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Final Project: An Analysis of Kelham Island and Neepsend Abigail Kiet Wai Chew Student number: 120167797


Table of Contents Introduction

………………………………..1

Key Characteristic ……………………...… 2 Pa t t e r n o f C h a n ge … … … … … … … … … . . . 4 Key Land Use…………………………….... 5 Key Design F eatures ……………………… 6 Problems …………………………………. . 7

Opportunities……………………………….8 Po l i c y Re v i ew … … … … … … … … … … … . . . 1 0 Planning & Design Recommend ations ………11 Conclusion

…………………………………16

Reference

………………………………….17


Where is Kelham Island and Core Neepsend? The aspiration to regenerate and redevelop Kelham and Neepsend has been proposed through the Kelham Island Neepsend 2008-2018 Action Plan by the Sheffield City Council. This report is going to review on the achievements and effectiveness of the delivery actions of the Action Plans. Evaluations of the appropriateness and limitations of the Action Plan is included. In aiming to recreate vibrancy, vividness and sustainability of the study area, constructive planning recommendations are proposed to increase the suitability of the Action Plan.

1


Heart of Industrial Area Kelham Island and Neepsend are the oldest industrial site in Sheffield that can be traced back to 12th century. River Don is the landmark natural features that located in between these two sites. It has drawn the earlier industrial settlements due to the necessity of water power to operate the machineries in those factories (Sheffield City Council, 2007). Kelham Island Industrial Conservation Area was first designated in May 1985 to preserve its historic buildings that significantly representing the identity of the place. (Kelham Island Statement Appraisal, 1999)

Geographical Context: Conservation Areas  Located approximately 2 kilometres north from the Sheffield City Centre, and occupied an area of around 12 hectares.  It is in the boundary of former floods occur in years of 1948 and 2007.  Kelham Island is approximately 750 metres long and was a created as a result of man-made goit. (Sheffield City Council, 2008)

Sheffield City Centre

(Google Map, 2012)

(Google Map, 2012)

Modern Kelham Island & Core Neepsend Kelham Island has transformed from a solid industrial site into a more diversified urban living area over time. A mixed-use of the area encourages the development of residential buildings and investment of businesses. Kelham Museum also aimed to attract more tourists to increase the popularity of the area (Sheffield City Council, 2008.) CoreNeepsend consists of a variety of mixed businesses, leisure centres, music studios and residential. Its commercial importance is conserved and it is believed that there is a potential to re-develop the active frontages along Mowbray Street (Sheffield City Council, 2008).

An Area with History, Architectures, And Cultures.

Kelham Island Industrial Conservation Area boundary plan. (Sheffield City Council, 2010)

2


Special physical environment of Kelham and Neepsend that make them a place with its own identity. Kelham Island Art Corporation Kelham Island Kelham Weir

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

N (Kiet Wai, 2012) (Kiet Wai, 2012)

Kelham Island Industrial Museum

Cornish Place

Tram stop (Kiet Wai, 2012)

Kelham Island Brewery Shop

(Mitula Dive the Web, 2012)

Green Lanes Works Fat Cat Pubs Kelham Goyt (Kiet Wai, 2012) (Keblawben, 2010) (Kelham Brewery, 2012) (Richardson, 2011)

3


Kelham Island has undergone significant changes through the regeneration projects since the 20th century, as more pressures from the necessity of residential development and policy have been given by the publics and councils. N N

The emergence of residential buildings marks the diversification of land used from industrial purpose to mixed-use. E.g. Cornish Place and Brooklyn Works have transformed into residential buildings with its building architectures being conserved.

N

Kelham and Neepsend in the 1900s.

IN the 18th century, Kelham and Neepsend mainly served as industrial sites that consisted various types of factory. Mowbray Street, Neepsend lane and Green Lane are the most visible industrial streetscapes.

(Ancient Roam, 2012)

N

N

Kelham and Neepsend in the 2010.

This shows the progressive development of multi-usage of buildings, which includes offices, recording studios, museums, art gallery, wholesale retailers and leisure facilities. It must be noted that there is an increase in the number of abandoned buildings and vacant lands.

(Roam, 2012)

These series of graphics clearly demonstrated the changing pattern of Kelham and Neepsend. They are under gradual transformation which the hard industrial impression is softened while still retaining its uniqueness.

Industrial Buildings

Abandoned buildings & lands

Residential

Mixed-used buildings

4


The graphics below show the distribution of different usage of buildings in the areas. It must be noted that there are several vacant and conserved buildings waiting for suitable reuse and investment of developers respectively. Residential

N

Industries, Warehouse and Offices

Arts and Music

• E.E. Ingleton Engineering Ltd. • CTW Handcrafting Ltd. • Jewson Building Materials

• Kelham Mills

• Yellow Arch Studio

• Hope Works • Brewery Wharf • Central Quay • Cornish Place • Brooklyn Works • Daisy Spring Works

•Car Repairing • Moorfield Flats • Cornwall Works

• GB Printing Industry • WH Hulley Ladder manufacturer

•Attic Music Studio • Kelham Island Art Corporation

(* A few offices are waiting for let.)

Restaurants, Cafe and Pubs

Leisure & Cultural

Retailers

• Steak, Bar and Grill • The Foundry Climbing

• The Riverside Cafe

• The Milestone •The Old Bulls Head

•Tesco • Fat Cat Pub •Kelham Island Brewery •The Grind Cafe •Kelham Island Tavern Shop, Pale Rider •Ship Inn

• Carr Motors Ltd

• Avis Car rental

•The Bed Shop

•City Life Christian Church

• Kelham Island Museum

5


According to Lynch (1960), the physical elements of an urban environment are the basics that build up public images in the users’ mind. The compound of these elements are vital because they are influential in forming mental perceptions of a place experienced by the users. Elements: Paths, Edges, Districts, Edges, Landmarks are used to analyse the design features of the study areas.

Edges

Districts

• Features that prohibit movements. • Barriers that isolate places and prevent them from interacting with the neighbourhoods. • E.g. Railroad lines , River Don and Penistone Road to Corporation Street. Penistone Rd.

N

Mowbray Street (Google map, 2012)

• A different region of an urban area which observer is informed of his location through mental images that captured from the physical appearance of the place. • E.g. Tourism - Kelham Island Museum, with proximity to Fat Cat Pub and Kelham Island Brewery Shop. •E.g. Industrial - Neepsend lane & Mowbray St.

Rail road

Don River (Kiet Wai, 2012)

Landmarks • Physical reference points for the observer which mark the identity or the heart of a place. • E.g. Ball Bridge, The Chimney, Upper Don River and Kelham Island.

Tram stop

The Chimney

Nodes

Ball Bridge (Murray-Rust, 2008)

Paths

Upper Don River (Kiet Wai, 2012)

• Majority of the paths are narrow • Giving a sense of enclosure instead of continuity. • Lack of directional quality. E.g. Acorn St, South Parade and Bowling Green Street. •Active frontages along the paths able to reinforce the image of place. E.g. Mowbray St., Alma St.

Narrow: Cornish St.

• Concentrations of junctions and paths that serve as an entrance for the observer. • E.g. Shalesmoor roundabout & junctions at Corporation St. (Ring Road).

Corporation St.

Shalesmoor Roundabout (Kiet Wai, 2012)

South Parade (Google maps, 2012)

6


Based of the findings from the detailed site analysis of the study areas, several problems have been identified such as connectivity and movement, integration of natural and built environments, public open spaces and degree of perceived crime and safety.

Lack of Public Open Spaces

Connectivity & Movement 1.

1.

2.

Limited accessibility from neighbourhoods into the study areas. Only three main entrances for vehicles: Shalesmoor, junctions at Corporation Street and at Rutland Road. No public transports available in Kelham areas, restricts the ways people travel to the areas.

There is no visible public open spaces available for local residents. This discourages the interaction of the community, resulting in less lively living environment. The Kelham Square is a semi-public space which does not fully functions as public spaces for residents to carry out leisure activities..

2.

Low Maintenance for Street Furniture. 1.

The pavements of roads and pedestrian footpaths are in poor conditions, with cracks and uneven surfaces. It is noticed that is evidence of litters may due to in sufficient bins being provided.

2.

Junction in need of maintenance.

Worn out billboard. 3. Discontinuity of pedestrian walk paths in majority of streets which make the place less accessible for walking. • Busy road crossing from Shalesmoor tram stop to Ball Street. • Inconsistent provision of cycle lanes. 4. Cars are parked randomly along some streets which impede pedestrian and affects the flow of traffic. 5. Providing no clear directions to the observer due to the lack of signage.

Cracked roads. (Kiet Wai, 2012)

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

Low Perceived Safety, High perceived Crime 1. 2.

Poor lightning on streets as a local resident responded feeling of unsafe to walk at night. The presence of abandoned buildings and vandalism increased the feeling of possible violence and crime.

Discontinued pedestrian paths.

Dark streets.

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

Randomly parked cars (Kiet Wai, 2012)

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

Abandoned building, Green lane.

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

7


Lost Spaces (Trancik, 1986) Lost spaces can be defined as unfavourable urban areas that do not integrate with its environment coherently. Several lost spaces are found in the study areas. 1.

River Don is the prominent natural environment that does not embrace into the built surroundings. • Buildings are built along the river but with minimal interactions with it. They do not provide access and key view lines of the river for the residents.

3. Empty private land, awaiting for investment of housing developers, is used as a car park. • It is located at Alma Street , which covers an area of 87120 ft. square (Mandale Business, 2012) . • The quality of the place is affected because it brings inconvenient to pedestrian and cyclists, and interrupts frontages activity. Location of the empty land. Kelham Museum Central Quay

Neglected riverside, Brooklyn Works. •

(Google Map, 2012)

Evidence of lack of care of the river : Overgrown hedges and trees along the Upper Don Riverside Walk, rubbish are thrown into the river.

(Google Map, 2012)

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

Lack of Amenities & Services

Upper Don River Side Walk 1. 2.

Testco is one of the a few convenience stores available. No evidence of banking services, post office, health care centres or others facility in this area. This might be the reason that low attraction of people moving into this area is maintained.

Cornish Place (Google Map, 2012)

(Google Map, 2012)

2. Conserved structures with minimal interpretation and in derelict state, makes the atmosphere dull and unpleasant. • Conserved buildings failed to contribute to the historical identity of Kelham. E.g. Wharncliff Works at Cornish Street.

Overall, these problems result in inefficient utilization of spaces which lead to low investment of housing developers and attractors for businesses. •

Many advertisements of sales and rental of properties are found in these areas.

Dilapidated façade of Wharncliff Works that lack of maintenance. (Kiet Wai, 2012) (Kiet Wai, 2012)

8


By reflecting on the detailed site analysis, several opportunities for future development of Kelham and Core Neepsend are identified. It includes the prospects of enhancing the multi-use of the place, integrating natural environment into built environment and attracting populations into the study area.

Active Frontages

Arts and Music  

N

The potential to create a culturally diverse living community by incorporating artistic cultures. Arts and music are important mediums for social expression, which would influence the quality and cultural heritage of people life.

Some streets have relatively high exposure to public realms which could easily draw attentions. Wide pavements along the streets could be appropriate activity zones to stimulate social interactions.

Historic Architectures & Buildings

Kelham Riverside 

 These spaces are significant in introducing natural elements into the urban living environment.  It encourages healthy life style and well-being.  Potential green spaces could able to improve residents’ engagement in the local community.

A sense of place can be facilitated through the historical settings, which might strengthen community cohesion. Historical environments contributes to the quality of life by enriching public’s understanding of the community’s changing nature.

Tram stop

Proximity to the Main Roads & Tram Services  

Tram service could be the main transportation mode that connect the site with city centre. Permeability of entering the site can be improved by opening up more entrances from the main roads.

Tourism Regenerating Sustainability 

Relatively low traffic in some specific areas results in the possibility of generating a pedestrian friendly environment by encouraging walking and cycling. A vision of low carbon production area is likely to be achieved through better traffic management.

Kelham Island Museum and Brewery Shops are able to attract more tourist and increase the popularity of the site. It could draw people flow into the sites and recreating more jobs opportunities for local business.

9


Kelham Neepsend Action Plan 2008-2018 which is produced by the Sheffield City Council has established a framework to redevelop the study area, that will be delivered within 10 years context. The Action Plan provides a somewhat comprehensive assessment of the issues face by the study areas, with having the support of consultations of the public realms. It addressed the majority of the problems which are identified in the detailed sites analysis. Redevelopment of the riverside areas is one of the strength in the Action Plan. It has critically understood the importance of consolidation of greenery and natures in urban living spaces, which could foster healthy living life style. Potential usage of the river and the vicinity of the Kelham Goyt to develop into green public open spaces for recreation purposes are proposed in the plan (pg23). This highly reflected on one of the opportunities recognised as regeneration of sustainability.

However, one of the weaknesses of the Action plan is found in its evaluation regarding the improvement of transportation and movement. Despite the Inner Relief Road is built to minimise traffic congestion and improve connectivity, it still serves as boundaries that isolates the study area. More suggestions should be given on providing indicative entrances into the sites. Besides, it has neglected the integration of tram service as an environmental friendly mode of traveling in and out of the site.

Kelham Goyt for green open spaces (Kelham Neepseend Action Plan, 2008, p.23)

Shalesmoor tram stop

In relation to environmental sustainability, the Action Plan emphasized on the “retain, reuse, and restore� (p.13) of architecturally importance buildings. Resources could be preserved for the future urban development in this case, through the reuse of original construction materials and frameworks. Also, the distinctive historical characters that are conserved could fashion a sense of place that matters to people, and subsequently reinforce its identity. (Kelham Neepseend Action Plan, 2008, p.27) (Kelham Neepseend Action Plan, 2008, p.21)

Based on the site analysis, it shows that the key land use of Kelham and Neepsend is changing over time. Hence, there is a high prospect that it will transform into a multi-use urban space which includes residential, commercial and heritage significance. Action plan has outlined this opportunity and has highlighted the negotiation of residential and commercial developments according to Affordable Housing Interim Planning Guidance 2006 (p.5). Hence, sustainable economy is possible to achieve by maintaining the balance of consumption and production.

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

Moreover, the Action Plan does not provide constructive financial funding scheme to facilitate the delivery of the plan. Following the Financial Crisis of 2008 in the UK, Local Authority Revenue Spending in Sheffield has reduced ( Sheffield 0 to 19, 2010). Thus, the of funding these projects will be a real hindrance to the redevelopment progress. The Action Plan should be reviewed and renew periodically within the ten years time frame in response to changing socialeconomic conditions.

In short, even though Kelham Neepsend Action Plan 2008-2018 posses both strength and weaknesses, it projects a positive vision for the regeneration of the study area. It is viable to recreate the vivacity of Kelham and Neepseend that coherent to the Sheffield City Centre in wider spatial context.

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The primary objectives of this section is to reinforce the multi-use purpose of Kelham and Neepsend and to solve the problems identified through the proposed recommendations. The authenticity, personality and symbolic meanings of the place are maintained by recognising its “ Genius Loci ” (Trancik, 1986).

Welcoming Place

Genius Loci: Spirit of Place Places which people have attached feeling and deeper understandings of its cosmic (Norberg-Schulz, 1980 cited in Jiven and Larkham, 2003).

(Kiet Wai, 2012)

Don Valley Industrial identity Sheffield is depicted in The Road to Wigan Pier, by George Orwell: “ [if] at rare moments you stop smelling sulphur it is because you have begun smelling gas”. (Orwell, 1937, cited in Sheffield Waterways Strategy Group & Sheffield City of River, 2008, p.12)

The Chimney of electric power station, which is now below to the Kelham Island Museum is a landmark that represents the prosperity past of its industrial-centred economy in the 1900s. (Sheffield Waterways Strategy Group & Sheffield City of River, 2008, p.12)

Landmarks sculpture such as “KELHAM” can be located at the nodes of entrance. People will be aware of entering the area that belong to Kelham and Neepsend (Lynch, 1960). Merlion in Sentosa, Singapore is an great example that can be practiced.

N

The industry and workers life in 19th century were greatly associated to River Don. (Sheffield Waterways Strategy Group & Sheffield City of River, 2008, p.13)

Museum (Kiet Wai, 2012)

Tram stop

Main connections

Increase Place Legibility: The ease which people understand and recognise the layout of the study area through the “mental maps” formed in their minds, by external visual observation of the place (Lynch, 1960).

The Chimney, Kelham Museum. (The Chimney House, 2010)

Kelham Goyt and water wheel are important archaeological artefacts that shows the interactions of people with the river.

The Merlion in Sentosa, Singapore exhibit the identity of the place that promote the feelings of openness and welcoming. Kelham Goyt and wheel pit. (The Chimney House, 2011) (Harrier, 2009)

(Christine’s Travel Photography, 2011)

11


Pedestrian- Centred Environment Path structures are recognised as predominant place element that assist the uses to familiarize the routes and its interrelations. Thus, Lynch’s (1960) principle of path is used in this recommendation.

 Well-lit streets and quality lightning help in indicating direction and also increases visual appropriateness of the place (Bentley, et. al., 1985).

N

Ideal visualization: Pcadillly Circus London. (Google Map, 2012)

Ideal visualization: Grainger Town, Newcastle upon Tyne, England. (Yeang, n.d., p.104)

 Provide clear signage to show directions along the routes.

Museum

Tram stop Lightning

Pedestrian paths

Route sign

New pedestrian routes introduced bringing more convenience to the publics due to proximity to the alternative paths and increase permeability.

Ideal visualization: Royal Mile, Old Town, Edinburgh has blocks along that guide the direction of public movements.

N

Traffic

Paths

Mowbray Street (Google Map, 2012)

(InTheKnowTraveler, 2010)

 Pavements designed to calm down traffic and encourage drivers to drive cautiously. (Yeang, n.d.)

1. ○ 7

 New footpaths lead pedestrian to the “ sacred place” which is valued to local residents (Transik, 1986) :

Museum 6 ○

1 ○

2 ○ 3 ○

Tram stop

5 ○

Pedestrian paths New footpaths Alternative directions

2.

4 ○

1.Upper Don Riverside Walk 2.Upper Don Riverside Trail

 Segregated paths with kerb: Pedestrians and cyclists feel safe and comfort while using the paths. Apply to all the streets in the study area.

1 The River Side Café ○ 2 The Fat Cat Pub ○ 3 Kelham Island Brewery Shop ○ 4 Kelham Island Tavern ○ 5 City Life Christian Church ○ 6 Green Lane Works ○ 7 The MileStone Restaurant ○

(Yeang, n.d. , p.71)

Pleasant and attractive paths encourage people to walk and stimulate social interactions at street frontages.

12


Kelham Footbridge to History and Nature. N

Enhanced Riverside Walk

Buildings along the riverside are considered edges (Lynch, 1960) which block the view and accessibility to the river and Kelham Island. Applying the concepts of permeability (Bentley, et. al., 1985) a footbridge can be built to connects the three main points: Green Lane, Kelham Museum & Mowbray Street. This design increase the richness of the paths by offering sensory choices of both history and nature (Bentley, et. al., 1985)

Upper Don River Side Walk (Google Map, 2012)

Clean and consistent maintained riverside. The Shore in Leith, Edinburgh. (Visit Scotland, n.d.) N

N

The path cutting through Green Lane Works delivers cultural values to the viewers and heritage experiences .

1. Museum

2. Tram stop (Flickr, 2004) Pedestrian paths New footpaths Alternative directions

1.Upper Don Riverside Walk 2.Upper Don Riverside Trail

Ideal visualization: The Cambus o' May Victorian Suspension Bridge that built across the River Dee, Scotland. (Flikr, 2011)

The centre of the footbridge is designed to be an new open public spaces for recreation and sight viewing.

Seats available for publics. SouthYarra Riverside, Melbourne. (Bugbog, n.d.)

Upper Don River Trail (Panoramio, 2011)

13


Planning for Mixed-Use Development Opportunities

Strong line of active frontages constitute of banking services, post office, healthcare centres, retails, restaurants and leisure, could increase consumer choice of lifestyle (Yeang, n.d.)

Through multi-use design approach, the robustness, variety and richness of study area could be achieved and form a “responsive� urban environment that is able to face the challenge of changing social dynamic (Bentley, et. al., 1985). New robust public square is designed for variety of usage such as recreation, and as venue for publics events and festivals in the future. (Byrne and Sipe, 2010)

(Google Map, 2012)

Convenient accessibility to facilities. Elizabeth Street, Melbourne.

(Google Map, 2012)

(Google Map, 2012)

1. Museum

2.

Spaces for offices, light industries, art galleries, music recording studios that stimulate employment rates, economy viability and fulfil different interest of the community.

Tram stop N

St. Andrew Square, New Town, Edinburgh. (UK Local Authority World Heritage. 2008)

Pedestrian paths New footpaths Alternative directions

1.Upper Don Riverside Walk 2.Upper Don Riverside Trail

Car park with Victorian design is built to solve illegal parking and traffic congestion. Ground floor intended for commercial purposes.

Mixed residential and commercial building is built to accommodate the populations with a range of local services and amenities.

Kelham Museum Central Quay

Cheese grater car park building, with retails at the ground floor, in Sheffield. (Flickr, 2012)

Gloucester Green, Oxford. (WhiteWallsAgency, 2012)

Royal Victoria Place, Royal Tunbridge Wells.

Empty land at Green lane.

(Chadwick, 2009)

(Google Map, 2012)

Location of the empty land. (Google Map, 2012)

14


Community Involvement: Planning Consultation Getting the community to involve in planning decision is essential for developers and planners because it allows to understand the aspirations of communities more in-depth and specifically. Below are the proposing methods of obtaining engagement from the local community and other stake holders in the study area:

1.Face-to-face Survey Interview with local community group during a sit visits. It gives direct response of opinions and measures of satisfaction regarding the planning recommendations. (Nottinghamshire County Council, 2007)

2. Establishing public committees A channel for local residents and stakeholders to raise their opinions. For example, the existing Kelham Island Community Association which maintains the communication between the community and the council. (Sheffield City Council, 2008)

3. Organise public events or exhibition Less formal and provide more flexibility for public to attend.

4. Workshop This enables formal discussion with local and potential stakeholders. It facilitates the exchange of information with specific interest such as business investments and housing developments. (Nottinghamshire County Council, 2007)

5. Focus group This allows detailed exploration of complex issues and to seek particular interest group. It might be useful to investigate the subject of low investment rates in the study area. (Nottinghamshire County Council, 2007)

15


Conclusion This report has presented overall visions of the current condition and projected future development of Kelham Island and Neepsend. Critical examinations of Kelham Neepsend Action Plan 2008-2018 has assisted in more analytical planning and design recommendations. It is believed that mixed-use planning approach, principles of reusing existing buildings, integration of greenery and increased walkability of the study area, would slowly contribute in forming a self- sustainable community in Kelham Island and Neepsend.

16


Final Reference Bentley, Ian et. al. (1985). Introduction. Responsive Environments: A Manual for Designer. Oxford: Architectural Press, pp. 9-11. Byrne, J. and Sipe, N. (2010). Green and Open Space Planning For Urban Consolidation – A Review of The Literature and Best Practice. Brisbane: Urban Research Program Griffith University. Retrieved 2012, 8th December from http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/199128/urp-ip11-byrne-sipe-2010.pdf Jiven, G. and Larkham, P. J. (2003). Sense of Place, Authenticity and Character: A Commentary. Journal of Urban Design, 8/1, pp. 67-81. Lynch, K. (1960). The City Image and Its Elements. The Image of the City. Massachusetts: MIT Press, pp. 46-90. Mandale Business. (2012). Alma Street. Retrieved 2012, 18th Nov from www.mandale.com/commercial/almastreet/#detail Nottinghamshire County Council. (2007). Consultation Guides. Retrieved 2012, 9th December from http://www.nottinghamshire.gov.uk/thecouncil/democracy/have-your-say/guides/ Sheffield City Council. (2008). Kelham Neepsend Action Plan 2008-2018. Sheffield: Sheffield City Council. Sheffield City Council. (2012). Kelham Island Industrial Conservation Area: Statement of Special Interest. Retrieved 2012, 5th November from https://www.sheffield.gov.uk/planning-and-city-development/urban-design-conservation/conservation/conservationareas/kelham-island.html Sheffield Waterways Strategy Group & Sheffield City of River (2008). Sheffield City of Rivers. Edinburgh: Yellow Book

Sheffield 0 to 19. (2010). Update on Reduction to Local Authority Revenue Spending in Sheffield. Retrieved 2012, 20th November from https://www.sheffield0to19.org.uk/professionals/comms/budget-update.html Trancik, R. (1986). The Theories of Urban Spatial Design. Finding Lost Space. New York: Van Nostrand, pp. 97-124. Yeang, L. D. (n.d.). The Urban Design Compendium. London: Home & Communities Agency.

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Reference for Photographs Ancient Roam (n.d.). Kelham Island, 1:10000. EDINA Digimap. Retrieved 2012, December from http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/ancientroam/mapper

8th

Mitula Diva The Web (2012). Cornish Place. Retrieved 2012, 19th November from http://property.mitula.co.uk/property/gym-flat-sheffield

Bugbog. (n.d.). South Yarra Riverside, Melbourne. Retrieved 2012, 9th December from http://www.bugbog.com/gallery/australia_pictures/melbourne_pictures.html

Murray-Rust, A. (2008). Ball Bridge. Retrieved from 2012, 3rd December from http://www.geolocation.ws/v/W/File:Ball%20Street%20Bridge%20%20geograph.org.uk%20-%20979296.jpg/-/en

Chadwick, N. (2009). Royal Victoria Place, Royal Tunbridge Wells. Retrieved 2012, 7th November from http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1531498

Panoramio. (2011). Upper Don River Trail. Retrieved 2012, 5th December from http://www.panoramio.com/photo/53618583

Christine Travel Photography. (2011). Merlion, Sentosa, Singapore. Retrieved from 2012, 3rd December fromhttp://www.ctravelphotography.com/category/singapore/

Richardson, M.J. (2011). Kelham Goyt. Retrieved 2012, 19th November from http://www.keblawben.com/wordpress/?cat=38&paged=2

Flickr. (2004). Green Lane Works. Retrieved 2012, 20th November from http://www.flickr.com/photos/roger/1996925/ Flickr. (2011). The Cambus o' May Victorian Suspension Bridge. Retrieved 2012, 20th November from http://www.flickr.com/photos/moraypix/6172165084/ Flickr. (2012). Cheese Grater Car park Building, Sheffield. Retrieved 2012, 7th November from http://www.flickr.com/photos/gamingfloor/7948426278/ Google Map. (2012). Retrieved from www.google.com . 10th

Harrier, D. (2009). Kelham Wheel Pit. Retrieved 2012, http://www.flickr.com/photos/farmer55/4334543433/

November from

In The Know Traveler. (2010). Royal Mile, Edinburgh. Retrieved 2012, 9th November from http://www.intheknowtraveler.com/archives/429 Keblawben. (2010). Green Lane Works. Retrieved 2012, 17th November from http://www.keblawben.com/wordpress/?cat=38&paged=2 Kelham Brewery. (2012). The Fat Cat Pubs. Retrieved 19th November from http://www.kelhambrewery.co.uk/

Roam. (n.d.). Kelham Island, 1:10000. EDINA Digimap. Retrieved 2012, 8th December from http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/roam/mapper Sheffield City Council. (2010). Kelham Island Conservation Area Boundary. Retrieved 2012, 8th November from https://www.sheffield.gov.uk/planning-and-citydevelopment/urban-design--conservation/conservation/conservationareas/kelhamisland.html The Chimney House. (2010). The Chimney, Kelham Island Museum. Retrieved 2012, 10th November from www.thechimneyhouse.com The Chimney House. (2011). Kelham Goyt. Retrieved 2012, 10th November from http://www.thechimneyhouse.com/tag/kelham-island-museam/ UK Local Authority World Heritage. (2008). St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh. Retrieved 2012, 4th December from http://lawhf.co.uk/UserFiles/Image/Galleries/Edinburgh/FullSize/St%20Andrew%20 Square.jpg Visit Scotland. (n.d.). The Shore, Leith. Retrieved 2012, 9th December from http://www.edinburgh.org/about/about-edinburgh/areas/leith White Walls Agency. (2012). Gloucester Green, Oxford. Retrieved 2012, 7th November from www.wwagency.com

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Planning project an analysis on kelham island