high performance in our buildings. Have a look at the some of the proposed and under constructing Skyscrapers around the world. 48 | P a g e


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SKY MILE TOWER:

The design of the tower is part of an initiative called Next Tokyo 2045 for research and developmental purposes and was made by Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates and Leslie E. Roberson Associates. The Sky Mile Tower is to be built on an archipelago of reclaimed land in Tokyo Bay. This proposed reclamation project with the Sky Mile Tower as its centerpiece is dubbed as "Next Tokyo". The building is designed to be occupied by around 55,000 people and is planned to be 1,600 m (5,249 ft.) high. Plans show that the 5,577 feet-high Sky Mile Tower will stand in Tokyo Bay with a cluster of islands at its feet, dwarfing everything else on the city's already soaring skyline. The tower will feature a hexagonal design, which was found to be the most windresistant shape, with six interconnected “building legs� forming a slotted, tapered structure that should withstand imposing winds.

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The president of the Avesta Group of Companies, Ibrahim Ibrahimov, stated that the Azerbaijan Tower would rise to about 1,051 m (3,448 ft) with 189 floors. The $2 billion tower is to be the centerpiece of the Khazar Islands, a $100 billion city of 41 artificial islands that will spread 3,000 hectares over the Caspian Sea. The city is being planned to house 1 million residents, contain 150 schools, 50 hospitals and daycare centers, numerous parks, shopping malls, cultural centers, university campuses, and a Formula 1 quality racetrack. All of these facilities are planned to be able to withstand up to magnitude 9.0 earthquakes. The city will be equipped with 150 bridges and a large municipal airport to connect the islands to the mainland. Ibrahim told reporters that American, Turkish, Arab and Chinese investors have already shown their interest in the project that will be, in his words, like a "new Venice". Construction on the Azerbaijan Tower was set to begin in 2015 and be completed by around 2019. Its construction status is unknown as of 2016. The Khazar Islands are scheduled to be finished between 2020 and 2025.

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Jeddah Tower, previously known as Kingdom Tower and Mile-High Tower , is a skyscraper under construction in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, at a preliminary cost of SR4.6 billion (US$1.23 billion). It will be the centerpiece and first phase of a SR75 billion (US$20 billion) proposed development known as Jeddah Economic City that will be located along the Red Sea on the north side of Jeddah. If completed as planned, the Jeddah Tower will reach unprecedented heights, becoming the tallest building in the world, as well as the first structure to reach the onekilometer-high mark (Initially planned to be 1.6 kilometers (1 mi) high, the geology of the area proved unsuitable for a tower of that height). Jeddah Tower seeks to bring great changes in terms of development and tourism to the city of Jeddah, which is considered the most liberal city in Saudi Arabia.

The design, created by American architect Adrian Smith, who also designed Burj Khalifa, incorporates many unique structural and aesthetic features. The creator and leader of the project is Saudi Arabian Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, the wealthiest man in the Middle East, and nephew of the late King Abdullah. Al-Waleed is the chairman of Kingdom Holding Company (KHC) which is a partner in Jeddah 51 | P a g e


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Economic Company (JEC), which was formed in 2009 for the development of Jeddah Tower and City. Reception of the proposal has been highly polarized; it has received high praise from some as a culturally significant icon that will symbolize the nation's wealth and power, while others question its socioeconomic motives, and forecast that it will have negative financial consequences. The triangular footprint and sloped exterior of Jeddah Tower is designed to reduce wind loads; its high surface area also makes it ideal for residential units. The overall design of the tower, which will be located near both the Red Sea and the mouth of the Obhur Creek (Sharm Ob'hur) where it widens as it meets the Red Sea, as well as having frontage on a man-made waterway and harbor that will be built around it, is intended to look like a desert plant shooting upwards as a symbol of Saudi Arabia's growth and future, as well as to add prominence to Jeddah's status as the gateway into the holy city of Mecca. The designer's vision was "one that represents the new spirit in Saudi Arabia" (Smith). The 23 hectare (57 acre) area around Jeddah Tower will contain public space and a shopping mall, as well as other residential and commercial developments, and be known as the Jeddah Tower Water Front District, of which, the tower's site alone will take up 500,000 m2 (5,381,955 sq. ft.). As with many other very tall skyscrapers, including the Kingdom Centre in Riyadh, which is generally considered to have sparked the recent significant commercial developments around it in the district of Olaya, much of the intention of Jeddah Tower is to be symbolic as well as to raise the surrounding land value rather than its own profitability. To that effect, the tower's architect, Adrian Smith, said that the tower "evokes a bundle of leaves shooting up from the ground–a burst of new life that heralds more growth all around it". Smith states that the tower will create a landmark in which it and the surrounding Jeddah Economic City are interdependent.

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KL118, formerly called Warisan Merdeka (Meaning: Heritage of Independence), is a 118-storey, 644-metre (2,113-foot) Megatall skyscraper currently under construction in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The KL118 development is funded by Permodalan Nasional Berhad (PNB), with a budget of RM5 billion. When completed in 2019, the tower will be the tallest building in Malaysia and the third tallest in the world. It will consist of 400,000 square meters (4,300,000 square feet) of residential, hotel and commercial space. It will succeed the height of the 88 storey Petronas Twin Towers. The building will consist of 100 storeys of rentable space, including 80 storeys of office space, 12 storeys of hotel rooms, 5 storeys of hotel residences and a retail business center. The non-rentable space consists of elevators, recreational and maintenance facilities, as well as parking spaces for up 5,000 cars. 60 out of the 80 storeys of office space will be reserved for Permodalan Nasional Berhad (PNB), the developer of the project, and its subsidiaries.

ACRONYMS 53 | P a g e


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CTBUH: The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) is an international body in the field of tall buildings and sustainable urban design. A non-profit organization based at the Illinois Institute of Technology in the city of Chicago, Illinois, United States, the CTBUH announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and is widely considered to be an authority on the official height of tall buildings. Its stated mission is to study and report "on all aspects of the planning, design, and construction of tall buildings." The Council was founded at Lehigh University in 1969 by Lynn S. Beedle, where its office remained until October 2003, when it moved to the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. The CTBUH ranks the height of buildings using three different methods: 1. Height to architectural top: This is the main criterion under which the CTBUH ranks the height of buildings. Heights are measured from the level of the lowest, significant, openair, pedestrian entrance to the top of the building, inclusive of spires but excluding items such as flagpoles and antennae. 2. Highest occupied floor: Height to the floor level of the highest floor that is occupied by residents, workers or other building users on a consistent basis. 3. Height to tip: Height to the highest point of the building, including antennae, flagpoles, and technical equipment. A category measuring to the top of the roof was removed from the ranking criteria in November 2009. This is because flat-topped skyscrapers are not as common in the modern era as skyscrapers with intricate spire designs and parapet features atop their roofs, making it more difficult to define the roof of a building.

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The CTBUH insist that a building should only be added to the official tallest list when it is (i) topped out structurally and architecturally, (ii) fully clad, and (iii) open for business, or at least partially open. This became the CTBUH official definition of a building’s "completion"

In addition to the monthly newsletter and daily updated global news archive, the CTBUH publishes a quarterly CTBUH Journal. The Journal includes peer-reviewed technical papers, in-depth project case studies, book reviews, and interviews with prominent persons in the tall building industry, and much more. The CTBUH also publishes guidebooks, reference manuals, and monographs related to the tall building industry. In 2006 it published the book 101 of the World’s Tallest Buildingsin conjunction with author and CTBUH member Georges Binder, a reference to 101 of the world’s tallest skyscrapers. It includes photos, plans, and details on architects, engineers and stakeholders, and comprehensive technical data on each building. Since 2008 it has published a Best Tall Buildings book to accompany that year's awards. The CTBUH grants several awards every year. Best Tall Building Overall Award 

2007: Beetham Tower, Manchester, UK[23]

2008: Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China

2009: Linked Hybrid, Beijing, China

2010: Broadcasting Place, Leeds, UK.

2010: Global Icon award, Burj Khalifa is the first recipient of this award announced on 25 October 2010.,[24] Dubai, UAE.

2011: KfW Westarkade, Frankfurt, Germany.

2012: Doha Tower, Doha, Qatar.

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2013: CCTV Headquarters, Beijing, China.

2014: One Central Park, Sydney, Australia.[25]

2015: Bosco Verticale, Milan, Italy. The CTBUH works with institutions of higher-education from around the world in researching projects related to tall building design.

LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide. Developed by the nonprofit U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) it includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings, homes, and neighborhoods [8] that aims to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently. From 1994 to 2015, LEED grew from one standard for new construction to a comprehensive system of interrelated standards covering aspects from the design and construction to the maintenance and operation of buildings. LEED also has grown from six volunteers on one committee to 119,924 staff, volunteers and professionals.[9] LEED standards have been applied to approximately 83,452 registered and certified LEED projects worldwide, covering around 13.8 billion square feet (1.28 billion square meters). Rating system LEED has evolved since 1998 to more accurately represent and incorporate emerging green building technologies. The pilot version, LEED New Construction (NC) v1.0, led to LEED NCv2.0, LEED NCv2.2 in 2005, and LEED 2009 (previously named LEEDv3) in 56 | P a g e


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2009. LEEDv4 was introduced in November, 2013. Until October 31, 2016, new projects may choose between LEED 2009 and LEEDv4. New projects registering after October 31, 2016 must use LEEDv4.[13] LEED 2009 encompasses nine rating systems for the design, construction and operation of buildings, homes and neighborhoods.[8] Five overarching categories correspond to the specialties available under the LEED Accredited Professional program. That suite currently consists of: Green Building Design & Construction 

LEED for New Construction

LEED for Core & Shell

LEED for Schools

LEED for Retail: New Construction and Major Renovations

LEED for Healthcare

Green Interior Design & Construction 

LEED for Commercial Interiors

LEED for Retail: Commercial Interiors

Green Building Operations & Maintenance 

LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance

Green Neighborhood Development 

LEED for Neighborhood Development[8]

Green Home Design and Construction

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LEED for Homes (The LEED for Homes rating system is different from LEED v3, with different point categories and thresholds that reward efficient residential design.[citation needed])

LEED also forms the basis for other sustainability rating systems such as the Environmental Protection Agency's Labs21. To make it easier to follow LEED requirements, in 2009 USGBC helped BuildingGreen develop LEED user, a guide to the LEED certification process and applying for LEED credits written by professionals in the field.

Certification level Buildings can qualify for four levels of certification: 

Certified: 40–49 points

Silver: 50–59 points

Gold: 60–79 points

Platinum: 80 points and above.

AS+GG: Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture (AS+GG), an architecture firm and design firm based in Chicago, is engaged in the design and development of energy-efficient and sustainable architecture. AS+GG designs buildings, cities, masterplans and components of these. It creates designs for an international clientele with projects located throughout the world. The primary uses of these designs are civic, commercial, cultural, hospitality, residential and mixed-use. AS+GG also specializes in supertall skyscrapers, such as the Jeddah Tower, which will overtake the Burj Khalifa as the world's tallest building when completed in 2020. 58 | P a g e


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AS+GG was founded in Chicago in 2006, by Adrian Smith, Gordon Gill, and Robert Forest after they left the Chicago office ofSkidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP (SOM). Taking their experience on large, mixed-use projects, AS+GG focuses on the design of highperformance, energy-efficient, and sustainable architecture on an international scale.[3] “We’re now trying to design a building as a vehicle, or a vessel, that uses less energy and also mines the free energy that’s available,” as Smith explained in an interview with architectural historian Judith Dupré, “and that’s creating a new aesthetic for us.” Adrian Smith's departure from SOM has been widely reported. And Smith had several projects still under construction that were designed while at SOM including: Burj Khalifa, Dubai, Broadgate Tower, London, England and Trump International Hotel and Tower, Chicago, and with Gordon Gill and Robert Forest: Nanjing Greenland Financial Center, Nanjing, China. Gordon, while at SOM, designed the award-winning Virginia Beach Convention Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia. He also designed the Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou, China with Robert also working on the project. Though the start-up of their firm appears to have had some rough moments (Smith had to pay $250,000 of salaries out of his own pocket to cover one rough spot), they have been commissioned for at least one ground-breaking building. Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture has been chosen over SOM, Norman Foster, Atkins, and Helmut Jahn to design and build the Headquarters of Masdar City, a zero-energy, zero carbon, zero waste city in the United Arab Emirates. Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture (AS+GG) has grown substantially since its inception in November 2006 with only 7 employees. At the end of one year, the firm employed 35. As of April 2008 there were over 70 employees at AS+GG and in December 2008 the staff totals were 59 | P a g e


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reported as 185. The firm peaked around 200 employees in 2009 when they had to lay off forty employees on February 28 and an additional 40 on March 6 of that year. The firm has hired other notable designers from top Chicago firms but have continued to have layoffs each year beginning in 2008.

SIGNIFICANT PROJECTS  Jeddah Tower  Wuhan Greenland Centre  Chicago Central Area Decarbonization Plan  Willis Tower Greening  1-Dubai

SOM: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) is an American architectural, urban planning, and engineering firm. It was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John O. Merrill. They opened their first branch in New York City, New York in 1937. SOM is one of the largest architectural firms in the world. Their primary expertise is in high-end commercial buildings, as it was SOM that led the way to the widespread use of the modern international-style or "glass box" skyscraper. They have designed several of the tallest buildings in the world, including the John Hancock Center (1969, second tallest in the world when built), Willis Tower (1973, tallest in the world for over twenty years), and Burj Khalifa (2010, current world's tallest building).

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Many of SOM's post-war designs have become icons of American modern architecture, including the Manhattan House (1950), designated as a New York City landmark in 2007 by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; and the Lever House(1952), also in New York City; as well as the Air Force Academy Chapel (1958) in Colorado Springs, Colorado; and the John Hancock Center (1969) and Sears Tower (1973), both in Chicago. Although SOM was one of the first major modern American architectural firms to promote a corporate face (i.e. not specifically crediting individual architects for their buildings), many famous architects, engineers and interior designers have been associated with the various national offices. Due to their faithful following of Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe’s ideas, Frank Lloyd Wright nicknamed them "The Three Blind Mies"

SIGNIFICANT PROJECTS  Burj Khalifa  1 World Trade Centre  The Beacon  Jin Mao Tower  Trump International Hotel & Tower  Pearl River Tower

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REFERENCES  SKYSCRAPERS- A book by Judith Dupr,  SKYSCRAPERS- A book by Andres Lepik,  http://skyscraperpage.com/  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skyscraper,  http://www.walkthroughindia.com/walkthroughs/10-skyscrapers-in-top-10cities-of-india/,  http://www.99acres.com/articles/tallest-skyscrapers-in-india.html.

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Skyscrapers all you need to know  
Skyscrapers all you need to know  
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