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SuDS LAW.

An investigation into the threats posed by mass urbanisation within the water cycle of our landscape.

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture 2013 Abigail Haire


SuDS LAW. Can sustainable urban drainage systems be used for a greater benefit than simply reducing flood risk?

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


Contents Section 1 - The importance of SuDS

07

Section 2 - The existing guidance

Section 3 - SuDS Law

33

Section 4 - Worked examples

51

Section 5 - Conclusions Drawn

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

25

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

112

SuDS Law

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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


The Importance of SuDS

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

7


Climate change is an unavoidable component of our future. Already some of the effects of climate change are being witnessed with unpredictable seasonal temperatures and increasing occurrences of extreme precipitation events. This study will focus on the impact of climate change within the water cycle, with particular interest in the response this has on the effectiveness of traditional drainage methods used in urban development. In response to this changing situation, the drainage authorities require that SuDS (Sustainable Drainage Systems) are included in new developments*. This concept reduces runoff to ‘greenfield’ rates but can be expensive and can take valuable development land. This study investigates whether a more creative approach could be used for a greater benefit than simply reducing flood risk? *with some exceptions

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

9


‘ Climate change is the biggest environmental challenge ‘

facing the world today.

Environment Agency, 2012


Climate Change + Rising Population

Table 1: Estimated and projected population of the United Kingdom 2010 to 2035

Many predictions on the future of the climate have been put forward, but scientists are now 95% certain that humans are the dominant cause of global warming since the 1950s (UN, 2013). The Environment Agency’s analysis of recent climate patterns predict the following: •

Temperatures could rise between 1° and 5° Centigrade. This will intensify the urban heat island effect, leading to risks affecting human health within the built environment.

Winter rainfall could increase by up to 30%. This will increase the volume of water in the water cycle pushing drainage systems and flood defences to their limits.

Summer rainfall could decrease by 50% compared with current patterns. This will potentially cause droughts and flash floods throughout the country, particularly in urban areas.

Sea levels could rise by 67cm. This will cause coastal flooding, damaging communities, social infrastructure and biodiversity.

Weather patterns could become more extreme. Increasing the likelihood of flooding and sudden droughts.

United Kingdom

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

62.3

64.8

67.2

69.4

71.4

Millions 2035 73.2

Population projections, Office of National Statistics 2011

As the pressure on green/open spaces is increased, pressure on existing drainage infrastructure is also enhanced accentuating the Environment Agency’s predictions. SuDS aid the mitigation process of adaptation to the rising intensity of climate change and urbanisation.

The urban development process within the UK must adjust to accommodate these predicted changes. Combined with these environmental changes comes the added pressure of a rising population requiring more urban development and infrastructure. The population of the UK is predicted to rise to 73.2 million people by 2035 (Office of National Statistics, 2011), an extra 11 million people requiring accommodation when there is an already pronounced housing shortage. As the trend towards urbanisation increases, the pressure will grow to develop floodplains and remaining green/open space.

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

11


What are Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS)? SuDS are an approach to managing rainwater falling on roofs and other surfaces through a sequence of actions. The key objectives are to manage the flow rate and volume of surface runoff to reduce the risk of flooding and water pollution. SuDS also reduce pressure on the sewerage network and can improve biodiversity and local amenity. Defra, 2011 SuDS can be incorporated into almost any proposed construction scheme, and retrofitted into a large number of existing development sites. The use of SuDS is essential in reducing the impact of urban sprawl and climate change, creating positive environments for both flora and fauna. Some of the benefits of SuDS can be seen in figure 1.1 to the right.

The cost of SuDS is dependent on a large number of factors. Most of these are site specific, and therefore a generalization about the costs can be problematic and include high levels of uncertainty. The following outline some of the relevant cost elements within a SuDS scheme: • • • • • • • •

Soil type Groundwater vulnerability Design Criteria Design features Access and space requirements Location System Size Retrofit

Natural drainage within an urban context can be aided by the landscape, and the characteristics it can offer. For example, a site located in an area of predominantly chalky soils can efficiently absorb a large amount of water and slowly release it back into the water cycle with minimum site water management. However, when a site is located in an area of poorly draining soil, water management within the site is crucial. Naturally absorbent features from the landscape can be replicated in water sensitive design to improve water catchment within a site. Figure 1.2 on the opposite page shows the four main principles within the landscape that reduce the speed of raindrop to river. Introducing appropriate landform, a dense tree canopy, a layer of vegetation and pockets of green within the urban surroundings all act as natural stores for precipitation and slowly release it back into the water cycle. Introducing these features into a design within an urban context can enhance the aesthetics and ecological value of the development, however they can be financially and spatially demanding.

12

SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


SuDS

Encourage natural groundwater recharge (where appropriate).

Provide opportunities for evapotranspiration from vegetation and surface water.

Manage runoff volumes and flow rates, reducing the impact of urbanisation on flooding.

i. Landform

Protect or enhance water quality.

Protect natural flow regimes in watercourses

Provide a habitat for wildlife in urban watercourses

ii. Tree Canopy

Are sympathetic to the environmental setting and the needs of the local community.

Create better places to live, work and play.

Act as an aid in the control of the predicted changes to climate patterns.

iii. Vegetation Cover

Figure 1.1 The advantages of SuDS

iv. Green Pockets Figure 1.2 Beneficial landscape characteristics

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

13


Case Study: Arkadien Winnenen, Germany. Low unit density residential scheme Winnenden is a small town located 28km east of Stuttgart based on an old industrial site. Designed by Atelier Dreisitl who created a vision for urban living that adapts to the climate and resource challenges of our time. A ‘Garden City’ approach was used for the design of the streetscape, forming a cohesive neighbourhood within the Mediterranean colour concept of the surrounding architecture. Water sensitive urban design gives Winnenden a distinctive urban character. The unit density within the development is softened through the presence of nature in the form of generous planting centred around a lake, a restored creek, with a recreational path and play areas integrated into retention meadows. The emphasis on the importance of green space and inclusion of SuDS creates a positive living environment, whilst able to accommodate fluctuating volumes of water as climate change sets in. The overall result is positive in terms of creating a sustainable and pleasant living environment. However, the space necessary to implement significant SuDS features is only achievable in areas of low land value. The unit density to green space ratio would be unachievable at a low cost in a more built up environment.

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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


Case Study: Chiswick Business Park, London Low unit density industrial scheme Chiswick Business Park is located in the London borough of Hounslow, west London designed by The Richard Rogers Partnership. The concept of the project was to provide a high quality and enjoyable working environment, providing space for offices, retail and leisure facilities based around a central lake and extensive soft landscaping. The layout of the development places emphasis on people rather than cars, with all vehicular movement routed behind the buildings and central communal areas. Large trees and water features regulate the air temperature around the buildings reducing the urban heat island effect, not only within the development site but also in the surrounding neighborhood. The design of the site was formed before climate change was a recognised issue, however the site is now almost ‘water neutral’, drawing little water from external sources - most runoff is contained within the site. The inclusion of water and green space within a highly developed urban context creates a positive environment for employees and visitors of the site to experience, whilst creating an ecological pocket within the city. The water ‘neutral’ cycle promotes water sensitive design within the space, enhancing the genius loci. The design and concept of development does create a range of benefits through the use of SuDS, rather than simply reducing flood risk. However, as with the Arkadien case study this development is only achievable with a low unit density and low value of land.

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

17


Case Study: Riverside Place, Stamford - Lincolnshire High unit density residential scheme Riverside Place is a redevelopment of an electricity sub-station site in Stamford, Lincolnshire – UK. The site comprises of highdensity urban housing surrounded by shared pedestrian and vehicular space. The development achieves a density of 104 units per hectare, with 72 units in 0.69 hectares (well above the design standards recommendations for housing). SuDS used throughout this development includes permeable surfaces for pavements and vehicular routes, planted rills and hidden voids below ground to catch rainwater. A series of weirs, locks and planting control the speed that water flows through the urban development. The high density of the housing has formed a hierarchy of materials needed to make the space function. Where movement is essential porous materials have been used to accommodate drainage, and green spaces utilised for the transportation of surface water. The volume of hard porous materials and density of units is efficient in development terms, however the lack of green space creates a less user-friendly unnatural environment. This development includes SuDS, with limited obvious benefit, yet with all of the costs associated with its implementation and management.

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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


Swale

Traditional Sewerage System

Figure 1.3 Conventional Drainage methods within medium density development

£

Figure 1.5 Conventional Drainage methods additional costs

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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Pond

Permeable Paving

Attenuation Cell

Figure 1.4 Implementation of SuDS in low density development

£

Minimal costs associated with maintenance

Vegetation

£

£

£

£

Swales Vegetation becomes Pond becomes Permeable Paving Attenuation overgrown silt up overgrown becomes blocked cells silt up Figure 1.6 Implementation of SuDS additional maintenance costs

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


Including SuDS within a scheme requires areas of open space within the site. This can result in an attractive environment, but it reduces the level of unit density achievable (see Figure 1.4 opposite). The cost of implementing SuDS is proportionate to the unit density, the characteristics of the site itself and type of SuDS used. Maintaining SuDS is also a more costly and complicated process (see Figure 1.6 opposite).

Costs of attenuation on site become unsustainable

Low

Traditional drainage infrastructure can be applied to any space (see Figure 1.3 opposite), allowing almost any unit density to be achieved. The initial cost of implementing traditional methods is well established and can be regarded as the minimum provision (as required by the relevant drainage authority). Maintaining a traditional drainage system is relatively simple and low cost (see Figure 1.5 opposite).

Cost of implementing SuDS

High

Traditional drainage systems Vs SuDS

Low

Density of development

High

Figure 1.7 Graph showing cost benefit analysis of implementing SuDS

These costs increase as housing density is increased. As seen in the Riverside Place case study (page 19), the inclusion of SuDS within a high-density development does not necessarily enhance the space, but instead add extra cost and complications to the construction process (see Figure 1.7).

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

21


Economy Vs Ecology Both the Arkadien and Chiswick case studies demonstrate that SuDS can provide additional user and environmental benefits as well as reducing flood risk. The main element to their success however, is the low unit density and land value of the sites. When SuDS are applied to a site of higher land value and a greater unit density is desired, the user and environmental benefits are reduced. As shown in the Riverside Place case study - the use of SuDS within the design is mainly hidden beneath permeable paving, adding little to the visible landscape created. Are the higher construction costs and complications of including SuDS within new developments always worth it? Could there be an alternative option that is both sustainably and economically viable?


24

SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


The Existing Guidance

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

25


Global SuDS Sustainable urban drainage systems have been used widely across the globe; in particular the USA, Europe, Japan and Australia have adopted SuDS into their modern day development process. With varying temperatures as a result of climate change, SuDS and WSUD (water sensitive urban design) techniques are being adapted to accommodate drought or flood scenarios across the globe. Technical guidance on SuDS from governing bodies varies from country to country, however the unifying consensus is that including SuDS within design and development is a positive and increasingly being written into legislation.

Cumberland SuDS Park - Nashville, Tennessee USA USA: Guidance on SuDS within the USA varies from state to state depending on their climate. For example New York uses the ‘DEP Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Stormwater Management Systems.’ ASLA promotes the use of both SuDS and WSUD. They particularly focus on the WSUD to recycle stormwater for use in grey water systems.

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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


Floating Gardens - Yongning River, South East China

The Cotton Tree - The Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia

China: In China the CHSLA (Chinese Society of Landscape Architecture) supported by the Chinese governments flood control policy, promote sustainable water management. Recent guidance released from the CHSLA focuses on the concept of the ‘economical landscape’ and the influence landscape architecture can have on this. The economical landscape emphasizes how to save land, water and material resources through decreasing the urban greenhouse effect, environmental pollution and energy consumption. CHSLA are also promoting the restoration of wetlands across the country. Wetlands provide valuable functions such as flood control and a water supply.

Australia: The Australian Institute for Landscape Architects (AILA) are heavily supporting SuDS following a series of devastating floods in recent years. In Queensland, as development rates are increasing combined with the added pressures of ongoing drought, water sensitive design has become an essential part of the construction process. The Sunshine Coast Regional Council have developed a water sensitive urban design demonstration site - The Cotton Tree (see above). This is a site to educate professionals in the development and construction industrieson the use of SuDS. The site consists of permeable pavements and swales harvesting rainwater. This rainwater is then used to supply water for cisterns in the nearby public toilets and in an administration building.

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

27


SuDS in the U.K.: Loopholes Human settlement has traditionally been along watercourses and as a result the process of water management within urban development is well practiced across the world. This being based on traditional population densities has not often put the conventional drainage infrastructure under pressure, however as outlined earlier, increasing population and unpredictable weather means that a more strategic overview is necessary. Whereas drainage authorities in the past have been more concerned about making sure there is sufficient drainage capacity to accommodate the runoff created by new development, this role is changing. Drainage authorities in the future will have to be more creative in managing surface water flow and disposal. An integral part of this is SuDS in all its forms. The UK has many organizations that support the use of SuDS. The SuDS Approval Body (SAB) is an organization that has been proposed to be positioned within County Councils and Unitary Authorities to specifically address the design, approval and adoption of sustainable urban drainage systems within any new development consisting of two or more properties. The existing Sewerage Undertakers, Environment Agencies, Internal Drainage Boards, British Waterways and Highway Authorities will all become statutory consultees to the SAB. There are two main guidance documents that outline the use of SuDS that will be used by the SAB: i.

Schedule 3 of the Flood and Management Act 2010

ii. The National Standards for sustainable drainage systems (defra) They both outline the parameters of SuDS within the development process that should be included within design regulations. At present, due to UK developers and house builders winning an 18-month reprieve (to April 2014) on introducing the SAB and having to incorporate SuDS into developments, these documents are used only as guidance and are not mandatory.

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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Schedule 3 of the Flood and Management Act 2010 outlines the requirements for new developments and redevelopments in England and Wales that have drainage plans for surface runoff, which need to be approved by the SAB where construction work will have drainage implications. The National Standards for sustainable drainage systems acts more as a design and construction aid, creating a hierarchy of principles dealing with surface runoff in a variety of scenarios. It is part of a Government policy for the construction of drainage within new developments and redevelopments, which includes the National Planning Policy Framework, Building Regulations and the Code for Sustainable Homes. As this study is investigating alternative design options to existing SuDS regulations, it will focus on the National Standards for sustainable drainage systems as the basis of its research. There are two main parts that make up the National Standards as seen below;

1. Principles that: i. Must be taken into account for the design of SuDS; and ii. Set the criteria for governing the judgment of SABs on the functionality of drainage they adopt; and iii. Exempt development from complying with certain aspects of the standards on the grounds of disproportionate cost. 2. Standards with design, construction and maintenance requirements for SuDS. In addition, the Local Planning Authority may set out local requirements for planning permission that have the effect of more stringent requirements than these National Standards. National Standards for Sustainable Development, 2011

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


The National Standards document outlines a set of criteria that determine whether developments comply with the SAB and with Schedule 3 of the Flood and Water Management Act 2010. A proposed drainage system does not comply with these National Standards unless it is designed so that: a. Surface runoff is managed at its source where it is reasonably practicable to do so; b. Surface runoff is managed on the surface where it is reasonably practicable to do so; c. Public space is used and integrated with the drainage system, where it serves more than one property and it is reasonably practicable to do so; d. Design is cost-effective to operate and maintain over the design life of the development, in order to reduce the risk of the drainage system not functioning; e. Design of the drainage system accounts for the likely impacts of: • Climate change; and • Changes in impermeable area; over the design life of the development, where it is reasonably practicable to do so. National Standards for Sustainable Development, 2011

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

29


Not a mandatory part of the development process? It is estimated that 2.7 million properties are at risk of flooding in England and Wales (Defra, 2012). ‘The 2012 floods caused the biggest insurance industry losses since 2007, with customers filing for up to £3bn in water damage claims.’ Ruth Slavid - Landscape Journal, 2013 As the Environment Agency’s climate change proposals are reinforced by reoccurring flash flooding and droughts in the UK, shouldn’t SuDS be a mandatory part of the construction process? Incorporation of SuDS into new development ought to be comprehensive and an automatic consequence of the planning process. The following factors limit this process: •

Existing guidance

Exemptions

standards on the grounds of disproportionate cost’ gives an unclear and poorly defined guideline to the necessity of SuDS inclusion within a development scheme. Affordability 2.3 If full compliance with the Standards would necessitate the construction of a drainage system that is more expensive than an equivalent conventional design then full compliance is not required, and instead the drainage system must comply with the standards to the greatest extent possible, without exceeding the cost of the equivalent conventional design.

National Standards for Sustainable Development, 2011 As seen above, the Landscape Institute recommendations for the future direction for SuDS regulations highlight the ‘uneconomic cost’ get-out clause as unclear and unnecessary. • Full implementation of the Flood and Water Management Act, which would ensure the use of SuDS on all new developments in the UK

Currently there is no clear platform for anyone in the development industry to gain straightforward information and guidance relating to the inclusion of SuDS within design. Following on from exploring the case studies on the previous page, this is a common global issue. Due to the fragmented nature of the advice available, inclusion of SuDS within construction is a complicated process, often excusing developers from using water sensitive urban design. When the National Standards and SAB are introduced in April 2014, a base of regulations for developers will be formed. However, as shown below the existing draft National Standards include Clause 2.3 which states that if the cost of implementing a SuDS scheme is significantly greater than that of conventional construction methods, full SAB compliance is not compulsory.

• Removal of the ‘un-economic cost’ get-out in the Draft National Standards unless exceptional circumstances exist (with ‘exceptional’ being defined) • Consider soft options first, to obtain multi-functional benefits of green infrastructure • Adoption of water sensitive urban design policies in every Local Plan • Embark on a comprehensive program of retrofitting SuDS alongside larger water catchment management programs and flood defence programs. Landscape Institute, 2013

This clause, combined with the principle: ‘exemption of development from complying with certain aspects of the

30

SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


As the climate projections and population expand, SuDS need to become a mandatory part within the design process. Disproportionate costs of inclusion in construction should not excuse SuDS from development schemes. There should be an alternative option that gives developers the opportunity to easily include SuDS within an existing/proposed scheme. This alternative could be a SuDS Park scheme.

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

31


32

SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


SuDS Law

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

33


SuDS Law.

Aims & Objectives

SuDS Law could be a new regulation included within the National Standards to adjoin all future planning applications as part of a section 106 Agreement between the developer and the SAB.

Aims

It would provide developers with a third option to include SuDS within all projects (see Figure 3.1 opposite), amending the existing clause in the National Standards excusing SuDS from design where construction costs are disproportionate to traditional methods.

Make SuDS attractive to developers, affordable and achievable in development schemes of the future.

The section 106 Agreement will require developers to pay a fee to the SAB to contribute towards a SuDS Park.

Create a valuable functional green resource for both human and ecological benefit.

The aim of the SuDS Park scheme is to allow for the inclusion of SuDS within all new and existing urban development projects. It will remove any complications and additional costs associated with implementation of SuDS within a scheme.

Create a plan that can be applied to any urban development to control the volume of surface water in the drainage system.

A ‘SuDS park’ will be an area of land owned and managed by the SAB, located up/downstream of an urban development. It will have the suitable existing/adaptable characteristics capable of accommodating a large volume of water (as discussed in section 1) when necessary throughout the year.

Objectives

In essence, a SuDS Park will be used to attenuate runoff from singular/multiple development sites in urban areas, thereby offsetting the proposed urban development.

Create a feature within the landscape to accommodate fluctuating volumes of surface runoff from urban development equivalent to that generated by the proposed site (or greater).

The idea is that water is not drained directly from the development site, but to drain the equivalent volume of surface runoff water (of the sites proposed impermeable materials) from the river into a designated site outside of the urban settlement.

Use the design principles established in section one of this document to determine landscape design criteria of the ‘SuDS Park’ (e.g Tree density, Introducing topography...)

This land will then be used to benefit the local community, wildlife and/or both in a SuDS Park. The design will be a scheme accommodating of varying volumes of water, creating usable temporary landscapes throughout the year. Management of the SuDS Park will allow water to be stored and held back, responding to the requirements of the site during times of flood and drought.

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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Make SuDS a mandatory part of development.

Ensure sustainability and longevity by creating a facility that adapts to predicted climatic changes.

Create an alternative attractive option to the ‘uneconomic’ and ‘exceptional circumstance’ get-out clause in the existing guidance.

Create a landscape to be used as both a community and wildlife resource.

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


Option 1 - Full SAB compliance with on-site SuDS.

Inclusion of SuDS and WSUD to National Standards specification on site.

Option 2 - Partial SAB compliance, on site SuDS, partial contribution to SuDS Law Agreement.

Partial inclusion of SuDS and WSUD to National Standards specification on site. Reduced fee paid to SAB in compliance with SuDS Law.

Option 3 - Complete contribution to SuDS Law Agreement.

Agreed fee paid to SAB in compliance with SuDS Law.

Figure 3.1 Diagram shows SAB complaint options for developer in the planning process if SuDS Law were included within the National Standards.

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

35


Development Process of SuDS Parks with the inclusion of the SuDS Law Agreement

The Developer

Option 1 On-site SuDS Low Unit Density

Nil

Option 2

Option 3

Partial On-site SuDS, Partial SAB contribution Medium Unit Density

Conventional drainage system installed, no on-site SuDS 100% Contribution to SAB High Unit Density

££

£££

The

S uDS

A pproval

Necessary actions to be taken by the Secretary of State:

36

Publish an amended National Standards for sustainable drainage systems, removing the principle that ‘exempts development from complying with certain aspects of the standards on the grounds of disproportionate cost’ (National Standards, 2011).

Include within the National Standards the three options highlighted on the previous page, allowing full on-site SuDS, partial on-site SuDS with partial SAB fee or 100% fee paid to the SAB.

Include a clause that enforces SuDS inclusion to be mandatory within all new development schemes.

SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

The Drainage Authority

Identify need for SuDS Parks within drainage area

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Local Planning Authority

Identify candidate sites

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


The SAB will need to ensure the revised National Standards for Sustainable Drainage Systems is easily available for developers to access clearly defining what is determined exempt from on-site SuDS.

The developer will need to decide on the most suitable option (Figure 3.1 on the previous page) for the method of SuDS inclusion within the proposed development scheme.

The SAB need to determine a scale fee for developers appropriate to varying levels of SuDS inclusion within design.

They will need to determine how beneficial implementing SuDS within the scheme will be to the outcome of the project in terms of; unit density, green space desired, runoff rates, the cost of implementation, likely return on the development and the cost of maintaining it

The SAB will then continue their existing assigned role approving SuDS before construction begins. They must adopt and maintain approved SuDS Parks and SuDS included within development schemes where SuDS function/structure is built in accordance with the approved detail. The SAB must keep guidance documents up to date and ensure they specify the necessity of inclusion of SuDS within development.

B ody.

- Monitor and ensure continuing function

Local Planning Authority

£

Local Authority

Design Team

Include in Unitary Development Plan

£££

Local Planning Authority Wild Life Trust Environment Agency Community Group Internal Drainage Board

££

Identify and design SuDS Park

Construct the SuDS Park

Development Process of SuDS Parks with the inclusion of the SuDS Law Agreement Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

37


SuDS Law - The Process

1. Urban Settlement River

2.

Assigned SuDS Park Land specified by SAB in UPD/LDP The SAB identify a variety of potential SuDS Park sites within the drainage basin of a river surrounding an urban settlement.

3.

Proposed development site

A developer applies for planning permission for development scheme, identifying which option of SuDS Law they wish to comply with. If on-site SuDS is appropriate SAB will approve function of proposed drainage system and construction can go ahead.

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SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

If developer requires high unit density or complicated construction scheme and opts for fee/partial fee partial on-site construction, fee (determined proportionally to volume of surface runoff (m3) / % of on-site SuDS proposed) is paid to SAB.

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


4.

Designated SuDS Park When SAB receive fee from developer, location for new SuDS park or allocation of funding to existing SuDS park is assigned. 5.

Water is diverted through designated SuDS Park

The SuDS park is then established, receiving the equivalent (or greater) volume of surface runoff water as the proposed development site would equate to. Wherever possible, existing

sewerage will be used to get water to a SuDS Park. Design of the site will introduce/enhance existing recreational and ecological elements to the area.

6.

The SAB will manage the distribution of drainage from multiple development sites that would otherwise be destined for urban development.

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Multiple proposed development sites Assigned SuDS Park Land specified by SAB for multiple developments Water piped from other development sites

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

39


SuDS Law: The Result As developers comply with the SuDS Law agreement, projects previously exempt from SuDS due to disproportionate cost to benefit ratio become achievable as shown in Figure 3.2 opposite. As before in Figure 1.7 (page 21) and demonstrated in the Riverside Place case study, high unit density development schemes reach a point where the inclusion of SuDS becomes a functional expense with minimal gain. With the implementation of SuDS law, a beneficial outcome is achieved for any level of unit density.

40

SuDS Law

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


High

Cost of Implementing SuDS on site prohibitive (Projects in this area currently exempt from development)

Cost of implementing SuDS

Discharge from site by agreement with SAB Limited cost effective SuDS applied

Substantial payment to SuDS fund based on saving to developer

Discharge from site at elevated levels agreed by the SAB

Conventional SuDS applied

Proportionate SuDS fund

payment

to

Low

Discharge from site at ‘greenfield level’

Low

High

Density of development

Figure 3.1 Graph showing cost benefit analysis of implementing SuDS Law

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

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European Case Study: DENMARK Rabalder Park - Roskilde Rabalder Park, located in the Musicon area of Roskilde is a former concrete factory that has been redeveloped into a rainwater harvesting basin. Encouraged by the Copenhagen 2025 Climate plan, Nordach designed a multi-use recreational parkland capable of holding 23,000m3 of rainwater. Constructed on an old brownfield site, Rabalder Park be the outcome of SuDS Law. The development is integrated into the surrounding natural water system, allowing the park to alleviate flooding of nearby areas by diverting and temporarily storing rainwater. The park itself contains a skate park and canal (the main container of excess water), fitness equipment, bike trails, footpaths, jogging routes areas for socialising and built in BBQ’s. The development of the park into a rainwater detention basin forms part of a much larger regeneration scheme within the former industrial area of Roskilde. The new development in the area is intended to turn Musicon into a creative, vibrant and experimental part of the city, providing housing, office space, educational facilities, and indoor skate park, artists studios, a folk school and a museum of rock music. The positive multi-use community and environmental benefits created by this unique park demonstrate what a SuDS Park could achieve.

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European Case Study: SPAIN Vall d’en Joan - Barcelona Vall d’en Joan is site positioned within the Garraf National Park on the outskirts of Barcelona. The site has been regenerated from an old landfill by Battle I Roig Architects. The aim of the project was to integrate the site back into the landscape whilst enhancing accessible open space and creating a new gateway into the National Park. The main focus of the site is the ‘GR-92 Long-distance’ footpath that connects the sloping terraces from the bottom to the top of the valley. Although, not an existing SuDS park itself, some of the design principles could be replicated in a SuDS Park scheme. Modifying the landscape to increase the journey of a raindrop to river, whilst creating a recrational parkland enhancing the natural environment. Re-introducing vast areas of groundcover and tree canopies across the whole site. Keeping visual connections to the sites existing/previous use (e.g gabions of compressed landfill shown opposite) to educate users on the importance of SuDS.

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

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North American Case Study: CANADA Hinge Park - Vancouver Hinge Park, located in Southeast False Creek, Vancouver is a rain water retention park based on the brownfield site of old industrial workings. The site designed by PWL, combines historical references to the former city works yard site with the creation of a naturalized wetland environment that manages rainwater runoff from the surrounding neighbourhoods while providing a natural habitat to a wide range of plant and animal species. The parks design also incorporates amenities for the surrounding neighbourhood, such as an innovative children’s playground and a variety of break out spaces each with their own unique design expression that references the industrial past merged with the ecology of the present. Hinge Park regeneration explores the potential characteristics a SuDS park would possess if it were located within the outskirts of an area of urban sprawl.

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Leeds Metropolitan University

Abigail Haire


SuDS Park Landscape The ideal water attenuation park should have the following natural landscape characteristics: Underlying geology : A porous rock type (such as Chalk) to absorb quickly and slowly release water back into the water cycle. Topograpy : Areas of varying landform either throughout or surrounding the site. This will store water and reduce the rate of surface runoff. Groundcover : The site will have a high density of exiting tree planting and areas of low lying vegetation. Connectivity : The site will be easily accessed by pedestrians/ cyclists/motorists. Areas that will be assigned by the SAB will often be low grade agricultural land, brownfield sites and former mineral workings. Therefore the naturally ideal site will often be unachievable. The idea of a SuDS Park is that it can be located within any type of landscape as the areas assigned by the SAB will differ within each Unitary Development plan (as shown on page 36). The ideal site can be achieved by applying the following principles to a SuDS Park design.

1. Modify topography 2. Increase groundcover 3. Consider geology 4. Enhance connectivity

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Worked Examples


SuDS Parks within the drainage basin This chapter explores a series of worked examples based around Britain demonstrating how the principles discussed in chapter 3 can be applied to any site within the water catchment area.

Site 1: UPLAND LANDSCAPE Aberbargoed Tip - Caerphilly, South Wales

Site 2: POOR QUALITY AGRICULTURAL LAND Simister - Greater Manchester, north western England

Site 3: AMENITY SPORTS PITCH Wheathampstead - Hertfordshire, southern England

Site 4: BROWNFIELD SITE Temple Newsam - West Yorkshire, northern England

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Leeds Metropolitan University

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Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

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SITE 1 Aberbargoed, Caerphilly

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Leeds Metropolitan University

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SuDS Park: Upland Landscape

Site 1 is located in Aberbargoed - Caerphilly, South Wales

Site one is located in an upland area of the south Wales valleys. The site sits above the small town of Aberbagoed, Caerphilly. It sits within predominately agricultural land with minor settlements along the valley floor. The site is a post industrial shale tip that was formed in the mid twentieth century, currently used only by dog walkers and abused by motorbikes. Introducing a SuDS Park into the area would not only aid the process of adaption to climate change, but integrate the currently unused anomaly back into the landscape.

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SITE 1 Area : 30Ha

Marsovo Pole, St Petersburg Area : 21Ha Figure 4.1 Site 1 Spatial Comparison

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Figure 4.2 Existing site images

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40.5m

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Figure 4.4 Site 3 Ground Cover 35.4m

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91.1m

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Š Crown copyright/database right 2013. Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service. FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY.

Site 1 has relatively porous underlying geology meaning water Site 1 has limited woodland cover, and minimal groundcover Scale 1:5000 is easily absorbed. However, the main build up of the site is with large sections of200the 250tip supporting no more than very 0 500 m 50 100 150 300 350 400 450 Sep 15, 2013 18:06 Scale 1:10000 compressed colliery shale creating an impervious material limited grass cover and bare areas. Abi Haire 0 1000 m 100rapidly 200 descend 300 400 500 slopes. 600 700 800 900 causing surface runoff to down the

yright/database right. An Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service.

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Abigail Haire


newsham contour map

305m

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Motorbike trails

Site 1 is a conical mound of shale with steep sides at varying gradients. The Tip rises from 218m at its lower end to the west to 305m at its highest point in the east. The existing topography causes surface runoff water to flow quickly down the site, assisted by concrete channels shown in Figure 4.2 on page 59.

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

Site 1 is easily accessible by foot and vehicle via an entrance from the south west, however there are currently no existing car parking areas. There is a secondary entrance point to the east via a small agricultural path leading from a minor road. There are no designated pedestrian routes across the site, however there are well established informal paths following the contours. Informal motorbike trails also run across the site linking together entrance points to the east and west.

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1. Topography As shown on the previous page Site 1 is a steep sided conical mound with fast flowing surface runoff. Adjusting Design principle 1 set out in section 3 to modify rather than introduce topography, greater control of surface water can be achieved. Minimizing intensity of gradients and adding a series of impressions into the landscape will allow water-bodies to form at times of need, creating various temporary landscapes throughout the year. Penallta Parc (shown opposite) demonstrates how reshaping the landscape to include a series of impressions and depressions allows options for water movement through the site. Pools and marshy land can develop in the depressions allowing fauna and flora to establish.

‘Cut’ material from the top of the tip and create gently sloping plateau.

‘Fill’ steeper slopes with material to create gradual slopes.

Existing height of Site 1 could be adjusted to allow cut and fill to create a varied topography.

2. Groundcover Site 2 has areas of little to no vegetation cover, allowing water to flow straight down the face of the tip. Trees are sparsely located across the site in small clusters. Through introducing areas of woodland and vegetation, contact of raindrop with the ground is prolonged easing the pressure on the drainage system.

Increase tree density across the site.

N

Steep slope at base of Site 1 needs to be reduced to slow down speed of surface runoff.

Introduce vegetation and groundcover across the site.

N

Through introducing areas of wildflower meadows (as seen opposite) and different tree species, wildflower habitats can establish - ecologically enhancing the site.

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Introduce features such as stone walls, stone paths and drainage channels to increase overall site porosity.

3. Geology As Site 3 is built up of compressed colliery shale, introducing landscape features of porous rock would increase sites water retention. Breaking up the compacted shale with layers of organic mater would allow water to be held within the landform and percolate down into the drainage system and permeable underly geology below.

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Using features such as porous stone seating and pathways, (although only a minor volume of water would be stored) as well as areas of large exposed rock and stone walls (as seen in the images to the left) will give both sculptural and functional elements to the design.

Introduce new pedestrian routes across the site

Create a feature pathway to encourage use of the site.

Introduce car parking areas to enhance vehicular accessibility

4. Connectivity Introducing official pedestrian routes across Site 1 will enhance connectivity throughout the site, whilst deterring high speeds of surface runoff. Including a feature pathway comprising of exposed porous rock will encourage users to meander through the site. Creating a series of new entrance and gateway spaces along the boundary of the site will enhance connections to and from the surrounding area.

New pedestrian access and cycleways into the site

Abigail Haire

Leeds Metropolitan University

N

Vehicular connections could be enhanced by the introduction of new car parking areas constructed from porous materials.

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Aberbargoed SuDS Park Caerphilly, South Wales After applying the four principles established in chapter three, Site 2 becomes a valuable area of recreational green space, integrated into the surrounding landscape. The modified topography and geology reduce the speed of surface runoff water, releasing it slowly back into the drainage system. Introducing a rich variety of vegetation and tree species across the site not only reduces the speed of raindrop to river, but encourages further flora and fauna to establish. Through defining public footpaths and new gateway spaces, users are encouraged to explore all areas of the site. The site becomes a valuable resource within the community, whilst being capable of retaining large volumes of water.

Site Boundary Proposed Viewing Platform Proposed Feature Pathway Proposed Pedestrian Route Proposed Car Park Proposed Entrance Point Proposed Stone Feature Proposed ‘Cut’ Contour Proposed ‘Fill’ Contour Proposed Tree Cover Proposed Vegetation Cover

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Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

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SITE 2 Simister, Greater Manchester

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Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

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SuDS Park: Poor quality agricultural land

Site 2 is located in Simister - Greater Manchester, north west England

Site 2 is located in an area of poor quality agricultural land within the greenbelt of Greater Manchester. It sits between a major trunk road and the small village of Simister. It contains one small farmstead, and is currently used for mainly pastoral farming. The site sits within a mixture of urban settlements, varying qualities of agricultural land and Heaton Park. Two reservoirs are located near the site, one to the east (the smaller) and one to the west (larger). Introducing a SuDS Park into the area would link together existing and future areas of urban sprawl, create a world class visitor attraction and enhance the wildlife and ecology in Greater Manchester.

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Leeds Metropolitan University

Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

SuDS Law

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Site 2 Area : 41Ha

Vondel Park, Amsterdam Area : 45.9Ha

Figure 4.7 Site 1 Spatial Comparison

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Figure 4.8 Existing site images

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Š Crown copyright/database right 2013. Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service. FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY.

Clay and silt

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Š Crown copyright/database right 2013. Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service. FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY.

Site 2 is a combination of impermeable clay enclosed by porous areas of mudstone and siltstone. Water retention and movement Scale 1:10000 within the underlying geology varies in efficiency as water 0 the site. 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 percolates through

yright/database right. An Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service.

72.2m

Site 2 has a traditional agricultural groundcover pattern. Scale 1:5000 Areas of rough grassland are 300 enclosed by hedgerows lined 0 500 m 50 100 150 200 250 350 400 450 Sep 15, 2013 18:06 with occasional coniferous and non coniferous trees. The tree Abi Haire 1000 m 800 900 canopy is minimal. 72.6m

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newsham contour map

Figure 4.11 Site 3 Topography Site Boundary 0

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Site 2 has a rolling landscape, with a central high point of 107m gently sloping towards the south east. The lowest point is 85m.

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Site 2 is currently accessible by foot and vehicle via an agricultural entrance from the north east. There are currently no designated pedestrian or cycle paths across the site. The M60 boarders the western edge and A576 the southern edge of the site offering potential for new vehicular gateways.

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Introducing landform to reduce the speed of surface runoff.

1. Topography As shown on the previous page Site 2 is a naturally rolling topography that channels water rapidly towards a small central valley and the peripheral areas of the site. To reduce the speed of the surface runoff, introducing a series of earth mounds and depressions that follow the existing contours will capture and store rainwater. The mounds form terraces along the slopes (as seen in images opposite of hill forts) allowing pools of water to form within the landscape - creating variety of a dynamic temporary landscapes throughout the year. The mounds also reduce the impact of noise pollution from the M60 and add an element of informal play and interest to the site.

Introducing depressions in the landscape enhances water catchment potential.

Clumps of tree planting Wetland area

2. Groundcover Site 2 has a traditional agricultural Working with the existing and proposed will naturally gather in the central valley wetland like environment to establish within the site.

groundcover pattern. topography, the water of the site. Allowing a will enhance ecology

Wildflower meadows

Introducing clumps of trees will aid the proposed topography in reducing the speed of surface runoff. Proposing wildflower meadows also aides the reduction whilst replicating the existing surrounding vegetation.

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3. Geology As Site 2 has a variety of porosity levels across the site, directing water away from the clay and encouraging it to concentrate in the more permeable areas will hold back the water for longer within the landform.

Introduce porous stone into landform proposals Area of impermeable geology

Using porous stone as a feature within the central area of clay, becomes a functional and attractive part of the site also providing users with an elevated viewing platform, and informal play.

Direct water flow to areas of high porosity.

As in Site 1, the use of porous stone for seating and pathways within Site 2 will slightly aid the retention of water.

4. Connectivity Site 2 currently has no defined entrance space. Taking advantage of its accessibility via the M60, introducing a new visitor centre and car parking area will create a node for activity in the heart of the site.

Proposed access point

Temporary Pathway Permanent Pathway

Secondary entrances will be located at various points around the perimeter of the site, allowing pedestrian and cyclist access.

Visitor Centre and Car Parking

Introducing a series of permanent/temporary pathways throughout the site will encourage people to explore the changing landscape throughout the year.

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Simister SuDS Park Greater Manchester, north western England After applying the four principles discussed in chapter three to Site Two, a valuable recreational green space is formed, linking together the surrounding areas of urban sprawl and agricultural with Heaton Park. By modifying the geology and topography of the site to direct water into areas with naturally absorbent characteristics reduces the speed of surface runoff. It also allows water to be pumped into the site and collect in these absorbent pockets. Areas of woodland and planting replicating the vegetation patterns found in the local landscape character area are located throughout the site. The dense canopy stores water, and enhances the local ecology. Creating a new visitor centre in the centre of the site creates a node for activity across the site. Introducing new entrances and foot paths creates strong links to the surrounding area, and allows users to experience temporary landscapes throughout the year. Site Boundary Proposed Viewing Platform Proposed Temporary Pathway Proposed Pedestrian Route Proposed Car Park Proposed Entrance Point Proposed Stone Feature Proposed ‘Cut’ Contour Proposed ‘Fill’ Contour Proposed Tree Cover Proposed Vegetation Cover

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Leeds School of Art, Architecture and Design

Master of Arts Landscape Architecture

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SITE 3 Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire

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SuDS Park: Amenity recreational space

Site 3 is located in Wheathampstead - Hertfordshire, Southern England

Site 3 is located in an area of amenity recreational grassland on the outskirts of the small village of Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire. The site is located on the community playing fields between the main area of urban development to the south west and the river Lea to the north. The site sits within the flood plain of the River Lea, and is easily accessed via several footpaths and minor roads from the village. Introducing a SuDS park into the area would provide the community with an improved amenity space, increase ecological value and attenuate excess runoff.

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Site 2 Area : 7Ha

Picadilly Gardens, Manchester Area :6.8Ha Figure 4.13 Site 1 Spatial Comparison

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Figure 4.14 Existing site images

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wheathampstead eathampstead

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Š Crown copyright/database right 2013. Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service. FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY.

Site 3 has a mixture of sand and gravel, chalk and clay beneath it. This will mean the site is extremely porous and will allow water to flow through quickly.

Site 3 is covered primarily in amenity grassland. Tree density is Scale 1:5000 low, individual and200small clumps of trees being found along 0 with 500 m 50 100 150 250 300 350 400 450 the field boundaries.

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Figure 4.17 Site 3 Topography

Figure 4.18 Site 3 Accessibility

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1:5000 As Site 3 has a high point of 80m in the centre, withScale a minor Site has good connectivity with the surrounding village via Scale31:5000 Scale 0 500 m 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 1:5000 0the boundary. 500 m 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Two gradient in topography gently sloping towards footpaths and minor roads. tracks for 0 500 m both minor vehicles 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 and pedestrians link the site with a major road to the south.

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1. Topography As Site 3 is relatively flat, introducing a variation in the topography is essential. To allow the site to act as a SuDS Park and a usable amenity space, the design is split into three areas (as seen in the plan opposite) joined together by a small stream flowing from the river Lea.

Mounds can be used as spectator stands/seating as well as absorbing and containing surface runoff.

The Skate park: Area 1 - This area comprises of concrete basins used as a skate park (as seen in the Rabalder Park case study), capable of containing large volumes of water when necessary. The Wildlife Zone: Area 2 - This area is the last part of the site the stream flows through. It meanders through a series of grass mounds acting as levees to contain the water creating a wetland environment. The Playing Fields: Area 3 - This area is flat and only floods during times of high precipitation. Earth mounds that act as spectator stands at either end of the pitch absorb water as well as help to contain it within the site.

2. Groundcover As Site 3 is currently amenity grassland with low tree density, the site needs to introduce vegetation and tree planting throughout all areas.

Cut out bowl shapes to be used as skate park and temporarily store water when necessary.

Introducing low level vegetation in Areas 1 + 2 to increase eye line across the active areas.

Dense tree and vegetation planting in the wildlife area.

The Skate park: Area 1 - Implementation of low lying vegetation and clumps of trees to areas surrounding concrete basin. Dense tree planting along existing boundaries. The Wildlife Zone: Area 2 - Dense planting of both vegetation and tree cover throughout the area, using a wide range of species to attract a large variety of wildlife. The Playing Fields: Area 3 - Keep amenity grassland across pitch and immediate surrounding area. Reinforce existing vegetation and tree planting in hedgerows and peripheral areas.

Introduce clumps of trees throughout the site

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1. Primary Water Storage 2. Secondary Water Storage 3. Emergency Overflow Area

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3. Geology Site 3 lies on a mixture of extremely porous and efficient geology types. Surface water is drained straight through back into the drainage system. The modified topography explored on the previous page will have the largest impact on the rate of runoff, however introducing porous rock in the construction of the mounds will also have an effect. Using features such as the gabions filled with porous rock (shown opposite and in the Vall d’en Joan case study) and porous furniture elements throughout the site will have a minor impact on the surface rainwater capture on site.

Use porous stone in elements of informal play and site furniture

Include porous stone within new landform proposals

4. Connectivity Site 3 currently has good pedestrian and vehicular links to the surrounding village. Enhancing existing gateways with established routes through the site will promote use. Creating a feature walkway encourages users to explore all three areas of the site.

Enhanced existing gateways

The small brook that runs through each area of the site reminds users of the sites primary use - a SuDS Park.

Feature pathway Proposed new brook linking together all three areas of the site.

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Wheathampsted SuDS Park Hertfordshire, southern England After applying the four principles discussed in chapter 3 to Site three, a valuable amenity space is formed capable of storing fluctuating volumes of water throughout the year when necessary. By modifying the topography to include mounds and depressions, the existing site gains a skate park and wildlife area. Inspired by the Rabalder Park case study in chapter 3, a multi-use amenity space is created, retaining the existing use of playing fields.

Site Boundary Proposed Viewing Platform Proposed Feature Pathway Proposed Pedestrian Route Proposed Stream Proposed Entrance Point Proposed Stone Feature Proposed ‘Cut’ Contour Proposed ‘Fill’ Contour Proposed Tree Cover Proposed Vegetation Cover

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SITE 4 Temple Newsham, West Yorkshire

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SuDS Park: Brownfield Site

Site 4 is located in Temple Newsam - West Yorkshire, northern England

Site 4 is located on a brownfield site on the outskirts of Leeds, West Yorkshire. The site is located on an old industrial estate, surrounded by an area of large warehouses and scrubland. The site itself is primarily covered in concrete, directing all surface water into the drainage system. Introducing a SuDS Park would contribute to the regeneration the area, establish new green connections through the space, promote wildlife habitats and attenuate excess water.

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Site 3 Area : 10.4Ha

Parc Citreon, Paris Area : 10.4Ha Figure 4.19 Site 1 Spatial Comparison

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Figure 4.20 Existing site images

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44.5m

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Figure 4.21 Site 3 Geology

Figure 4.22 Site 3 Ground Cover 35.4m

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Site 4 has minimal ground-cover. The site is covered in concrete Scale 1:5000 slabs with small patches of weeds breaking through. 0 500 m Dense 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 vegetation is found along the perimeters of the site acting as a barrier from the adjacent roads. Native trees also line the 1000 m 700perimeter 800in clumps. 900

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Figure 4.23 Site 3 Topography

Figure 4.24 Site 3 Accessibility

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1. Topography Site 4 is almost flat, with a gentle slope from the north east to the south west. To develop this site into a SuDS park, emphasizing the minor level change will allow water catchment in the area to be more efficient. Replicating the natural water cycle within the design will create a varied topography.

‘Fill’ to introduce landform

As with Site 3, introducing sunken channels and raised landform into the site will capture and store water during times of need. Replicating the hills and valleys found at the source of the river will allow water to be stored and act as informal play. Recycling the existing concrete covering the site to construct the sunken channel will also keep construction costs down. Running water through the sunken channel will highlight the level change across the site as well as allowing users to see the necessity of a SuDS park as the channel fills and empties throughout the seasons.

2. Groundcover Site 4 only has vegetation around the boundary of the site. Following on with the water cycle theme, groundcover needs to be introduced across the whole site, however change in character from informal woodland to structured planting as the river channel widens from north to south.

‘Cut’ to store water in recycled concrete channel

Introduce wetland planting

Introduce groundcover Introduce woodland planting

The existing vegetation along the boundaries of the site needs to be increased to buffer noise and visual pollution from the surrounding roads. Wetland planting will be used throughout areas of the water channel to cleanse the water before it is returned to the drainage system. They could also be planted across contaminated sites for phytoremediation purposes. Increase planting of both vegetation and trees in existing hedgerows

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3. Geology The underlying geology in Site 4 is relatively porous. However, in its current state, it is surfaced in concrete restricting surface water access to the ground. Through introducing topography and groundcover into the site, the ground becomes accessible by water, which can then percolate down through the mudstone, sandstone and silt. Through using natural stone elements such as street furniture and areas of informal play, water may also be absorbed.

Natural stone elements

4. Connectivity Site 4 is easily accessed via bicycle and vehicle - with major routes running along each side of the site.

New parking area Visitor Centre

Developing a new visitor centre and car parking area acts as a node for activity giving users a destination. Introducing new routes across the site encourages users to explore different spaces within it, and improve links between surrounding areas.

Introduce new pathways connecting all areas of the site

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Temple Newsam SuDS Park West Yorkshire, northern England After applying the four principles discussed in chapter three, Site Four is regenerated into a unique green space and water retention park. Modifying the topography to include areas of mounded porous rock and soil with a recycled concrete channel, creates a facility capable of containing vast quantities of water. Introducing vegetation across the whole site will allow flora and fauna to establish, enhancing the ecology of the site. Taking inspiration from the Hinge Park case study, retaining the industrial heritage of the site enhances existing and new connections to the surrounding area.

Site Boundary Proposed Viewing Platform Proposed Feature Pathway Proposed Pedestrian Route Proposed Stream Proposed Entrance Point Proposed Stone Feature Proposed ‘Cut’ Contour Proposed ‘Fill’ Contour Proposed Tree Cover Proposed Vegetation Cover

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Conclusions Drawn

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Conclusion Can SuDS be used for a greater benefit than simply reducing flood risk? This study has looked into SuDS, and the way they are used. Examples illustrate how SuDS measures can produce attractive and useful living environments but that they become increasingly expensive to implement in more intensive developments and produce fewer environmental and social benefits. Modest changes to the framework that controls the implementation of SuDS could lead to the creation of new ‘SuDS parks’ that would benefit the environment and local communities and this has been illustrated in a range of worked examples. The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that sustainable urban drainage systems can be used for a greater benefit than simply reducing flood risk.

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Baca Architects, B.A, 2009 The Life Project. Bracknell. 2009

References Green Peace, 2012, Sea Level Rise. [Online] Available at: www. greenpeace.org/en/campains/climate-change Tower Hamlets, 2003. Wood Wharf Masterplan. [Online] Available at: www.towerhamlets.go.uk/lgsl/457-500/494current-planning-policey/supplementary-planning-advice.aspx gfdrr,2012, ‘Cities and Flooding’. [Online] Available at: www. gfdrr.org/gfdrr/sites/gfdrr.org/files/urban floods pdf/cities%20 and20flooding%20guidebook.pdf Rogers, R 2011 Creating places for people - Transforming Londons Public Realm. Urban Desing, Spring 2011 pg16. Metoffice 2012. ‘Climate: Observations, projections and impacts [Online] Available at: www.metoffice.gov.uk/medin/pdf/t/r/uk.pdf Landscape Institute, 2012 Landscape Architecture and the challenge of Climate change [Online] Available a t : w w w. l a n d s c a p e i n s t i t u t e . o rg / P D F / C o n t r i b u t e / LIClimateChangePositionStatement.pdf PWL, 2012 Hinge Park at Southeast False Creek [Online] Available at: http://www.pwlpartnership.com/our-portfolio/ sustainable-places/hinge-park-southeast-false-creek Shaping Wood Wharf, 2012 ‘Masterplan’ [Online] Available at: http://www.shapingwoodwharf.com/masterplan

Kongjian Yu. K.Y and Mary Padua. M.P 2006 The Art of Survival. Victoria. 2006 Environment Agency, 2011 Thames Catchment Flood Management Plan [Online] Available at: http://www.environmentagency.gov.uk/research/planning/114391.aspx Environment Agency, 2011 Climate Change [Online] Available a t : h t t p : / / w w w. e n v i ro n m e n t - a g e n c y. g o v. u k / re s e a rc h / planning/114391.aspx Susdrain, 2013. Case studies [Online] Available at: http:// www.susdrain.org/case-studies/case_studies/riverside_place_ riverside_court_stamford.html Ciria, 2013. Projects [Online] Available at: http://www.ciria. org/service/current_projects/AM/ContentManagerNet/Default. aspx?Section=current_projects&Template=/TaggedPage/ TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=58&ContentID=10657 RIBA, 2009. Climate Change Tool Kit - Designing for Flood Risk [Online] Available at :http://www.architecture.com/ Files/RIBAHoldings/PolicyAndInternationalRelations/Policy/ Environment/2Designing_for_floodrisk.pdf Sweet and Salt, 2013. Water and the Dutch [Online] Available at: http://dirt.asla.org/2013/02/08/sweet-and-salt-water-and-thedutch/

Canary Wharf Group, 2012 Our History [Online] Available at:www.canarywharf.com/aboutus/Who-We-Are/Our- History/

SWITCH, 2006. Sustainable Water Management in the City of the Future [Online] Available at: http://www.switchurbanwater. eu/outputs/pdfs/W5-1_GEN_MAN_D5.1.5_Manual_on_WSUD. pdf

Natural England, 2009 Visiting the London region [Online] Available at: http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/regions/london/ visiting/default.aspx

CHSLA, 2013. Sustanable Development of Landscape Architecture in China. [Online] Available at: http://www.chsla. org.cn/cn/spec/IFLANews_84.pdf

BBC News, 2012 Flooding [Online] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ uk/ Met Office, 2011 Floods and Flooding [Online] Available at: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/education/teens/case-studies/ floods

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