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COMPARATIVE ARCH. THOUGHT II

Name: Abdullah Abdulaziz AL Ghamdi ID Number: 0909448


Location: Pacific Palisades, California Built: 1949 Architectural style: Modern Governing body:

Private

The Eames House (also known as Case Study House No) is a landmark architecture

of

mid-20th

century

modern

It was constructed in 1949 by husband-and-wife design pioneers Charles and Ray Eames, to serve as their home and studio.


Perspectives


Location: CHICAGO Built: 1922 Architectural style: Modern One of the most significant events in the history of modern architecture was the Tribune Tower international competition in 1922 when the Chicago Tribune, the city's oldest and most important newspaper, offered a $50,000 prize for the winning design of "the most beautiful and distinctive office building of the world". More than 263 architects from three continents responded with a broad constellation of designs ranging from Byzantine to Bauhaus. The List of contemporary european architects contains Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, Ludwig Karl Hilbe rsheimer, Bruno Taut, Hans and Wassili Luckhardt and many more..


Architect: Adolf Loos Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos[1] (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was a Moravian-born[2] Austro-Hungarian architect. He was influential in European Modern architecture, and in his essay Ornament and Crime he repudiated the florid style of the Vienna Secession, the Austrian version of Art Nouveau. In this and many other essays he contributed to the elaboration of a body of theory and criticism of Modernism in architecture.


Location: Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Built: 1962 Architectural style: Post-Modern "Venturi's first important project to be built was his mother's house, the Vanna Venturi House of 1961-1964. Disarmingly simple after the spatial antics of later Modernism, its plan, like that of the Beach House project, is based on a symbolic conception rather than upon one that is purely spatially abstract. It is centered on the idea of the chimney, the hearth, from which— and you can feel it—the space is pulled. The space is distended from that hearth as the mass of the chimney rises up to split the house. Here the principle of condensation becomes an extremely complex and interesting one. With the chimney rising through the gable, the general parti derives from that of the Beach House. Now, however, the living room is half-vaulted, and that semicircle is picked up in the tackedon arch of the facade; now, the whole house is rising and being split through the middle."


Architect: Robert Venturi Robert Charles Venturi, Jr. (born June 25, 1925 in Philadelphia) is an American architect, founding principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, and one of the major figures in the architecture of the twentieth century. Together with his wife and partner, Denise Scott Brown, he helped to shape the way that architects, planners and students experience and think about architecture and the American built environment. Their buildings, planning, theoretical writings and teaching have contributed to the expansion of discourse. Venturi was awarded the Pritzker Prize in Architecture in 1991.[1] He is also known for coining the maxim "Less is a bore" a postmodern antidote to Mies van der Rohe's famous modernist dictum "Less is more". Venturi lives in Philadelphia with Denise Scott Brown. They have a son, James Venturi.


Perspectives


The New York Five refers to a group of five New York City architects (Peter Eisenman, Michael Graves, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier) whose work appeared in a Museum of Modern Art exhibition organized by Arthur Drexler in 1967, and the subsequent book Five Architects in 1972. These five had a common allegiance to a pure form of architectural modernism, harkening back to the work of Le Corbusier in the 1920s and 1930s, although on closer examination their work was far more individual.[1] The grouping may have had more to do with social and academic allegiances, particularly the mentoring role of Philip Johnson. The show did produce a stinging rebuke in the May 1973 issue of Architectural Forum, a group of essays called "Five on Five", written by architects Romaldo Giurgola, Allan Greenberg, Charles Moore, Jaquelin T. Robertson, and Robert A. M. Stern.[1] These five, known as the "Grays", attacked the "Whites" on the grounds that this pursuit of the pure modernist aesthetic resulted in unworkable buildings that were indifferent to site, indifferent to users, and divorced from daily life. These "Grays" were aligned with Philadelphia architect Robert Venturi and the emerging interest in vernacular architecture and early postmodernism.


1- Charles Gwathmey

Charles Gwathmey (June 19, 1938 – August 3, 2009) was an American architect. He was a principal at Gwathmey Siegel & Associates Architects, as well as one of the five architects identified as The New York Five in 1969. One of Gwathmey's most famous designs is the 1992 renovation of Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum in New York City. Born in Charlotte, North Carolina, he was the son of the American painter Robert Gwathmey and photographer Rosalie Gwathmey. Charles Gwathmey attended the University of Pennsylvania and received his Master of Architecture degree in 1962 from Yale School of Architecture,[1] where he won both The William Wirt Winchester Fellowship as the outstanding graduate and a Fulbright Grant. Gwathmey served as President of the Board of Trustees for The Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies and was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1981.


2- John Hejduk

John Quentin Hejduk (19 July 1929 – 3 July 2000), was an American architect, artist and educator who spent much of his life in New York City, USA. Hejduk is noted for his use of attractive and often difficult-to-construct objects and shapes; also for a profound interest in the fundamental issues of shape, organization, representation, and reciprocity. Hejduk studied at the Cooper Union School of Art and Architecture, the University of Cincinnati, and the Harvard Graduate School of Design, from which he graduated with a Masters in Architecture in 1953. He worked in several offices in New York including that of I. M. Pei and Partners and the office of A.M. Kinney and Associates. He established his own practice in New York in 1965.


3- Michael Graves

(b. Indianapolis, Indiana 1934) Michael Graves was born in Indianapolis, Indiana in 1934. He studied at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio and at Harvard University. After working as a Fellow at the American Academy in Rome for two years, he started his own practice in Princeton, New Jersey. He became a professor at Princeton University in 1972. A member of the "New York Five", Graves re-interpreted the rational style that had been introduced by Le Corbusier in the 1920s into a neoclassical style. By the mid1970s, Graves had become less concerned with the roots of Modernism and had developed a wide-ranging eclecticism in which he abstracted historical forms and emphasized the use of color. Michael Graves generates an ironic, vision of Classicism in which his buildings have become classical in their mass and order. Although influenced by the fundamentalists in developing an architectural language, Graves has become an an opponent of modern works who uses humor as an integral part of his architecture. Indeed, many of his recent designs seem to celebrate architectural pastiche and kitsch.


4- Peter eisenman

Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey[1]) is an American architect. Eisenman's professional work is often referred to as formalist, deconstructive, late avant-garde, late or high modernist, etc. A certain fragmenting of forms visible in some of Eisenman's projects has been identified as characteristic of an eclectic group of architects that were (self-)labeled as deconstructivists, and who were featured in an exhibition by the same name at the Museum of Modern Art. The heading also refers to the storied relationship and collaborations between Peter Eisenman and post-structuralist thinker Jacques Derrida.


5- Richard Meier

Meier is Jewish [1] and was born in Newark, New Jersey. [2] He earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Cornell University in 1957, worked for Skidmore, Owings and Merrill briefly in 1959, and then for Marcel Breuer for three years, prior to starting his own practice in New York in 1963. Identified as one of The New York Five in 1972, his commission of the Getty Center in Los Angeles, California catapulted his popularity into the mainstream. Richard Meier & Partners Architects has offices in New York and Los Angeles with current projects ranging from China and Tel Aviv to Paris and Hamburg.


Location: Norman, Oklahoma Date 1950 to 1955 Building Type:

hous

Architectural style: Post-Modern The Bavinger House was completed in 1955 in Norman, Oklahoma, United States. It was designed by architect Bruce Goff. Considered a significant example of organic architecture,[2][3] the house was awarded the Twenty-five Year Award from the American Institute of Architects in 1987. The house was built over the course of five years by Nancy and Eugene Bavinger, the residents of the house, who were artists, along with the help of a few of Eugene's art students, volunteers, and local businesses. The wall of the house is a 96 foot long logarithmically curved spiral, made from 200 tons of stone, some of it local "ironrock" sandstone taken from a quarry three miles away that Bavinger purchased. The structure is anchored by a recycled oil field drill stem that was reused to make a central mast more than 55 feet high. The house has no interior walls; instead there are a series of platforms at different heights, some with curtains that can be drawn for privacy. The ground floor is covered with pools and planted areas.


Architect: Bruce Goff


Location: Worth, Texas Date: 1967 to 1972 Building Type: art museum

Architectural style: Modern

The Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, hosts a small but excellent art collection as well as traveling art exhibitions, educational programs and an extensive research library. Its initial artwork came from the private collection of Kay and Velma Kimbell, who also provided funds for a new building to house it.

The building was designed by renowned architect Louis I. Kahn and is widely recognized as one of the most significant works of architecture of recent times. It is especially noted for the wash of silvery natural light across its vaulted gallery ceilings.


Architect: Louis I. Kahn


Christian de Portzamparc was born in Casablanca in 1944, and graduated from the School of Fine Arts in Paris in 1970. He created his agency in 1980, supported by Marie-Élisabeth Nicoleau, Étienne Pierrès and Bertrand Beau, and later welcomed Bruno Durbecq, Céline Barda, Léa Xu, André Terzibachian and Clovis Cunha. Based in Paris, the agency has „satellite‟ offices near building sites, in addition to offices in New York and Rio de Janeiro, and represents a team of 80 people, drawn from all corners of the globe.

Both an architect and urban planner, Christian de Portzamparc is implicated in the research of form and meaning, as well as being a constructer. His work focuses on research over speculation and concerns the quality of life; aesthetics are conditioned by ethics, and he maintains that we have too often dissociated one from the other. Christian de Portzamparc focuses on all scales of construction, from simple buildings to urban re-think; the town is a founding principal of his work, developing in parallel and in crossover along three major lines: neighbourhood or city pieces, individual buildings and sky-scrapers.

The growth of Christian de Portzamparc‟s urban projects through competitions and studies led to an evolution of methods, a practical result of theoretical research and analysis. This renewed vision of urban structure, which he named the “open block” in the 80‟s, can be seen today through projects such as the Quartier Masséna - Seine Rive Gauche (since 1995), an entire neighbourhood of Paris, and at La Lironde (since 1991), in the south of France, both of which illustrate his master-planning and coordination techniques.


1791-1791 * 1797-1791 * 1799-1791 * 1799-1791 * 1771-1799 * 1771-1797 * 1771-1791 *

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1771-1771 * 1777-1771 * 6112-1771 *

1777-1771 * 1777-1771 *

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6111-1779 * 6111-6111 * 6111-1779 * “ 6112-6111 * 6117-6119 *

]


Educated as an engineer, he graduated from the Escuela Libre de Ingenieros in Guadalajara in 1923 and was self-trained as an architect. After graduation, he travelled through Spain, France (where he attended lectures of Le Corbusier), and Morocco. While in France he became aware of the writings of Ferdinand Bac, a German-French writer, designer and artist who had a huge influence on Barragån's future career.[1] He practiced architecture in Guadalajara from 1927– 1936, and in Mexico City thereafter.


Important works

Torres de Satélite, Mexico City (1957–58), in collaboration with Mathias Goeritz

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Las Arboledas / North of Mexico City (1955–1961)

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House for the architect / Barragán House, Mexico City (1947–48)

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Jardines del Pedregal Subdivision, Mexico City (1945–53)

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Tlalpan Chapel, Tlalpan, Mexico City (1954–60)

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Gálvez House, Mexico City (1955)

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Jardines del Bosque Subdivision, Guadalajara (1955–58)

* Torres de Satélite, Mexico City (1957–58), in collaboration with Mathias Goeritz *

Cuadra San Cristóbal, Los Clubes, Mexico City (1966–68) * Gilardi House, Mexico City (1975–77)



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