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W R I T T E N BY A B IGA I L PA R K E S BA (HONS) FAS H ION B U S I NE S S & P R OMOT ION


THE BEAUTY INDUSTRY To explore whether the beauty industry is embracing the diversity with different ethnic groups or whether their RELUCTANCE to adapt this strategy is causing a LOSS OF REPRESENTATION and interest?


Fig 1


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ABSTRACT THE BEAUTY INDUSTRY is something which is at the fore front of consumers’ minds, beauty is everywhere it is on the TV, social media and even in magazines the industry itself has never been more appealing for the reasons that it is so easily accessed and so accessible to every audience. Although the evidence discussed in this dissertation might suggest otherwise the beauty industry is trying to BREAK DOWN BARRIERS WITH ETHNIC GROUPS but can sometimes often be perceived as being oblivious to the issues that currently go on.

The purpose OF THIS DISSERTATION is to examine the beauty industry and decide whether or not they are embracing ethnic groups and diversity or whether their reluctance to do this can cause a loss of representation within audiences.

THROUGH A RANGE OF RESEARCH MEDIUMS etc Questionnaires, interviews and books these helped determine the outcome of the dissertation as the researcher was allowed to gather some crucial information through these mediums, all of which helped get closer to the end conclusion. The main conclusion of this dissertation was that after gathering all of the primary and secondary research as well as using EXISTING MINTEL REPORTS and industry reports these helped to shape the outcome of the dissertation which is that the beauty industry does need to embrace diversity within ethnic groups, as this can cause consumers to have a LACK OF REPRESENTATION and interest within high street brands.

OVERALL WORD COUNT (6586) OVERALL DIRECT QUOTES (458)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Throughout the process of this dissertation there are a number of people that I would like to thank for their support throughout

the

have

possible

been

process

as

without

this their

dissertation help

and

wouldn’t guidance:

ALISON RAPSEY: Course director and lecture of BA (Hons) Fashion Business and promotion at Birmingham City University

JULIA SOUTH: Dissertation Tutor for her constant support, and

I

knowledge

would

and

also

their

on

the

topic

throughout

this

like

to

thank

EVERYONE

for their

participation

in

helping

compile

dissertation

the

input data. 02


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Fig 2

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METHODOLOGY To understand a diverse range of personal views, a wide range of primary and secondary research was used in order to COLLECT A VAST range of responses:

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QUESTIONNAIRE FOCUSING ON HOW THE TARGET CONSUMER would use social media the survey monkey link was posted via social media Twitter, Instagram and Facebook. The range of platform usage, allowed the researcher to gain different responses based on who would use that social media platform and what times they would use it. The average age of the people surveyed ranged from 12-25 WITH OVER 60% of those asked fell into that criteria. The way in which the questionnaire was conducted was through a range of seven questions which encouraged the participants to give their thoughts on how the beauty industry is today and how they feel that social media plays a big role in the beauty industry (See appendix 2 for the range of questions asked and the responses) .

DESPITE THE RANGE OF QUESTIONS asked the researcher felt that the information obtained was limited, due to the amount of people who use the social media platforms that the questionnaire was published on. Also another factor which the researcher felt could have made the information obtained biased, was that a lot of the people who participated the questionnaire WERE FRIENDS OR FAMILY as the link was posted and anyone was able to participate in the survey. The information gained enabled the research to gain an insight into how people perceive the beauty industry and their thoughts on how it can be improved.

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Fig 24

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SECONDARY RESEARCH SECONDARY RESEARCH WAS UTILIZED throughout this dissertation in order to develop an insight into the beauty industry and how consumers perceive the problems within the current market. Additionally to this, the research gained gave the researcher the ability to gain information from within the industry, this had an impact on other RESEARCH OBTAINED throughout the dissertation.

The

data

collected

consisted

of

online

electronic

resources

such

as

published reports, blogs, newspaper article and Mintel reports. As well as physical books like THE BEAUTY MYTH these helped in order to support any biased information found the use of academic websites such as WGSN and LSN, provided statistics and current findings from within the market.

IN TERVIEWS INTERVIEWS ENABLED THE RESEARCHER to speak to people who work within the industry to gain an insight into how they believe that the industry has changed and how it can improve its tactics with women of colour. Overall the researcher conducted one interview (See appendices 3 for a full transcript of the questions asked and response received). As well as following up an email conversation with Erca Freemantle which allowed the researcher to gain an insight into her business and key information, WHICH HELPED PROGRESS the dissertation question.

THE LIMITATIONS OF THE INTERVIEWS were that those conducted were from people who work within the industry so their responses could be biased based on the knowledge that they have gained, DESPITE BEING AWARE of the limitation the information received is key for the conclusion of this dissertation.

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Fig 25

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STEREOTYPES STEREOTYPES STEREOTYPES STEREOTYPES Fig 3 10


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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1(nouw.com blog post 2017) FIGURE 2(Patternity, 2017, netting image) FIGURE 3(Flickr, distorted images) FIGURE 4(Pinterest, 2017 sexist post) FIGURE 5(Max Milly.com, 2017) FIGURE 6(Pinterest, 2016, women are strong) FIGURE 7(Flickr, distorted world 2016) FIGURE 8(Pinterest, lonely hand, 2017) FIGURE 9(Max Milly.com, 2017) FIGURE 10(Daily mail, self love, 2015) FIGURE 11(Flickr, deep images) FIGURE 12(Patternity, body 2 body)

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LIST OF FIGURES

xii

FIGURE 13(Pinterest, post card) FIGURE 14(Max Milly.com,2017) FIGURE 15(Pinterest, sterotypes) FIGURE 16(Max Milly.com, 2017) FIGURE 17(Crensek.com) FIGURE 18(Crensek.com) FIGURE 19(Max Milly.com, 2017) FIGURE 20(Pinterest, shadow faces) FIGURE 21(Flickr, freakles) FIGURE 22(Max Milly.com, 2017) FIGURE 23(Patternity, how does someone else look, 2017) FIGURE 24(Forbes beauty, try it on for size, 2016) FIGURE 25(Max Milly.com, 2017)

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GLOSSARY TERMS

COPRA: Stands for the Cosmetics and Perfumery Retail Association

DIVERSITY: Means to stand out from the crowd or follow a different pathway to your other peers

ETHNIC GROUPS: Means a group of community of population of people who all share the same cultural background or descent

FULFILMENT: The feeling of satisfaction from a product/ item or a feeling of achieving something that you desire to do

MASS MARKET: Means that large quantities of product are produced for thousands of consumers to receive etc. nail polishes something which is readily available in a wide range of stores

OFNS: Stands for the office for national statics

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THE

K I N D O F B E A U T Y T H AT

I WANT IS THE

M O S T H A R D T O G E T K I N D T H AT C O M E S F R O M WITHIN-STRENGTH-COURAGE-DIGNITY.

(RUBY DEE, 2013)

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01 ABSTRACT 02 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 04-08 METHODOLOGY 11-12 LIST OF FIGURES 13 GLOSSARY TERMS 17-18 INTRODUCTION 21-28 CHAPTER ONE “THE CURRENT SITUATION IN THE INDUSTRY” 29-50 CHAPTER TWO “MAKING A CHANGE”

CONTENTS:

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51-64 CHAPTER THREE “TRAIL FOR OTHERS TO FOLLOW” 65-76 CHAPTER FOUR”WHAT WILL HAPPEN NEXT?” 77-80 CONCLUSION 81-86 RECOMMENDATIONS 87-92 REFERENCES 93-100 APPENDICES

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INT RODUCTION THE AIM OF THIS DISSERTATION is to research into the beauty industry and look at their current approach towards consumers also investigating whether they are embracing diversity within the current market and to explore whether their reluctance to adapt this can cause consumers a loss of representation and interest. The depth of products that are available for darker skin still remains minimal Leonine Anderson a 22-year-old model has worked with both Tom Ford and Victoria’s secret to voice her frustration on how MAKEUP ARTISTS ARE ILL-EQUIPPED to cater for darker models when arriving on shoots, she says “having a vast array of shades within your kit to cater for darker skin tones should be just as important as it is catering for people with paler skin tones” (Raconteur, 2017 beauty report).

Ethnic groups are drastically unpreserved and under-represented in the industry and this is something that is being voiced up and down the industry with the majority of FEMALES WHO OF ETHNIC BACKGROUND all feeling the same. So why isn’t the industry adapting to this change.

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AIMS: THE OVERALL AIM of this research is to EXPLORE WHY THE MARKET should adapt to change? And why they seem reluctant to do so and how this affects consumers BUYING HABITS?

OBJECTIVES: To identify THE FLAWS WITHIN THE CURRENT BEAUTY MARKET. To understand how these issues can affect consumers. To CRITIC BRANDS ON HOW WELL THEY PERFORM at addressing these issues within the market, and how they can improve. To state recommendations on how the market can improve in order to save consumers DIVERSE THOUGHTS.

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xix

Fig 4 19


xx

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CHAPTER ONE “The current situation in the industry”

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1 . 1 MAR K ET SIZE & OVE RVIE W WHILE WE ARE IN A TIME OF GLOBAL UNCERTAINTY, events and feuds continuing to get uglier the beauty industry is able to sit pretty tight. In the UK according to (COPRA) sales have topped the £4 billion mark for the first time in decades, overtaking their market competitors France (Raconteur, 2016 beauty economy report). The UK market is now twice the size of the Italian and Spanish beauty market, the improvement in current lifestyles is majorly affecting the cosmetic market, consumers have now become more conscious regarding what products they use in daily routine and which products are seen as ‘good’ ones. Cosmetics play an important role in enhancing our natural beauty and for some people who might not be able to FIND THAT FULFILMENT FROM A HIGH STREET store could be quiet frustrating, this is why consumers are turning to the internet and bloggers for that extra information.

Julia Langton founded a Facebook beauty group Mrs Gloss and The Gloss in 2015 it now has around 30,000 MEMBERS AND SEES UP TO 300 POSTS A DAY, she says “not only do members recommend existing purchases to people but they will also help with shade matches for other members of the group too, it’s like one big makeup family” these quotes are something which is backed up by (Mintel, 2016) “over 20% of MAKE UP BUYERS SEEK OUT PRODUCTS to create looks they’ve seen on a video tutorial, while 16% say they buy from brands which their friends have recommended”.

(Beauty Economy Report, 2016).

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B E A U T Y T O M E I S A B O U T B E I N G C O M F O R TA B L E I N YO U R S K I N , W H E T H E R T H AT B E A K I C K A S S R E D LIPSTICK.

( G L A M O U R , 2 0 1 6 , G W Y N E T H P A LT R O W )

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E MB R AC E E MB R AC E E MB R AC E E MB R AC E E MB R AC E

1. 1

THIS SUGGEST THAT NOT ONLY are people’s interest in make-up increasing as the mark

sales, but certain consumer groups are seeking information from people off the internet in

before parting with a small fortune for products, it is this rise that has caused the ma

rise in profit. THE ONLY DOWNFALLS of the market currently, are the ways in which p

internet to gain an insight into makeup, what happened to the good old makeup coun 25


Fig 5

market is seeing a growth in

net in order to gain knowledge

he market to have a dramatic

ich people are relying on the counter beauty one to ones. 26


1.2 B EAUTY &BRE XIT Fig 6

STR IV IN G STR IV IN G S T R IV IN G S T R IV IN G S T R IV IN G 27


LEONARD LAUDER, THE CHAIRMAN OF ESTEE LAUDER, observed that after the 2001 recession, beauty is a funny business to play with. Rather than plummeting and folding like all the other markets around them at that time, the cosmetic sales have actually increased in the face of the financial crisis. The industry term is ‘lipstick index’ which means that lipstick (blush, highlighter, mascara and foundation) being less expensive than say a designer dress, so rather than saving our pennies we are seeking affordable luxuries and painting on a brave face (Allure, 2016). BEAUTY IS SOMETHING THAT HAS ALWAYS BEEN ON THE FORE FRONT OF WOMEN’S DAY TO DAY LIVES when reading The Beauty Myth by Naomi Wolf she stated “That the more legal and material hindrances that women have broken throughout, the more important the images of female beauty become.”

This suggests that customers can still fill their psychological shopping void without emptying their wallets and satisfying their shopping needs. One of the biggest means with beauty is the feeling of satisfaction after purchasing an item that you have been waiting for. THE BEAUTY MYTH EXPLAINS ABOUT HOW THE IMAGE OF BEAUTY has been used against us as women, within the beauty industry even in the 1990’s women were still very conscious on how they looked to other people this is something which has rose through the years. With that being said the rise in technology means that consumers are more aware about the products they use and the information that they look for it is this, rise in instagram videos with small snippets of information means that consumers are intrigued to find out more not only are they more educated but they are using social media more than ever now this is something that is backed up by independent research (survey monkey results).

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29


CHAPTER TWO “Making a change”

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FULFILMENT

COMES

IN

ALL

SHADES, AND FOR ALL DIFFERENT GENDERS.

( L’ O R É A L , 2 0 1 6 )

31

DIFFERENT


Fig 7

32


L’ORÉAL HAVE RECENTLY BRANCHED OUT WITH THEIR ADVERTISING, campaigns in a bid to embrace diversity and evolve their strapline for new audiences, they have been one of the first brands to showcase a male amongst advertising campaigns, their brand tag line “celebrate diversity” focused on different skin tones and different people within the industry who all wear makeup, even men. The general manager at L’Oréal Paris said “we are very aware that the COSMETIC INDUSTRY is growing and more guys are wearing makeup and writing about it in blogs”. This comes after the brand found that 61% of women in the UK have not been able to find their foundation match, with ethnic minorities paying more for a foundation they deem to be ‘suitable’ (L’Oréal, 2017). GUEST SPEAKER ERCYA FREEMANTLE from (WGSN Insider, 2016) talked about the issues with diversity and how there is room to improve within the current market for improvement she launched a campaign called ‘EMBRACING ALL TONES OF WOMEN’ where she has challenged the beauty industry and encourages beauty professionals to become confident when working with different skin tones and she guides them in ways that they can adapt this into their business’s and she can give them first hand experiences at how she feels the industry is lacking. This amount of awareness become apparent after (Mintel, 2015) researched into how larger retailers didn’t perceive the ethic market to be presented as a large enough return of investment.

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2.1 MOR E SHADE S PLE AS E ? Fig 8

DIVER S E DIVER S E DIVER S E DIVER S E 34


2. 1

WITH THAT BEING SAID the world and its perception of beauty is changing in the UK, the black and minority population has doubled over the last 10 years, and the mixed raced population is one of the fastest growing ethnic groups, more than ever now there are an increasing number of advertising campaigns and magazine editorials that feature a wider range of ethnicities, SO WHY ISN’T THIS MESSAGE BEING TRANSLATED INTO THE BEAUTY INDUSTRY? (Huffington Post, 2016). The information above suggests that the issues within the market are not being recognised by brands yet everyone in the media is talking about the issues, and beauty influencers are making consumers aware of the problems despite high street brands are not adapting their collections to address the issues.

WITH THE RISE OF CELEBRITIES in limelight and the increase in YouTube videos people are talking about the downfalls of high street stores more than ever. When

the researcher did some independent research they noticed that the mass market didn’t have much in the range of shades for people of colour and that lots of different genders all shop in mass market stores which are not necessarily branding correctly for that market. For instance, in Debenhams the average age of consumers was 30 with the majority of people buying from popular brands like URBAN DECAY, BARE MINERALS AND YSL on the pricey side to mass market but those are the brands that people of colour seek towards.

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THE BEST COLOUR IN THE WHOLE WORLD IS O N E T H AT L O O K S G O O D O N Y O U R S K I N T O N E .

(COCO CHANEL, 2002, GLAMOUR)

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2 . 2 L ET S CUT THE C RAP

IN 2006 THE VILLAGE VOICE ASKED “HAS THE COSMETICS INDUSTRY REALLY COME TO R

OF COLOUR AS A TARGET AUDIENCE?” The answer at the time was un-certain as some bra add women of colour into their marketing and advertising campaigns despite not adding

to match this diverse audience, brands are really trying their hardest to make women

consumer but the only brands that are really succeeding are high end brands, as they are c

racially inclusive message in their imagery and using women of ethnicity within their bran 37


Fig 9

UNITE D UNITE D UNITE D UNITE D UNITE D

E TO RECOGNISE WOMEN

me brands did continue to

ding in any new products

omen of colour a target are communicating their branding and campaigns. 38


2.2 TOM FORD COLLABORATED WITH BETTY ADEWOLE a Nigerian model who was the main focus of their S/S14 collection, they created eight lipstick shades which were suitable for eight different skin tones, YSL used Jordan Dunn to help show case their best-selling Touché Éclat to new audiences proving that anyone of any skin tone can use this diverse product (Vogue, 2015).

The information above suggests that brands are really trying to incorporate different shades, BUT THERE IS SOMETHING THAT IS HOLDING THEM BACK TO NOT BE SUCCESSFUL? Some people argue it is the price but according to (popsugarbeauty,2015) darker shades of foundation do not cost anymore to make than lighter shades do, when shopping in the same store but in different areas the researcher noticed that there was a dramatic difference between the number of shades available for darker skin tones. When shopping in Bullring Superdrug there was 5 shades at a maximum that were available throughout the whole entire range of brands. Whereas in Merry Hill Superdrug there were ONLY THREE SHADES available for darker skin tones the difference in this means that they target their ranges based on who shops in the store but why don’t brands just stock each darker shades in ever store.

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BEAUTY IS DEEP SKIN TONES TOO.

( T H O M A S O V E R B U R Y, 2 0 0 )

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2.3 LOVE YOURS E LF

C L IC H É C L IC HÉ C L IC H É C L IC HÉ 41

Fig 10


THE AGE OF THE CONSUMER THEY ARE TARGETING ACCORDING TO (HUFFINGTON POST, 2016) the age of consumers that shop in large retailer stores range from 13-55, as people are taking an interest into makeup at a younger age this means that brands need to be aware of the issues that consumers might face WHILE SHOPPING FOR MAKEUP, many teenagers are beauty conscious from a very young age “over a fifth of girls as young as 12 won’t leave home without a full face of makeup and over half of under 14’s wear cosmetics every day” (Dailymail,2016).

Some skincare experts have warned that applying too much makeup at a young age can worsen problems with the skin, another factor with age is how it will affect the consumer mentally not being able to go makeup shopping with their friends to buy makeup could seriously harm their mental health as if this is an issue that lots of adults face who are of ethnicity then what it stopping their feelings translating to their children’s opinion of high street brands. THIS INDICATES THAT AGE IS A KEY FACTOR for the cosmetics industry to look into as lots of younger people are wearing makeup and taking interest in makeup, not being able to enjoy makeup like their Caucasian friends do can cause a loss of trust for a brand and cause consumers to look elsewhere for PRODUCTS THAT FULFIL THEIR NEEDS.

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THE GENDER OF THE CONSUMER THEY ARE T

MEN WEARING MAKEUP HAS A LONG HISTORY from Boy George to David Bowie

1970’s glam rock squad, and then there is the long tradition of drag makeup acco

in beauty have gained the most knowledge from ‘drag makeup’ because they ca

facial hair”. With more and more men becoming the face of beauty brands and ca

that affects the beauty industry, as JAKE JAMIE IS A UK BASED VLOGGER and he and has made it his mission to de-gender makeup he launched a makeup is g

HE BELIEVES THAT ONE DAY the future generations can grow up in a world wher

sexes without question or judgment. But some people disagree as they believe that “

more ACCEPTED OF INDIVIDUALITY, people are now encouraged to be whoever the

where men’s relationship with makeup has been here for decades, from the likes of ‘ APPEAL BY NAME AND JUST CALLING IT MAKEUP.

PEOPLE ARE IDENTIFYING BRANDS BY FACES of people that they have seen collab

it is this brand to face knowledge that consumers are looking for more and more i

Gary Thompson become the first male to start in a L’Oréal makeup advert, as well as

first male to feature in a Maybelline campaign. THIS SUGGESTS THAT GENDER is a

successful within the makeup industry as so many brands are bringing out new prod

consideration the key factors which will affect the way someone shops or which bra

by introducing this brand to face knowledge consumers HAVE SOMEONE TO FOLLOW Fig 11 43

more personal to the consumers.


RE TARGETING

Bowie, Prince and the whole of the according to (Guardian, 2015) “Men

ey can learn how to colour correct

nd campaigns gender is a big factor

nd he has been signed up by L’Oréal is genderless campaign last April.

where makeup can be enjoyed by all

hat “the world we live in now is much

er they want to be”. We are in an age

s of ‘man makeup’ which is losing iTS

EUP.

ollaborating with high street brands

more in this day and age, the likes of

well as Manny Gutierrez becoming the

R is a key factor for any brand to be products but they aren’t taking into

h brands they continuously buy from,

SEXISM SEXISM SEXISM SEXISM

LLOW from the brand and it makes it

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THE SIZE OF THE DEMAND FOR THE PRODUCTS WITHIN THAT TARGET AUDIENCE In 2015, a beauty blogger criticised Maybelline for “IGNORING WOMEN OF COLOUR” this came after she found a particular foundation had fewer shades in the UK to those that were available in the US. Maybelline reacted by saying that “we a brand have always understood women empowerment and diversitybut we clearly were not expressing it properly throughout our branding image” (Campaign Live,2016). So if Rihanna can do it why can’t high street brands follow suit? The current issues within the market have been in the industry for far too long in 2016 beauty brands are still not creating makeup for darker skin tones.

THIS IS SOMETHING WHICH MODEL PHILOMENA KWAO knows too well growing up in London as a young black woman she talks about how makeup artists often struggled to buy makeup to match skin tone. She talks about how she has to carry her own foundation to shoots with her and how sometimes it’s not always the shades but the names and the packaging, during the blog she talks to I.D about how main stream beauty brands are excluding people of this ETHNIC MINORITY and by doing this they are looking elsewhere for fulfilment etc, Fashion Fair and MDM flow and IMAN cosmetics all of these brands are created specifically for people with darker skin tones .

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Fig 12

THIS INDICATES THAT THERE IS MORE THAN ENOUGH ROOM WITHIN THE MARKET the black and mixed raced population in the UK has doubled in the last ten years and predictions from the (OFNS) state that it will rise a further 35% of the total population by 2035. THE AVERAGE PERSON OF ETHNIC MINORITY spends around £4.8 billion on products ranging from hair care to makeup so why aren’t they being considered within this industry, beauty is created for everyone and should be made for everyone to enjoy regardless of their skin tone. 46


C REATIVITY CR EATIV IT Y C REATIVITY CR EATIV IT Y

Fig 13

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CURRENTLY THERE IS A REAL SLOW PROGRESSION IN DEVELOPING

BEAUTY

PRODUCTS

FOR

DARKER

SKIN

TONES BUT THERE ARE STILL PRODUCTS OUT THERE WHICH ARE HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL DESPITE THE PRICE TAG. (ERCYA FREEMANTLE, THE INDUSTRY SO FAR, 2016)

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2.4 BR EAKING BOUNDARIE S EVEN THOUGH ALL OF THE BRANDS below are seen to be breaking the boundaries for women of colour, all of these brands are not readily available in the UK high street this means that consumers are having to spend more money to get an item which matches them perfectly, but it is a start in the right direction as people are producing products for women of colour it just isn’t as recognised within the mass market yet, when the researcher looked further into Ercya Freemantle work she produced a blog post talking about how the industry has the biggest need to adapt to women of colour she said “CURRENTLY THERE IS A REAL SLOW PROGRESSION in developing beauty products for darker skin tones but there are still products out there which are highly successful despite the price tag.” The IPA predicts that by 2051 all of England and Wales will be as diverse cultural as London is currently (Ercya Freemantle, 2016).

LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT IMAN COSMETICS, a brand which is dedicated to women of colour the brand came around after the founder Iman was a model herself and found that she had to carry round her own foundation to nearly all of the shoots she attended. Her brand success came after she launched Iman cosmetics she ignored retailers who told her that black women don’t buy foundation and the brand still remains a strong advocate for women who feel marginalized in the beauty aisle (Allure 2016). THE ABOVE RESEARCH INDICATES that there are products out for women of colour but the items that are available within the market haven’t been branched out into the mass market until recently wonder brow wasn’t available in high street store but it has recently been introduced to Superdrug’s up and down the country. If there is a great need for a product, then why can’t brands recognise this want and introduce new and improve formulas and shades.

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WOMEN

H AV E

MESSAGE

THE

P R E VA I L I N G

OFTEN

HIGH

SEXUALISED

FROM

SUBSERVIENCE

SHIFTED

TO

FEMALE

EMPOWERMENT

(THE BEAUTY MYTH, NAMOI WOLF)

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CHAPTER THREE “Trail for others to follow”

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52


Fig 14

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F E N T Y B E AU T Y C O M E S F R O M R I H A N N A’ S S U R N A M E ROBYN RIHANNA FENTY , THIS IS WHY ALL OF HER

C O L L A B O R AT I O N S H AV E H A D F E N T Y I N T H E M , A S T H I S C AT C H Y P H R A S E H A S A M E A N I N G T O R I H A N N A . (REFINERY 29, 2017)

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WHEN FENTY BEAUTY FIRST LAUNCHED, some people were less than excited as it was just another collection with a celebrity, but once the teaser videos had been leaked they featured cool models of various ethnicities it was this that sparked peoples interest to seek further into the brand. It wasn’t until the whole makeup line dropped that people were shocked to see a celebrity launching a makeup line with 40 foundation shades something for everyone right? the tools in which other brands launch foundations and then hold off with the darker shades for some many months is a common technique with mass market brands but not Rihanna, IT IS THIS REFRESHING APPROACH to the market that shows how different brands have chosen their way to enter the market. Max Factors Pan-Cake makeup was invented in 1914 for Hollywood actresses on camera it was so popular by 1945 it has made it into the mass market level.

A MAJOR BREAKTHROUGH CAME WITH THE INTRODUCTION of fashion fair cosmetics in 1973 a brand that still has a lasting affect over consumers even in this growing day and age. People at first thought that darker shades were harder to create but that in fact is a myth when talking to Ni’Kita Wilson a beauty chemist she tells (Cosmopolitan, 2016) that “creating foundation with coverage for darker skin tones is not a problem” she then goes on to say “it can be done easily through time and research all you need is to introduce colour correcting pigments into foundations”. THIS SUGGESTS THAT THERE ARE PEOPLE out there in the market looking for a foundation but the big question is whether or not high street brands will include this? Fenty Beauty is living proof that darker foundation shades can be a success as she created her collection with darker skin tones at heart.

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3 . 1 STANDING UP IN THE INDUS T RY Fig 15

IN N OVATION IN N OVATION IN N OVATION I N N OVATION

56


3.1

WHEN COSMOPOLITAN DID A TESTING video with six women of colou

foundation shades in the mass market, there findings were surprising the were too dark for them and that was the darkest foundation from her ran

were way too light and there was no in between for people of colour. Rih every product there needs to be something FOR A DARK SKINNED GIRL

for a pale girl too, she also said it wasn’t about coming up the largest n

providing an assortment that filled gaps in the market and met consu

Fig 16 57


colour and they all tried the darkest

g they concluded that Rihanna’s shades range, whereas the high street brands

. Rihanna said at her launch in NYC “In

GIRL and there needs to be something

est number of shades but it was about

consumer needs” (Cosmopolitan, 2016).

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3.1 MAC COSMETICS HAVE BEEN AROUND FOR A LONG TIME, according to the Colour cosmetics social engagement report, the runway leader was MAC they were seen to be dominating the colour cosmetics sector due to the seamless integration between its social channels and brand website. They use a highly target content strategy that is fulfilling the consumer needs, and earning shares on Facebook. CONVENIENTLY THE REPORT DOESN’T just rank the brands that produce the greatest volume of content or have the largest following but they look at how the brands engage with their customers. Within their STUDIO FIX FLUID range they offer 43 shades all with different undertones and colouring, the current retail price of the foundation is £23.50 which is more on the high end sides compared to some mass market foundations which start at £5-£10 (Cosmopolitan, 2016).

THIS SUGGESTS THAT THE BRAND has been a key player within the current market and even though their products are more expensive than high street brands they are still making a move in the right direction as they are making products available for this niche market. AS CONSUMERS THEY SEEK the experience and when looking into the market the fact that there are some products available means that the market is making moves. “The market is also very driven on price. UK retailers offer the most generous discount in Europe” (Beauty Economist, 2016)

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IT US.

IS IT

NOT

OUR

DIFFERENCES

IS

OUR

INABILITY

A C C E P T, A N D C E L E B R A T E

TO

THOSE

T H AT

DIVIDE

RECOGNIZE,

DIFFERENCES.

(AUDRE LORDE, REFINER 29, 2017)

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FOR MANY MILLENNIALS BEING BLACK and embracing their skin has never been more lit. Never have their influence and voices been more powerful, and never has the value of the black consumer been more apparent. While women with darker skin are increasingly heading to mainstream beauty companies, there is still space in the market for NICHE BRANDS that are investing heavily in the development of ground breaking new products for women of colour (Refinery 29, 2016). What the beauty giants are failing to realise is that women of colour are big spenders when it comes to makeup, WOMEN OF COLOUR on average shell out £5.8 billion on beauty products ever year spending 80% more on cosmetics on their white counterparts (Huffington Post, 2017).

ACCORDING TO THE BEAUTY ECONOMIST

report for Raconteur Ateh Jewel a

beauty journalist of Nigerian and Trinidadian heritage, says “that in many instances she has been told by high street brands that they don’t have anything for you” Ateh feels that the only makeup ranges that seem to understand the complexity of darker skin are expertise brands founded by makeup artists and professionals etc BOBBI BROWN, MAC AND URBAN DECAY but all of these come at a price. Even though product innovation for ethnic skin still remains low, representation seems to be growing within the market. The high street market is making moves in the right direction but with lots of help Nadia Gomos a PHOTOGRAPHER AND BLOGGER for the beauty industry talks about how leading brand Maybelline is making a positive change in the right direction for women of colour.

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3. 2 H IGH END OR HIGH S TRE ET

S TR O N G S TR O N G S TR O N G STR O N G

Fig 17

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Fig 18

3. 2 SHE SPEAKS ABOUT THE FRUSTRATION

of

seeing

a

new

foundation

launched to then learn that those shades are only available in the US when brands are using British models in their campaigns for that foundation. 63


HOW IS THIS CONFUSION PERCEIVED WITHIN THE INDUSTRY? Around 70% of consumer surveyed felt like high street brands didn’t listen to their thoughts on products leaving them with little trust and faith that high street stores would change their collections (Mintel, 2016). According to the above research the statements suggest that the problem lies within the high street stores as they are seen to be ignoring consumer needs whereas high end brands do take into consideration the different ethnicities within the market it has taken for an influencer like Rihanna to bring out a vast array of foundations to make the cosmetics industry re-think their approach. According to (Buzz feed, 2016) “the problem within the industry is far deeper than just makeup alone, the lack of presentation and availability is just a reflection of old racist attitudes” this shocking quote shows how people of really feel.

They believe that they are singled out and not targeted as some main stream consumers would be and it is this lack of knowledge within the beauty industry that leaves these consumers feeling deflated and NONE TRUSTING OF HIGH STREET BRANDS when it comes to buying makeup. Renee Edwards the founder of WOC beauty UK says that “women of ethnicity exist in great enough numbers that catering to their needs is a viable business decision” she believes that it is only after public campaigns by women of colour that brands are even bothering to consider us as a consumer group and this amount of progress has taken years with much more progression to be made. This information suggests that rather than making these consumers feel singled out THEY SHOULD MAKE FULL SHADE RANGES available in all stores across the UK rather than just flagship stores in major cities, stores like boots and Superdrug have thousands of stores up and down the country so maybe if these store start to incorporate full shade ranges into their stores other brands will follow suit.

64


65


CHAPTER FOUR “what will happen next?”

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RACE RACE RACE RACE Fig 19

67


E V E RYO N E H A S A B E AU T I F U L FAC E , S O W E M U S T L E A R N T O E M B R A C E W H AT W E H AV E B E E N G I F T E D

W I T H . W H E T H E R T H AT B E F R E A K L E S O R M O L E S . . ( E R C YA

FREEMANTLE,

EVERYONE

IS

BEAUTIFUL,

2017)

68


IT HAPPENS IN ANY INDUSTRY there is always backlash over controversial campaigns let’s take a look at some of the most talked about ones in the media:

Beyoncé Knowles signed a pledging contract with L’Oréal this meant that she was not allowed to make any drastic changes to her appearance however it seemed that the beauty giants made no promises to her in return. But L’Oréal have been accused by MANY FOR ‘WHITEWASHING’ HER APPEARANCE in one of their campaigns the term involves digitally lightening her skin in photos, celebrity website TMZ called the advert “severally photo shopped and unrealistic”. The fashion and beauty industry are not really role models for highlighting racial diversity, often brands do the opposite let’s take a look at dove, they have recently come under FIRE FOR THEIR “REAL BEAUTY” ADVERT the add which showcases women of all ages, sizes and colours was seen to be portraying an African American women turning into a woman after using the dove visible care body wash.

THERE ARE A GOOD NUMBER OF ARGUMENTS FOR BOTH SIDES OF THE SUBJECT, 40% of women who are buying into traditional skin care brands are women of colour so how could beauty companies have not caught on yet that their main consumer are the ones that they could potentially be offending (Forbes, 2017). The age of photo shopping is ever evolving in recent news misguided have decided to make a stand within the fashion industry they have stopped airbrushing stretch marks off their models this stand sets the bar for all other brands within the industry to follow. THE AGE OF PHOTO SHOPPING IS SO DAMAGING to the consumers its aimed at, with many teenagers looking at these posts as “realistic images of life” with around 53% of teenage girls aged 13 are already un happy with their bodies. (Huffington Post, 2016)

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4. 1 AN INDUS TRY C OM ING UNDE R FIRE Fig 20

DURING THIS SECTION PLEASE REFER TO APPENDICES 1+2 for further information on role models within the industry and an interview with Stefany Rodrigues a makeup artist also a lady of colour herself about how she feels that the industry has needs to change and why?.

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4.1 THE INFORMATION ABOVE SUGGESTS THAT THE WAY in which people who are viewing the campaigns within the industry can be very damaging, with the rise of social media and people using social media to influence products (refer to survey monkey results for key findings from the questionnaire on how us a consumers use social media).

BRANDS NEED TO BE VERY CAREFUL with the ways that they use airbrushing and photo shopping within their campaigns as sometimes it can do more harm than good like with the Beyoncé campaign everyone was calling L’Oréal disloyal and accusing them of doing AIRBRUSHING AND WHITE WASHING to all of the previous adverts and campaigns including the banned advert featuring Julia Roberts for the conceal and perfect concealer people argued that “It is giving false representation of the product and what it can achieve” (BBC, 2015).

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E V E N T H O U G H P R O D U C T I N N O VAT I O N F O R E T H N I C S K I N I S L O W, T H E R E P R E S E N TAT I O N S E E M S T O B E GROWING.

( F O R B E S B E A U T Y, 2 0 1 7 )

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MATURE MARKETS ARE ONES THAT HAVE BEEN THROUGH A LARGE NUMBER OF DEVELOPMENT They have got a good infrastructure for example the UK’s educational system is tough and robust. The way in which this relates to the beauty industry is through product knowledge the products that have been USED FOR GENERATIONS such as skincare and cleansing products these are products that we have seen our grandmothers and mothers use an EXAMPLE OF A MATURE MARKET WOULD BE ESTEE LAUDER, they are a brand who create both skincare and makeup but these are products that have been AROUND FOR YEARS.

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4 . 2 M AT UR E M ARKE TS & E M E RGI N G M ARKE TS

Fig 21

74


Fig 22

G E NDER G E NDER G E NDER G ENDER

4.2 EMERGING MARKETS ARE MORE FLUCTUATING and dynamic then mature markets there are several factors that can affect an emerging market for example a consumer shift or competition shift, for this the research has focused on consumer shift. CONSUMERS IN THIS MARKET to this current date want trust, transparency and authenticity this is something which has changed since ten years ago, as we are in an age of digital explosion. 75


This rise in digital age means that consumers now have a voice and a choice, overall this year over 2 BILLION PHOTOGRAPHS WERE SHARED online whether the be posts of people or people sharing images of themselves. During 2016, 45 billion beauty videos were viewed on YouTube alone this year (refer to appendices 3 for primary research analysis based on how consumers perceive the market). According to (Euro Monitor, 2016) 81% OF SALES have come from emerging markets this year so far, exposure to China is key for the beauty industry to grow as a multicultural business. China’s economy has grown by 9.1% year on year, they have one of the largest premium beauty sectors in the whole of Europe.

THE INCREASE IN KOREAN BEAUTY BRANDS being introduced into the UK market means that the consumers are taking having an insight into their industry. The Chinese market has one of the biggest skincare growth’s in the whole of Europe with a whopping 9% growth this was bigger than America and the UK (Beauty economist report, 2017) The above information suggests that the UK market should branch out into the CHINESE MARKET as they have good growth and their consumers understand what they are looking for and what they want. This move could help high street brands integrate lighter and darker foundations as Chinese consumers have loyal shopping habits and will normally re-shop at places that have given them good customer service and reached the standards they accept in store, they are also VERY BIG ON PERSONALISATION and like to have bespoke products. This is something that could help the UK market as they lack identity within the market space.

76


CONCLUSION

77


78


WITH THE INFORMATION GATHERED throughout the dissertation there are a number of factors that placed together give a strong argument for the room within the current market, to make people of ethnic minority more recognised especially in the high street market. The information from a range of sources backed up all of the arguments stated, however there are a few high end brands that are creating INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS AND COLLECTIONS that are readily available for people to purchase despite those not being of high street price or easily accessed and readily available in most stores. Consumers in this market want to see brands acknowledging that they are worth a consumer group and are worth the investment. The beauty industry is something that everyone talks about sometimes for the RIGHT AND WRONG REASONS but recently their have been an increasing number of men are using makeup to represent themselves in the industry, and make a stand.

IT IS THIS REPRESENTATION that needs to be relayed into high street stores, with the rise in YouTube and Instagram stories being used to give small snippets of information to consumers more content than ever is viewed by people between the ages of 13-50, high street stores need to use these social media role models to bring their racially diverse message to consumers, as at these early ages materialism becomes most influential (refer to appendices 3 for information on primary research and analysis) with some teenagers already knowing which are good and bad brands to buy from. The impacts this has on consumers buying power is unexplainable, the beauty industry is something which has matured over many years growing year on year but, it is inevitable that if the market doesn’t change its CURRENT ETHNIC POLICIES, consumers will lose interest in high street brands and leaving consumers to seek elsewhere for the fulfilment they are after.

79


Fig 23 80


RE

81


RECOMMENDATIONS

82


THE BEAUTY INDUSTRY IS MORE THAN JUST MAKEUP, it is something which reaches out to larger audiences and beauty can be perceived in different ways to other people, it is how people see the market through their eyes that matters to the brand CREATORS OF THE HIGH STREET MARKET. As the issues that consumers are faced with in today’s market have been around for a while, sometimes you might see someone and judge them this is something that lots of brands do with ethnic consumers, where as they should be embracing them with open arms.

IN DOING SO, THEY CAN INCREASE THEIR LOYALTY with these consumers as more people of colour would buy from the high street if they stocked a wider range of colour for their skin tone. Not only is there the issue of foundation but lipsticks, blushers, and FACE POWDERS MANY MAKEUP BRANDS ONLY STOCK 3/4 dark foundation shades but where people are struggling is that they are between those shades and end up having to buy two foundations to mix to get a near enough colour match.

83


1.

There needs to be further research into BRANDS EXPANDING their current

shade ranges and making more colours available in more stores or even introducing new SHADES INTO ALREADY EXISTING RANGES. 2.

The industry needs to embrace more male role models/more ethnic models

within the market and USE THEM AS INFLUENCERS for their brands, to engaging their racially inclusive message. 3. Further RESEARCH INTO THE CHINESE MARKET and their consumer type how they embrace diversity within their market situation. 4.

Looking at INTEGRATING INDEPENDENT brands into high street stores to address the diverse issues.

5. Further RESEARCH INTO PERSONALISATION within markets and how that could have an impact on the beauty industry?

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Fig 24

85


E V E R YO N E N E E D S T O B E E D U C AT E D O N H O W T O LOVE THEIR OWN SKIN, WE ARE ALL INDIVIDUALS WITH

DIFFERENT

AT T R I B U T E S

TO

LIFE...

( L A D Y G A G A , F O R B E S B E A U T Y, 2 0 1 6 )

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REFERENCES BBC News. (2017). Airbrushed make-up adverts banned. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14304802 [Accessed 23 Oct. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Isamayaffrench.com. (2017). Isamaya Ffrench. [online] Available at: http://isamayaffrench.com [Accessed 27 Sep. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Pinterest. (2017). Dissertation topic. [online] Available at: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/abigailparkes60/dissertation-topic/ [Accessed 23 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Surveymonkey.com. (2017). Analyse results. [online] Available at: https://www.surveymonkey.com/analyze/0czq6ZOUj6sqzWlTw2KzemzIuEoz1zc1k2rKDb_2FLXyj6tWnwbTEDKSUPqRVrOvEY [Accessed 23 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Forbes.com. (2017). Forbes Welcome. [online] Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardkestenbaum/2017/06/19/how-the-beauty-industry-is-adapting-to-change/#72e14ca13681 [Accessed 28 Oct. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Isamayaffrench.com. (2017). Isamaya Ffrench. [online] Available at: http://isamayaffrench.com [Accessed 27 Sep. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Mail Online. (2017). What would YOU look like with Angelina Jolie’s lips? Photographers create startling portraits using real people and celebrity body parts. [online] Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/ article-2307088/French-photographers-Bruno-Metra-Lawrence-Jeanson-create-bizarre-portraits-using-real-women-celebrity-body-parts.html [Accessed 20 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Mocha Girls Pit Stop. (2017). 29 Quotes That’ll Make You Proud of Your Melanin. [online] Available at: http://mochagirlspitstop.com/ proud-of-your-melanin/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Beauty, P. (2017). People are shocked to find out the obvious 87


REFERENCES reason why Rihanna called her makeup line Fenty Beauty. [online] Business Insider. Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/rihannas-fenty-beauty-name-fan-reactions-2017-9?r=US&IR=T [Accessed 17 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Surveymonkey.com. (2017). Analyse results. [online] Available at: https://www.surveymonkey.com/analyze/0czq6ZOUj6sqzWlTw2KzemzIuEoz1zc1k2rKDb_2FLXyj6tWnwbTEDKSUPqRVrOvEY [Accessed 23 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Nouw.com. (2017). CASSIE RASMUSSEN. [online] Available at: http://nouw.com/cassierasmussen/page/5 [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: cerensek. (2017). cerensek. [online] Available at: http://cerensek.com/post/23703526638 [Accessed 14 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Forbes.com. (2017). Forbes Welcome. [online] Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardkestenbaum/2017/06/19/how-the-beauty-industry-is-adapting-to-change/#72e14ca13681 [Accessed 28 Oct. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Cosmopolitan. (2017). Of Course the First Ad for Rihanna’s Fenty Beauty is Incredible. [online] Available at: http://www.cosmopolitan.com/ style-beauty/beauty/a12161775/rihanna-fenty-beauty-details/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Team, E. (2017). Personalised lipstick: the future?. [online] ELLE UK. Available at: http://www.elleuk.com/beauty/make-up/beauty-tips/a22765/personalised-lipstick-Boots-No7-bespoke-free/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Cosmopolitan. (2017). Rihanna’s Fenty Beauty Shade Range Is Getting Thankful Reviews from People With Albinism. [online] Available at: http://www.cosmopolitan.com/style-beauty/beauty/a12272565/fenty-beauty-shade-range-albinism/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Refinery29.uk. (2017). The Beauty Collaborations That Deserve 88


REFERENCES Your Hard-Earned Cash. [online] Available at: http://www.refinery29.uk/beauty-collaboration-mac-nars [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Orofino, E. (2017). 230 of the Best Collaboration Products MAC Has Ever Created. [online] POPSUGAR Beauty. Available at: https://www.popsugar.com/beauty/Best-MAC-Cosmetics-Collaborations-42115904 [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Refinery29.uk. (2017). Is Social Media Changing The Way We Shop For Beauty Products?. [online] Available at: http://www.refinery29. uk/2015/12/182362/beauty-industry-social-media-effect [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: The-artifice.com. (2017). The Feminist Makeup Culture: Reconsidering Cosmetics | The Artifice. [online] Available at: https://the-artifice.com/ the-feminist-makeup-culture-reconsidering-cosmetics/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Meikle, J. (2017). Growing number of girls suffer low self-esteem, says report. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian. com/society/2013/nov/29/girls-low-self-esteem-rising-girlguiding-report [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Debrief. (2017). How The Internet Changed The Makeup Industry Forever. [online] Available at: https://thedebrief.co.uk/style/hair-and-beauty/ internet-changed-makeup-industry-forever/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Franchisehelp.com. (2017). Beauty Industry Analysis 2017 Cost & Trends. [online] Available at: https://www.franchisehelp.com/industry-reports/beauty-industry-report/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Allied Market Research. (2017). Cosmetics Market by Category (Skin & Sun Care Products, Hair Care Products, Deodorants, Makeup & Color Cosmetics, Fragrances) and by Distribution Channel (General departmental store, Supermarkets, Drug stores, Brand outlets) - Global Opportunity Analysis and Indus89


REFERENCES try Forecast, 2014 - 2022. [online] Available at: https://www.alliedmarketresearch. com/cosmetics-market [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Forbes.com. (2017). Forbes Welcome. [online] Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/chloesorvino/2017/05/18/self-made-women-wealthbeauty-gold-mine/#312fbf0c2a3a [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: HuffPost UK. (2017). Why There Is Not Much Make-Up For Black Women In The UK High Street. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost. co.uk/jean-gasho/why-there-is-not-much-mak_b_13005438.html [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: HuffPost UK. (2017). Why Instagram Feeds Are The New Pages Of Vogue. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/hannah-la-ronde/ vogue_b_18191120.html?utm_hp_ref=uk-beauty [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: WGSN Insider. (2017). Why has the beauty industry struggled to embrace all skin tones?. [online] Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/blogs/diversity-problem-beauty-industry-struggled-with-all-skin-tones/# [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: WGSN Insider. (2017). Diversity in design: Why it’s a business imperative. [online] Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/blogs/diversity-in-design-business-imperative/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Dirshe, S. (2017). When Diversity Should Mean More Than Just Representation. [online] Allure. Available at: https://www.allure.com/story/diversity-in-beauty-for-women-of-color [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Raconteur. (2017). Fighting for diversity within beauty - Raconteur. [online] Available at: https://www.raconteur.net/lifestyle/fighting-for-diversity-within-beauty [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Racked. (2017). Is the Makeup Industry Finally Embracing Di90


REFERENCES versity?. [online] Available at: https://www.racked.com/2015/3/10/8176275/beauty-industry-women-of-color-makeup-cosmetics [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: HuffPost UK. (2017). Beauty and Diversity: A Note on Diversity in the UK Cosmetics Market. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost. co.uk/segun-garubaokelarin/beauty-and-diversity-cosmetics_b_9301652.html [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Refinery29.com. (2017). The Beauty Industry Needs To Stop Doing This. [online] Available at: http://www.refinery29.com/2016/02/103964/blackhair-care-makeup-business [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. our Bibliography: Superselected.com. (2017). The Multicultural Beauty Market Is On the Rise, But What Does This Mean For Black Women? | SUPERSELECTED Black Fashion Magazine Black Models Black Contemporary Artists Art Black Musicians. [online] Available at: http://superselected.com/the-multicultural-beautymarket-is-on-the-rise-but-what-does-this-mean-for-black-women/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: HuffPost. (2017). Why Photoshopping Is a Matter of Life and Death for Many Girls. [online] Available at: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/loriday/why-photoshopping-is-a-ma_b_5138408.html [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Wischhover, C. (2017). How Racist is the Beauty Industry? Take a Peek at The Most Recent, Most Controversial Ads. [online] Fashionista. Available at: https://fashionista.com/2011/05/how-racist-is-the-beauty-industry-take-apeek-at-some-controversial-ads-through-the-years [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Foley, K. (2017). Racist beauty standards are leading women of color to use more toxic products. [online] Quartz. Available at: https:// qz.com/1054067/cosmetics-marketed-to-women-of-color-may-contain-moreharsh-chemicals/ [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. 91


REFERENCES Your Bibliography: Elizabeth Siegel, P. (2017). 41 Women of Color Get REAL About Beauty and Diversity. [online] Allure. Available at: https://www.allure.com/story/ women-of-color-on-beauty-diversity-april-2017-cover [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: Gloss, G. (2017). Genderless beauty: how brands & bloggers are smashing stereotypes. [online] Getthegloss.com. Available at: https://www.getthegloss.com/article/gender-diversity-how-beauty-brands-are-helping-to-shatter-stereotypes [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017]. Your Bibliography: HuffPost UK. (2017). Black Models Open Up On The Race Issues They Face In Fashion. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost. co.uk/2015/05/07/black-models-issues-fashion-industry_n_7227148.html [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017].

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APPENDICES PERFECT ROLE MODELS FOR CONSUMERS * APPENDICES 1 KATHY WRENNALL, A FOUNDER OF A SOCIAL MEDIA marketing agency says “74% of consumers rely on social media to make a beauty buying decision” she also goes on to explain that consumers are being inundated with influencer content on social media and that consumers are being more selective with what information they choose to follow and who they go to for celebrity content (Beauty Economist, 2016). With the age of influencers on Instagram and YouTube the importance HAS SHIFTED TOWARDS THE WAY YOU aim your content to your audiences and the information that you give to them. Recently Lancôme have signed Lupita Nyong’o as the brands first black beauty ambassador, a lady who is very vocal about her African heritage and she fully embraces her natural beauty, with that being said Mattel have just created the first ever Barbie doll with dreadlocks they did this in order to celebrate Zendaya Coleman (Allure, 2016). MOVING ON TO PEOPLE WHO ARE AT THE HEART of the makeup industry, we have Nyma Tang she is a beauty YouTube and vlogger she has recently started a makeup series called “the darkest shades of foundation” where she gathers together popular foundation and contour products to see if they match women with a darker complexion. She reveals how she “Feels so frustrated that she has to travel to so many different stores to be able to collect some of the DARKER SHADES OF CERTAIN MAKEUP.” She believes that you can tell which stores are going to stock the correct foundations based on the demographic of the consumer that shops there. On her Youtube she tried the long awaited KKW contour sticks, during her series she talks about how younger consumers can feel pressure from their peers to buy into these brands despite the shades not matching their skin, the results from the contour sticks were in Nyma says “The reasons I am doing these videos is not to bash Kim Kardashian at all but to bring awareness to these kinds of situations where the contour sticks would seem to completely disregarded us as consumers” (Buzz Feed, 2016).

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APPENDICES The above information suggests that the bloggers and celebrities who are seen to be endorsing this niche market get good reviews and responses from their viewers as many teenagers and consumers would automatically turn to the internet to seek help for individuals that are all struggling from the same problems rather than searching in store and speaking to people over the counters TRANSCRIPTS OF INTERVIEWS - APPENDICES 2 THE FULL INTERVIEW WITH STEFANY RODRIGUES A MAKEUP ARTIST BUT ALSO A LADY OF COLOUR HERSELF How do you feel about the beauty industry now and has It changed? S: the makeup industry has changed drastically since I was a child there have been some improvements but nothing of the ground breaking perspective. The beauty industry is a very competitive environment and everyone who joins this ever growing market feels like they need to bring something new to the table otherwise consumers can get bored. The industry now is what I would say nearing its peak‌ When you first trained to be a makeup artist were you aware of the current issues within the market? S: When I was training to be a makeup artist I started off working at MAC and just taught myself through freelance, I found that working with people of similar skin tones and ethnicities helped me to gain a better understanding of the current issues evolving, a lot of the issues that I struggle with myself daily didn’t even occur to me 5 years ago. Do you find it hard to shop at high street stores (drug store) or are you naturally drawn towards high end brands? S: Myself personally, I always go to high end first (quiet pricey I know) sometimes I can find an alternative in the drug store being a makeup artist is about using your own initiative most of the time, but I tend to go to high end brands first for the core products and then drug store for alternative ones. 94


APPENDICES Would you say that high street stores (drug store) doesn’t fulfil your needs as a makeup artist? S: Honestly, when it comes to buying base products I have a great struggle in finding shades which would match people darker than me without it going ashy and people with different undertones. As a makeup artist you get people with lots of different skin complaints some people want full coverage others only prefer tinted moisturiser and I find it a struggle to go into stores and swatch a million foundations on the back of my hand before I could find one, which might be a potential. How do you feel when clients ask you for help shopping in high street shops for makeup? S: Most of the time I have to be truthful and tell them that I have found little / any satisfaction from the drug store, the worst thing for me as a makeup artist is when I get younger clients asking me about good products from their and unfortunately there aren’t many I can recommend. Being a makeup artist do you understand the struggle more within the industry now than you did before you became an mua? S: Shopping for makeup is something which has not always been easy for me anyway as I find most foundations from the drug store that I think will match are too grey and ashy once on the skin, whereas high end you get a more in depth chance to look at the undertones and the staff are always very knowledgeable this is something which I have learnt since becoming an MUA, as I know what questions to ask to get the answers I am looking for whereas before I would spend 20 minutes in a store and the foundation which looked the closet in the bottle I would buy. Lastly, would you like to see the high street stores embracing darker skin tones more and introducing more inclusive ranges for everyone? 95


APPENDICES S: Absolutely YES, so many of my other paler friends have shopped at drug store and tell me about how amazing some of the foundations are I just wish that they had more of a range so I could at least give it a chance but most of the time there are too horrendous on my skin for me to even leave the house with it on, I feel like the drug store has come a long way since I was a child but there is defiantly still room for improvement it isn’t quite there yet. APPENDICES 3 SURVEY MONKEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

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APPENDICES

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APPENDICES

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APPENDICES ONE OF THE LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH was that the most of the people who answered were friends or family and this could potentially have made some of the information gathered biased, as they could have potentially answered the questions with an open mind and not thought about the answers. Another factor is by the way the questionnaire was posted the researcher felt that it would have been better to go out with physical copies and speak to people about the issue rather than putting on solely on social media. This is something that could be taken forward for further research the questionnaire did gain 100 responses out of those 100 over 57% of them were female, this means that THEY COULD HAVE FILLED in the questionnaire because they understand the struggle within the market and how social media is used to lure in consumers. Another factor that the researcher felt could be improved on was the range of questions asked, if the primary research was to be conducted again there would be a more vast range of questions that all appeal to different audiences within the beauty industry, this would help by giving a vast range of responses meaning that the answers found WERE MORE DIVERSE also a focus group would have been a good idea within the primary research as like the interview with the MUA the depth of the research has its downfalls and limitations. Due to Stefany being someone who worked in the industry previously she might be biased about the information she gives away, meaning that the depth of the knowledge GAINED BY THE RESEARCHER COULD BE BROADENED with more independent research as well as focus groups to enhance the number of responses and personal answers.

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Abigail parkes upload  
Abigail parkes upload  
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