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ASSIGNMENT 1 LOGBOOK

ENVS 10003 Abhishek Rajendran - 698670 !


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WEEK 1 !


WEEK ONE JOURNAL

CONSTRUCTION:!*

CHANGE*OF*PLAN:*

Due! to! time! constraints,! and! our! current! tower’s! lack!of!rigidity,!we!decided!to!change!the!design!of! the! tower! to! the! one! depicted! below! in! Figure! 4! below.!!!

7/3/2014 ! COMPRESSION* ACTIVITY:! Using! MDF! blocks,! we! had! to! construct! a! tower! that! was! approximately! 6! feet! high,! and! capable! of! fitting! a! toy! animal! inside! without!collapsing!in!on!itself.! ! INITIAL*PLAN/IDEA:*

Figure!1! *

Our! initial! idea! was! to! build! it! with! crisscrossing! MDF! blocks! much! like! how! bricks! are! used! in! everyday!construction!for!many!buildings!believing! this!to!be!a!safe!option!due!to!its!widespread!use.!!

Figure!2! Figure!4! Figure!3!

Placing! the! blocks! in! the! planned! arrangement! proved!difficult!as!it!was!often!knocked!down!with! nothing!to!hold!them!together.!This!meant!that!we! were! not! sticking! right! to! the! plan! as! shown! in! Figure! 2! and! 3! above! with! there! being! gaps! between! blocks.! This! resulted! in! less! than! wished! stability,! as! there! was! no! real! clear! path! for! any! load! to! be! transferred! to! the! ground,! or! for! the! equivalent!reaction!force!

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In!order!to!have!stronger!supports!along!the!walls,! we! decided! to! have! two! layers! of! blocks! rather! than! just! the! one! as! depicted! in! Figure! 5! below! with!one!side!of!the!tower!open!to!accommodate! the! toy! animal.! This! decision! was! taken! purely! on! the!belief!that!it!would!aid!the!tower!in!distributing! the! load! more! evenly,! thus! allowing! it! to! hold! a! greater!mass.!!

Figure!5! !


The!instability!of!our!revised!design!due!to!the!lack! of!compression!on!the!blocks!became!known!to!us! when! continuing! to! build! the! tower! higher.! A! column! collapsed;!unable!to!hold!the!blocks!above! it!as!shown!below.!

Rather,!if!the!initial!design!of!the!tower!was!stuck! to,! and! carried! out! to! reasonable! effect,! it! would! have! been! more! effective! in! holding! a! large! mass.! There! would! have! been! greater! compression! of! blocks!throughout!the!structure!due!to!the!weight! of! the! live! load! pushing! down,! and! with! no! room! for!blocks!to!move,!and!thus!no!weak!points!within! the!tower,!it!would!have!been!able!to!transfer!that! force! straight! into! the! ground.! As! is! shown! below! in! another! group’s! tower! where! even! with! blocks! being! removed,! the! structure! could! still! hold! a! considerable!mass.!

Figure!6!

Figure!8!

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The! gaps! between! the! blocks! mean! that! there! is! room!for!the!blocks!to!move!when!a!load,!force!or! pressure! of! any! quantity! is! placed! on! them.! The! one! block! moving! causes! blocks! both! above! and! below! to! also! shift,! thus! causing! the! whole! tower! to!collapse.! Lack!of!time!meant!that!we!could!not! make!any!more!changes!to!the!design,!but!instead! had!to!continue!with!what!we!had.!!

Having! to! also! meet! the! requirements! of! an! arch! that! stretched! across! the! length! of! the! sides,! we! created!a!flat!roof.!The!end!result!being!an!average! sized!tower!with!a!bit!of!the!side!having!collapsed.!! However,! when! some! weight,! in! this! case! a! water! bottle! was! placed! on! top! of! it,! the! entire! tower! collapsed.!Being!a!result!of!as!discussed!before,!the! lack! of! compression! and! the! blocks! being! too! far! apart!meant!that!it!allowed!for!them!to!bend!and! thus! compromise! the! integrity! of! the! tower.! With! every!gap!within!the!structure!being!a!weak!point! for! the! force! to! travel! through! to! the! ground,! the! tower! crumbled! when! the! smallest! change! was! made!to!its!overall!load.!!

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Figure!10!

(Figure!9!&!10!sourced!from!Bow!Vacharussiriyuth)!

Figure!9! Figure!7!

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WEEK 2 !


WEEK TWO JOURNAL 14/3/20142 ! FRAME*ACTIVITY:**

Using! a! strip! of! Balsawood! 10cm! x! 60cm,! to! build! the!tallest!possible!frame!for!a!tower!that!is!stable! and!able!to!support!it!own!weight!(dead!load).!!

* INITIAL*PLAN/IDEA:*

Cutting! it! into! 20! individual! pieces,! we! wished! to! build! a! pyramidal! type! structure! with! a! triangular! base,! believing! that! a! thicker! and! stronger! base! would!allow!us!to!create!a!taller!structure.! We!had! originally! planned! on! using! a! glue! gun,! but! due! to! being! unable! to! get! one! in! time,! we! settled! for! masking!tape.!!*

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Figure!1!

CONSTRUCTION:* ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Figure!2! ! ! ! ! ! !

! The!triangle!base!was!chosen!as!a!triangle!equally! distributes!the!compression!forces!of!the!structure! above! and! as! all! sides! are! of! equal! size,! they! all! have!equal!size,!and!thus!one!is!less!likely!to!buckle! relative!to!one!of!the!others.!! Maintaining! the! triangular! shape! throughout! the! frame!of!the!tower!was!aimed!at!ensuring!that!like! the! base,! all! parts! of! the! tower! would! have! the! same!even!distribution!of!load,!and!thus!prevent!it! from! collapsing! under! its! own! weight.! Moreover,! but!slowly!making!each!triangle!smaller,!we!wished! to! angle! the! tower! towards! a! central! point! at! the! top,! ensuring! that! each! level! was! lighter! than! the! level!below!and!thus!making!it!easier!for!the!tower! to!maintain!its!own!weight.!! ! ! ! !

CHANGE*OF*PLAN:* ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Figure!3!

Figure!4!


Despite! our! efforts,! the! upper! layers! of! the! tower! were!still!too!heavy,!and!resulted!in!the!bending!of! some! levels! as! shown! in! Figure! 4.! Though! due! to! the! extended! base,! the! force! was! still! being! distributed! sufficiently! to! ensure! the! entire! structure!did!not!break,!or!fall!over.!!! Therefore,! we! chose! to! create! a! truss! of! sorts! within!the!frame!of!the!structure!by!converting!the! parallelograms! into! triangles! with! the! use! of! bracing.! However! due! to! a! shortage! in! sticks,! we! were! unable! to! do! this! to! all! sides! of! the! frame,! thus!us!choosing!to!alternate!the!side!upon!which! to!place!the!bracing!every!level!as!shown!in!Figure! 3.!! ! ! ! ! ! Figure!5! !

However!this!was!insufficient!still!as!the!dead!load! of! the! tower! was! too! great! for! the! handful! of! braces! that! were! placed! to! make! a! lasting! impact! with! the! top! of! the! tower! still! bending! (Figure! 5).! The!lack!of!proper!planning!initially!meant!that!we! were! unable! to! provide! adequate! support! to! the! frame! to! prevent! it! from! buckling.! As! a! result,! we! resorted!to!using!masking!tape!as!a!defacto!brace! as!shown!below.!! !

Figure!6!

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! ! Figure!7! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! One! of! the! other! groups! who! managed! to! create! the! tallest! tower! in! our! tutorial,! chose! instead! to! create! a! slim! tower! with! regular! bracing.! The! slim! design!minimized!the!horizontal!(lateral)!forces!on! the!structure!making!it!less!likely!to!bend!over.!The! regular! bracing! worked! alongside! the! slim! design! by! creating! a! rigid! frame! that! was! unlikely! to! buckle!as!weak!points!were!minimized.!Though!this! would!make!the!whole!structure!topple!over!if!the! load! was! beyond! what! it! could! hold,! by! extending! the! base! beyond! the! actual! structure,! it! provided! stability!to!the!whole!frame!by!dispersing!the!load! over!a!greater!area.!! ! (Figure!2,!4!&!10!sourced!from!Bow! Vacharussiriyuth)!


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WEEK 3 !


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CLASS ACTIVITY CAFÉ:&

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Figure'1'

In& the& case& of& this& building,& the& structural& framework,& which&is&the&concrete&beams&and&columns,&are&also&part& of& the& enclosure& system.& This& has& allowed& for& greater& ventilation& and& sunlight& with& windows& covering& the& expanse& of& the& building.& However,& this& creates& problems& with& services& that& would& normally& be& delivered&through&the&walls&now&having&to&be&delivered& through& the& ground.& There& would& have& to& be& some& internal& walls& to& allows& for& services& to& be& passed& through&to&the&first&and&second&floors.&&

& UNDERGROUND&CAR&PARK:& These& inverted& conical& reinforced& concrete& pillars& supported& the& underground& car& park.& Being& right& under& South& Lawn,& these& pillars& also& provided& drainage& for& the& large& trees& above.& The& pillars& were& precast& with& in& two& separate& moulds,& and& fixed& together& on& site.& Due& to& weathering& over& time,& as& shown& in& Figure&3,&this&has&caused& the&corrosion&of& the& steel& reinforcing& bars& within& the& concrete& which&were&placed&too&close&to&the&other&layer& of&the&concrete.&&

Figure!2! Figure!3!


TARP&–&UNION&HOUSE:&

Figure!4!

Figure!5!

The& tarp& covered& area& outside& Union& House& is& stretched& out& across& multiple& poles& like& that& in& Figure& 5.& The& poles& aided& by& the& lining& in& the& tarp& itself& (possibly& has& some& rigid& member& in& it)& hold& the& material& in& constant& tension& across& the& area.& In& order& to& account& for& the& storm& water& that& will& no& doubt& collect&and&fall&over&the&edge&of&the&tarp,& a& central& hole& shown& in& Figure& 4& overhangs&a&drain.&The&roof&slopes&down& into& this& area& and& it& is& held& as& such& through&the&tension&of&the&poles.&&

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OVAL&PAVILLION:& The&North&wall&of&the&Oval&pavilion&is&made&up&of&bricks&that&generally&run& in& a& stretcher& course,& with& the& one& row& of& soldier& course& high& up& for& design,&and&at&the&windows,&with&a&rowlock&course&that&is&slanted&down.& This& is& as& such& to& prevent& and& water& from& entering& the& building& by& not& allowing&it&to&sit&on&the&window&sill.&Underneath&the&edges&of&the&windows& as&well,&where&there&what&appear&to&be&a&thicker&line&in&the&joint&between& the&bricks&are&expansion&joints&that&cater&for&any&expansion&or&contraction& of&the&bricks&and&other&elements&thus&preventing&the&movement&causing& any&structural&damage.&&

Figure!6!


Live$Loads

Dead$Loads

Loads

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MIND MAP !

Retaining$&$Founda)on$Walls

Strut$(Compression)

Mortar Tie$(Tension) Joints

Course

Bricks

Structural$Elements

Beam$(Compression$and$Tension)

Bond Slab/Plate

Week$3:$Foo)ngs$and$Founda)ons

Panels$(Structural/Bracing) End$Nearing$Piles

Deep$Founda)ons

Fric)on$Piles Shallow$Foo)ngs

Pad$(Isolated)$Foo)ng

Strip$Foo)ng

RaE/Founda)on$Slab


WEEK 4 !


GROUND!FLOOR!PLAN:!

NORTH!ELEVATION!PLAN:!

We!were!working!with!the!area!3:5!and!A:B!along!the!alphanumeric! grid,!and!finding!out!how!to!build!it!the!following!week.!! !

Show!the!back!wall!of!the!building,!and!the! model!that!we!were!to!build!the!following!week.!! !

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EAST!ELEVATION!PLAN!!!!!!!!!!!–! WITHOUT!EXTERNAL!WALL:! Allows!us!to!see!where!the!walls! are!located!within!the!structure.!!

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NORTH!ELEVATION!PLAN!–!WITHOUT!EXTERNAL!WALL:!

DETAILED!PLAN!–!NORTH!WALL:!

Like!the!East!Elevation!above,!this!also!allows!us!to!see!where!the! walls!are!located!within!the!structure.!!

Though!we!were!only!required!to!build!the!structural!elements!the! following!week,!we!hoped!to!replicate!the!details!in!the!joints!and! walls!as!shown!below!as!best!we!could!!


MIND MAP

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No$warning$before$failure

Disadvantages

Reinforced$Concrete Beams

Bearers$(Primary$Beams)

Advantages

Strong$in$compression

Horizontal structural element

Good$in$tension$and$compression

Cheap$to$produce

Week$in$tension$(Steel$formwork$added$to$strengthen)

Used to carry loads along its length and transfer to vertical supports

Joists$(Secondary$Beams)

Fluid$and$Shapeless$before$it$hardens

Timber

Concrete

Slabs$between$joists$and$beams

Laid$on$site

Advantages

In>Situ Can$be$sprayed$in$place$using$hose.$(Shotcrete)

Week$4:$Floor$Systems$and$Horizontal$Elements Audible$warning$before$failure

Not$very$strong

Used$in$non>structural$elements Disadvantages

Manufactured$Osite Precast Standardized$without$quality$control$issues

Columns

OZen$used$structurally

Cantilevers Occurs when a structural element is supported at only one end

Steel

Girders/Beams$

More$aestheRcally$pleasing Allows$work$to$operate$faster$on$site

Horizontal, Vertical or Angled

Joists

Advantages

Disadvantages

Long$LasRng

Very$strong$in$tension$and$compression$

Expensive


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WEEK 5 !

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CLASS ACTIVITY

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BASE:& We& used& cardboard& for&the& base&upon& which& to& hold& the& model.& It& is& fairly& rigid&allowing&for&it&to&be&moved,&whilst& also& allowing& us&to& work& on& it&to&draw& out&the&plan&of&the&model.& ! ! ! ! ! ! !

FOUNDATIONS&G&BASEMENT:& The& building& employs& strip& footing& to& hold& the& structural& walls& inside.& We& replicated& this& with& small& balsa& wood& blocks&and&strips.& This& part&was&not&to& scale.&& ! ! !

Figure&1&


FLOORING:& Balsa& wood& sheets& were& used& to& replicate& the& concrete& slab& that& went& on&top&of&the&footings.&We&were&unable& to& properly& replicate& the& depth& of& the& slab& due& to& insufficient& information.& Also& In& original& design,& the& footings& were& a& part& of& the& concrete& slab& as& shown&in&Figure&2,&rather&than&the&slab& resting& on& top& of& the& footings& as& we& have&done.&& ! ! ! !

WALLS:&

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As& we& ran& out& of& Balsa& wood& to& use,& rather& than& not& doing& the& parts& we& manage& to& finish& properly,& we& risked& not&being&able&to&finish,&and&decided&to& use& the& polystyrene& board& that& had& been&set&aside&for&the&ground&floor&and& roofing.& These& walls& went& up& right& above& the& footings,& or& as& according& to& the&original&design,&the&points&at&which& the&slab&was&strengthened&and&deeper.&&

Figure&2&


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GROUND&FLOOR&

! We& managed& to& find& some& compressed& polystyrene& board& (black)& and& used& this& for& the& roof& of& the& basement.& Due& to& time,&material&constraints&along&with&lack& of& information,& we& were& not& able& to& properly& replicate& the& roofing& system& of& the&basement,&which&appears&to&be&steel& beams&connected&the&steel&columns&and& some& form& of& struts/joists& across& the& beams& upon& which& the& flooring& for& the& first&floor&rests.&&

FINAL&MODEL& We&used&a&sheet&of&paper&for&the&roof&of& the&first&floor.&According&to&the&diagrams,& it& was& a& slanting& roof& that& was& hanging& from& above& rather& than& resting& on& the& walls.& But& we& did& not& know& how& exactly& how&it&worked,&and&also&ran&out&of&time.&& & Note:& The& walls& that& are& made& out& of& cardboard& should& not& be& there& ad& they& are& not& structural.& They& were& removed& later.&&


MIND MAP

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A grid with Columns connecting the beams together Becomes$unstable$under$compressive$force$and$fails$by$ buckling$

Concrete Frames Long$Columns Different Types of Columns/Beams

Grid of Steel Columns connected to steel girders and beams

Structural Frames

Week$5:$Columns,$Grid$and$Wall$Systems

Steel Frames

A grid of Timber posts or poles connected to timber beams

Timber Frames (Post and Beam) Wall Systems Load Bearing Walls Concrete

Masonry

Stud Walls Light Gauge Steel Framing

Timber Framing

Short$Columns Become$shorter$when$a$compressive$load$is$applied$and$ then$fails$by$crushing


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WEEK 6 !

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CLASS ACTIVITY

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Not.as.large.a.load. to.hold Wall.Junc=ons.used. to.increase.strength

Special.considera=ons.required.so.not.to.damage.it Used.on.Level.2.Only

32storey.units

Only.Used.on.Ground.and.1st.Level

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Timber.Framing

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Heritage.building.at.the.front.of.the.property..

First.thing.that.commenced.on.site Steel.Columns

Service.Systems

Footscray

Sewage/Electrical

Structural Everything.placed.inside.oors,.ceilings.etc

Connected.by.Fixed.Joints.to.Walls

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Timber.Joists

In2Situ.Concrete.Base

Can=levering.sec=on.requires.extra.steel.beams

Steel.Bearers

Enclosure.System

Brick.Veneer

Timber.Cladding

Plaster.Framing

Render.on.Higher.Levels


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Metal'Sheet'RooďŹ ng Enclosure'System

Timber'Beams

Fixed'Joints'between' Bearers'and'Beams

Timber'Bearers

1:1'Model'of'a'Bathroom'of'a' Glenn'MurcuB'building

Timber'Workshop'.'Built'Detail

Structural

Screws'and'bolts'rather' than'nails'used'due'to' grooves.'


CombinaEon$of$ primary$and$secondary$ roof$beams

MIND MAPS ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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Flat

Trussed$Roofs

Portal$Frames

Made$up$of$concrete$slabs,$ trusses,$space$frames,$ beams,$decking$

Flat$plates$of$reinforced$concrete.$Slightly$sloped$towards$ drainage.$EnEre$roof$is$coated$with$waterproofing$ membrane Ferrous

Week$6:$Spanning$&$Enclosing$Spaces

NonVFerrous

Types

Metals

ProperEes$(General

ConsideraEons

OxidizaEon/Corrosion

Hardness

High$DucElity Pitched$and$Sloping$Roofs

Flexibility$&$PlasEcity Permeable/Porous

ProtecEon$against$water/moisture

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Highly$Dense Very$Good$Conductor$or$Heat$&$Electricity Highly$Durable High$Lifespan High$Reusability/Recyclability Sustainable Cost$EffecEve

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Water$Related$Damage

Low$Fragility

1V3T$Pitch

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Alloys

Flat$Roofs

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A$series$of$braced$ridge$frames$(two$columns$and$a$beam)$ with$purlins$for$the$roof$and$girts$for$the$walls.$Sheet$metal$ usually$on$top.

Concrete$Roofs

Manufactured$from$individual$components$ and$fixed$together$to$form$efficient$ elements$capable$of$spanning$large$spaces.$

Space$Frames

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Sloping

Roofing$Strategies$and$Systems

Made$up$of$raQers,$ beams$and$purlins,$ trusses

Structural$Steel$Framed$Roofs

Framed$roofs$constructed$from$a$series$ of$open$web$steel/Ember$elements

Basically$a$3D$truss.$Capable$of$ spanning$large$distances$in$2$linear$ direcEons

>3T$Pitch

Made$up$of$roof$beams$and$ purlins$with$metal$sheeEng$ on$top.

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Very$Expensive Very$Light

Aluminium Iron$is$heated$and$hammered$into$shape.

Non/magneNc

Iron

Wrought$Iron Iron$is$melted$and$poured$into$moulds$to$cool.$

Easily$formed,$machined$and$cast Cast$Iron

Pure$aluminium$is$soS,$so$alloys$with$small$amounts$of$ copper,$magnesium$etc$are$added$to$strengthen

Heavy$and$BriEle Very$High$Compressive$Strength

Commonly$used$for$window$frames,$door$handles$etc Ferrous

Only$if$ever$used$for$compressive$elements

Very$malleable$and$ducNle Good$conductor$of$electricity$and$heat

Steel Copper

Very$strong$and$resistant$to$fracture

Week$6:$Metals

Can$be$made$into$many$shapes

Used$as$rooďŹ ng$material,$Water/HeaNng$Pipework,$Electric$Cabling

Non/Ferrous Long$lasNng$and$resistant$to$wear$if$protected$properly

Used$as$a$thin$layer$upon$metals$such$as$iron$to$prevent$corroding

Zinc

Hot$Rolled

Elements$Shaped$whilst$metal$is$hot

Used$on$its$own$as$a$cladding$material$for$roofs$and$walls Not$used$now$as$it$is$toxic

Lead

Used$as$primary$structure

Structural$Steel Cold$Formed

Used$to$be$used$commonly$for$a$variety$of$services$(piping,$water$tanks$etc) Used$in$strong$light/weight$alloys Excellent$against$corrosion

High$strength$to$weight$raNo

Elements$folded$from$sheets$previously$hot$rolled$and$ cooled

Reinforcing$Bars Titanium

Added$to$concrete$due$to$high$tension$strength$to$form$ reinforced$concrete


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WEEK 7 !


MIND MAP

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Moulded$when$hot,$ hardens$as$it$cools

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Easily$recyclable

Thermoplas9cs

Reflec9ng$Surfaces$(e.g.$low$eSglass$ to$prevent$heat$absorp9on)

Can$only$be$Moulded$once Thermose[ng$Plas9cs

Examples$are$laminex$which$ is$used$for$finishing$surfaces

Controlling$Heat/Radia9on

Low$Fragility High$duc9lity$when$heated High$Flexibility$and$Plas9city

Plas9cs

General$Proper9es

Windows,$Doors$etc

Can$lose$proper9es$and$get$ damaged$due$to$sunlight

Openings

Very$poor$conductor$ of$heat/electricity Very$Durable High$reusability$for$thermoplas9cs$ and$elastomers,$low$for$thermose[ng Fairly$cost$effec9ve Can$degrade$with$ exposure$to$sunlight

Planned Unplanned

Week$7:$Detailing$Strategies

Very$durable Heat$and$Moisture

Hard$Rubber$(for$abrasion)

For$Water$to$Penetrate$ All$Need$To$Be$Met:

High$Flexibility,$ Plas9city,$Elas9city All$Rubbers$are$waterproof Very$poor$conductors$of$ heat$and$electricity High$Reusability Cost$Effec9ve Generally$Sustainable Mainly$used$to$make$ joints$waterproof

Water$Present$At$Opening A$force$to$move$water$through$opening

SoU$Rubber$(for$seals) High$duc9lity$when$hot,$ medium$when$cold

Poor$Workmanship,$ Deteriora9on$over$9me$etc

An$Opening

Mostly$Waterproof Low$Density

Shading$Systems$(e.g.$verandahs$to$prevent$ radia9on$striking$building$envelope)

Elastomers

Medium$to$Low$Hardness

Rubber

Key$Strategies$to$Prevent$Penetra9on

Remove$Openings Keep$Water$Away$from$Openings

Neutralizing$Moisture

Neutralize$Forces$that$move$ water$through$openings

Neutralize$forces$that$move$it$up.$Using$slopes/ overlaps$to$carry$water$away$from$building Using$Drip/Break$between$surfaces$to$prevent$ water$clinging$to$the$underside$of$surfaces Neutralizing$force's$momentum$by$using$a$capillary$ break.$(Complex$shape$of$the$opening$slows$ water's$momentum$and$prevents$it$from$entering


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WEEK 8 !

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TASK:& The&group&was&assigned&to&do&a&1:1&detail&of&a&particular&section&of& the&model&that&we&had&built&in&Week&5,&which&itself&was&a&small& part&of&the&Oval&Pavilion.&&

MY&DETAIL:& I&did&the&bottom&part&of&the&wall&located&on&the&northern&side&of& the&Pavilion.&The&1:1&detail&is&on&the&next&page.&&

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CLASS ACTIVITY !


Clear$Float$Glass

MIND MAP

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No$further$treatment$ on$original$glass Used$for$low$risk,$low$cost,$ small$size$glazing$scenarios Breaks$into$sharp$ dangerous$shards

Shaped$Glass

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Curved,$Blocks,$ Channels,$Tubes$etc Sheets$of$clear,$ Knted$etc$glass

Expensive

Medium$8$High$Density Transmits$Heat$and$Light$ but$not$Electricity

Laminated$Glass

Doors Windows

Sliding

Tempered$Glass

Pre8fabricated$glass$is$heated$then$cooled$ rapidly.$This$creates$high$compression

Bi8fold

ShaTers$into$small$pieces$ rather$than$shards

Very$Hard High$Fragility.$Tempered$ glass$less$so$than$Float.$ High$DucKlity$and$Flexibility$ when$molten.$Low$when$cooled High$Reusability/Recyclability

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Glass$sKll$cracks,$but$adheres$to$ plasKc$rather$than$fall$apart

Swinging

Glass

PVB$bonded$between$ two$panes$as$a$sandwich Improved$Safety$and$SecuKry

Week$8:$Strategies$for$Openings

Very$Durable Non$Porous/Waterproof

Float$Glass

Flat$Glass

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WEEK 9 !

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CLASS ACTIVITY

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FRAMEWORK:* Concrete* Columns* that* run* from* the* basement* right* through* to* the* top* floor* provide* the* structural* framework* for* the* building.* The* columns* are* precast* off* site,* with* reinforcement* holding* them* in* place* while*they*cure.*Formed*bars*run*horizontal* to* the* columns* at* regular* intervals* for* the* concrete*slab*to*run*into*and*join*together.**

*

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CAR*STACKER:* A* car* stacker* with* 3* cars* on* top* of* each* other*is*in*place*in*order*to*save*space,*and* also* money.* This* area* is* then* tied* into* the* drainage*system*for*the*basement.**

*


! !

WALLS:* Basement* Walls* are* made* of* shotcrete.* This* is* a* more* ! efficient* way* of* making* them* that* saves* time* and* money* compared*to*having*moulds*when*poured*on*site*or*having* precast* walls* which* can* be* very* expensive* to* make* and* transport.**

*

ROOFING:* The* roofing* system* is* made* of* a* concrete* slab* that* has* been* poured* on* site.* Space* for* amenities* have* been* accounted* for* prior* to* pouring* occurring.* The*slabs*span*the*area*between* the* concrete* columns,* and* thus* transfer*the*load*from*above*into* them.*This*form*of*slab*is*called*a* suspended*transfer*slab.**


ROOF*TOP:* ! !

The* concrete* slab* for* the* rooftop* has* varying*depths*depending*on*what*is*on* ! top* (i.e.* they* varying* things* different* parts*of*the*roof*need*to*support).**Also,* to*prevent*seepage*of*water*which*could* ruin*the*structural*integrity*of*the*entire* building,*there* will* be*2*layers* on*water* proofing*membrane*and*a*screed*bed*on* top*of*the*concrete.*The*screed*will*then* be*tiled.***

DRAINAGE:* As* is*it* a*flat* roof,* rather* than*the*more* common* slanted* roofs,* there* is* a* slight* decline* towards* these* points* for* storm* water* to* exit.* On* the* other* side* of* the* parapet* wall* is* a* downpipe* into* which* the*storm*water*goes.**


INTERTTENANCY*WALLS:* The*interTtenancy*walls*primary*purpose* is* to* divide* each* apartment.* But* they* also* have* another* purpose* in* that* they* provide* some* structural* support* to* the* slab*above.*This*load*is* then*transferred* to* the* slab* below* and* into* the* concrete* columns.**

! !

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METAL*STUD*WALLS:* Metal* stud* walls* are* used* to* provide* barriers* between* rooms* rather* than* the* more* common* timber* even* though* it* is* more* expensive,* as* it* saves* on* time* spent*having*to*straighten*walls*etc*later* on*if*it*were*timber.**


MIND MAP

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!

A$single$material(s)$combined$such$that$ the$components$are$indis5nguishable.$ Composite$ Materials

Monolithic

Composite

Two$or$more$materials$combined$in$such$a$way$that$ individual$components$are$easily$dis5nguishable.$ Split$up$into$groups.$Fibrous$(contains$fibers),$Laminar$ (sandwich$panels),$Par5culate$(gravel$and$resin)$and$ Hybrid$(combina5on$of$2$or$more$composite$types)

Fiber$Reinforced$Cement$(FRC) Minor$Movements$as$a$result$of$expansion/ contrac5on$of$soil,$building$elements$etc$occur

Movement$Joints

Week$9:$Detailing$Strategies

Fiberglass

Made$from$glass$fibers$ and$epoxy$resins Fire$resistant$ and$water$proof

Joints$have$rubber$or$corking$insets$to$account$for$ this$expansion/contrac5on$and$prevent$it$from$ affec5ng$and$causing$structural$damage$to$building

Used$for$external/internal$cladding$ walls,$floor$panels$under$5les Won't$Burn Resistant$to$permanent$ water/termite$damage

Lightweight$and$strong Doesn't$Rot/Warp

Construc5on$ Detailing

Legisla5on$in$place$to$ensure$safety$of$ people$inside$in$case$of$emergency.$(e.g.$fire) Par5cular$materials$(e.g.$highly$flammable$materials)$are$ not$allowed$to$be$used.$

Made$from$cellulose$fibers,$ cement,$sand$and$water.$

Used$for$transparent$wall$ cladding$or$preformed$shaped$ objects$such$as$water$tanks.$

Health$&$Safety Aluminum$Sheet$Composites

Made$from$aluminum$ and$plas5c Cladding$material$in$interior$ and$exterior$applica5ons. Reduced$use$of$metal,$ thus$lower$costs Lightweight Weather$resistant,$ unbreakable,$shockproof

Inexpensive


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!

WEEK 10 !


CLASS ACTIVITY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OKXiRiN6wI=


!

MIND MAP !

Affects$the$highest$point$ of$a$structure Tall,$thin$buildings$are$ affected$most

Wind

SoluDon$is$to$build$shorter$ buildings$that$cover$a$ larger$area.$

The$method$in$which$a$material$is$produced,$used,$the$ effect$it$has$on$people,$and$how$it$is$disposed$of$decides$ whether$it$is$a$hero$or$a$villain.$

Affects$the$base$of$ a$structure Earthquake

Bamboo

Heroes$and$Villains

Recycled$Timber

Lateral$Loads

Paints

LEDs

Glues

Linoleum

Carpets

Wool

Without$bracing,$the$building$is$more$likely$to$more$ erraDcally$and$cause$damage

Heroes

Cleaning$Chemicals Timber Tiling Aluminum Downlights PVC

Greater,$more$symmetrical$bracing$will$prevent$ excessive$movement$due$to$greater$resistance.$

Week$10:$When$Things$Go$Wrong

Asymmetrical$buildings$should$be$separated$into$individual$ structures$so$they$may$be$allowed$to$move$independently$

Villains Diaphragms

Moment$ResisDng$ Frames

Structural$elements$that$resist$and$collect$ lateral$forces$in$the$horizontal$plane.$ Structural$systems$that$are$constructed$ with$rigidly$connected$joints

Seismic$Base$Isolators ConnecDons$placed$between$the$foundaDons$and$the$ substructure$that$allow$the$substructure$and$the$ superstructure$to$move$independently$of$the$foundaDon$ during$earthquakes.$


! !

!

CONSTRUCTION WORKSHOP !


CLASS ACTIVITY MATERIALS:* ! + + + + + +

Nails* Screws* Power*Drill* Saw* 3*pieces*of*Pine** 1*piece*of*Plywood*

! !

!

OUR*PLAN:* Knowing*that*the*pieces*of*Pine*were* very* strong* when* compressed* on* its* longer*axis,*we*decided*to*screw*the* 3*pieces*of*pine*together*with*as*few* screws* as* possible,* and* with* them* closer* towards* what* would* be* the* top* of* the* beam* as* the* timber* was* very*good*in*tension*but*not*as*much* in*compression.*As*screws*weaken*its* structural* integrity,* we* thought* it* best* to* not* do* it* where* it* will* be* weaker.* At* what* would* then* be* the* bottom,* we* cut* the* plywood* into* 2* strips,*and*nailed*them*in*to*provide* more* support,* whilst* being* less* intrusive*than*a*screw.**


OTHER GROUPS GROUP*1:* ! + + +

*

370kg* Deflection*of*27mm* Failed*as*the*plywood*started*ripping*off*,*thus* weakening*the*pine* *

GROUP*2*:* + + +

180kg* Deflection*of*34mm* Failed*due*to*lack*of*bracing*on*the*sides* * *

*

GROUP*3:* + + +

*

340kg* Deflection*of*68mm* Failed*as*the*were*not*screwed*on*straight,,*and* unevenly,*meaning*that*the*load*was*also* distributed*unevenly* *

!


MY GROUP GROUP*4:* ! + + +

480kg* Deflection*of*21mm* Failed*due*to*error*in*building*process*which*meant*that* the*layer*of*plywood*directly*below*pine*was*broken,*and* thus*not*screwed*on*properly.*As*shown*below,*first*point* of*failure*has*been*the*pine*at*the*point*where*it*was* broken.** *


GLOSSARY: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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! Alloy:& A#combination#of#2#or#more#different#metals#melted#and# combined#into#a#new#material#(e.g.#steel)& Axial& Load:& A# load# that# is# parallel# to# the# axis# of# the# object# in#############! question& ! Beam:& Rigid#structural#members#designed#to#carry#and#transfer# transverse#loads#across#space#to#supporting#elements& Bending:& ! Braced& Frame:& Truss#structures#that#provide#diagonal#paths#for# moving# the# lateral# forces# through# the# structure# in# the# vertical# planes.#& Bracing:& Diagonal# members# that# strengthen# a# structure# by# ! making#it#more#rigid.#& ! Buckling:# The# failure# of# generally# a# metal# load# bearing# element# due# to# an# excessive# compressive# load.# It# is# ! characterized#by#bending,#deformation#etc#of#the#element& Cantilever:& An# overhanging# beam/member# that# is# only# supported#at#one#end.#& ! Column:& Rigid,# relatively# slender# structural# members# designed# to# support# axial# compressive# loads# applied# to# the# ends# of# the# ! members& Composite& Beam:& A# beam# that# is# constructed# from# more# than# ! one#material#to#increase#stiffness#or#to#reduce#costs.#& Compression:& When# an# element# is# forced# to# compress# beyond# its#natural#length#due#to#the#load#of#an#object#affecting#it.#& ! & !

Concrete&Plank:&Used#to#span#the#spaces#between#beams/joists.# They#area#also#generally#not#reinforced#like#concrete#slabs.#& Corrosion:& A# gradual# degradation# of# metals# due# to# chemical# reactions# occurring# with# its# environment.# Most# common# example#of#this#is#oxidation#of#metals#such#as#Iron,#creating#rust.#& Defect:&When#the#functionality#of#a#material#is#altered.#& Deflection:&As#a#beam/column#is#put#under#a#compressive#force,# it# bends# vertically/horizontally.# The# movement# in# the# member# as#a#result#of#this#bending#is#called#deflection.#& Down& Pipe:& Storm# Water# that# gets# collected# on# rooftops# normally#goes#into#a#box#gutter#which#then#transfers#the#water# into# a# downpipe# through# which# the# water# travels# under# a# structure#till#it#reaches#the#sewage#line.#& Eave:&The#overhanging#part#of#a#rafter#in#a#slanted#roof.#& Fascia:& A# horizontal# band# of# usually# wood# or# metal# that# forms# the#other#surface#of#a#cornice.#& Flashing:& Thin# continuous# sheets# of# metal# or# other# impervious# material# installed# to# prevent# the# passage# of# water# into# a# structure#from#an#angle#or#joint& Frame:& The#structural#part#of#a#building#that#transfers#the#load# into#the#ground.#& Girder:& A# horizontal# structural# member.# It# differs# from# a# beam## as#a#girder#also#supports#smaller#beams#on#top,#or#below#it.#& Gutter:& A# narrow# trough# alongside# the# edge# of# the# roofs# that# collects#rainwater#and#feeds#it#into#the#downpipe#away#from#the# building.#& IEQ:&Indoor#Environment#Quality& Insulation:&There#are#many#forms,#thermal,#sound,#electrical#etc.#


! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! !

Their#general#use#is#to#keep#heat,#sound#etc#from#escaping#the# building.#& Joist:&A#horizontal#structural#element#of#a#building#that#supports# walls#and#ceilings#and#spans#between#two#beams.#& Lintel:&A#horizontal#block#that#can#potentially#be#load#bearing.#It# spans#the#space#between#two#supports#creating#a#passageway.#& Load& Path:& The#direction#of#which#the#load#of#an#object#travels# through#a#structure& Masonry:#The#constructing#of#building#by#individual#components# bound#together#by#mortar.& Moment:& A#measure#of#an#objects’#tendency#to#rotate#about#a# specific#point#or#axis& Moment&of&Inertia:& Nogging:& A# small# piece# of# timber# (nog)# that# is# placed# between# wall#framing#to#improve#rigidity#and#provide#structural#support.& Pad&Footing:&#A#simple#and#cost#effective#vertical#support#that#is# generally# isolated# with# many# throughout# the# structure# passing# point#loads#from#the#structure#into#the#ground.& Parapet:& An#extension#of#a#wall#upwards#along#the#edge#of#the# roof.#& Point& Load:& A# load# that# is# localized# to# a# specific# location# on# a# structure.#& Portal& Frame:& A# form# of# structural# frame# where# columns# are# connected# to# rafters# that# are# moment# resistant# and# thus# can# carry#bending#forces.#This#allows#a#structure#to#be#built#as#one# large#open#space#with#no#columns#in#between.#(e.g.#factories)& Purlin:&Any#form#of#a#horizontal,#structural#member.#& Rafter:&A#sloped#structural#beam&

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Reaction& Force:& The# force# out# of# the# ground# and# onto# the# structure# that# is# equal# and# opposite# to# the# total# load# force# of# the#structure.#& Retaining& Wall:& Resists#the#lateral#pressure#of#the#soil# being# retained# when# a# change# in# ground# elevation# exceeds#the#angle#of#the#repose#of#the#soil.#& Sandwich&Panel:&Where#one#material,#is#“sandwiched”#between# two#sheets#of#another#material#(generally#aluminium)#& Sealant:#Provides#an#effective#seal#against#the#passage#of#water# and# air# that# is# durable,# resilient,# and# has# both# cohesive# and# adhesive#strength.& Seasoned&Timber:&External#wooden#surfaces#treated#with#oil#to# ensure#longevity#and#prevent#deterioration#by#weathering& Shadow&Line&Joint:& Shear& Force:& Are# unequal# forces# that# push# a# part# of# the# structure# in# one# direction,# and# another# part# in# another# direction.#These#are#most#commonly#seen#with#earthquakes.#& Shear& Wall:& Structural# elements# made# of# rigid# materials# that# resist#lateral#forces#in#the#vertical#plane.#& Skirting:& A# strip# of# most# often# wood# that# is# used# to# cover# the# transition# between# two# planes.# Most# often# the# transition# between#the#floor#and#the#wall.#& Slab&on&Ground:&A#concrete#slab#on#the#ground#that#acts#as#the# base#for#the#building.#& Soffit:& The# ceiling# on# the# exterior# of# normally# a# house# that# bridges#the#gap#between#the#exterior#wall#and#the#eave.#& Soft& Storey:& When#one#or#move#floors#are#significantly#weaker# than# those# above# and/or# below# (e.g.# ground# floor# car# park# for#


! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

#

apartment#blocks)& Spacing:& Repeating# distance# between# a# series# of# like# or# similar# elements& Span:&The#distance#between#two#structural#members.#& Steel& Decking:& A# form# of# sacrificial# metal# formwork# used# to# provide#support#for#a#concrete#slab#above#it.#& Stress:& Strip&Footing:&A#small#strip#of#footing#that#provides#support#for# any#load#bearing#walls#within#the#structure.#& Structural& Joint:& Join# two# structural# elements# to# each# other.# They#are#critical#for#the#overall#performance#of#the#building.#& Stud:& A# vertical# timber# member# that# is# commonly# used# in# houses#to#create#dividing#walls#between#rooms.#& Substructure:& The# partially# or# wholly# underground# foundation# of#a#building& Tension:& When# an# element# is# forced# to# extend# beyond# its# natural#length#due#to#the#load#of#an#object#affecting#it.#& Top&Chord:&The#top#beam#in#a#truss.#ar& Vapour& Barrier:& A# thin# layer# of# sheeting# normally# just# beyond# the#enclosure#system#which#prevents#moisture,#water#etc#from# entering#the#structure.#& Window&Sash:&The#frame#that#holds#a#window#in#place.#Typically# seen#in#opening#windows.#&


REFERENCES: ! ( (

!

!

Ching,(F.D.K.((2008).(Foundation(Systems,(Floor(Systems,(Wall(Systems,(Roof(Systems,(Moisture(and(Thermal(Systems,(Appendix.(In:( Ching,(F.D.K(Building(Construction(Illustrated.(4th(ed.(New(Jersey:(John(Wiley(&(Sons(Inc.(3.02!7.50,(A.12,(A.16,(A.18.( e!Learning(


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