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TABLE OF

6

Contents

AFFILIATES PROGRAM CALENDAR OF EVENTS

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7

JABGA LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE: Building Leaders for Tomorrow

JABGA BOARD MEMBERS: Meet the youth who are leading the association

13

BREEDER'S SPOTLIGHT Dust Devil Ranch

RATIOS, PROPORTIONS & PHENOTYPE EXTRAPOLATIONS IN GOATS Dr. Fred C. Homeyer

16

Dr. Frank Pinkerton

Jan Carlson

21

THE ABGA DNA PROGRAM AT WORK FOR YOU! Mark Anderson

DNA Q&A Answers to the most common questions

27

14

PART 2: SUPPLEMENTS FOR WINTER FEEDING OF GESTATING AND LACTATING DOES TEATS ON A BOER

25

10

26

DNA PARENT VERIFICATION EXPLAINED Darlene Baker and Dr. Stefanie Oppenheim

READER SUBMITTED PHOTOS Photos from ABGA members across the country

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THE BOER GOAT

ABOUT THE COVER JABGA Members attended a leadership conference at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas, July 14-17. Photo by Cindy Dusek.

WANT TO SEE YOUR PHOTO IN THE MAGAZINE? If you would like to see YOUR photo in the November/December issue, please submit your picture to robyn@abga.org! CORRECTION: The July/ August 2014 incorrectly listed the JABGA Reserve Fullblood Produce of Dam exhibitor as Reilly Butler. The exhibitor who won this award was Bryleigh Goodwin. Reilly Butler won the Reserve Percentage Produce of Dam. We apologize for this mistake.

CONTACT 1207 S. BRYANT BLVD. • SAN ANGELO, TX 76903 TEL: 325-486-2242 FAX: 325-486-2637 PUBLISHER AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION ROBYN SCHERER, M.AGR., EDITOR-IN-CHIEF & CREATIVE DIRECTOR • ROBYN@ABGA.ORG CREATIVE TEAM BRANDED DESIGNS

The Boer Goat - 3


2013-2014 AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION September/October, 2014 REGION 16 - BRAD MACKEY (EC) PRESIDENT • bradmackey@bmackfarms.com REGION 13 - MARK ANDERSON (EC) VICE PRESIDENT • fandhranch@aol.com REGION 10 - TRACY DIEFENBACH SECRETARY • tldief@gmail.com REGION 2 - SCOTT PRUETT TREASURER • eieiowefarms@yahoo.com REGION 1 - TERRY BROWN • capriole@pocketinet.com REGION 3 - JOEL R PATTERSON • bobnjr@gmail.com REGION 4 - CECIL SWEPSTON • cecils@brokensranch.com REGION 5 - JOHN EDWARDS • eggstx@aol.com REGION 6 - PAUL GRAFE (EC) • pgrafe@valbridge.com REGION 7 - JAY EARL PEACOCK • earlpeacock@yahoo.com REGION 8 - SHON CALLAHAN (EC) • sdccccranch@aol.com REGION 9 - VICKI STICH • ladyhogger59@hotmail.com REGION 11 - JANIS WESSON • dustydan1@windstream.net REGION 12 - PAUL KINSLOW (EC) • paulsellsindy@yahoo.com REGION 14 - CYNTHIA PRICE-WESTFALL EC cindy-price_westfall@yahoo.com REGION 15 - SARA DAVIS • csdavis@oakhollowlivestock.com ERVIN CHAVANA (EC) PAST PRESIDENT • mengercreek@hotmail.com *EC DENOTES EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEMBER

To our Members: The last face-to-face board meeting was held on September 26 – 27 at the Downtown Courtyard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. We had a great turnout, and wish to thank everyone who attended. Our recent call-out for volunteers to serve on committees was a great success. If you volunteered, you should be contacted shortly. At the July face-to-face meeting, the board voted to take the following actions: • Postpone implementation of the rule stating: "That any member that exhibits a goat at 6 or more ABGA sanctioned shows during the calendar year immediately preceding the upcoming national show or at one of the two immediate national shows shall receive a national show judge ballot,” until 2016. Under current requirements, show secretaries do not turn in information on all the members who exhibit at the shows, and the database is not set up to track this information. ABGA will operate under the previous rule regarding which members receive ballots to vote for judges at the National Show until 2016. • Require that show secretaries and judges complete the Judge’s Evaluation form and Show Evaluation form, and return them to the office before show points will be assigned. • Amend the 90 day Transfer Rule to say that all goats not bred and owned over the age of ninety (90) days must be in the herd book thirty (30) days prior to being exhibited at a JABGA sanctioned show. The full minutes are available on the ABGA Website. Phase 1 of the new website is complete. Phase 2 has begun and includes the addition of historical information, completion of the Youth Section, expansion of the Resources and Education pages and adding information about Judges and Affiliate Organizations. Phase 3 will include the change to the new database and is scheduled to happen by the end of February, 2015. There will be a full report on new features and services that will be available in the November/December issue of the magazine.

AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION 1207 S. BRYANT BLVD., SUITE C • SAN ANGELO, TX 76903 MARY ELLEN VILLARREAL, Executive Director • mary@abga.org LAURIE EVANS, Administrative Assistant • laurie@abga.org SONIA CERVANTEZ, Accounting • sonia@abga.org CAYLA WILDE, Registration Support Staff • cayla@abga.org JESSICA HERNANDEZ, Registration Support Staff • jessica@abga.org CINDY DUSEK, Youth Coordinator • cindy@abga.org MARIA LEAL, Member Services • marial@abga.org ROBYN SCHERER, M.AGR. Director of Marketing & Communication • robyn@abga.org ABGA OFFICE HOURS Monday - Friday • 8:00 AM TO 5:00 PM (CST)

4 - The Boer Goat

I am pleased to announce that publication of The Boer Goat Magazine has been taken over by our Director of Marketing and Communication, Robyn Scherer. Those of you with email addresses on file with your membership information are already receiving the newsletter called Boer Goat Monthly that Robyn began distributing in July. If you have a valid email address and are not receiving the newsletter, please contact the ABGA office and update your information. Fall is a busy time for all of us. Whether you have does kidding or bucks in with does, or have consignments to production sales, stop what you’re doing for a moment and look around at everything you have and remember how lucky we are to live in a country where we are allowed to do what we do. Brad Mackey, President ABGA™ Board of Directors © 2014 American Boer Goat Association™


Let ter from the Editor A FRESH START I am so excited to be able to share my creativity with ABGA members, and to make The Boer Goat the best publication that it can be. You won’t see a big difference in this first issue, but as we move forward, I hope to be able to elevate this magazine to a publication that every ABGA member can be proud of. I will be bringing in some fresh, new writers, who will help add more content with our already established authors, and we will be covering more diversified content. I will also be looking to add better, eye-catching photography. This issue is focused on the juniors, which is a very important program to me. You will have an opportunity to meet the JABGA Board of Directors, and well as read about the leadership conference that was held. The Breeder’s Spotlight this issue focuses on one junior who excelled at the National Show. This issue also features articles on winter feeding, confirmation on goats, and the importance of good teats on a Boer doe. All of this information is valuable to all types of producers. This issue also has a special section on the DNA program, and explaining just what DNA is used for, and answering common questions. The user submitted photo section is back, and I love all of the photos that were sent in. I tried to include as many of them as I could in this issue. Fall is one of my favorite times of the year. I run a herd of about 30 Boer goats and 20 dairy goats, and fall means genetic selection time. I love looking at the goats and picking which buck I think will match up the best, as many of you do as well. I wish you the best of luck for breeding season, and can’t wait to see what the spring brings for kids!

CONTACT INFORMATION: Cell: 325-812-5593 Email: robyn@abga.org

Sincerely,

Robyn Scherer, M.Agr.

ANNOUNCEMENTS September Face-to-Face Board Meeting Minutes from the September Face-to-Face board meeting will be posted on the website as soon as they are available. The meeting was held September 26-27, 2014 at the Downtown Courtyard in Oklahoma City, OK.

were a total of 535 individual Junior Division goats shown at the national show. Many of the 535 were shown in both the Junior and Open shows.

Renewed ABGA Affiliate

There are only 4 months left of the voluntary DNA Testing program on sires of kids conceived after January 1, 2015 that you are registering. All other DNA testing through ABGA is on a voluntary basis, including parent verification.

The Snake River Meat Goat Association in Nampa, Idaho has renewed their ABGA Affiliate membership. They serve the states of Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Montana, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. Information on all ABGA Affiliate Organizations can be found on the Affiliates Page of the ABGA Website and in The Boer Goat magazine.

Junior Division Weight/Class Report

REMINDER

The Junior Division Weight/Class Listing Report from the 2014 National Show is final and posted on the ABGA Website. The listing shows each goat by overall class and includes their weight and birthdate. If they placed in the top 10 in the class, it also includes their place. For the purposes of the report all Junior Show and Open Show goats appear on the same list – there

Members who are sponsoring shows and/or seminars are invited to send the information to Robyn Scherer for inclusion in the ABGA Events Calendars. Please email these events to robyn@abga.org.

DNA Testing Reminder

The Boer Goat - 5


AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION

The ABGA affiliate program is a partnership between regional goat clubs and the American Boer Goat Association. With the rapid growth in the meat goat industry, the local meat goat and Boer goat clubs have an increased role in education, marketing and promotion. These local groups provide an essential role in promoting the industry and educating breeders. In 2004, ABGA began development of a program to aid, assist and work together with local clubs. The objectivies of the ABGA Affiliate program include: • Provide additional resources at the local clubs level • Provide networking opportunities for the local clubs • Attract and retain goat producers • Assist with educational opport • Provide a method for grassroots input from local clubs

Boer Goat Association of North Carolina Kelly Clark P.O. Box 36497 Greensboro, NC 27416 KellyClark@triad.rr.com Serving States: NC

Snake River Meat Goat Association Clara Askew, Secretary/Treasurer 8054 Ustick Rd Nampa, ID 83687 foxtailfarms@hotmail.com www.srmga.com Serving States: ID, WA, OR, CA, NV, MT, UT, AZ, NM

East Texas Goat Raisers Association [ETGRA] Gwen VanderMartin PO Box 2614 Jacksonville, TX 75766 etgra13@gmail.com www.etgra.com Serving States: TX

Cascade Boer Goat Association Crystal Fenton 14352 W Hwy 12 Touchet, WA 99360 info@cascadebga.org www.cascadebga.org Serving States: OR, WA, ID, MT, CA

Tall Corn Meat Goat Wether Assoc Inc Vern Thorp 1959 Highway 63 New Sharon, IA 50207 neverthorp@aol.com www.meatgoatwether.com Serving States: IA

6 - The Boer Goat

Keystone Goat Producers Association 106 Carlisle Rd Newville, PA 17241 rzeigler@centurylink.net Serving States: PA Tri-State Goat Producers Association [TSGPA] 5125 State Rt 2 Greenup, KY 41144 billupsfarms@windstream.net Serving States: KY


OF EVENTS 2014 OCTOBER OCTOBER 4-5 Alabama National Fair Montgomery, AL Leslie Bryant 334-612-8498 OCTOBER 5-6 Tulsa State Fair Tulsa, OK Kara Eschbach 918-744-1113 OCTOBER 7-8 Georgia National Fair Terry, GA Kim Veal www.georgianationalfair.com OCTOBER 10-11 Arkansas State Fair Jr. & Open Boer Goat Show #1 & #2 Little Rock, AR Sherman Lites 501-372-8341 OCTOBER 10-12 Southern Middle TN Boer Goat Show Lewisburg, TN Kathy Simmons 931-703-1923 OCTOBER 11-12 Wabash Valley Boer Classic Terre Haute , IN Danielle Blair 812-230-2449 OCTOBER 18-19 MSU FFA Fall Classic Morehead, KY Paige Scheiderer 937-707-4366

OCTOBER 18-19 OBGA Fall Classic Pauls Valley, OK Sherry Greathouse 918-822-7271

NOVEMBER 1-3 NEA Fall Classic Jonesboro, AR Karl Harman 870-955-0676

OCTOBER 18-19 Southern Middle TN Goat Show Lawrenceburg, TN Amber Staggs 931-766-5286

NOVEMBER 8-9 National Peanut Festival Dothan, AL Nelson Adams (334) 248-3277

OCTOBER 18-20 Grand National Livestock Exposition Daly City, CA Vanessa Schneider 415-404-4142

NOVEMBER 8-10 2014 KMGA Winter Prairie Circuit Newton, KS Teresa Simmons (316) 213-3649

OCTOBER 21-23 North Carolina State Fair Raleigh, NC Ronald Hughes 919-631-0730

NOVEMBER 20-21 NAILE Louisville, KY Jeff Zinner (502) 367-5293

OCTOBER 25-27 KBGA 4th Annual Fall Spooktacular Osage City, KS Deanna Furman 785-806-4470

NOVEMBER 22-23 Comfort Fall Classic Boerne, TX Bruce Lott (830) 456-1599

OCTOBER 25-27 Tri-State Goat Producers Showdown IV Ashland, KY Corey Billups 606-465-2471

NOVEMBER 29-30 Scholarship Fundraiser Show Crowley, LA Cliff Hebert (337) 370-1673

NOVEMBER NOVEMBER 1-3 Marble Falls Spooktacular Burnet, TX Kelly Sconci 830-693-9173

Be sure to visit www.abga.org for additional information, updates, and a complete year’s calendar of upcoming shows and events. Don’t see your event listed? Please contact the ABGA at: 325-486-2242. The Boer Goat - 7


THE 2014 JABGA

LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE E X P E R I E N C E by Trevor Clemens, 2014-15 JABGA Reporter

The 2014 JABGA Leadership Conference was an absolute huge success! From herd management of the Boer goat to group leadership, we all left in high hopes of promoting the goat and conquering all of the world’s challenges. Now let’s back up to July 14th, the first day of the Leadership Conference. Arriving from Virginia, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas & Oregon, we were all tired and exhausted, but of course that doesn’t stop a bunch of teenagers from getting to know one another! Most of our conversations consisted of; what our home life is like, how many goats we have, our greatest goat ex p e r i e n ce s , and of course, our greatest goat failures. By the end of our first

8 - The Boer Goat

night, we knew everyone’s middle names, and what hospital they were born in. When we woke up at 6 AM the next morning, we were all “bright eyed and bushy tailed,” and excited for the day. The first person we met with was Dr. Brian Faris. We talked all morning about the good and bad things in the Boer goat industry, and the strides we can take to better the industry. Then we toured Kansas State University’s new sheep and goat facilities, and talked about the reproduction of a goat, and within 30 minutes we were watching a live embryo transfer. After reproduction, we evaluated a couple market goats on the hoof. Then we went to Kansas State’s Ropes Course, where we worked on team work,


leadership, and listening skills. Participating in balance, ropes, and mind breaking courses, left us all feeling very accomplished and united. After a late dinner, it was back to the dorm, where we hung out in the lounge and played card games like Spoons until “The Old Goat” (aka Cindy) said, “Ya’ll need to think about heading to bed.” It was then lights out. The next morning, we weren’t so “bright eyed and bushy tailed,” and begged for sleep. Our first task of the day was a long and hard parliamentary procedure class given by the best FFA members from across the country. After studying Robert’s Rules of Order for quite some time, it was time to evaluate the carcasses of the market goats from the day before. We then made specific meat cuts and talked about meat selection, and even made some goat sausage. After the sausage was ground up, we made brats, and while they were cooking, we toured Kansas State’s entire meat lab. When the meat was finished, we did a blind taste test, and had to pick our favorite cuts and seasoned meats. We went back to the sheep and goat facility and did various herd management tasks. From fecal samples, hoof trimming, turn tables, sorting gates, semen

collection, and semen evaluation, we all left feeling very educated. After we left, we stopped for the best ice cream in the country and began our picture taking adventure. Running across the University’s campus, finding various places to take pictures was certainly a great time. It was then we went to Dr. Faris’ house, evaluated market wethers, and had the best cooked goat we’d ever had! When our tummies were full, we had to say our goodbyes and headed back to the dorms for our last night together. Laying in the lounge that night was certainly a time we didn’t want to face, for the next day was when our new “family” would go their separate way.

JABGA Leadership Conference Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas July 14-17, 2014 Boer Goat Topics: Live Animal Evaluation (hands-on) Carcass Evaluation (hands-on) Meat Processing (hands-on) General Management General Nutrition General Reproduction Marketing Fitting/Showmanship Farm Tour Leadership Topics: Effective Communication Styles Team Building Etiquette Conference Features: Quiz Bowl Activities (Ropes Course, Recreational Center, Bowling, Swimming, Etc.) The next conference will be held in July, 2015. For more information please call the ABGA Youth Coordinator at 325-226-1470 or cindy@abga.org. The Boer Goat - 9


MEET YOUR JABGA BOARD OF DIRECTORS The opportunity to be involved with the JABGA Board of Directors will enhance leadership skills, teach teamwork, and provide preparation for a successful career. Junior members elect two candidates by ballot from each of the five areas to represent their area. The responsibilities of a JABGA Board member are to provide governance, direction, fundraising ideas and promotion of Boer goats. Approval of implementation of programs within the Junior American Boer Goat Association is provided by the Youth Committee and the ABGA Board of Directors. Become involved with the Junior American Boer Goat Association and discover your creative spirit! Not only does the association provide shows, educational and leadership opportunities, but conducts contests and offers awards to enhance one’s creative endeavors.

JJABGA BOARD OF DIRECTORS Area 1: Maddie Fenton • Vice President • Touchet, Washington I love being on the board to meet new people, learn and experience new things, and to better the association. I’m fifteen years old, and I’ve been showing goats for thirteen years. I am going to be a Sophomore at Walla Walla High School. In addition to being a member of JABGA, I belong to the Ranch and Home 4-H club, the Cascade Boer Goat Association, and Snake River Meat Goat Association. I currently own about 115 head of does, and a few bucks. I strive to improve my own herd quality, my skills, and my knowledge. I feel honored to serve the association. I plan to promote the goat, and voice and represent the members of the JABGA however I can.

Area 1: Cody Wafford • Sandy, Oregon I am 17 years old and I have been raising Boer goats for roughly 8 years. I have thoroughly enjoyed contributing to the association and getting to know the other junior members on the board. I am a senior in high school where I compete in speech and debate, mock trials, and starting this year, FFA. I got started in Boer goats through 4-H, buying and raising market wethers every year. Outside of Boer goats, I also show sheep and I just bought a dairy goat to start showing. My main focus in 4-H is livestock judging.

Area 2: Trevor Clemens • Reporter • What Cheer, Iowa I am 16 and a junior at Tri-County High School. I am a member of the Iowa Meat Goat Association. I began raising Boer goats in 2010 with the help of Honey Hollow Farms of Guernsey, Iowa. We currently have 35 brood does, and 5 breeding bucks. After high school I plan to attend Kansas State University, and double major in Agricultural Education and Animal Science. My intentions are to stay very active in the goat industry as well. Throughout the course of the year, I plan to represent our youth here in the Midwest, as well as promote the goat all throughout the US. Thank you all for your support, and I look forward to the upcoming year!

Area 2: Heather Hubler • Treasurer • Chelsea, Oklahoma I am 15 years old and a sophomore at Chelsea High School. I have been raising goats for four years. In the past I raised show rabbits and showed sheep. I am a member of the Circle- G 4-H club, where I make crafts. I am also a very active member in my FFA chapter, where I give speeches, show my goats and show my hog. Some other activities I enjoy is being in FCA (Fellowship of Christian Athletes), playing basketball and baseball/ softball with my friends and family, and attending 4-H and FFA camps. I am very excited and looking forward to a successful year with this amazing Board of Directors.

Area 3: Frank Burner • Inwood, West Virginia I am excited to serve the youth in the Northeast. I have been raising Boer goats for 8 years. I am a freshman at Musselman High School. I have been a 4-H member for 6 years, and I am treasurer for Southern Cross 4-H Club. I am a member of my county’s livestock judging team, and raise hogs for the fair. Working with the board to develop new ways to promote the Boer goat is important to me. I believe the future of agriculture and the Boer goat industry lies in the hands of our youth—it is important to educate early, and motivate young people to work together to make our association the best junior association out there. 10 - The Boer Goat


Area 3: Bethany Gochenour • President • LeBanon Church, Virginia I am honored to be the National President of the Junior American Boer Goat Association this year. This is my second term as a director from area 3. I am a senior at Strasburg High School this year, and I have been showing and raising goats for nine years. I also show cattle. I am a member of the Strasburg FFA chapter and Lebanon Church 4-H club. Being a director has allowed me to make friends from all across the United States that share the same interests as me. I am looking forward to a successful year with such an amazing Board of Directors and I cannot wait to see what all we will accomplish.

Area 4: Noah Ridings • Secretary • Cumming, Georgia I have been showing goats since I was around the age of five for a little over twelve years. I am currently 17 years old, and a senior at North Forsyth High School. After I graduate high school, I plan to attend North Georgia College and major in Criminal Justice. After I finish with college, I plan on pursuing a career with the FBI or the CIA. Showing goats has brought me to meet new people and learn more about people. Being on the JABGA Board has led me to meet an extraordinary group of young men and women whom I have the pleasure of working with and around for the betterment of the JABGA.

Area 4: Isaac Ridings • Cumming, Georgia I am 15 years old, and I attend North Forsyth High School, where I am in the tenth grade. I have been raising and showing goats for twelve years. I have had numerous experiences with goats, and have had a lot of fun doing it. Raising and showing goats has given me a lot of experiences throughout my life, and it has allowed me to meet some of my closest friends I have today. I am delighted to serve on the JABGA board of directors for the second term in a row. The current board members are very committed to improving the industry, and we are excited to see what the year ahead has to offer for the JABGA.

Area 5: Quincy Edwards • Hico, Texas I'm 16, and I homeschool through Texas Tech. I have shown goats all my life, and grew up on a farm since I was born. I show sheep, pigs and goats. I am an active FFA member. My herd name is JEG1 Boer Goats. I plan on making a lifetime commitment to agriculture. I am working hard at making my area and the JABGA better for its members.

Area 5: Sophia Stice • Maryneal, Texas I have been a member of JABGA for 8 years, and am honored to be able to represent my area as a director. I am 18 years old, and am a freshman at Tarleton State University in Stephenville, where I am studying psychology. I have been involved with goats for 8 years. I am a member of FFA and the National Honor Society. I have loved every minute of being a member of the JABGA, and will work hard to represent the youth in my area and help promote the Boer goat in the U.S.

JABGA SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM The Junior American Boer Goat Association offers scholarships to members who are high school seniors, or a college student in their first year of school. At this time there are $11,000.00 in scholarship handed out yearly. 2014 Scholarship Winners Amy Moran Austin Davis Wyan Overturf Deborah Heth Madessa Hoffer-Dye Anna Schmidt

Braxton Luchini Kaden Merriman Sara Fielder Kristen Liepold Hunter Tauzen

GOAT COSTUME CONTEST This is a fun-filled show experience for exhibitors as well as spectators. The contest is held at the National show and all JABGA members can participate. GOAT JUDGING CONTEST JABGA members have the opportunity to compete in a judging contest at the National Show. PHOTOGRAPHY CONTEST This contest is held at the National show and all JABGA members can participate.

PUBLIC SPEAKING CONTEST The Public Speaking Contest is held at the National show and all JABGA members can participate. Each contestant must make their presentation without a mic, and compete in one of three divisions, depending on their age. SCRAPBOOK CONTEST This is a fun-filled show experience for exhibitors as well as spectators. The contest is held at the National show and all JABGA members can participate.

The Boer Goat - 11


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BREEDER'S SPOTLIGHT

DUST DEVIL RANCH Story and Photo By Robyn Scherer, M.Agr.

Dust Devil Ranch, owned by Tom, Crystal and Madison Fenton, is located in Touchet, Washington. Madison Fenton was awarded the 2014 Donald Bird Premier Breeder Award for the JABGA National Show in 2014. She answers a few questions about her operation.

1. How did you get started in the Boer goat industry? I got started from my grandmother, Terry Brown. Before we had Boer goats, I used to show pygmy goats, from when I was two to five years old. My first goat was Capriole’s Rosie Goatie *Ennobled* who my grandmother gave me, and I bottle fed her. From there on out, I was hooked on Boer goats. I still have her, and she is 10 this year. She was my foundation doe.

4. What did earning the Donald Bird Premier Breeder Award mean to you? Earning the Donald Bird Premier Breeder Award meant the absolute world to me. I’ve worked very hard to get to this point. To me, this is the most prestigious award, and it was all of my hard work to get it. I earned it through my own brood stock that I bred and raised, and it meant a lot that I could be competitive on a national level.

5. What are some of the challenges you have faced, and what did you do to overcome them? One of the biggest challenges I’ve faced would be the struggle with the loss of my animals. That is one of the hardest things for me. My animals are my best friends. I had a doe that won senior champion in 2012 at nationals, and I lost her this March. There is struggle in the animal business. She gave me a lot of work with, and left me a legacy.

6 What advice do you have for other young producers getting 2. How many goats do you have, and what do you use them for? into the Boer goat industry? I personally have about 50 does, and 10-15 of those that I show. The rest are brood does. I use all of them for either producing the show does or showing, and some of them will produce my market wethers. We also sell meat animals to people off the farm, but most of our animals are geared toward the showing aspect. We also sell for breeding purposes.

3. What is your favorite part about raising Boer goats? My favorite part would have to be going to the shows. I absolutely love showing goats, so that’s always the highlight of my life. I like not only showing goats, but being with friends, meeting new people, and experiencing all those things that agriculture has to offer. When it comes to showing, I like the feeling of working so hard at home to get the animals the best they can be, and getting them fit. I love to go into the show ring and show off my hard work and hopefully get the rewards.

I would advise them not to get discouraged if you don’t do as well at a show, or you lose one of your best does, because it will always get better. Keep up the hard work and keep working at it. It will pay off.

7. How has the JABGA helped you in your life? JABGA has helped me immensely not only in the goat world, but in my regular life. It has taught me a lot of leadership skills, working with people skills, and helped me meet some of my best friends that share the same passion and interest as I do. I would recommend it. My favorite part about JABGA would probably have to be the promoting of it. I love promoting the goat and getting the word of JABGA out there. I think it’s a wonderful thing with so many opportunities. I love getting new kids interested in it and seeing new faces.

The Boer Goat - 13


Boer goats at Antelope Creek Ranch in Texas on September 9, 2014 under drought conditions - note lack of forage.

RATIOS, PROPORTIONS AND PHENOTYPE EXTRAPOLATIONS IN GOATS by Dr. Fred Homeyer

This article presents a number of thoughts, ideas and hypotheses regarding inspection and evaluation of Boer goats. The various ratios, proportions and other considerations presented here are the result of considerable study, research, reading and twenty years of empirical observations of Boer goats in show rings, pastures, farms and ranches around the world. Through consideration of the ideas presented here it is the goal of this article to assist the reader in improving their observation and evaluation of their Boer goats. If this article fosters thought and discussion then it has achieved its intended purpose. I hope that you enjoy this presentation. Please read each statement and then go out and look at your goats for confirmation. I think you will be amazed what your goats are telling you about themselves in terms of what they are and what they will become. Americans like to quantify things so here it is for your review. Good luck! Angle at the point of the shoulder (where the scapula connects with the humerous) – should ideally be 137 degrees. Angle at the rear hock should be 160 degrees. A greater angle is posty legged; lesser angle is sickle 14 - The Boer Goat

hocked. Angle of the neck coming out of the topline ideally should be 40 degrees. Ratio of hook to thurl to pin (thurl is where the femur fits into the pelvis) should be 2 to 1, that is, two parts from the hook bone to the thurl and one part from the thurl to the pin bone. A ratio of 1 to 1 results in a goat that almost falls down when they turn. A goat that is cow hocked in the rear legs will normally have a ratio of 3 to 1. For balance the topline ideally is two times the neck length measured from the poll to the first cervical vertebrae for the neck and from the first cervical vertebrae to the pin bone for the topline. A sign of masculinity in a buck is when the heart girth circumference is equal to and ideally 10% more Dr. Pepper - 2004 National Champion Boer Buck


than the topline measurement.

Boer bucks fresh from pasture in Australia - note ennoblement in heads and similarity in head shape and power.

A sign of femininity in a doe is when the circumference at the flank is greater than the heart girth circumference (that is manifested in the doe appearing wedgey or deeper in the rear end than at the front end).

Bucks are bigger in the front end than the rear because they have to compete for the does and a doe is deeper in the rear end than the front as they need capacity to hold the kids before birth. The width between the eyes is equal to or directly proportional to the width of the shoulders and the width of the loin. Width can also be predicted by distance or width between the horns. Narrow distance between the eyes predicts a narrow, slab sided goat with very little meat. The length of the face from the horn set to the muzzle is equal to or directly proportional to the length from the hook to the pin (the rump or hip) and also is directly proportional to the longissimus dorsi muscle that runs down the back. The circumference of the forearm is an indicator or predictor of mass and muscle (the forearm is an area that is muscle surrounded by skin that doesn’t get fat). The width of the chest floor and length of the canon bone are predictors of growth potential as is the size of the skull. The distance from the tip of the nostril to the tip of the lip is called the “stop” in Australia and is a predictor of future mass and muscle in kids. The depth and length of the flank skin is a predictor of muscle development in the stifle area – the deeper the flank skin and the longer it is from the rear leg to the deepest part of the body the greater the capacity for muscling in the stifle area. Width in the rear and at the widest 2009 Yearling Australian National Champion Doe - note balance, femininity in head and neck and sound feet and legs

point when viewed from the rear should be stifle to stifle. Second widest area should be thurl to thurl when viewed from the rear. If you notice where the flank intersects the front of the rear leg and project a line through the leg to the back of the leg indicated the meat extends down the back leg from the tail. A sign of femininity is indicated by good width between the ribs. A sign of femininity is openness or width between the hocks so that there is adequate capacity for the udder between the rear legs. A sign of femininity is refinement in the head and neck area as well as lighter but adequate bone in the legs than in the male. A sign of femininity is illustrated in the hair coat by the appearance of a swirl of hair half way down each back leg. This is also an indication of strong maternal traits and milkability. The appearance of hair swirls on each side of the front of the chest is termed a thymic swirl and is an indication of a strong immune system. This trait can be a valuable selection criteria for young goats. A hair swirl located in the middle of the barrel down low on the body is called a pancreatic swirl and indicates strong reproductive traits. The existence of hair swirls in the hair coat of a goat is a manifestation of proper glandular function. The ideal pastern is short and you should be able to draw a perpendicular line from the rear of the dew claw to the back of the heel of the hoof. The ideal set to the back leg is when you can draw a perpendicular line that extends from the pin bone down through the rear hock and then down through the rear pastern. The ideal set to the front legs is when you can draw a perpendicular line that extends through the point of the shoulder down through the center of the knee and on down between the toes. Toes should be tight together and not splayed apart. Too much weight on a young skeleton can cause splayed toes and weak pasterns. Fred Homeyer and Jobert Fourie (South African) presenting judging school in Australia - note massive doe in center of photo The Boer Goat - 15


Part 2

SUPPLEMENTS FOR WINTER FEEDING This article is a follow-up to Part 1, same title, published in the July/August ’14 issue of The Boer Goat. Part 1 focused on the nutrient requirements for protein and energy (TDN) for pregnant and lactating does as shown in Table 1 therein (and shown again in this article for reader convenience).

leaf-stem ratio saved (influenced by haymaking procedures and storage conditions). Variations from these ‘average composition figures’ may range widely (10-20% or more in CP and 7-15% in TDN). Consequently, a Lab analysis for %CP and %TDN is essential for accurate feeding and, if needed, for proper supplementation (analytical costs are trifling relative to returns).

This second article focuses on feeding practices that producers can use to furnish the quantities of daily dietary protein and TDN described in Table 1. Remember that the percentages of protein and TDN shown in Table 1 are predicated on the average daily feed intake (DFI) of does of these weights during gestation or lactation. Most goats will consume close to these averages, but not all will. From a practical standpoint, owners simply cannot formulate daily rations for individual goats based on their particular DFIs. Consequently, diets (rations) are, in practical terms, formulated on the basis of average DFI.

Goat producers commonly count the cost of concentrates for their herd as one of the most influential factors affecting net goat-farming income. Table 3 below shows the %CP and %TDN composition of feedstuffs. The composition of grains, protein meals, and processed products are much less variable than hay composition. I caution

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

In non-grazing situations, the DFI of gestating or lactating does can be composed of one or more hays or some combination of hay and concentrate to provide the required dietary levels of protein and TDN. If the available hay(s) contain sufficient %CP and % TDN and are fed ad lib, there will be no need to offer supplements (other than perhaps a mineral mix) to these classes of does. Contrarily, if the available forages were inadequate in %CP and/or %TDN (or limited in quantity), it would usually be costbeneficial to supplement the goats.

PRACTICAL FEEDING GUIDELINES

Caveat: For most owners, hays are the basic feedstuff used, for 3 to 6-7 months, when pastures are not adequate to support the nutrient needs of their goats. The composition figures shown in Table 2 below for hays are averages from many, or few, ruminant feeding experiments; a few figures are derived from laboratory analyses only. The nutritive value (quality) of any forage is influenced by its age at harvesting (either as pasture or hay) and by the 16 - The Boer Goat


OF GESTATING AND LACTATING DOES by Dr. Frank Pinkerton

readers that ‘simple’ supplementation is usually cheapest supplementation; most commercial concentrates may have serious merchandizing costs and (markups) in the colorful 50 lb bag along with sweet smelling, beautifully textured or pelleted feedstuffs. First, using Table 1, you identify the class of doe to be fed. For example, does that are in early lactation, suckling twins, and weighing about 132 lb will, on the average, consume about 4.3 lb of diet/day; it should contain .46 lb CP and 2.05 lb TDN, or about 10.7% CP and about 48% TDN, as fed-basis.

HOW DO YOU USE TABLES 1, 2, AND 3?

needed. (Such a 50:50 mixture would test 12% CP (16+8 /2), not 10.7%; not a serious issue viz-a-viz the labor savings. Second example: if you had only 8% CP timothy and wished to feed a grain supplement rather than buy alfalfa hay, you could offer 1.45 lb of a 16% CP concentrate and 2.85 lb hay. The relative prices as between concentrate and alfalfa hay would be the decisive consideration; the does would do well in either case. Alternatively, you could feed 1 lb of 24% CP concentrate plus 3.3 lb of timothy hay and get the same result. (Either concentrate would supply more TDN/lb than alfalfa hay).

Then, using Table 2, note the average composition of your hay, or hays. (If you have a Lab analysis of your hay, use its’ figures rather than the textbook figures for better accuracy). If your hay is adequate, or higher, in %CP and %TDN, offer no supplement. If the hay is inadequate, some higher protein hay or concentrate will be required. Note that most all the hays in Table 2 have TDN percentages adequate for most classes of does; contrarily, the %CP in many grass hays can be inadequate for classes. To illustrate: suppose you had 8% CP timothy hay and some 16% CP alfalfa hay. The timothy is inadequate in CP and the alfalfa has more CP than the does can utilize (the excess is wasted); thus a mixture of the hays are required. Middle school scholars could use a ‘Pierson Square’ to calculate as follows: 16.0 %CP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2.7 parts of alfalfa (subtract 8.0 from 10.7) alfalfa 10.7 8.0 %CP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _5.3 parts of timothy (subtr 10.7 from 16.0 timothy 8.0 total parts 2.7/8.0 x 100 = 33.75% x 4.3 lb DFI = 1.45 lb alfalfa 5.3/8.0 x 100 = 66.25% x 4.3 lb DFI = 2.87 lb timothy 4.32 lb DFI In the real world, you could offer alfalfa (1.45 lbs x # goats) in the am and timothy (2.87 lb x # goats) in the pm. Or, perhaps more conveniently, you could offer alfalfa and timothy ad lib on alternate days; in this case, they would eat more alfalfa than they The Boer Goat - 17


Comment: if you had hay testing 11% CP, or more (and thus require no supplementation) would each goat eat 4.3 lb of hay/day? Of course not, but if you were feeding 100 such does, they would together eat about 430 lb/day—at least in theory. As a practical matter, one could initially offer 10% more than Table 1 DFI figures indicate (by weighing the bales for 2-3 days), and then quickly reduce the ‘waste’ as needed. When one feeds round bales, one does not know squat about actual consumption; one merely surmises that all goats are getting enough and, further, that the wastage is ‘tolerable’—the real cost of hay should be calculated on ‘lb eaten’ basis, not offered. Returning to Table 1, if your group of lactating goats had a wide range of body weights or if some were suckling singles, twins, or triplets, your real choices would be: to separate sub-groups and feed more nearly according to their needs or, secondly, to strike an average DFI (and thus underfeed some these unseparated sub-groups) or, thirdly, to offer all of the goats all they can eat all the time (in which case, some will surely fatten). Management realities can be pure hell. Returning yet again to Table 1 and looking at the

protein and TDN figures needed for early and late gestation periods and for does carrying twins and triplets, it is obvious that late gestation does require at least 12% CP and about 60% TDN in the diet if they eat the average DFI. In late gestation, there is a ‘contest for space in the abdominal cavity; increasing placental mass reduces rumen space right when the doe needs to eat more. The solution is to increase the dietary density (energy/bite) by raising the %TDN in the ration. Legume hays and mixtures of legume and grass hays can furnish the 12% CP, or more, as shown in Table 2. The crucial concern, then, is supplying enough TDN in diets during late gestation. Table 2 shows no hays testing near the 60% TDN. The solution is to offer extra dietary TDN in the form of corn or concentrate (in most cases 1.0-1.5 lb/head day). Note that corn is only 8% CP so the CP in the hay would have to be raised to 15-16% rather than 12% to compensate. Using a 12% CP concentrate, or more, would of course solve this issue. As indicated in Table 1, diets that contain 12-13% CP, as-fed basis, are sufficient to provide even the highest daily protein needs; with the possible exception of young doelings, other classes of goats require lower percentages of CP. This being the case, if you are purchasing hay, choose hays that test at least 12% CP (as-fed basis) if the prices aren’t ‘exorbitant’. If such hays are over-priced or simply unavailable, your option is to buy hay with less protein and supplement it with a higher protein feedstuff (a concentrate or sometimes a single feedstuff).

‘BALANCING’ THE %CP IN A DAILY DIET

The basic calculation to decide the proportions of hay and concentrate in a given diet (DFI) is conveniently done by using a Pierson Square as illustrated earlier. Suppose you needed a diet containing 10% CP and you had hay testing 6% CP; how much distiller’s dried grain (29% CP) and hay (6% CP) would you need to make 5.08 lb of a ‘blended diet’ testing 10% CP for a midlactation doe carrying twins? 29% CP____________4 parts of DDG 4/23 x 5.08 = .88 lb of DDS DDG 10 6% CP____________19 parts of hay 19/23 x 5.08 = 4.20 lb of hay 23 total parts In this scenario, you would likely offer a lb of DDG/ head/day in a communal trough and offer the hay ad lib rather than grinding and mixing the two components as a ‘complete ration’. Barn reality mostly always trumps math when feeding goats. Math whizzes among you will be quick to note that this magic Square only works if the middle figure (10, or whatever) falls between the two figures to the left (29 and 6, or whatever). In a correctly configured Square, 18 - The Boer Goat


the difference between these two figures on the left corners will always be equal to the sum of the two figures on the right corners (in this case, 23 = 23). If that computation is not equal, the Square must be reconfigured. For example, you cannot use 8% CP corn to supplement 6% CP hay; even a 50:50 mixture would still test only 7% CP and still be 30% short of the needed 10% CP in the diet. Would these lactating goats live on corn and this pore-ass hay? Yes, but they would likely reduce milk flow or go dry to the detriment of the kid crop; some kids would not live; some would, but be stunted, perhaps irretrievably so. As always, one cannot starve a profit out of a goat enterprise. In closing, I concede that the nutrient requirements of meat goats are more accurately described than many of their owners can apply in practical circumstances… not to worry, make your calculations for guidance only, and then do some trial-and-error feeding of this or that combination of feedstuffs for this or that class of goats. I have much more time than you do; do not hesitate to call or email me at the slightest provocation, whatever your needs. I can send you copies of this article and the first one plus copies of the three Tables for use as Lazy-Boy reference materials… your call, my action, as also my appreciation for your interest.

ABGA Sanctioned

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North American International Livestock Exposition * Expo Dates: November 4-21 * Kentucky Exposition Center PO Box 36367 * Louisville, KY 40233-6367 * Phone 502-595-3166 * Fax 502-367-5299 * www.livestockexpo.org The Boer Goat - 19


"TEATS ON A BOER" they aren't USELESS!

by Jan Carlson

The more mature readers of this article will remember the old expression… “As useless as teats on a boar.” When it comes to teats on a Boer doe, this expression could not be further from the truth. As any breeder knows, a doe is only as good as the kids she produces. Therefore, maternal traits, especially udder conformation and milk production, are of vital importance to a doe’s ability to produce outstanding kids over a long lifetime. This article aims to inform meat goat breeders about udder characteristics and how to go about selecting for a sound mammary system as well as ways to identify and hopefully avoid udder health problems in meat does. First, keep in mind that udder traits are inherited equally from the sire and dam, so do not discount the contribution that sires make to the doe herd. When we call a sire a “doe maker” we are taking into consideration the udder traits of his daughters. Even though the wether markets are profitable, and we admire the sires that

20 - The Boer Goat

produce those champion wethers, it takes an outstanding doe to produce and to raise the wethers that our youth can proudly show. In addition, those does with well-attached mammary systems make the producer’s jobs much easier at kidding time. Understandably, meat goat producers want a “low maintenance” doe, one who can mother the newborns and raise them to weaning with minimal help from humans. Each breeder has the freedom to make their own selection and breeding decisions, but often people who have market animal backgrounds are not as familiar with udder traits as are dairy breeders. Hopefully this article will help explain why the mammary systems on meat animals are also important traits to consider in your selection process. In the American Dairy Goat Association Linear Appraisal system there are nine udder traits that are evaluated.


They are as follows: o Fore udder – viewed from the side, this is actually the lateral (side) ligaments and how far forward they attach on the body wall. Strong ligaments that attach well forward are best. o Rear udder height – viewed from the rear, indicates the capacity for milk. Higher is better. o Rear udder arch – viewed from the rear, the area where the rear udder attaches at the top, indicates the capacity for milk, wide and curving are preferred over narrow and pointed. o Medial suspensory ligament – the ligament that divides the two halves of the udder. It is the primary support for the udder floor. It should be intermediate, clearly dividing the halves but not too high or too low (thereby allowing the floor of the udder to bulge below the base of the teats). o Udder depth – viewed from the side, ideally, the bottom of the udder (not including the teats) should be held above the hocks when the doe is in milk. An udder that is too high above the hocks probably lacks production, while one much below the hocks is susceptible to injury and will be difficult for kids to nurse. o Teat placement, rear view – Teat placement in dairy does effects the animal’s ease of milking, but in meat goat does teat placement is important for the kids to be able to nurse. In either case, the ideal teat placement is between 1/3 and 2/3 in from the outside of the udder. o Teat diameter – is evaluated at the base of the teat, where it attaches to the udder. In the case of meat goats, the evaluation should be based on whether a newborn kid can nurse from the teats. o Rear udder side view – an extremely flat rear udder can indicate a lack of production, while an udder that extends behind the rear leg can indicate the capacity for milk production. Rear udders that bulge too far past the hind leg can be problematic. First because when they extend too far back, the does will urinate on them and second, the teats may also be further back on the udder, and therefore underneath the hind leg, making it difficult for kids to nurse. In the dairy goat linear appraisal scorecard, this is a secondary trait.

o Udder texture – reflects the way an udder will or will not milk down well. A doe with good udder texture will not have excess tissue left after being milked completely out and one that has poor udder texture will still look like there is milk in the udder, even after being milked out. This is pretty tricky to evaluate in goats that are nursing kids, because they typically will not let down all their milk when being nursed or hand milked. One way to determine udder texture in meat does is to evaluate them when they are dry. After the kids are weaned, the mammary system on a meat goat doe that has good udder texture should all but disappear, except for the teats. This trait does not indicate a lack of production, but rather good udder texture. All these traits are important to the function and health of a mammary system. Meat animals have not been selected for the extremes shown in dairy animals, but it would probably be useful for producers to be familiar with them in order to evaluate the udders on their females and realize which traits could be improved. This article does not address the issue of the number and variations in teat structure on Boers. That is something the breed standards committee and Board of Directors continue to struggle with. A constant has been that there should be no more than 2 functional teats on a side, which seems a reasonable standard. Each breeder will need to decide for themselves beyond that what they want to accept regarding extra teats, split teats, clusters, etc. The key is, and should probably remain, whether or not a newborn kid can find the teats and nurse, hopefully without assistance. But producers should keep in mind that the more tolerance one has for “unique” udder configurations the more likely these traits will become common in your kid crops. Another concern, which is unrelated to genetics, is udder health. Strange as it may seem, goats that are nursing kids are actually more susceptible to mastitis than well managed dairy goats that are milked on a regular basis. The reason for this is that The Boer Goat - 21


does being milked in a herd with adequate milking sanitation undergo pre-milking sanitation and post-dipping after milking. They are also milked completely out each time. When a kid nurses a doe, it stimulates milk let-down and opens the teat end sphincter while nursing. If the doe is in an unclean environment, there will likely be manure and bacteria on her udder which can gain access thru the teat ends. With nursing kids, this happens frequently throughout the day. Another problem that can occur with nursing kids is that their sharp teeth can scratch and cut the udder of a doe, also allowing bacteria access. A good practice for managing does while they are raising their kids is to try keep them in a clean environment whenever possible. Also, it is a good idea to leave only as many kids on a doe as she can feed. If a doe has more kids than she can raise, it is a good idea to take off the excess kids. When the kid(s) are not getting enough to eat they will keep trying to nurse and this is when udders can get scratched or damaged and be susceptible to mastitis. Mastitis is defined as an infection of the mammary gland. These infections are mostly bacterial in origin and the symptoms include pain, swelling, change from normal body temperature (hot or cold), discoloration, abnormal milk and loss of function. A goat with mastitis may also appear lame on a hind leg. A meat goat producer may notice the kids looking hungry and the doe’s udder may be distended because she is not allowing her kids to nurse. Mastitis-causing organisms are divided into two general categories 1) environmental and 2) contagious. Environmental mastitis is caused by bacteria that are present in the environment and contagious mastitis is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted from one infected animal to another. In either case, the mastitis-causing organisms gain access to the udder when the natural defenses of the udder 22 - The Boer Goat

are absent. These times are during milking (or kids nursing) when the teat end sphincter is open and at any other time when the natural defenses (such as normal, healthy skin) are compromised. Treating mastitis in meat goats can be particularly difficult and is complicated by the nursing kids. If a doe with mastitis is diagnosed, the producer should make a judgment about the worth of the doe and/or kids to the breeding program. In some cases it is not practical to aggressively treat a mastitis case and to remove the kids and hand raise them. Caution should be used when keeping doe kids from a doe who had an active case of mastitis while the kids were nursing. Contagious mastitis can be transmitted to doe kids when they nurse, and the replacement doe kids may in their turn freshen with mastitis. If producers decide to treat a doe with mastitis, they should first consult with their veterinarian as to what types of antibiotics to use and by what route of administration. Some antibiotics are approved for use in goats, and some may be used extra-label with a veterinarian’s recommendation, but in all cases the proper withdrawal time should be adhered to and goats should not be sold thru auction or other channels unless they are free of drug residue. There are two ways to treat a mastitis infection. One is to use intramammary infusion tubes. These tubes are infused directly into the udder half, and the goat is meant to be milked out at least twice a day and retreated per label directions. Use great caution when using mammary infusions, follow the directions on the product, and use the “short insertion” method, if more than one option is available. If you do not properly sanitize the teat and teat-end when infusing, you could introduce additional bacteria to the udder and compound your mastitis problem. There are two types of mastitis tubes,


“dry-cow” and “lactating-cow.” Lactating cow tubes are to be used for an active infection and the doe should be milked out every 12 hours or more. These tubes have a shorter withdrawal time, as long as the goat is milked after treatment. Dry cow tubes are meant to treat cows at dry-off time. They are used at the last milking and then left in the udder until the goat freshens again. These may be used in meat goats at dry-off but the withdrawal time is in excess of 60 days, so do not use them if you plan to send a goat to auction any time soon. The second option for treating mastitis is to give injectable antibiotics so the mastitis is treated systemically. Again, your veterinarian should be consulted as to what antibiotic, amount, route of administration and length of treatment. It is up to all goat producers to adhere to quality assurance principals to ensure our product is safe and free of residues. The big question to answer when treating meat goats for mastitis is whether or not to remove the kids from the doe. Usually the answer to this is yes, because effective treatment cannot be accomplished when kids are nursing, and there is a danger to kids who consume mastitis milk and/ or milk with antibiotic residue. One exception

might be if a doe has an infection on only one side and the producer is willing to treat the infected side and tape that side so kids cannot nurse from it. Please do not use duct tape or any tape other than teat tape (sold at Caprine Supply). There is a diagram that comes with the tape to show how to put it on so it stays. The key to teat tape is that it needs to be breathable. There are different names from different manufactures, and you can sometimes find it at the drug store or online. Look for a name like “microspore” or “hypo-pore.” Teat tape is something producers should always have on hand in their kidding kits. It can also be useful if kids are nursing only one side of a doe. In that case, tape off the side they are nursing for 12 hours or so, until the kids start nursing from the other side. If the unused side is too full and distended the doe might not let kids nurse from that side. First, check that she does not have mastitis, and then you can milk her out at least one half way, so she will start letting the kids nurse. In conclusion, even though meat goats are not dairy animals, the does must still make enough milk from a well-attached udder in order for her kids to thrive and to reach the goals you have set for your breeding program. In order to help make that possible, give some thought to selecting against bad udder traits and to managing your does so they are not at risk for mastitis. Jan Carlson has been employed in the goat industry for 35 years and has managed the University of California Davis Goat Teaching and Research Facility for the past 12 years, maintaining breeding-teaching-research herds of 150 goats (45 dairy, 45 Boer, and the rest transgenic research goats). She is assisted by 3-5 part-time student employees. She also teaches goat husbandry/animal science classes both in the classroom and at the goat facility. About 30 students per quarter attend weekly management classes at the barn or volunteer there to gain goat management experience. Jan Carlson has worked on minor species drug approval and FARAD projects (CIDR-G, Banamine, Excede and Draxxin) as well as transgenic goat research (ET, breeding program, milk feeding studies) and provides technical support for other research projects at the university facility. She also serves as a director on the Board of the American Goat Federation.


PRESS RELEASE • SEPTEMBER 2, 2014 FOR MORE INFORMATION: INFO@AMERICANGOATFEDERATION.ORG 800.951.1373 The American Goat Federation (AGF) has entered into a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Veterinary Services (VS) to conduct a goat Scrapie eradication and Coxiellosis/Q Fever educational program for U.S. producers. This effort includes awarding 6 grants of $1,000.00 each to national and/or regional goat associations to conduct education on Scrapie Eradication and Q-Fever under the guidance of AGF between now and July 1, 2015. The US Goat Industry has suffered from lack of international markets for seed stock and goat products including meat because of Scrapie. In essence, American meat goat producers have been unable to export their goats to other countries. There has been a significant lack of awareness among goat producers in identifying Scrapie, proper animal identification and testing for the disease, as well as the effect it has on their ability to market their goats. Since there is no cost-effective live test for Scrapie in goats, testing post mortem is critical in finding and eliminating the disease. According to VS, The United States is in a position to be declared Scrapie free by the World Health Organization, but in order to achieve that status; we must be able to prove to the world that we have conducted testing in all sheep and goat populations. Cooperation from producers and up-chain processors is essential to eradicating Scrapie. Coxiellosis, also known as Q Fever, is having an increasing impact on goat reproduction in the United States. Substantial production and financial losses are suffered throughout the goat industry annually to this zoonotic disease which results in abortion storms in goats, as well as human outbreaks. There is minimal knowledge regarding Q Fever when it occurs in producers, veterinarians and other industry stake holders. As major organizational members of AGF, the American Boer Goat Association, American Dairy Goat Association and the Texas Sheep and Goat Raisers are being given a guaranteed opportunity to receive a grant to provide this education to their members; however they must apply for the funding and provide an outline of how they will use the funds and plan for the education presentations in order to be considered. Any goat organization that can show it will reach a large number of producers and goat owners is welcome to apply for a grant and submit a plan on 24 - The Boer Goat

how they will execute the program. The plan must include an educational component directly related to Scrapie which includes one or more of the following: proper identification, disease identification, testing and brain sampling and the importance and benefits of Scrapie eradication. A maximum of $250 can also be spent on issues related to Coxiellosis/Q Fever. AGF will provide PDF information to be used in these programs, as well as other assistance when requested. In addition to the grants, AGF will also offer assistance to organizations who wish to provide information to their members and producers. The American Goat Federation is a national organization whose mission is to represent, unify, improve and advance the American goat industry and assist producers to achieve maximum success. As part of this mission, AGF makes available news of interest to all segments of the industry. The AGF face book page and website www. AmericanGoatFederation.org will have information on the Scrapie Eradication Program as well as Q Fever.

We represent all producers in the goat industry. We make recommendations to universities to influence research agendas. We are in regular contact with the USDA and other government agencies to ensure that our members have a voice when it comes to regulations that affect them. We provide information about the goat industry and marketing opportunities via our website www.AmericanGoatFederation.org and facebook page.

Help us make your voice heard. Become a member today! info@AmericanGoatFederation.org or 1-800-951-1373


The ABGA DNA Program at Work for YOU! by Mark Anderson, Chair ABGA DNA Committee

Our program is up and running and we continue to work with UC-Davis to make it even better, as we go along. We have started a Q&A section on our website and have received some very positive feedback. We will be working with some research centers and universities to find ways to improve health concerns. We have also taken your input and expanded our program and are providing some points for you to consider. DNA SAMPLES To make DNA testing easier to manage, ABGA recommends a hair sample be pulled and carefully labeled and stored on any buck or doe being used to breed. If the breeder does not wish to DNA test right away for some reason, but may want to do so in the future after seeing the kids, this will give you the peace of mind. This process will still allow you to test the animals in cases where you might lose one or both of your animals. All goats DNA tested through ABGA will need to be registered in the appropriate herd book and will be assigned an ID number, depending on whether they will be part of the standard registry or have a letter of pedigree. Mandatory testing begins 1 Jan 2015 on any sire of goats being registered with ABGA. FROM THE RULES: Rule 801: ABGA DNA Testing Until December 31, 2014, DNA testing of any animal will be on a voluntary basis. Beginning January 1, 2015, DNA testing will be required for all bucks (registered or unregistered) before offspring are eligible for registration when the offspring is a result of: Live coverage mating occurring on or after January 1, 2015; or Artificial insemination using semen collected after January 1, 2015; or Embryo transfer using semen meeting the criteria in either Rule 801.B.i or 801.B.ii DNA TEST REQUIREMENTS WHEN SEMEN IS USED FROM THE RULES: 802–I. In cases where the submitting party is not the owner of record, an unopened vial, straw, or other container containing semen that has been identified in accordance with Rule 401.B can be used for DNA test results to be accepted by ABGA.

PARENT VERIFICATION Parentage Verified (means the goat’s sire and dam are verified as it appears on the registration papers). This is a voluntary service being offered by ABGA. Any registered ABGA goat that has had parentage verified through ABGA will have that status (Parentage Verified) appear on information in the herd book database and the information can be printed on the registration papers, should the breeder want. If DNA tests have not been done on the parents, parent verification CANNOT be done nor documented. If the parents have already been DNA tested, the VGL case number from each of their test reports must appear on the goats sample kit request form. ONLY CHECK the “Parent Verification” box on the DNA Request form when providing either the VGL Case numbers from the parent’s tests or Sample Kit requests are being made for each parent at the same time the DNA test on the goat is requested. SIRE VERIFICATION [Sire Exclusion] Beginning January 1, 2015 Sire Verification will be offered through ABGA. While verification on a single parent without the other parent’s DNA isn’t 100 percent accurate, according to UC-Davis, it will definitely show if the buck is not the Sire and it can even show with reasonable accuracy if the buck might be the Sire… DAM VERIFICATION [Dam Exclusion] Beginning January 1, 2015 Dam Verification will also be offered through ABGA. While verification on a single parent without the other parent’s DNA isn’t 100 percent accurate, according to UC-Davis, it will definitely show if the doe is not the Dam and it can even show with reasonable accuracy if the doe might be the Dam… NOTE: In order to have Parent, Sire, and/or Dam Verification to be done at no charge, they must be requested at the same time the offspring is being DNA tested. If it requested after that, there will be a fee. QUESTIONS ABOUT DNA TESTING can be posted on the DNA website page and they will be answered. If an immediate answer is needed the question can be directed to Mary Ellen at the ABGA Office. The Boer Goat - 25


Q &A What is the cost of a DNA test? The DNA test being done through ABGA costs $28 (same test directly through UC Davis VG Lab costs $40). Why is the DNA test being done? The DNA test is being done to identify the animal and the specific markers associated with that animal. It also allows for parent verification and future identification of that animal as the parent of any kid(s). What does the test do for me? It allows you to show on your goat’s registration papers that your goat’s identity is verified and recorded through the DNA test. It will also allow you to show your goat’s parentage has been verified, if you have requested parent verification. What does the test do for ABGA? It provides an opportunity to build our database of information on each registered goat. Once we have that start we can ask UC Davis to test the samples for more markers that will give us the opportunity to improve our animals. Will DNA be used for research? Yes. This is the main focus of the program for the ABGA. As more ABGA members participate in the DNA testing program this will make meaningful research not only possible but a reality for our animals for the first time. Can the test tell me if my goat is a percentage or fullblood? No. Absolutely not, this is not what they are testing for. Is there an extra fee for parent verification? No. The ABGA included this service in our price of doing the DNA test. We felt this would be widely used and requested by the membership and did not want to charge any extra for the service. Will I be told who the parents are? No. You will be told they matched what you indicated on the form, or one or both didn’t match the data you provided. It is the responsibility of the individual to go back to the person they purchased the animal from and get clarification on the animal or test other animals in their herd to correct the registration to the proper parents. Who owns the DNA sample? For contract customer registries like ABGA, the ownership is shared by both the ABGA and the owner of the animal, but all DNA Samples are stored at UC Davis. Should it matter to me that the ABGA shares ownership of the sample? No. It just gives us the best of both worlds (easier for members to verify parentage and cheaper cost to the members, as well as ability to conduct research with UC Davis and other universities. Who gets a copy of the DNA Report listing the Markers? For contract customer registries, like ABGA, the owner of the goat will receive a copy of the results to be kept with the animal, and ABGA will receive a copy of the results to be stored in the appropriate registry herd book.

26 - The Boer Goat

Does ABGA make the DNA Report on my goat available to anyone else? No. If you want someone to have that information, you must provide it to them yourself. Can I get other animals DNA results? No. Only the owner of the DNA sample can get that information. The member will need to contact the owner of the animal who is also the owner of the DNA to get those results. Can I request parent verification of my goat(s) if I don’t own one of the parents? Yes, but only if you verify parentage through ABGA, the parents are registered and have been DNA tested through ABGA. The goat you are verifying parentage of must have some form of an ABGA registration number and then all you need is the goat’s parents’ registration numbers to verify the parentage of your goat. If the goat’s parents have not been DNA tested, you would need to order DNA test sample kits on the parents as well as the goat at the same time. If you verify through UC Davis, and/or your goat’s parents have not been DNA tested through ABGA, you must have the VGL Case ID number from their owner. Do I need to keep a sample of the hair also? What both UC Davis and ABGA suggest is that when you pull a sample to send in for testing, you pull another sample. Place it in an envelope the same way you do the sample you’re sending in and write the identifying information on the envelope. Store it in a DRY, safe place. However, the best protection of your sample is to leave it in storage at UC Davis where there are documented safeguards in place. Who Owns the Rights to Do Research on the Sample or Sell those Rights? A sample by itself is worthless for research. However, UC Davis retains research rights on all samples it houses, whether they come from individual customers or contract customer associations, like the ABGA. Here is the language each customer receives from UC Davis: 2. USE OF DATA. All Research data, including but not limited to, all notebooks, DNA typing protocols, original laboratory records, and any research reports, shall be usable by University in pursuit of its mission of teaching, research and public service. University reserves the right, subject to individual confidentiality requirements, to publish any or all research results developed from such data. Why is ABGA making this program mandatory? ABGA decided to wait until Jan 1, 2015 to make this program mandatory on bucks being used to sire other registered animals. We used 2014 as our transition period which allowed members to voluntarily test their animals and to prepare for the mandatory requirements of 2015. Our goal is to double or triple the Boer Goat data base to use for research in the next 3 to 5 years and hopefully be able to assist breeders in producing hardier animals.


DNA PARENT VERIFICATION

Explained

by Darlene Baker & Stefanie Oppenheim

With the advent of DNA testing made available through the American Boer Goat Association (ABGA) registry services, parent verification is information that can be included in the pedigree on ABGA registered goats. While in the past, this service could be obtained through the Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (VGL) at UC Davis and other genetic laboratories, the information did not become part of the information in the ABGA registry herdbooks. Now, breeders have the option of having parents verified through the ABGA service, and the registry database as well as the registration paper will show that parentage has been verified. The VGL at UC Davis is performing all genetic testing for ABGA, and the samples will be securely stored at VGL. VGL's standard goat Parentage panel of DNA markers includes 21 markers plus a gender marker. Each marker contributes to the identity of the goat. Twenty-one markers matched are sufficient for standard Parent Verification when DNA is provided on both parents. If only one parent is available for comparison, ALL possible sires or dams should be submitted to increase the accuracy of the results.

If there is any uncertainty of the correct parent from results using the initial standard panel of 21 markers, more markers are tested. The extra markers help resolve parentage cases when more than one buck or doe appears to be a possible parent, or the parents are closely related. Extra markers are also used to confirm that a doe or buck is excluded as a possible parent. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA , DAVIS BERKELEY • DAVIS • IRVI NE • LOS ANGELES

• MERCED • RIVERS IDE • SA> . .; DI EGO • SAN FRAN CISCO

VETERINARY GENETICS LABORATORY SCHOOL OF VEfERINARY MEDICINE ONE SHIELDS AVENUE DAVIS. CALIFORNIA 95616-8744

TELEPHONE: (530) 752-2211 FAX: (530) 752-3556

SAMPLE GOAT GENETIC MARKER REPORT ABGA MEMBER NAME ABGA MEMBER ADDRESS CITY, STATE, ZIP CODE

Case:

ABG000

Date Received:

4-Jul-2014

Print Date: Report ID:

2-Aug-2014 999-9999-9999-9999

Verify report at www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/myvgl/verify .html

Name: ABG BOER GOAT

..

DOB: 09/09/1090

Sex: M

Breed: BO

Reg : 0000000 Microchip:XXX XXXX

ANALYSIS Permanent Record.

14 GENETIC MARKERS ARE LISTED IN A BASIC GENETIC DNA REPORT. THESE MARKERS IDENTIFY THE GOAT. IF THIS GOAT WERE USED AS ONE OF THE PARENTS IN PARENT VERIFICATION, THERE WOULD BE A MINIMUM OF 7 ADDITIONAL MARKERS THAT WOULD BE TESTED IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE ACCURACY OF THE PARENT VERIFICATION.

GENETIC MARKERS LOCUS CSRD247 ILSTS 87 INRA063 OarFCB20 SRCRSP5

TYPE

LOCUS

TYPE

233/241

HSC INRA005 MAF65 SPS113 SRCRSP8

289/302

143/147 175/179 101/97 169/177

115 121/137 140

LOCUS ILSTS19 INRA023 McM527 SRCRSP23

TYPE 152/156 205/211 164 103

Testing for extra markers is done free of charge, but the results will be delayed by the additional tests. Exclusions in multiple markers can accurately determine who is NOT a possible parent. It is important to remember that while parentage exclusions are 100 percent accurate, parentage qualifications are not. The accuracy of most animal parentage tests is greater than 99 percent when both parents are included in the analysis. When only one parent is included in the analysis the accuracy drops to around 95 percent, and that accuracy decreases when the potential parents are part of a group of closely related animals. Again, an animal closely related to an actual parent could possess marker variants that make it appear to be the correct parent. To prevent erroneous parentage qualifications, breeders need to submit samples from all possible parents when first requesting parentage verification. If more than one sire and one dam qualify as parents of an offspring the laboratory can then test with additional DNA markers to sort out the actual parents. Many breeders ask why the lab needs DNA from both parents to provide parent verification when the breeder already knows who the dam is. The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory needs the genetic information from the dam’s DNA in order to deduce what genetic markers must come from the sire. Having DNA from both parents provides an effective result that would be legally conclusive. Testing only one parent will give you one of two possible answers: the single parent can be excluded, or it could "qualify" as being a possible parent. This does not mean it is a parent. It means that it is the only likely parent of all possible parents that were compared. And the only verification that is legally recognized is that where both parent candidates are verified. To limit the circumstance of animals being "unavailable" for sampling, breeders are encouraged to keep hair samples on file for all animals on their farm. Clean, dry hair samples stored in well-labeled paper envelopes can be stored for years and still remain suitable for DNA testing. It is also worth noting that VGL can test tissue samples (but not hair) taken from recently deceased animals (within 12 to 24 hours of death). Please inquire about appropriateness and get instructions for sampling deceased animals if that situation should arise. VGL also offers post mortem testing for animals deceased for a longer period of time (months or years). NOTE: special rates apply to post mortem testing and results are not guaranteed.

224/232

The Boer Goat - 27


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