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Dissertation | ANALOGY OF LOST SPACES | 2017

ANALOGY OF LOST SPACES

DISSERTATION IN ARCHITECTURE 2017-2018

Submitted by:

ABHISHEK KAPOOR AU1400103010004 /SSAA/B.Arch./14

Guide: Mrunali Balki, Associate Professor, S.S.A.A.

SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE ANSAL UNIVERSITY, GURGAON, INDIA

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Dissertation | ANALOGY OF LOST SPACES | 2017

SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE ANSAL UNIVERSITY, SECTOR 55, GURGAON – 122003, HARYANA

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This Dissertation is submitted by ABHISHEK KAPOOR, student of Fourth Year B. Arch. Session 2017-2018, at Sushant School of Art and Architecture, Gurgaon, as partial requirement for the Five Year B. Arch. Degree course of Ansal University, Gurgaon.

Originality of the information and opinion expressed in the Dissertation are of the author and do not reflect those of the guide, the mentor, the coordinator or the institution.

Signature of the Student: Roll No.: AU1400103010004

Signature of Guide Name: MRUNALI BALKI

Name: ABHISHEK KAPOOR Date: 28 November, 2016

Signature of Mentor Name: ILA GUPTA

Signature of Co-Mentor Name: NIRAJA ADLOORI

Date: 28 November, 2016 Date: 28 November, 2016

Signature of Coordinator Name: RADHA DAYAL Date: 28 November, 2016

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Dissertation | ANALOGY OF LOST SPACES | 2017

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The success and final outcome of this research paper required a lot of guidance and assistance from many people and I am extremely privileged to have got this all along the completion of my paper. All that I have done is only due to such supervision and assistance and I would not forget to thank them. I respect and thank Ms. Mrunali Balki, dissertation guide and mentor Dr. Ila Gupta and comentor Ms. Niraja Adloori, for providing me all information necessary for this research and giving me all the support and guidance which made me complete the paper duly. I owe my deep gratitude to my guide Ms. Mrunali Balki, who took keen interest on my research topic and guided me all along, till the completion of my research work by providing all the necessary information. I am also grateful to Mr. Sourav Banerjea, for sharing expertise, and giving insights as and when it was required. His guidance and encouragement has pushed me to dig deeper in my topic of research. I am thankful and fortunate enough to get constant encouragement, support and guidance from all Department faculty members which helped me in successfully completing my research. Also, I would like to extend my sincere esteems to all staff in library for their timely support and lending a helping hand whenever needed. Finally, I thank my parents who have provided support emotionally and morally, attended to all my needs, and my friends for providing me with constructive criticism to help shape my research framework better.

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Dissertation | ANALOGY OF LOST SPACES | 2017

ABSTRACT

Moving about a city, travelling through the time, one can see how the city has grown over the time. The hustling and hustling life of the city moves at an unparalleled pace and time passes as swiftly as the passing wind, In this dynamism and never ceasing cycle of the ever expanding city, there remain entities that have stood still in time as the silent onlookers to this whole process of change. These abandoned or forgotten spaces embedded in your urban landscape have stories related to them, have a history, but they haven't changed even a bit. In between the complexities of a city, these Lost Spaces or grey areas are existing since decades calling for occupation and definition, they have made the city porous. These Lost Spaces range from abandoned mills to close down movie theatres, from an old church to a dilapidated house with a haunted story attached to it, from disputed properties to sealed structures, the presence can't be overlooked. With the all new architectural landmarks, defined spaces and momentum of development these spaces lack a clear role or a meaning to them. The concept of the “Lost Spaces� is many faceted. It is the empty construction site often used by kids as an unofficial playground, or shortest route we take when we are walking to market or to our home. The research is based in Delhi NCR so it tries to understand the perception of the regeneration of the city, it also attempts to know the causes and character of Lost Spaces in context of Delhi. The research tries to explore the effects and disadvantages of Lost Spaces in the city and how adaptive reuse can make them a powerhouse of cultural, economic and energy needs of the city. The city as perceived through the study is seen as a mesh of solids and voids. Every city has active as well as inactive areas, spaces that are productive and also there exists spaces that remain non-productive. There are spaces, where a tissue is ruptured but the surrounding tissues continue to growth further. These ruptured tissues remain as dead spaces and slowly the city turns its back towards them. Sometimes these tissues do infect the surroundings. On the other hand, there are development pressures and the cities today iv


Dissertation | ANALOGY OF LOST SPACES | 2017

are exposed to problems of congestion, overcrowding and never ending need for more lands and space for future development. The voids, so identified, gets encroached and haphazardly developed by the piecemeal growth. They degenerate due to several conditions and quite often the lack of public concern and disputes in ownership being the main reasons behind it. They break the continuity of life and activity of the city. Hence the Lost Spaces, in spite of their potentials, do not contribute to the city. A sensitive approach needs to be taken to rejuvenate these spaces and use them to assist the functioning of various parts of the city, and also as an answer to many of its problems. The layer of these spaces can form a flexible approach in areas of development where lost spaces function as connecting element, which retains and builds a local pattern of open space.

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LIST OF TABLES/ FIGURES/ ILLUSTRATIONS

S. No 1

FIGURE NO.

CAPTION

SOURCE

Figure 1

Edge Spaces

Rethinking Urban Voids, Aamir Ansari, 2016 https://issuu.com/aamiransari/docs/finally_final

2

Figure 2

Large Roads

Rethinking Urban Voids, Aamir Ansari, 2016 https://issuu.com/aamiransari/docs/finally_final

3

Figure 3

Grounds/Vacant Spaces

Rethinking Urban Voids, Aamir Ansari, 2016 https://issuu.com/aamiransari/docs/finally_final

4

Figure 4

Functional Void

Rethinking Urban Voids, Aamir Ansari, 2016 https://issuu.com/aamiransari/docs/finally_final

5

Figure 5

Mumbai map with Mill

THE SPACES OF POST-INDUSTRIAL

land Area

MUMBAI, SHEKHAR KRISHNAN 2003 http://shekhar.cc/2003/01/10/the-spaces-of-postindustrial-mumbai/

6

7

Figure 6

Figure 7

Skyline behind

NM Joshi Marg, 2014

abandoned Mill land

http://mumbaipaused.blogspot.in

Phoenix Mall

Abhijit Bhatlekar/Mint, 2012http://www.livemint.com/Industry

8

Figure 8

Nehru Place Flyover

Google earth, 2017

9

Figure 9

Under Nehru Place

Author, 2017

Flyover 10

Figure 10

Fencing Under Nehru

Author, 2017

Place Flyover 11

Figure 11

Homeless people taking

Author, 2017

shelter under Nehru Place Flyover 12

Figure 12

Sector 55 Market,

Google earth, 2017

Gurgaon

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Dissertation | ANALOGY OF LOST SPACES | 2017

13

Figure 13

Taxi parked in the

Author, 2017

afternoon 14

Figure 14

Temporary shelter

Author, 2017

15

Figure 15

Abandoned market

Author, 2017

16

Figure 16

Agra Canal, Yamuna

Google earth, 2017

Okhla Region 17

Figure 17

Sectional interaction

Author, 2017

18

Figure 18

Agra Canal, Yamuna

Google Images

Okhla Region 19

Figure 19

Riverfront, Yamuna

Google Images

Okhla Region 20

Figure 20

Map showing area of

Google earth, 2017

intervention Mg Road near Ghitorni Metro Station 21

Figure 21

Semi-demolished

Google Images

Building Mg Road

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments………………………………………………………………………….i Abstract ……………...…………………………………......................................................ii List of Tables / Figures / Illustrations ……………………………………………………..iv Chapter 1: Introduction..........................................................................................................1 1.1. Overview ………………..........................................................................................2 1.2. Aim & Objective……...............................................................................................3 1.3. Methodology……….................................................................................................4

1.4. Scope & Limitation…...............................................................................................5 1.5. Research Question….................................................................................................5

Chapter 2: Lost Spaces ..........................................................................................................6 2.1 Defining Lost spaces………………..........................................................................6 2.2 Characteristics of Lost spaces....................................................................................7 2.3 Unused lost space and city planning……………......................................................8 2.4 Obsolete Lost space...................................................................................................9 2.5 Ill effects of Lost space..............................................................................................9 2.5.1

In a global context of economic and social transformations

2.5.2

Effects on community and neighbourhood aesthetics

2.5.3

Impact on public health and safely

Chapter 3: Parameters affecting Lost Space.........................................................................11 3.1 Physical....................................................................................................................11 3.1.1

Functional

3.1.2

Geographical

3.1.3

Phenomenological

3.1.4

Planning

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3.2 Social .......................................................................................................................14 3.2.1

Economical

3.2.2

Political

3.2.3

Cultural

3.2.4

Legal

Chapter 4: Case Studies .......................................................................................................16 4.1 Literature case study.................................................................................................16 4.1.1 Girangaon - The Mill Precinct of Mumbai 4.2 Primary Case study...................................................................................................19 4.2.1 Nehru Place Flyover 4.2.2 Sector 55 market, Gurgaon 4.2.3 Agra Canal- Delhi, Yamuna River Front 4.2.4 MG Road, Delhi

Chapter 5: Inference.............................................................................................................28 Chapter 6: Opportunities .....................................................................................................30 Chapter 7: Conclusion .........................................................................................................32

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Chapter 1: Introduction Temporality is a term associated with city life due to the fast track life of the city, it is often said that the city itself is a temporary phenomenon. There are always some changing places in the city an old office block turns into a supermarket, an empty parking lot turns into a Sunday market, a city square turns into a hawker zone. These changing incidents in the city are somewhat responsible in keeping the city lively. Change being the spice of life it is important that we endure the change and enjoy the temporality of the city. This dissertation tries to look at such spaces which have become a no man’s land in the ever growing city of Delhi, these spaces which suffer from placelessness and their potential to be changed into something of value, having an identity, even if on temporary basis, In 1961, in ‘The Death and Life of Great American Cities’, Jane Jacobs wrote the fact owing praise for ordinary historic buildings: Cities need old buildings so badly it is probably impossible for vigorous streets and districts to grow without them. By old buildings I mean not museum-piece old buildings, not old buildings in an excellent and expensive state of rehabilitation—although these make fine ingredients—but also a good lot of plain, ordinary, low-value old buildings, including some rundown old buildings. (Jane Jacobs, 1961) Lost Space can be interpreted as an urban area being without permeability and social realm. These spaces are undesirable urban areas that are in need of redesign, anti-space, making no positive contribution to the surroundings or users. The lost Space of the city are spaces which disrupt the urban tissue, leaving it incomplete and throw into question the use of those spaces.” Sometimes called urban ruins, they are at the limit between private and public space, without belonging either to the one or to the other.” (Parole, 2014). Traditionally cities have been growing gradually which lend enough auto-correction time for the spaces to accommodate and inculcate the required social groups. This social nucleus of an urban fabric is what defines it. “The city in its totality is understood as a geographic plexus, an economic organization, an industrial process, a theatre of social action, and an aesthetic symbol of collective unity. Social facts are much more significant than physical organization of the city, its industries and markets, lines of communication and traffic, all these are subservient to its social needs.”(Mumford 1937)

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1.1: Overview Emerging of Lost Space is based on the process adopted for development of urban fabric. In general if we could bifurcate the development as ‘instantaneous’ and ‘process based’ /’incremental’ then it can be generalized that the instantaneous growth leads to birth of these spaces. This explains how the old cores of Indian cities have less number of Lost Spaces. The city with its complexity function as catalyser of societal development it is also the place where transformations manifest directly in the urban texture. In the city how do we define lost spaces? How can unused urban space be defined? Definition of lost spaces are generally related to their origin, the way they were created. An important distinction can be made between: 1. Terrains that have been kept vacant during the formation of the city around them. 2. Terrains that have had previous occupation and have been abandoned at some point. The concept of the ‘Lost Space' is many faceted it is- the empty construction site that kids use as an unofficial playground. The shortcut route one passes through while walking back home from work. It is the empty house at the end of the street which looks creepy and is rumoured to be haunted. Or the empty industrial building which is squatted —in by homeless people or occupied unofficially by artists as their studio. Or it can be a religious building which is locked up by the authority to reduce tension between different communities. “They are ill-defined, without measurable boundaries and fail to connect elements in a coherent way.” (Steve Ties dell, Matthew Carmona, 2007) The significance of Lost Spaces is very prominent in the fabric of most cities. And they are many times seen as a sign of inner city decline if we assume the city is a large organism then these voids can be seen as inactive cells in the organism which do not function to its full potential. Harm the functioning of the body as a whole, but at the same time they do not help the organism to function to its full potential. Such spaces are always seen as problem to city beautification, a cause of or a part of deteriorated environment, poor visual quality and undesirable providing untidy conditions, causing public safety problems and violating rules. ‘So in general, this type of land is seen by many as the most and demoralizing sign of inner city decline and also recognized as a significant barrier to the revitalizing of central cities.’(Accotdino Johnson, 2000). Several terms like vacant land, urban-wasteland, under-utilized land, abandoned property, remnant parcel, dead space, derelict zone, brownfields and even more new definitions like TOAD (Temporarily Obsolete Abandoned Derelict Sites), lost spaces are used to define these spaces.

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Places do not possess singular, but multiple and contested identities. “Thus, place-making is shaped by conflict, differences and social negotiations among differentially situated and at times antagonistically bound and others whose social relations are understanding span entire regions and transcend national boundaries.” (Smith Michael Peter, Transnational Urbanism, 2001) Over the last century extruded vertical form an urban grid of one city block, the resultant form is artificial and measurable urban typology. Five major factors that contributing to the problem are identified as automobiles, zoning policies, architectural design, public interest and change in land use. Lost spaces can have anonymous interpretation. Place which is lit and happening for one person can be Lost Space to be other. Example being a small temporary Panwari (Cigarette shop) can be a functional space for a person who is going there to buy cigarette but at the same time, it can be a lost space for Women and the kids for who this space is unfunctional.

1.2 Aim And Objective The dissertation aims to understand analogy of lost space & its relevance in urban scenario. And to analysis what quantifies as a void in an urban area, their origin, the reason of abandonment and their impact. 

To understand/define Lost Space with reference.

Categorisation & parameters that lead to creation of lost space.

How economic, physical social and political factors effect lost space.

To study impact on the immediate environment and people and how they experience them.

Explore the importance of Lost Spaces in central areas and its urban intervention potentiality.

To find out the factors responsible for creation of Lost Spaces in an urban space.

To analyse different examples of the same, and make an observation of their discourse in future.

To study existing measures and policies implied for them.

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1.3 Methodology

     

Precedent of Resources Categorisation Chart for case study of establishing relationship between different groups and lost space Interviews and Surveys- What the users are doing, why they are here. Link analysis- Arranging the layout of the task/area to influence certain behaviours. Literature review – Is conducted to establish the framework for the study of the lost space within the urban fabric

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 

Observational Research. Task analysis- What people are doing in the public space, what is the order in which they engage in tasks? Analysing the site for Case Studies

Several observational technique such as –  Collecting the Data  Behaviour Mapping  Counting  Tracking  Trade Measures Can be used to analyse the site. The studies should be done more than once and different times of day and week to understand the flow of place. Making the Place making Plan1. Public Participation- By observing we can get the initial, idea, knowledge about the place. But to analyse the site to its depth we need to have public participation. 2. Stakeholder interviews- Interviewing the stakeholders and other individual discussing about the ownerships and rights. 3. Individual/ Groups- Identifying the focus groups who would play an important role in deciding it’s role. They can help us understanding the opportunities and challenges faced by them at the site. Hypothesis- Can revamping of Lost Spaces invite people and create activities.

1.4 Limitation- Research cannot be done on private property. Scope  

The study offer scope to understand the Lost Spaces by studding lost spaces in Delhi NCR. How meaning of lost space differ from person and community to community. Working on Lost Spaces can be explored by looking at its political, social and economic and social impact on different spaces.

1.5 Research Question   

Can Lost Spaces be turned into Functional Space? How different groups be brought to one functional space. What are the barriers for development of these lost spaces? What are the reasons for their abandonment? 5


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Chapter 2: Lost Space "What are Lost Spaces?" They are places? Or non-places? Do they have potentials to be filled with a specific function and which is the best solution? "They are the edges lacking effective incorporation, the inner islands empty of activity, and the forgotten debris that remain out of the urban dynamics,� The potential of such 'Lost Space' can be defined as follows, "Unutilized, under-utilized or abandoned land and premises Which exist in urban areas due to outdated of defunct uses"(Perera, 1994: p.130)

2.1: DEFINING LOST SPACE They range from large tracts of land to small lots or even idle buildings - abandoned warehouses. Existence of such unused spaces does not only stand for social issue concerned with the bad use of invested money or contempt for built real estate. It is also an environmental crime, since a previously designed and calculated infrastructure is not fully utilized so the city needs to search for new lots, new territories in order to grow, and territories to be urbanized. (Anastassakis, 2004). Bo Gronlund (1994) talks about the lacking aspect of urban voids in his article filling the void of Urbanity by trying define the term voids as:Many different kind of phenomena, as we are not talking about voids in an absolute sense, lacking functions. Lacking people. Lack of aesthetic experience. Lack of difference. So Lost Spaces can be defined as spaces in the city which are completely empty and waiting to be defined. These spaces of the city are space which disrupt the urban tissue. Leaving it incomplete and throw into question of those spaces. Sometimes called urban ruins, they are at the limit between private and public space, without belonging either to the one or to the other urban voids are containers of memory, fragments of the built city and the natural environment, memories of the city which constitute a random, unplanned wilder. (Noll & Scupelli 2000). A lost space is any space that remains unutilized within our urban environment. Lost spaces are part of public realm, rarely designed to function with both social and environment benefit of the city. (Aporee, 2011)

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The problem of "lost space," or the inadequate use of space, afflicts most urban centers today. The automobile, the effects of the Modern Movement in architectural design, urban–renewal and zoning policies, the dominance of private over public interests, as well as changes in land use in the inner city have resulted in the loss of values and meanings that were traditionally associated with urban open space. We need a comprehensive and systematic examination of the crisis of the contemporary city and the means by which this crisis can be addressed and these space can be economically beneficially for the government. These spaces can be come to a live and can be used and generate a revenue. Finding Lost Space traces leading urban spatial design theories that have emerged over the past eighty years: the principles of Sitte and Howard; the impact of and reactions to the Functionalist movement; and designs developed by Team 10, Robert Venturi, the Krier brothers, and Fumihiko Maki, to name a few. In addition to discussions of historic precedents, contemporary approaches to urban spatial design are explored. We may consider a lost space as a passageway, a roundabout, space between two buildings, a highway shoulder, or tenants of the city's history and memory. (Roger Trancik, 1986.) The awareness of space is much more than a mental activity. The awareness occupies all domains of our senses and feelings, which need a vast presence in our life in a city a space is blind and decayed when it has no communication with human activities, memory is an important aspect of space formulation.

2.2 Characteristics of Lost spaces An abandoned structure in an urban area can be seen as a Lost Space when: 

It is not characterized by a specific function.

Serve an anesthetic point of view.

Is devoid of Interesting or indifferent actions of everyday life

These places are deprived of human activity, do not as such provoke many questions or special interests.

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These spaces are ill-defined, without measurable bound and rise and fail to connect elements in a coherent way.

It is in need of redesign, anti-space, making no positive contribution to the surroundings or users.

Lost Space can even be created by identifying dilapidated premises which has potential to redevelop for new urban function.

They are sometimes ill-defined, without measurable boundaries and fail to connect elements in a coherent way.

An urban void has been related with: bad lands, blank space, border vacuums, brown fields, Dead Zones, derelict areas, empty places, free space, nameless spaces, polite spaces, post architectural zones, spaces of indeterminacy, spaces of uncertainty, urban deserts, vacant lands, voids, white areas, Wasteland Space Left Over After Planning (SLOAPs).

2.3 Unused Urban Space and City Planning 'Derelict land' The UK's National Land Use Database of 2007 (NLUD) describes: "The land that was previously used, and currently falls outside the norms occupancy, use and acceptable appearance as Derelict Land. The term derelict land means ‘land so damaged by previous industrial or other developments that it is incapable of beneficial use without treatment. It is somewhat equivalent to 'brown fields’ The term derelict has some moral overtones — it implies somebody has intentionally left something (or somebody) behind that is destitute and/or delinquent. The implication is understandable considering the places the term originally refers to were production sites that having been deemed unprofitable by their owners, were closed down with business transferring elsewhere. Some definitions of unused urban space emphasize the emptiness of the terrain compared to the surrounding built environment. The fact that they are not occupied by neither people nor construction and infrastructure. : Vacant Terrain

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Others emphasize the fact that they are abandoned, without urban, activity and in some occasion’s buildings. Contaminated: Urban Wastelands, Derelict land Degraded arid Deteriorated land or building.

2.4 Obsolete Urban Spaces Three basic types. 

The unoccupied urban spaces.

The unused urban spaces and

The underutilized urban spaces.

2.5 The ill effects of Lost Spaces 2.5.1 In a global context of economic and social transformations- urban voids are assuming an important role for socio-economic implications on the urban area. They are: Wasted resources and lost tax revenues- Abandoned structures are a waste of resources. This waste is particularly cruel when the scarcity of affordable housing is an important issue for some sections of the community, as it is in the case of groups such as homeless. At the same time. Abandonment involves lost tax revenues for the community as a whole. Declining property values — economic losses, both private and public. Are not confine, to abandoned structures themselves. Abandonment affects other properties within a neighborhood by lowering proper, values (Greenberg, 1993) 2.5.2 Effects on community and neighborhood aesthetics - abandoned buildings have negative impact upon social as well as pure, economic aspects of wellbeing. Abandoned buildings are often unattractive. At best, as when a building has been raised abandonment makes no positive aesthetic contribution to a neighborhood At worst abandoned buildings are eyesores. Their grounds become unkempt and overgrown while the buildings themselves become dilapidated through lack of maintenance. Abandoned buildings are 9


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frequently boarded-up or worse still, become burnt-out shells. In any event. They bring no aesthetic pleasure to the residents of neighborhoods in which they are located. Abandoned buildings can also have an insidious effect on the social fabric of a community by encouraging ‘social atomization'. — A process which isolates the individual (or individual family) within a community, weakening ties to others and. hence, the sense of collectivity which is the hallmark of any thriving community. In the first place, social atomization can arise because, as abandoned buildings cluster. Individuals can become literally - i.e. geographically - isolated, separated from one another by vacant lots and uninhibited structures. 2.5.3 Impact on public health and safely - the most frequently raised concerns about abandonment include issues connected with public health and safety. First. Abandoned buildings are often used as garbage dumps (Wallwork, 1974) and are plagued by rodent Infestation. Clearly this has undesirable connotations for the breeding and transmission of diseases. Second, abandoned buildings often create toxic waste hazards. This is especially in the case of abandoned industrial structures finally.

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Chapter 3: Parameters affecting lost space Some cities were organized around a downtown core. As time has passed, and industry change many of these cities have faced declining populations and decreases in density. Having fallen into disuse since the 90s, these vacant or underutilized structures are often used by wineries or other industry as warehouses. This change of altered surrounded by new development tending, not only in terms of materiality, but location and history patterns of use within the city. Its Enders are necessary when attempting to (re)integration these kinds of voids into functional urban space. These factors that create a Lost Space can also become the basis for classification of these urban voids as;

3.1: Physical 3.1.1

Functional - Functional voids are voids created due to left over space or a built mass that has become defunct. Functional void have a great legal aspect associated with it, in general defunct areas/buildings are either under litigation or are government property where reallocation of functions have to go rough a mammoth bureaucratic process.

3.1.2

Geographical - Geographical voids are voids that are created due to existence of a geographical feature. Such voids are resultant of planning process.

3.1.3

Phenomenological - These voids are voids that are created due to the faulty planning process. These are the voids that are most visible in an urban area.

Phenomenology means the study of the "phenomena". It's what appears in the conscience, it means to explore what is there, the thing that it's thought, the one that it’s talking about’. (Lyotard, 1974) The phenomenological void could be defined as a place that has been characterized by context and history that are now outside the realm of urban functionality, growth and transformation (i.e. natural disasters, wars, etc.) The phenomenological void is an individual event within the city, it builds itself by its own phenomena, its own facticity. 3.1.4

Planning - Planning Voids are voids that are created due to the faulty planning process. These are the voids that are most visible in an urban area.

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Figure 1: Edge Spaces, Source: Aamir Ansari, 2016

Figure 2: Large Roads, Source: Aamir Ansari, 2016

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Figure 3: Grounds/Vacant Spaces, Source: Aamir Ansari, 2016

Figure 4: Functional Void, Source: Aamir Ansari, 2016

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Lost Space is a space being without permeability and public realm. Permeability have two factors, social and physical. Physical permeability refers to a barrier, e.g. a highway/railway/nullah line inside the city is usually a barrier, similarly a slum become a barrier at an area level, this barrier can be a building with large foot print. Social permeability generally results due to ghettos that become a barrier due to social reasons. Both the parameters of ‘permeability’ and ‘public realm’ are interdependent on various factors like scale/site/audience it caters too. A shared space at one scale may become lost space at another scale. E.g. a slum is a shared space with its great internal permeability and public realm, but at an area level it becomes a ghetto, a social and physical barrier as it is not accessed by most of the communities because of difference in socio culture. Lost space can be empty industrial building which is rumoured to be haunted and is empty due to economic issue. Or it can be land which is not getting used due to socio-cultural issue. Like Babri Masjid, Ayodhya and many other such examples which are close down to maintain Harmony in the society. The significance of these spaces are very prominent in the fabric of most cities. And they are many times seen as a sign of inner city decline. If we assume city as a living organism these spaces can be seen as inactive cells in organisms.

3.2: Social 3.2.1 Economic - Development of local small scale capitalism to global large scale capitalism (standardization, repetition, large units, etc.) Unique human works often less profitable and lose to global large scale capitalism when fighting for the same space. The economic dynamics of land in a developing economy leads to singular usages compromising the social fabric of the entire city. Such a context restricts the formation of lost spaces. It can have multiple stake holders. A lost space can and cannot belong to everyone, it is different from the ‘commons’ as technically/legally the space will belong to a person or organization, but sense of ownership transcend the legal ownership. 3.2.2 Politics - Development of local, small scale politics to large scale politics (= standardization, repetition, large units.) Urban planning as planning to reduce difference. The development of a welfare state based on taxation of labor. The 14


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institutionalization of life and urban space through services decided and run from above and in a centralized way. 3.2.3 Cultural - Technical development and economic growth focused on individualism and. It is interesting that the origin of these spaces is from the other issues not only from the urbanization itself. Even the culture of society is also assessed as one of the mechanisms that create voids. “The missing links are inept definition in these areas are the reflection of a decomposed contemporary society in which ‘the spaces in between things’, between objects and subjects, between my house and my neighbour’s, between their office and mine, is traversed by many strangers, and is not a meeting place, it has become ‘empty’ because it plays no recognizable role.”(Secchi, Bernardo, 1993 3.2.4 Legal - The voids created due to the pending legal disputes or disagreement between numbers of owners can lead to land or buildings remaining unused for a long time. Lost Space may become a shared space at another scale or on contrary may have a public used space within it. Physical

Economical

Social

Political

Approachability

Not always approachable ,

Social status plays an

Terrain plays an

depending on allowance

imp. role, and can

important role

disrupt accessibility Connectivity

Well connected

Depend

Barriers, guarded

Critical & Form

Well built, but abandoned

Home to goons

Not Defined

Ownership

Private

Private turned public

Mostly public

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Chapter 4: Case Studies 4.1 Literature Case Study 4.1.1 GIRANGAON — THE MILL PRECINCT OF MUMBAI Central district of Mumbai consists of 600 acres of defunct mill lands that represent the textile era of the city. 'Girangaon" is a Marathi word for - Mill village- or the mill precinct which is characterized by industrial architecture of more than 50 mills. By early 20th century there were more than 50 textile mills in Mumbai which transformed it from a trading town to a manufacturing centre. Increased employment opportunities in mills drew thousands of migrants from towns and villages all over the state. Areas where mills were located grew to become the heart of the city. Eventually Central Mumbai witnessed a distinctive skyline of tall chimneys and gigantic mill structures. Mill workers housing, recreational grounds (for worker colonies). Places of worship and entertainment are some of the dominant elements in the urban characteristics of Girangaon.

Mill land Area

DEVELOPMENT - Residential. Institutional and infrastructure

Figure 5: Mumbai map with Mill land Area, Source: Shekhar, 2003

development had already commenced in the south region of the city and development plans were now being modified and extended towards the north. To encourage the development of textile industry and promote industrial production, acres of lands in central Mumbai were given to the mill owners at concessional rates by the colonial Bombay Government. Mumbai’s development as an economic hub was greatly enhanced by these very mills. Eventually central Mumbai witnessed a distinctive skyline of tall chimneys and gigantic mill structures.

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Over 50 mills in less than a 3 Mile radius converted this portion of the city into an incredibly crowded, lively and dynamic hub. Almost all of the workers employed by mills lived in close proximity of their place work. Such an aggregation of workers within a smaller region of the city increased the social and cultural involvement of workers in the community. By Mid-nineteenth century, textile industry experienced several technological changes all over the world. The conventional handloom technology faced a severe competition from the advanced power loom techniques. By 1980's it became uneconomical to maintain large scale industrial units within the city limits on account of high power and tax costs.

Figure 6: Skyline behind abandoned Mill land, Source: NM Joshi Marg, 2014

Another reason for the ultimate shut down of mills is the 18 month long strike by mill workers' union in 1982. Nearly 250000 workers & more than 50 textile mills went on strike. REDEVELOPMENT OF TEXTILE MILL LANDs The skyline of Girangaon began to change steadily with the arrival of high rise luxury towers. When Phoenix converted one of its structures into Bowling alley (the permission for this was obtained on the pretext of building a recreation center for the workers), Girangaon was really shaken. The issue of mill lands no longer was limited to mill workers alone: it concerned the issue of urban development. In 1990, DCR 58 (Development Control Regulation) came into existence. DCR 58 allowed the mill owners to sell part of their land. For the first time Mill owners were allowed "change of use (from Industrial to Residential / commercial on the condition Figure 7: Phoenix Mall, Source: Abhijit Bhatlekar/Mint, 2012

that they use the resultant funds for the revival

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Of the mills. They were allowed to sell only 15 percent of the mill land and use the resources to modernize the mills. City developers and in builders have already redeveloped a number of defunct mill lands the and in most cases is used for residential high rises and in some cases for commercial, retail and entertainment sectors. Almost all the existing structures on these mill lands were demolished completely (except a few factory features like Chimney) for redevelopment. INFERENCE The current piecemeal and individual development of mill lands is one of the major problems when it comes to retaining the character of Girangaon. This approach initiated by the mill owners denies the integrated development the city needs. It also points out the lack of any overall planning and development strategy seeking to create coherent urban form and address other issues like housing for low income groups. Civic amenities and new employment opportunities for ex-mill workers. The high walls were acting as a barrier for the people to experience this rich fabric of the city. The characteristics like connectivity, growth, people, street life, buildings and vegetation area present within the mill premise. And these characteristics were felt like willing to interact with today's city to tell its untold stories. The brick chimney, which was a symbol of energy for the mills, now drives the new form of Architecture vertically and horizontally and acts as a focal point. The study group recommends further research and analysis of the existing conditions in Girangaon. This report is limited just to the mill plots themselves, yet some attention has been paid to the surrounding areas. The report also says to bring about more comprehensive & decisive urban renewal, detailed planning would have to be undertaken to address many problems of the area such as chawl reconstruction, hosing for the pavement dwellers, parking for intercity buses etc. This would also involve resolution of legal considerations related to repairs and reconstruction of old buildings.' (Charles Correa Foundation Study Group Report,1996)

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4.2 Primary Case Study This public space to Lost Space relationship from a political angle is what defines the electoral politics of Delhi. Delhi being a city state in terms of its geographical boundaries have little difference in terms of area under the municipality or the state government, but every election proves that the political party that wins to form the state government sits in the opposition in the municipality. At a state level certain areas can only be perceived as a lost space, but there exists shared space inside them which can be explored only at municipal level, thus the priorities of people change from state election to municipal elections.

4.2.1

Nehru Place Flyover

Functional voids are voids created due to left over space or a built mass that has become defunct. A Functional void have a great legal aspect associated with it; in general defunct areas/buildings are either under litigation or are government property where reallocation of functions has to go through a mammoth bureaucratic process" The urban areas of Delhi are

Figure 8: Nehru Place Flyover, Source: Google earth, 2017

continuously evolving and in the process has led to the creation of spaces that are either dysfunctional or lacks the quality of a space. Delhi is often referred to as the 'city of flyovers' by many. Flyovers in Delhi have always been a topic of debate for architects, planners and the public in general, likewise. The transportation issue of Delhi has been solved by these flyovers or not, is a debatable topic; however the spaces under these flyovers are usually defunct, no matter how much success the flyover network above is. With the conscious effort of architects and planners, the spaces under these flyovers have become a serious consideration for the urban development. While many flyovers have designed

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landscapes below them, there are several where these landscaped spaces are used by the homeless as a shelter.

The Nehru Place Flyover near the Nehru Place area presents a very suitable example of functional voids in the city of Delhi. The spaces below the metro track and the flyover are occupied by the homeless people and have become a small neighbourhood of a certain community. The tents and shops of these people are so dominant that the pedestrian road below the flyover is now not in use by the general public because of this homeless settlement.

Figure 9: Under Nehru Place Flyover, Source: Author, 2017

Figure 10: Fencing under Nehru Place Flyover, Source: Author, 2017

Present situation At present, the space below the flyover is occupied by several homeless families and serves as their home, storage, workspace and everything under one flyover. The spaces below the flyover are dirty and almost unusable. The pedestrian road that was meant to connect the area with the nearby Nehru Place and the Greater Kailash area is lying in a neglected state and thus these homeless take liberty in putting up their tents or establishing makeshift kitchens on the same pedestrian pathway. The areas below the flyover and the elevated metro track become haven for beggars, homeless and temporary shops. The major problem of the area is the presence of the metro station at an immediate proximity and also the nearby industrial area, the workers of which find their shelter below this flyover only. The people here are not willing to move anywhere else, despite the several proposals laid by the government agencies and DUSIB alike.

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The people are moved on regular basis and fencing is done by government agencies but they return after few days.

Figure 11: Homeless people taking shelter under Nehru Place Flyover, Source: Author, 2017

With a few small interventions and amenities, this patch could be completely transformed and that if given the chance, these slender patches of space would find a host of uses that would be constantly changing over time, responsive to collect need present aspiration and seasonal calendar instead of the spaces for shelter, community budding, for worship. Night Shelters, Community Spaces and recreational can be few programs used for intervention.

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4.2.2 Sector 55 market, Gurgaon HUDA market being a government product has taken all design criteria while designing a market place, including small courtyards to allow light to penetrate into every store. Although the space outside the building and between the road and the built is under designed. Therefore, putting it into the category of Planned Lost Space. Owing to poor design of void space, the space outside building looks like a 'lost space'.

Figure 12: Sector 55 Market, Gurgaon, Source: Google Earth, 2017

Here, the building sits in the centre of the site, thus making all the empty space around it a space where informality occurs. Informality occurs in more than one ways. Based on function: 1. Panwadi - these vendors are the most commonly seen, they sell commodities ranging from paan, cigarettes, etc. to small packaged snacks and mouth fresheners. 2. Taxi Drivers- Cabs are usually packed at odd times. 3. Food stalls - commonly seen on the footpath, next to the main road inside the market. Such vendors sell freshly made snacks.

Figure 13: Taxi parked in the afternoon, Source: Author, 2017

Figure 14: Temporary shelter, Source: Author, 2017

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3. Other merchandise sellers - these vendors although, less in number offer wide variety, from selling books to footwear. They are also seen on the main road footpath. 4. Temporary shelters- Unauthorised shelter built on unconstructed plot. People activity changes throughout the day, in the morning informal businesses are being set up, the area around each vendor is being cleaned up by the vendor himself. Vegetable supplies are being dropped off and arranged by shopkeepers. By noon time when all things are set in order, people are seen walking through the space, but the activity level is low. It is from five o' clock onwards that more people start to interact with the space. People activity changes throughout the day, in the morning informal businesses are being set up, the area around each vendor is being cleaned up by the vendor himself. Vegetable supplies are being dropped off and arranged by shopkeepers. By noon time when all things are set in order, people are seen walking through the space, but the activity

Figure 15: Abandoned market, Source: Author, 2017

level is low. It is from five o' clock onwards that more people start to interact with the space. Density of people increases as the time of the day increases, i.e. the space becomes a busy bazaar by night as compared to less pedestrian activity in the morning and afternoon time. Density of people depends on the nature of activity in the space.

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4.2.3 Agra Canal- Delhi, Yamuna River front Lost space can be generated by geographical features such as terrain, water body, canal, river etc. The river Yamuna crosses Delhi at various parts and the unwanted/disrespected use has led to the creation of several such voids. The canal is an important irrigation network that starts from the Okhla region of New Delhi. The canal is an important irrigation network that starts from the Okhla barrage and follows the Khar-Nadi and Yamuna and finally joins the Banganaga river about 20 miles below Agra. The canal was intended to be used for the purpose of irrigation but now it lies in a dilapidates state, whilst the surrounding areas of Okhla Village, Okhla Vihar, Noor Nagar and Jasola Village coke under the Lal Dora and will be regularized only by 2021. The selected portion of the canal is located between the highly dense areas of. At present the stretch of the canal is rendered useless and inaccessible by the public, and the canal has become an urban nullah with people using it as waste disposal ground. The particular canal is surrounded by highly dense

Figure 16: Agra Canal, Yamuna Okhla Region, Source: Google Earth, 2017

residential areas and could act as a potential breather and recreational space for the uses and yet lies in a sorry state due to the sheer negligence of the users and the concerned agencies.

Figure 17: Sectional interaction, Source: Author

The major problem identified to present a potential solution includes the lack of connectivity between the canal and the nearby areas, only once the connection between the

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user and canal is established, can there be a possibility to work and develop the concerned areas, and hence the solution begins at making canal stretch accessible. It is a sad reality that the presence of a river cutting through a city in the indian subcontinent is treated as crucially as it is done in the rest of the parts of the world. The presence of river Yamuna in Delhi could be beneficial in several ways for its overall growth and development, but sadly its potential has been underestimated and thus it lies there in a sorry state.

Figure 18: Agra Canal, Yamuna Okhla Region, Source: Google Images

Figure 19: Riverfront, Yamuna Okhla Region, Source: Google Images

Agra canal is only one such example where the exploitation of the water body has not been put to beneficial use, and thus it creates an obvious geographical void. As obvious from the examples outside India, water bodies can immensely add on to the character of a place and helps making the space more liveable. India too, is seeing a change in the way we look at this geographical features, and proposals like Sabarmati Riverfront Development are the initial steps towards building a connection between these water bodies and the users/surroundings.

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4.2.4 MG Road, Delhi Characterized by context and history that are now outside the realm of urban functionality, growth and transformation, examples of phenomenological voids exist in urban settlement, owing to the constant development and evolution that leaves behind a phenomenal history, and hence the lost spaces The phenomenal history, and hence the voids.

Figure 20: Map showing area of intervention Mg Road near Ghitorni Metro Station Source: Google Earth

The phenomenological space is an individual event within the city. Delhi has witnessed uncountable events that have left lost spaces within the city, but Delhi in particular is quick on filling up these spaces or making up for them, however a hint is always left behind and thus these voids reflect in the urban character of the city. In the year 2006, MCD has demolished several commercial buildings on MehrauliGurgaon road, Delhi because of illegal status of constructing in residential area. Mcd had however, only half demolished these buildings and did not finish the demolition under the Delhi laws (Social Provision Act). PRESENT SITUATION The CIVIC agency had torn down parts of the structures in 2006. The agency has since forgotten about the buildings, which now stands in a semi-demolished state and are a safety hazard for neighbours and passers-by. They practically pose as the phenomenological space and nothing much has been done in order to re-use these spaces.

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MG-0 resembles a ghost house. Mg-1 is covered with a green sheet to prevent falling stones and pieces of cement landing on passers-by and parked cars. At Mg-2, the civic agency had demolished the lower floors, leaving gravity to do the rest. At present, the upper floors are settled precariously on the crumbling pillars of the lower floors. Two of the four partially demolished buildings on road- 1MG and 13 MG- have been protected from crumbling on the road by buttressing them with iron poles. They have been covered with blue cloth to ensure that a falling piece does not hurt any passer-by.

Figure 20, 21: Semi-demolished Building Mg Road Source: Google Images

Due to the presence of these voids on MG Road, the residents of the area face a threat constantly. Since these voids contain semi — demolished buildings, so in order to re-use these spaces, the only possible way is to demolish the structures entirely. Rebuilding commercial establishments will against be the violation of codes and laws, and thus is not a sensible solution- However, these spaces could be reused as community spaces to benefit all the residents of the nearby areas as well as the users of MG Road in general. These spaces so proposed are to be recreational in nature and thus include green spaces, community centres, public parks/plazas, etc. Since these voids lie prominently on the main stretch of the MG road connecting Delhi and Gurgaon, thus the usage of these spaces is crucial for the overall development of this stretch. The entire stretch is full of showrooms and retail outlets and thus these voids could help in breaking the monotony of this area and present a well suited example of re-use of the phenomenological voids in an urban area.

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Chapter 5: Inference Delhi at present with its space crunch and ever rising costs of living, is now at a point where the presence of lost space cannot be neglected. Delhi cannot afford to have multitude of defunct spaces and hence the development/re-use of these spaces becomes important. Spaces below the flyovers have always been a topic of debate in India, and despite numerous proposals to work them out, there are a very few examples where the successful utilization of under spaces has been achieved. Delhi, in particular has large number of flyovers and each one of them is eating up a lot of space on ground that is most of the time, unusable. A phenomenological voids is a result of a phenomenon, an event, and Delhi has seen too many of them. However, Delhi has always been quick on filling up such spaces. Lack of usable space, or the revival of urban character; it has always resulted in unique ways to adapt and re-use these spaces for Delhi. If we consider the inclusion of urban voids in repertoire of urban spaces, we are potentially faced with of the consequential loss of the unpredictable and imperfect that constitutes some of the key qualities of these other spaces. However the condition of growing urban density and an increased contestation for open green spaces might require us to think about a gradient between architectural uses, the re-integration of imperfect sites in the formative context of a cityscape. Lost spaces clearly possess the potential to form counter perspectives for urban open spaces: active non-commercial uses, creative uses and temporary uses, passive ecosystem functions. They form distinct spaces outside a programmed urban norm. We should consider the leftover as spaces to offer an alternative to the predictable spaces of consumption and to hold true potential for urban wilderness and biodiversity, especially in fluctuating dynamic, ever-changing networks. The ability to recognize lost space as an integral part of the urban fabric is providing a framework for a layered approach of urban re-development. Under the pressure of urban growth and densification, the lost spaces can function as a mediator between existing and new. These spaces can provide the tissue of the familiar and unfinished under conditions of renewal and replacement. The spaces can function as generators and canvass for creative

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expression that enables recognition of a human scale. We further suggest that these spaces provide the opportunity to rethink existing notions of open Space distribution and classification. In acknowledging their full potential the small and fragmented character of the spaces within the urban fabric can rather be regarded as an opportunity than a constraint. The fragmentation enables the consideration of a network of spaces tied to urban patterns and legacy. Paradigm shift in understanding truly flexible urban spaces: the individual voids might appear and disappear in cycles of development- yet as a whole, these spaces form a constant part of the city. The capacity for social, cultural and ecological reconsideration of these spaces will be substantially depend through further and ongoing research. Specifically the task of communicating tangible research outcomes that undermines the benefits of the creative understanding of the potential resource lost spaces in the urban framework to stakeholders in planning and development is viewed a major challenge for future research.

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Chapter 6: Opportunities A wider dialogue about the way in which we might use the vacant and ‘lost’ spaces within the city to address contemporary concerns. The fact that there may be lost space somewhere else little mitigates the discomfort. And there is strong carry over effect. Zoning is no ideal way to achieve the better design of spaces, it ought to be done for its own sake, for economics alone, and it make sense. A high proportion of people in groups is an index of selectivity. When people go to a place I twos or threes or rendezvous there, it is most often because they decided to, nor are these social able place less congenial to the individual. In absolute numbers, they attract more individuals than do less used space. The most used places also tend to have a higher than average proportion of women. A common sense interpretation would be that the public could use the space in the same manner as it did any public space, with the same freedoms and the same constraints. Access to space- for projects not yielding adequate excess to pay commercial rent and rates, can lead to more diversity on the high street and over the time add interest to the high street space. Create a better environment- using empty spaces, be it whole buildings, shops or land reduces bright such as antisocial behaviour, gets places cleaned up and active and more attractive for long term use. Avoiding waste- New functions are able to use spaces that are no longer fit for the original purpose, attracting different users and experimenting with ideas. As space remains at a premium, especially in urban areas, meanwhile use reduces the costs associated with a vacant asset. Experiential- empty spaces can be used as opportunities to experiment and test ideas that might make a long-term contribution. Civic pride- empty spaces can be used as civic salons for the informal exchange of local knowledge, to share ideas about their community, their high streets, their schools or what businesses or may not work on their doorstep.

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Stimulates a sense of space- by introducing activity that benefits the community, a different type of footfall is created and new activities emerge, creating character and a destination.

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Chapter 7: Conclusion Lost Space present new opportunities for developing indefinite and dynamic relationships. This blurring of public and private realms, of socio-cultural, political and commercial zones. “Such fragmentary productions rests on a peculiar echo of the traditional strategy of urban beautification where to be at the centre might now mean to be at the edge. In contrast to this council of despair, it is therefore necessary to redefine how a city might be made so its citizens are able to comprehend and be accommodated by the environment in which they are expected to live.� (Lard Lerup, 2001) The Lost Spaces have existed and will always exist in the fabric of the city. They are the perforations which allow the flow of economic, social and physical mechanisms of the city. It is not always necessary that all parts of the city are always occupied and functioning. And if they are not something is wrong. Sometimes keeping things as they are and letting them grow organically is the most appropriate solution to certain issues. But sometimes these places decay so much that they become a health and safety hazard. In these circumstances public money has to be used to protect the public from harm. Hence, it is important that we create value from them. Creating value here implies to creating social, cultural and even economic value from them. Considering the relationship between public space and lost space, the most desirable way to proceed would be to identify lost space and then convert them to public spaces. Such an exercise will derive an urban system that will give considerable clue for the new redevelopment that can happen. Redesigning such development may lead to the same problems that have arisen due to the previous attempt. Redevelopment need to be looked in a different way now. Typically the development process is polarized. A polar development tends to creation of lost space, such lost space over a period of time opt for localized appropriations which further leads to polarization of the development .One way to stop this vicious cycle is by introduction of shared space, which in turn will take an urban area away from polar development. Even supporting localized appropriations of Lost Space towards a public segment space keeping in context all the scales at which the city acts will help in generation of sustainable urban systems. The task of creating wholeness in the city can

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only be dealt with as a process. It cannot be solved by design alone, but only when the process by which the city gets its form is fundamentally changed. The task of creating wholeness in the city can only be dealt with as a process. It cannot be solved by design alone, but only when the process by which the city gets its form is fundamentally changed. The era of globalisation has seen the disproportionate, disorganised and unrestricted growth of urban sprawl. The fragmentation of territories constitutes an obstacle to the community of a soft traffic under pleasant conditions. Weather in large urban cities or in small towns, numerous empty spaces have been forgotten. They may be termed residual, interstitial, abandoned, intermediate, and industrial wasteland or waste ground. There is no lack of synonyms and other expressions for them. They often defined public spaces, such as streets, places, squares, boulevards, esplanades, pedestrian malls, etc. The link of these spaces with the urban fabric to create continuity between them and facilitate their accessibility to pedestrian and soft traffic. Environmental aspects Environmental benefits are experienced through the reuse and recycling of the existing materials and structure, reducing the amount of waste. Additionally, with the envelope of older buildings generally consisting of stronger materials and containing numerous windows, the energy efficiency of the heating and cooling can be improved. Finally, the reuse of a building can allow for the use of the existing public infrastructure which reduces the pressure on municipalities, preserves the natural environment and reduces urban sprawl (Langston et al., 2007). Social Aspects The social benefits of reuse projects include rejuvenating the heritage and cultural values of a building. During the time period when the building was originally in use, it served a specific purpose in the neighbourhood to which people, in one way or another, were connected. Older buildings have the ability to provide character to an area and create a 'sense of place'; acting as a link to the past. Retaining and improving the building to highlight its important

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features instead of demolishing the structure helps to create a diverse community through varying building types and ages. A reduction in the quantity of vacant or derelict buildings assists in reducing the crime rate and other antisocial behaviours in an area. As well, it can facilitate the revitalization of the surrounding neighbourhood (Langston et al., 2007). Economical Aspects There are economic benefits as a result of adaptive reuse projects that can be experienced by both the municipality and the developer. The municipality benefits from the increased property tax that the developed site creates over a vacant site. There is also no need to extend public infrastructure services to the site. Different community formulate different function for the space. The urban designer visualizes them as place with distinct character which can be made active by introducing some design features in them. The developers have a vision for them as a huge development which brings them a lot of profit. The local community may use it as a temporary open space if it's in good condition. Post-independence Indian cities have grown at rapid pace. The absence of any cohesive urban planning legacy and long term vision for the majority of Indian cities has resulted into fragmented urban fabric of individual buildings and isolated places with an overall lack of sense of place. The culture of individual standalone buildings and architecture devoid of any contextual reference has been the determining factor on which decisions are made in developing such projects. The place making and contextual response has been conspicuously missing from the collective psyche of the decision makers. Principles of good urbanism with intelligent programming can be applied to varied contexts and under various circumstances. Such an approach and design response to abandoned and lost spaces of the city can hopefully act as an agent of change and a catalyst for renewed approach to developing civic places as building blocks of our neighbourhoods and communities. Future public projects can draw upon these responses and use such projects as a reference point around which future communities can be developed. The project is an attempt at showcasing local administration And stakeholders that good place making, intelligent programing, contextual responses and architectural expression can co-

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exist and it plays an important role in equal measure in shaping our civic places, towns and cities. There are still many buildings lying dormant, awaiting a transformation that will bring renewed vitality and purpose to the area in which they stand. Each country has to deal with the difficulty of creating a framework of life that respects the dignity of human beings. The era of globalisation has seen the disproportionate, disorganised and unrestricted growth of urban sprawl. The fragmentation of territories constitutes an obstacle to the continuity of a soft traffic under pleasant conditions. Whether in large urban cities or in small towns, numerous empty spaces have been forgotten. They may be termed residual, interstitial, abandoned, intermediate, and industrial.

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Appendix 1 SURVEY Name __________________

1. How far is your home from this void? a. Within 0- 500m b. Within 500-1000m c. More than 1000m

2. What do this space mean to you? a. Lost Space b. Usable Space c. Still in Use space d. Other ___________________________________________

3. How often do you come here? a. Daily b. Weekly c. Monthly d. Other____________________________________________

4. Reasons for not accessing the space? a. Dead b. Don’t have a function c. Not of their use

5. If you use, how much time do you spend here? a. Less than 30 minutes b. 30 – 60 minutes c. More than 60 minutes

6. What do you think is missing in this space for people to visit it? a. Functional Activity b. Accessibility c. Seating Space d. Safety

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7. Do you think safety is an issue for not usability of this space? a. Yes b. Somewhat c. No

8. Do you feel comfortable in this space a. Yes b. No c. Somewhat

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, R. 2008. Living Within our Means. Opinion: theage.com.au. Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: http://aporee.org/parole/work/hier. php?spec_id=5430&words_id=410 [Accessed 26 Nov. 2017]. Aporee.org. (2017). parole. [online] Available at: http://aporee.org/parole/work/index.php?char=u [Accessed 26 Nov. 2017]. Carmona, M. (2010). Public places, urban spaces. Oxford, UK: Architectural Press. Champion, T. (2008). New forms of urbanization. Aldershot [u.a.]: Ashgate. Cohen, J. and Pare, R. (2007). The lost vanguard. New York, NY: Monacelli Press. Frampton, K. and Futagawa, Y. (1983). Modern architecture 1851-1945. New York: Rizzoli. issuu. (2017). Thesis- Rethinking Urban Voids. [online] Available at: https://issuu.com/aamiransari/docs/finally_final [Accessed 26 Nov. 2017]. Kumar, A. (2007). Urban planning in India: Rawat Publications. Kuloğlu, N. and Şamlıoğlu, T. (2012). Perceptual and Visual Void on the Architectural Form:Transparency and Permeability. Architectoni.ca, 1(2), pp.131-137. Larice, M. and Macdonald, E. (2013). The urban design reader. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Lerup, L. (2000). After the city. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Ravine, D., and G. Seddon. 1986. A City and Its Setting. Fremantle Arts Centre Press. Singh, J. and Dharmajog, A. (1998). City planning in India. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. Trancik, R. (1986). Finding lost space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. The Cambridge iIlustrated history of the British Empire. (2001). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 38


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Abhishek Kapoor - Dissertation 2017  

Dissertation - Analogy of Lost Spaces

Abhishek Kapoor - Dissertation 2017  

Dissertation - Analogy of Lost Spaces

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