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ً‫مجلة إلكترونٌة ثمافٌة علمٌة صادرة عن لجنة التربٌة والتعلٌم العالً والبحث العلم‬ ‫فً المنتدى العرالً للنخب والكفاءات‬ Uruk is Electronic Cultural and Scientific Journal Issued by the Committee of Education and Higher Education and Scientific Research of the Iraqi Forum for Intellectuals and Academics

2019 ‫العدد الثانً– السنة الثالثة – نٌسان‬

‫جامعة السلٌمانٌة‬


‫الرؤٌة‬ ‫توفٌر نافذة لنشر مساهمات الكفاءات العرالٌة فً حموو التربٌوة والتعلوٌم العوالً والبحوث العلموً ء لبنواء‬ ‫مجتمع معرفً منافس عالمٌا ‪.‬‬

‫الرسالة‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫تطوٌر الووعً العلموًء وتعزٌوز ثمافوة النشور اولكترونوًء وا رتمواء بالمعرفوة لجماوور الموراء فوً حموو‬ ‫التربٌووووة والتعلووووٌم العووووالً والبحووووث العلمووووً موووون خووووة لسووووان عربووووً ٌجمووووع بووووٌن التمنٌووووة واودبٌووووة‬

‫شروط النشر‬ ‫تمدم المساهمات مطبوعة على برنامج الوورد وبمسافات مزدوجة بٌن اوسوطر علوى ن ٌوتم تورلٌم جمٌوع‬ ‫صفحات المساهمة‪.‬‬ ‫اسم الممدم او الممدمٌن للمساهمةء رتبته العلمٌةء البرٌد ا لكترونًء وتفاصٌ االتصا من عنووان ورلوم‬ ‫الااتؾ ‪.‬‬ ‫المسواهمات للممالوة الثمافٌوة ال تتجواوز الو ‪ 750‬كلمووةء وإذا كانوت ممالوة علمٌوة فوة تتجواوز الو ‪1500‬‬ ‫كلمة‪.‬‬ ‫المماالت المرسلة ٌكون حجم الخط ‪ 14‬من اٌرٌ والعناوٌن بحجم ‪ 16‬موا االشوكا والرسوومات وورورة‬ ‫تووٌحاا‪.‬كما ٌتم ذكر المصدر و المصادر المعتمدة فً اعداد المساهمة ‪.‬‬ ‫تنص المادة السابعة من الةئحة التنظٌمٌة على ‪:‬‬ ‫* تنشووور خةصوووات البحووووث والدراسوووات والممووواالت ومراجعوووات الكتوووب والتموووارٌر والتطبٌموووات العملٌوووة‬ ‫وملخصات رسائ الماجسوتٌر والودكتوراو ونشور الترجموات عون اللؽوات االجنبٌوة تشوجٌعا للحركوة العلمٌوة‬ ‫والثمافٌة فً الترجمة ذات العةلة والحدٌثة فً مجاالت المنتدى‪.‬‬ ‫* نشر ما له عةلة وثٌمة بالتربٌة والتعلٌم العالً ومجاالت المنتدى االخرى من مماالت ومواوٌع علمٌوة‬ ‫وتعلٌمٌة وتربوٌة وتكنولوجٌة وفكرٌة وثمافٌة مع آراء فً التربٌة والتعلٌم‪.‬‬ ‫* نشر التؽرٌدات الصباحٌة على صفحات التواص االجتماعً وتعلٌمات الزمةء‪.‬‬ ‫* ان تكون المادة اصٌلة ولم ٌسبك نشرها من لب بالنسبة للمواوٌع العلمٌة ‪.‬‬ ‫* االبتعاد عن تناو مواوٌع ذات طابع طائفً او لومً او اثنً او سٌاسً‬

‫* تعبر اوعما التً تنشر فً المجلة عن آراء كاتبٌااء وال تعبر بالورورة عن ر ي المنتدى‪.‬‬ ‫* ستنشر المماالت بأسماء اصحاباا الصرٌحة‪.‬‬ ‫* موون حووك هٌئووة التحرٌوور الطلووب موون الكاتووب ان ٌعوود جانووب موون ممالتووهء او توورف‬ ‫تتناسب مع الخط العام لعم المنتدى​‪.‬‬

‫الممالووة اذا كانووت ال‬

‫‪2‬‬


‫مجلة إلكترونٌة ثمافٌة علمٌة صادرة عن‬ ‫لجنة التربٌة والتعلٌم العالً والبحث العلمً‬ ‫فً المنتدى العرالً للنخب والكفاءات‬ ‫‪2519 -6561‬‬ ‫رلم التوثٌك الدولً ‪: ISSN‬‬ ‫المولع االلكترونً للمنتدى العرالً للنخب والكفاءات ‪www.Iraqi-forum2014.com :‬‬ ‫‪uruk.muntda@gmail.com‬‬ ‫البرٌد االلكترونً لمجلة ورون ‪:‬‬

‫هٌئة التحرٌر‬

‫رئٌس التحرٌر‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ٌ .‬عرب لحطان الدوري‬

‫‪.‬د‪ .‬إسراء عرٌبً فدعم‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬جما حمٌد العزاوي‬ ‫المدلك اللؽوي‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬خالد عبدالحمٌد الخطٌب‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬عدنان عبد الرحمن الدوري‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬رزاق حمٌد ٌوسؾ‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬رٌا عزٌز مرزو‬ ‫ا عداد الفنً‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬شة حبٌب الجبوري‬ ‫‪ .‬ظافر شاكر محمود‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬عدنان عبدالرحمن الدوري‬ ‫‪.‬د‪.‬علً حسٌن رشن‬ ‫‪.‬د عماد براهٌم السلطان‬ ‫‪.‬د‪.‬عماد خوٌر عباس‬ ‫‪.‬د‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬فاو محسن الربٌعً‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬لصً منصور الاٌتً‬ ‫المماالت‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬دمحم إبراهٌم السامرائً‬ ‫المنشورة تعبر‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬مجٌد محمود جراد‬ ‫عن ر ي اصحاباا‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬دمحم عبدالعا النعٌمً‬ ‫وال تعكس بالورورة‬ ‫‪ .‬مٌسون عبد اللطٌؾ عبد الكرٌم‬ ‫وجاة نظر مجلة ورون‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬مٌسون فٌص إلٌاس‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬نذٌرة عباس التمٌمً‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪ٌ .‬سار دمحم باجة اوثري‬


‫بسم‬

‫ميحرلا نمحرلا هللا‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫والصةة والسةم على دمحم اومٌنء خاتم اونبٌاء والمرسلٌن ملسو هيلع هللا ىلصء وعلى آله وصحبه جمعٌن‪.‬‬

‫علووى العاوود بووالون فووً رعاٌووة وعناٌووة ونشوور وتوزٌووع مجلووة ورون فووً عاماووا الثالووث علووى‬ ‫التوالً للحاجة الملحة علمٌا ً ومعرفٌا ً ء لكافة الماتمٌن والمختصوٌن والمتطلعوٌن إلوى الثمافوة‬ ‫والمعرفووة والتكنولوجٌووا‪ .‬وتتووزٌن مجلتنووا " ورون" كعادتاووا بأنامو مؤلفٌاووا لتنتشوور وتتوووز‬ ‫على كافة رجاء العالم ولتكون مناةً ثمافٌا ً ء ورافدا ً علمٌا ً ء وساحة مبوارزة ء ومولودا ً متمودا ً‬ ‫حرا ً وثمافٌا ً لك من تصله بشوق وباجة‪.‬‬ ‫ء حرصا ً منا على " ورون" لتكون منبرا ً علمٌا ً ّ‬ ‫سوووم العووودد ‪ 2‬مووون العوووام ‪ 2019‬إلوووى لسووومٌن اوو باللؽوووة العربٌوووة والثوووانً باللؽوووة‬ ‫حٌوووث لُ ّ‬ ‫االنكلٌزٌة‪ .‬ابتد المسم اوو بمما عن محاسن ومخاطر الذكاء االصطناعً‪ .‬تلته دراسة عون‬ ‫حوورب المٌوواو باعتبووارو بتوورو المسووتمب ‪ .‬بعوودها عوور‬

‫عوون نشووأة ا رهوواب وانتشووارو وتامووة‬

‫الصوواله با سووةمء واخٌوورا دراسووة عوون تموور المكتوووم العرالووً‪ .‬مووا لسووم اللؽووة االنكلٌزٌووة فموود‬ ‫ستا بوصؾ عن النسوٌة لدى جون ماكؽراث ٌوببوو نوووت بوأثرء تلتاوا دراسوة عون التؽٌور‬ ‫المناخً واومن المائً فً العراق و خٌراًء طرح جدٌد عون امكانٌوات معلموً اللؽوات اوجنبٌوة‬ ‫فً الجامعات اوردنٌة بتطبٌك المعلومات واالتصاالت الحدٌثة فً تدرٌس اللؽات‪.‬‬ ‫وفقنا هللا للحفاظ على مجلة "أوروك" مستمرة ومتطورة ومتنوعة‪.‬‬ ‫رئٌس التحرٌر‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ٌ .‬عرب لحطان الدوري‬

‫‪4‬‬


‫المحتوٌات‬ 7 12 26 42 52 90

ً‫تادٌد م تاوٌ الذكاء االصطناع‬ ‫حرب المٌاو بترو المستمب‬ ~ً‫~ رؤٌة فً الصدا االٌران‬

‫ا رهاب نشأته وانتشارو وتامة الصاله با سةم‬ Iraqi Maktoom Dates ً‫تمر المكتوم العرال‬

“Feminism in John McGrath‟s Yobbo Nowt”

Climate change and water security in Iraq Attitudes of foreign language teachers in Jordanian universities towards applying information and modern communication in teaching languages

109

5

5


‫المسم اوو‬ ‫باللؽة العربٌة‬

‫‪6‬‬


‫تادٌد م تاوٌ الذكاء االصطناعً‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ٌ .‬عرب لحطان الدوري‬ ‫جامعة ماالٌا – مالٌزٌا‬ ‫عوو مؤسس فً المنتدى العرلً للنخب والكفاءات‬ ‫توجد حمٌمتان رئٌستان ء اوولى ن حم الذكاء االصطناعً كثر نشاطا من ي ولت‬ ‫موىء حٌث تُسكب فٌه العمو واوموا بمعد مذه ‪ .‬والثانٌة نه برؼم ن الذكاء‬ ‫االصطناعً تفوق على البشر فً داء عدد للٌ من المامات المحددة جداء لكنه ما ٌزا‬ ‫محدودا كثٌرا فً مجا "الذكاء العام" والذي ٌتومن "حجم النشاط" و"اوداء التمنً"‪.‬‬ ‫وٌفحص العام اوو كٌؾ ٌحدث ك شًء فً المجا ء من حوور المؤتمرات إلى‬ ‫االلتحاق بالصفوؾ إلى االستثمار الر سمالً والشركات الناشئة‪ .‬وا جابة المصٌرة هنا ن‬ ‫ك شًء ٌحدث كثٌرا وبوتٌرة متصاعدة‪ .‬ما العام اآلخر وهو "اوداء التمنً" فٌحاو‬ ‫لٌاس لدرات الذكاء االصطناعً فً التفوق على البشر بمامات محددةء مث تمٌٌز اوجسام‬ ‫فً الصور وفن ترمٌز الكةم‪ .‬وهنا تكون الصورة كثر دلة‪.‬‬ ‫فعلى سبٌ المثا ء فإنه من‬ ‫السا تدرٌب الذكاء االصطناعً‬ ‫فً مجا لعاب الفٌدٌوء حٌث‬ ‫ٌستطٌع ن ٌرى دائما ك ما‬ ‫ٌحدثء لكن ال ٌمكن لو الشًء‬ ‫ذاته عن مامات خرى نوع فٌاا‬ ‫الذكاء االصطناعً مث إدارة‬ ‫البنٌة التحتٌة للنم بالمدٌنةء‬ ‫رؼم ن الباحثٌن بد وا فً‬ ‫تطوٌر لعاب فٌدٌو تعكس هذو‬ ‫التحدٌات‪.‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫‪7‬‬


‫وٌمكن تمسٌم نوا الذكاء االصطناعً إلى ثةثة نوا رئٌسة تتراوح ما بٌن رد‬ ‫الفع البسٌط إلى ا دران والتفاع الذاتًء وذلن على النحو التالً‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬الذكاء االصطناعً الوعٌؾ‪ :‬وهو بسط شكا الذكاء االصطناعًء وتتم برمجة‬ ‫الذكاء االصطناعً للمٌام بوظائؾ معٌنة داخ بٌئة محددة‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬الذكاء االصطناعً الموي‪ :‬وٌتمٌز‬ ‫بالمدرة على جمع المعلومات وتحلٌلاا‬ ‫وعم تراكم خبرات من الموالؾ التً‬ ‫ٌكتسبااء والتً تؤهله ون ٌتخذ لرارات‬ ‫مستملة وذاتٌة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬الذكاء االصطناعً الخارق ‪ :‬وهً‬ ‫نماذج التزا تحت التجربة وتسعى لمحاكاة‬ ‫ا نسانء وٌمكن هنا التمٌٌز بٌن نمطٌن‬ ‫ساسٌٌنء اوو ‪ٌ :‬حاو فام اوفكار‬ ‫البشرٌةء واالنفعاالت التً تؤثر على سلون‬ ‫البشرء وٌملن لدرة محدودة على التفاع‬ ‫االجتماعًء ما الثانً فاو نموذج لنظرٌة‬ ‫العم ‪.‬‬ ‫وال بد من ثوابت رئٌسة نحتاج الٌاا فً الولوج بصلب المووو ‪.‬‬ ‫سن‬ ‫‪ -1‬انمسمت آراء الخبراء حو الذكاء االصطناعً إلى لسمٌن رئٌسٌن؛ لسم ٌرى نه ٌح ّ‬ ‫حٌاة اوفراد وٌجعلاا كثر ساولةء و ن ك من ٌخشى الذكاء االصطناعً فاو ٌأسؾ على‬ ‫الوهم وٌؽالط البشر ء بٌنما عبّر لسم آخر عن مخاوفه من التداعٌات السلبٌة للذكاء‬ ‫االصطناعً على حٌاة البشرء ب وؼالى هذا االتجاو فً تشاؤمه إلى الحد الذي جعله ٌتنبأ‬ ‫بأنه سٌؤدي فً نااٌة المطاؾ لنشوب حرب عالمٌة لادمة ء ب ٌذهب عالم الفٌزٌاء العمةق‬ ‫"ستٌفن هوكٌنج" إلى بعد من ذلن للمو بأن تطوٌر ذكاء اصطناعً كام لد ٌماد لنااٌة‬ ‫الجنس البشريء ومن ثم فمد اختز التوجاان السابمان تداعٌات الذكاء االصطناعًء إما فً‬ ‫سعادة البشرٌة و تدمٌرهاء دون بروز ر ي ثالث ٌسعى إلى تبنً مولؾ معتد ء و وسط‬ ‫بٌن‪ 8‬التوجاٌن السابمٌن )‪.(1‬‬

‫‪8‬‬


‫‪ٌ -2‬تمث حد هم تطبٌمات الذكاء االصطناعً‬ ‫العسكرٌة فً ظاور اوسلحة ذاتٌة التشؽٌ‬ ‫‪Autonomous Weapon System‬ء‬ ‫والتً تعرؾ بأناا ي نظام تسلٌحً ٌتمتع‬ ‫باالستمةلٌة فً المٌام بوظائفه الحٌوٌةء ي نه‬ ‫ٌستطٌع اتخاذ لرارات تتعلك بالمٌام بالبحث‬ ‫والرصد وتحدٌد وتعمب واختٌار ومااجمة اوهداؾ‬ ‫من دون تدخ من البشرء وذلن وفما ً لتعرٌؾ‬ ‫اللجنة الدولٌة للصلٌب اوحمر‪ .‬وتستطٌع اوسلحة‬ ‫ذاتٌة التشؽٌ ء والتً تعرؾ ٌوا ً بإسم "الروبوتات‬ ‫المستملة الفتاكة" و "الروبوتات الماتلة"ء البحث‬ ‫عن اوهداؾ وتحدٌدها ومااجمتااء بما فً ذلن‬ ‫البشرء من دون تدخ من ي إنسان فً توجٌااا‪.‬‬ ‫وٌتم التمٌٌز عادة بٌن اوسلحة ذاتٌة التشؽٌ‬ ‫و"منظومات الدفا العالٌة اوتمتة"ء والمستخدمة‬ ‫إسماط‬ ‫حالٌا ً فً نظمة الدفا الجوي بؽر‬ ‫الصوارٌخ و المذائؾ المدفعٌةء وذلن نظرا ً ون‬ ‫اوخٌرة تعم فً حدود ممٌّدة ٌحددها البشر مكانٌا ً‬ ‫وزمانٌاًء وذلن بعكس اوولىء والتً تتعلّم تكٌٌؾ‬ ‫وظائفاا حسب ك الظروؾ المتؽٌرة فً البٌئة التً‬ ‫تُنشر فٌاا‪ .‬و برز شكالاا‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .‬تشوواد العدٌوود موون دو العووالم اسووتخداما ً متصوواعدا ً للروبوتووات التووً ٌووتم توجٌااووا عوون بعوودء‬ ‫والتووً تعوود موون المراحوو اوساسووٌة المامووة فووً اتجوواو تطوووٌر "اوسوولحة ذاتٌووة التشووؽٌ "ء‬ ‫والمسووتملة تمام واًء حٌووث تمتلوون الوالٌووات المتحوودة مث وا ً حوووالً ‪ 20‬لووؾ وحوودة موون اوسوولحة‬ ‫الماتلووة ذاتٌووة التشووؽٌ ء تموووم هووذو اوسوولحة بعوودة دوارء تتمث و فووً جاووود الرلابووة والرصوود‬ ‫المسووتمرةء وإطووةق النٌوورانء وحماٌووة المووواتء با وووافة إلووى مواجاووة العبوووات الناسووفةء‬ ‫وتأمٌن الطرقء وا سناد الجوي عن لرب‪.‬‬ ‫ب‪ .‬توووفر نظووم الووذكاء االصووطناعً العسووكرٌة ممٌووزات متعووددة للموووات العسووكرٌةء موون حٌووث‬ ‫تحمٌووك الكفوواءة والفاعلٌووة فووً مٌوودان المعركووةء والحفوواظ علووى اورواح البشوورٌةء فو وةً عوون‬ ‫مكافحة ا رهاب وتولع التادٌدات المستمبلٌةء لكناا فً الولت نفسه لاا العدٌود مون المخواطر‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫والتداعٌات على اومن المومً‬

‫‪9‬‬


‫‪ٌ -3‬مثو مجووا الووذكاء االصووطناعً نمطووة تحو ّوو رئٌسووة فووً مسووتمب الشووركات والمؤسسووات‬ ‫الصناعٌة والخدمٌة حو العالمء بما ٌحدثه مون تؽٌورات جوهرٌوة فوً إدارة "سلسولة المٌموة"‬ ‫‪Value Chain‬ء للشووركات المنتجووة للسوولع و الخوودماتء بمووا فووً ذلوون عملٌووات التصوونٌع‬ ‫والتسوووٌك والمبٌعووات وخدمووة العمووةء ء وذلوون موون خووة تمنٌاتاووا المتعووددةء مث و تعلووم اآللووة‬ ‫ورؤٌة الحاسب اآللً ‪Computer Vision‬والروبوتات الذكٌة والمركبات ذاتٌوة المٌوادةء‬ ‫فلم ٌعود الوذكاء االصوطناعً مجورد وسوٌلة وتمتوة المصوانع لزٌوادة الكفواءة وا نتاجٌوةء وإنموا‬ ‫تكنولوجٌا ناشئة تسواهم فوً التؽلوب علوى التحودٌات العالمٌوةء مثو الفجووة التعلٌمٌوةء وعوةج‬ ‫اومرا المستعصٌةء وتولع السٌنارٌوهات المحتملة واوزموات المسوتمبلٌةء وهوو موا سووؾ‬ ‫ٌؤدي فً نااٌة المطاؾ الوى تحووالت جذرٌوة فوً نمواذج عموا الشوركات وتحسوٌن عملٌاتاوا‬ ‫ومخرجاتاا‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬من شأن التطورات التً ٌحدثاا الذكاء‬ ‫االصطناعً ن تكون له تداعٌات اجتماعٌة‬ ‫كبٌرةء سواء كانت هذو التداعٌات إٌجابٌة و‬ ‫سلبٌةء فمن ناحٌة ٌساعد الذكاء االصطناعً‬ ‫على فام دق للمجتمعاتء وتحسٌن مستوى‬ ‫المعٌشة والووع الصحًء كما ٌساهم فً‬ ‫التنبؤ باوزمات والكوارث واالستعداد لااء‬ ‫التداعٌات‬ ‫لكنه فً الولت نفسه له بع‬ ‫السلبٌة التً تتوح فً التفاوت الواوح بٌن‬ ‫من ٌمتلن هذو التمنٌات ومن ال ٌمتلكااء فوةً‬ ‫الوظائؾ والمان وما‬ ‫عن اختفاء بع‬ ‫مجتمعً لاذو‬ ‫ٌترتب علٌاا من رف‬ ‫التمنٌات‬ ‫‪ -5‬ظار الذكاء االصطناعً تمدما ً تمنٌا ً كبٌرا ً على مدى السنوات الخمس الماوٌة فً العدٌد‬ ‫من المجاالت الحٌاتٌةء وهو ما نتج عنه العدٌد من ا ٌجابٌات مث التطور الصحًء وزٌادة‬ ‫اومن البٌئً والبشريء وخلك فرص عم مختلفةء وؼٌرهاء ولكن وعلى الجانب اآلخر ثار‬ ‫انتشار تطبٌمات الذكاء االصطناعً تخوؾ الكثٌرٌنء خاصة مع تولعام لتأثٌر تطبٌمات الذكاء‬ ‫االصطناعً على زٌادة معدالت البطالةء وعدم دلة البٌاناتء التً لد ٌنتج عناا تحٌز فً اتخاذ‬ ‫المرارات وؼٌرها من المخاوؾ‪.‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬

‫‪10‬‬


‫ولكن ومع وجاات النظر المختلفة النتشار تطبٌمات الذكاء االصطناعً ٌجب االعتراؾ‬ ‫بوجود تحدٌات تواجه عملٌة االنتشارء هماا التكلفة المادٌةء والتعاون بٌن المؤسسات‬ ‫للحصو على البٌانات الوخمة الةزمة وؼٌرهاء لكن هذو التحدٌات لن تعٌك التوسع فً‬ ‫استخدام تمنٌات الذكاء االصطناعً فً شتى المجاالت‪ .‬فمنذ عام ‪ 2000‬تواعؾ عدد‬ ‫الشركات الكبرى والناشئة ‪Startups‬العاملة فً مجا الذكاء االصطناعً حوالً ‪14‬‬ ‫وعفاًء وتواعؾ االستثمار فً هذا المجا ‪ 6‬مرات وتزاٌد عدد الوظائؾ التً تتطلب‬ ‫ماارات ذكاء اصطناعً منذ عام ‪ 2013‬حوالً ربع مرات ونصؾء وهو ما جاء سر‬ ‫بكثٌر مما كان متولعا ً من لب ء وٌرى الخبراء والمتخصصون ن ذلن التمدم سٌستمر‬ ‫بوتٌرة سر وفً مجاالت الحٌاة كافة تمرٌبا ً‪ .‬لذاء بات من الوروري على الدو‬ ‫والمجتمعات التحوٌر لمرحلة هٌمنة الذكاء االصطناعً على المجتمعات البشرٌةء وذلن‬ ‫لتفادي تداعٌاتاا السلبٌة واالستفادة من ممٌزاتااء وذلن باالهتمام بتعلٌم البرمجة لألطفا‬ ‫فً مراح التعلٌم المبكرةء‬ ‫وإنشاء لسام وكلٌات للذكاء االصطناعً والروبوتكسء وتاٌئة ا طار المانونً الذي‬ ‫ٌنظم استخدام هذو التمنٌات من سٌارات ذاتٌة المٌادة وربوتات وؼٌرهاء وووع النظم‬ ‫االجتماعٌة التً تحمً العما الذي سٌتأثرون سلبٌا ً جراء تبنً هذو النظم‪.‬‬

‫الاامش‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬فرص وتادٌدات الذكاء االصطناعً فً السنوات العشر المادمةء شادي عبد الوهاب‬ ‫ء إبراهٌم الؽٌطانً ء سارة ٌحٌى ء مركز المستمب للدراسات واوبحاث المتمدمة ء العدد‬ ‫‪ 27‬ء السنة ‪2018‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫‪11‬‬


‫حرب المٌاو بترو المستمب‬ ‫)رؤٌة فً الصدا االٌرانً(‬ ‫‪.‬د‪.‬عبدالسةم سبع الطائً ء استاذ علم االجتما االسبك ء جامعة بؽداد‬ ‫عوو مؤسس للمنتدى العرالً للنخب والكفاءات‬ ‫االمٌن العام المساعد لةتحاد الدولً لةكادٌمٌٌن العرب‬ ‫رئٌس جمعٌة حموق االنسان بدو اسكندنافٌا‬ ‫{ انكم تظنون ننا خونا حربا من ج الونفط فلتنتظوروا إلوى ن ٌبود الصورا حوو‬ ‫المٌاو{ جٌسٌكا ماثٌوز‬

‫ترلبوا هذا المنظر لرٌبا بدو البحار والنفط واالناار!‬

‫تساؤالت للسةم والحرب‬ ‫ه ان االوانء‬

‫"مبادلة ال ماء بالنفط " لتحمٌك السةم مع اسرائٌ ؟‬

‫ه ٌبٌح لانون البحار الدولً وحموق االنسان اعتبار "المٌاو ؼنائم حرب" ؟‬ ‫ه لحرب المٌاو على امن الطالة والؽاز تأثٌرا على الخارطة العربٌة خة ‪2025‬؟‬ ‫هوووو سووووتتكرر خدٌعووووة الثووووورة العربٌووووة الكبوووورى ثانٌووووة بعوووود انتاوووواء الووووذكرى المئوٌووووة االو‬ ‫للسعودٌة‪2021‬ء معاهدة سٌفر ‪2023‬ء ساٌكس بٌكو ووعد بلفور؟‬ ‫ه ٌحك ٌران "خراب البصرة" بحبس االناار عناا وؼرا‬

‫عسكرٌة دفاعٌة ؟‬

‫هذو التساؤالت سنحاو االجابة علٌاا لدر المستطا فً اجزاء هذو الدراسة‬

‫‪12‬‬


‫ممدمة "المٌاو ؼنائم حرب"‬ ‫العراق ودو الخلٌج العربوًء ار الصورا علوى الثوروات ء نظورا لمولعاموا فوً سووٌداء‬ ‫للووب منطمووة الووذهب االزرق ‪ :‬دجلووة والفوورات وبحوور العوورب وخلووٌج عوودن والنٌوو االزرق‬ ‫وبردى واللٌطانً والبحرٌن ‪ :‬االبٌ واالحمرء كما اناماء العراق والخلٌجء اٌوا ٌشوكةن‬ ‫عاصمتا منطمة الذهب االسود ءللنفط ومنارات المبب الذهبٌوة االسوةمٌة والعموو البشورٌةء‬ ‫لذلن تتعر الٌوم شعوب سادت الحوارات لجند خاتم الرسواالت جزئٌوا وؼودا ال رٌوب فٌوه‬ ‫كلٌوا للمرصونة الدولٌوة الجدٌودة ‪ Viking New‬لحوروب بسوةح جدٌودء هوً "حوروب‬ ‫المٌوواو" "‪ Wars Water‬للاٌمنووة علووى التجووارة الدولٌووة عبوور منطمووة الووذهب االزرق‬ ‫العرالٌة الخلٌجٌة فً الصرا العربً ‪ /‬االسرائٌلً‪ /‬االللٌمً المادم‪(1)(.‬‬ ‫‪(1).Israël - Palestine, la guerre de l'eau (docu Arte du‬‬ ‫)‪17/03/2010‬‬ ‫اناا حرب االستحواذ على الموارد الرئٌسٌة‬ ‫الثةثء الطالة والمٌواو واالراووً الزراعٌوة‬ ‫لمواصووووووولة معووووووودالت النموووووووو االلتصوووووووادي‬ ‫"الةمحوودود فووً عووالم محوودود"‪ .‬فاووً حوورب‬ ‫اسووباٌاا ؼٌوور احادٌووة فنٌووة لوجسووتٌةء مثمووا‬ ‫بولووػ فٌاووا بسووٌنارٌو اناٌووار سوود الموصوو‬ ‫والتوووووووً كانوووووووت وؼووووووورا دٌموؼرافٌوووووووة‬ ‫جٌوبولتٌكٌة! اثناء او بعد سوموط او تسولٌم‬ ‫الموص الى داعش والمٌلٌشوٌات فموا جورى‬ ‫اسوووووووووبابه متنوعوووووووووة االهوووووووووداؾء مناوووووووووا‬ ‫الجٌوبولتٌكٌة والدٌموؼرافٌة وااللتصادٌةء‬ ‫المصحوبة بالموة العسكرٌة‬

‫‪(2) . https://insolentiae.com/guerre-de-leau-les-zones-des‬‬‫‪futurs-conflits-identifiees/ & Se more‬‬ ‫‪https://svenska.yle.fi/artikel/2015/01/01/vatten-en-kalla-till‬‬‫‪krig-i-mellanostern‬‬

‫‪13‬‬


‫ٌشٌر خبراء المٌاو بوان حوروب المورن ‪ 21‬سوتكون مون اجو الوذهب االزرق –المٌواو‪ -‬خةفوا‬ ‫لحروب المرن ‪ 20‬التً كانت من اج امن الطالوة والؽوازء وٌورى المحللوون بوان الصوراعات‬ ‫االٌدٌولوجٌة فً ق‪ 21‬ستصبح فً المولع الثانً و الثانوي‪ .‬ففوً ظو االجوواء المشوحونة‬ ‫هووذو االٌووام بووالحرب المحتملووة بووٌن امرٌكووا واٌوورانء والسووةم المسووتحٌ لوودو الخلووٌج العربووً‬ ‫المجاورة الٌرانء ؼاٌتااء ان تصبح مٌاو الٌوم بترو الؽد فً التجوارة العالمٌوةء بؽٌوة تادٌود‬ ‫حٌواة الشووعوب العربٌوة‪ /‬االسووةمٌة بمعوودتاا وبطناواء وفووً سوولتاا الؽذائٌوة واالروائٌووة بووالموة‬ ‫العسووكرٌةء ومووا سووٌرافك ذلوون التلوووٌح بحووروب مصووطنعة وتصووعٌد متعموود للجووٌش الرابووع‬ ‫ءلملٌشٌات االللٌات المتطرفة طائفٌا وعرلٌا)الحشد الشٌعً والحوثٌون‪(..‬ء‬ ‫وما نصطلح على تسمٌتاا باذا الدراسوة بجوٌش‬ ‫االللٌووووات "الدٌنوثنوؼرافٌووووة" لتجووووار البندلٌووووة‬ ‫المراصونة الجوددء‬

‫" " ‪Viking New‬ء‬

‫لورب االكثرة باوللٌوات الدٌموؼرافٌوةء اللوذٌن‬ ‫دخلوووا مرحلووة شووم النسووٌم الموونعش بعوود اناٌووار‬ ‫عصر االٌدٌولجٌات وظاوور عصور االثنٌوات فوً‬

‫االتحاد السوفٌتً والعراق الذي كان سندا وسودا‬ ‫للعووووربء ورؼووووم كوووو مووووا حصوووو موووون حووووروب‬ ‫عرالٌووة‪/‬خلٌجٌووة بٌنٌووة مؤسووفة ء جووار فٌاووا موون‬ ‫جٌران العراق على من جار علٌام العوراقء الوى‬ ‫ان ا الى موا الٌوه حوا العوراق والعورب الٌووم ء‬ ‫مما دعا اٌران الى ان تسترج بالمنطمة وتنفورد‬ ‫بدولنا الواحدة تلو االخرى‬

‫‪14‬‬


‫ؼٌاب عصر االٌدٌولوجٌا بشٌرا بعصر االثنٌات ‪:‬‬

‫بعد سموط االتحاد السوفٌتًء واحتة دولة المواطنة فً العراقء حو محلاواء دولوة الطائفوة‬ ‫والعرق التً اصطلح علوى تسومٌتاا بالدولوة "الدٌنوثنوؼرافٌوة"ءالحاوونة لمفواهٌم سوادت ثوم‬ ‫بادت ء مث الرجعٌة والتمدمٌوة واالمبرٌالٌوة والثورٌوة والٌسوار والٌموٌن‪..‬ء التوً حلوت محلاوا‬ ‫مسووومٌات "دٌنوثنوؼرافٌوووة" جدٌووودةء ن)المرجعٌوووةء الشوووٌعة واالكوووراد والتركموووان واالزٌدٌوووة‬ ‫والشوبن( وؼٌرهواء التوً اناكوت المودرات البشورٌة والمادٌوة لألمون الموومً والووطنً المووائً‪/‬‬ ‫االروائً وااللتصادي العربً ‪.‬‬ ‫لووذلن بووات العووراق ودو الخلووٌج وسووورٌا ولبنووان والووٌمن ٌواجاووونء منووذ ‪2003‬ء ازمووة تلووو‬ ‫االخوورىء اخرهووا معووولة المٌوواو االروائٌووة والزراعٌووة وبدعووة السووٌو الجارفووة ء سووٌما بعوود ان‬ ‫لامت اٌران بتحوٌ العدٌد من الروافد المائٌة الى داخ اراوٌاا وتلوٌثاا لمٌواو البصورة وبمٌوة‬ ‫المدن الشٌعٌة الجنوبٌة االخرى من لب اٌران الفارسٌة ‪(4-3).‬‬ ‫ان اعتموواد سووتراتٌجٌة شوود االطووراؾ ثووم بترهووا بووٌن الوودو الخلٌجٌووة وؼٌرهوواء هوودفااء ووورب‬ ‫االكثرٌووة باالللٌووة لةسووتحواذ علووى السوولطة والثووروة موون جاووةء ولؽوور‬

‫تعوووٌم واخووراج سووةح‬

‫النفط ذو المنبع والمصب العربً االللٌمً والدولً من ٌد العورب فوً الصورا‬

‫الودولًء لٌحو‬

‫محله سةح الذهب االزرق ‪-‬المٌاو ‪ -‬ذي المنبع االٌرانً ‪ /‬التركً من جاة اخرىء بؽٌة الاٌمنوة‬ ‫علووى دو الوونفط بمنطمووة الشوورق اووسووطء ذلوون ٌتطلووب توواجٌج النزاعووات واشووعا الحووروب بووٌن‬ ‫سكنة منبع ومصب النفط والنار والبحر نفسهء كما ٌحصو الٌوومء فوً العوراق وسوورٌا والوٌمن‬

‫والسووعودٌة واالحووواز العربٌووةء االموور الووذي ٌسووتوجب االٌووواح واالستٌووواح للتحمووك موون ذلوونء‬ ‫بموجب العدٌد من المؤشرات التالٌة مناا‪:‬‬ ‫الحرب العرالٌة االٌرانٌة ‪ 1988-80‬حصلت من اج مٌاو شط العرب‪.‬‬ ‫والحرب العربٌة االسرائٌلٌة ‪ 1967‬بسبب ؼلك مصر لمواٌك تٌران‬ ‫هووذا وان " النوودوة الدولٌووة حووو «إسوورائٌ والمٌوواو العربٌووة» والتووً عموودت فووً عمووان عووام‬ ‫‪1984‬ء‬

‫‪15‬‬


‫رفوت عتبار المٌاو التً احتلتاا إسرائٌ مون مٌواو ناور اوردن والٌرموونء بعود حورب عوام‬ ‫‪« 1967‬ؼنائم حرب"(‬ ‫هووذا وان " النوودوة الدولٌووة حووو «إسوورائٌ والمٌوواو العربٌووة» والتووً عموودت فووً عمووان عووام‬ ‫‪1984‬ء رفووت اعتبووار المٌوواو التوً احتلتاووا إسوورائٌ موون مٌواو ناوور اوردن والٌرمووونء بعوود‬ ‫حرب عام ‪« 1967‬ؼنائم حرب"(‬ ‫البحرٌة فً بحر العرب وخلٌج عدن ‪:‬‬ ‫و ما زٌارة نتٌاهو‪ 2018‬الى سولطنة عموانء وعةلتاوا بوالنفوذ االٌرانوً فوً الممورات المائٌوة‬ ‫للبحر االحمر وبحر العربء اال لمواجاة التحالؾ العربً للسعودٌة‬

‫نتنٌاهو فً مسمط نااٌة ‪2018‬‬ ‫وموون الجوودٌر ذكووروء ان عملٌووات التخووادم العمووانً االسوورائٌلً االٌرانووً عبوور موووانًء ء الوودلم‬ ‫العمانً ومٌناء تشاباار االٌرانً و)جوادر( الباكستانً ستشك مجاال حٌوٌا للتجارة البحرٌوة‬ ‫مع الصٌن الذي هو محط انظار مرٌكا وروسٌا وتركٌا واٌران ودو الخلٌج ‪(5).‬‬ ‫من جانب اخرء فان مكتب اومن المومً فً الوالٌات المتحدة عوام‪ 2016‬اعلون بوان الحوروب‬ ‫اوهلٌة ستكون فوً ‪ :‬السوودانء العوراقء وباكسوتان‪ .‬ولعو‬

‫انشواء "سود الناووة " ٌمكون ان‬

‫ٌادد االمن العربً االفرٌمً اوافة الى تعمود اٌوران بوإؼراق البصورة بالمٌواو ؼرووه تشوكٌ‬ ‫خوووط دفووواعً ٌحمٌاوووا مووون ي هجووووم مٌركوووًء تكوووون البصووورة منطلموووا لوووه‪ (6).‬ان السوووةم‬ ‫المسووتحٌ لوودو الخلووٌجء والحوورب المحتملووة الولووو بووٌن اٌووران وامرٌكوواء حسووب تصوورٌحات‬ ‫السٌد )بومبٌو( وزٌر الخارجٌة االمرٌكً ‪.‬‬

‫‪16‬‬


‫وتصوورٌحات )بولتووون( مستشووار االموون المووومً حٌنمووا لوووا ‪" :‬اننووا سوونحتف العووام المووام المووادم‪ -2018-‬فوووً‬ ‫طاران"‪ (7).‬وفً مجا اخر لا بولتون‪ ":‬إنّ سلوک و هداؾ النظام لن تتؽٌرء وبالتالً إنّ الح الوحٌود هوو‬ ‫تؽٌٌر النظام نفسهء لاذا السبب ولب سنة ‪ 2019‬نحن هنا سنحتف فً طاران")‪ (8‬والتً كان رد فع‬ ‫علٌاموواء لٌاماووا بتجفٌووؾ ولطووع االناووار المتجاووة صوووب العووراق لتلوٌووث مٌوواو البصوورة وؼوورا‬

‫اٌوران‬

‫عسووكرٌة‬

‫ودٌموؼرافٌووةء فوووة عوون تادٌووداتاا المسووتمرة( بؽلووك موووٌك هرمووز وبوواب المنوودب ودفعاووا لحلفائاووا الحوووثٌن‬ ‫االلتراب من البحر االحمورء ٌعود ذلون بمثابوة اعوةن حالوة الطووار لحوروب المٌواو العربٌوة االٌرانٌوة ‪/‬االفرٌمٌوة‬ ‫المادمة‬

‫حرب الموانئ بٌن العراق والكوٌت والجزر لدو الخلٌج ‪:‬‬ ‫لع إعةن الكوٌت بووع حجور اوسواس "مٌنواء مبوارن الكبٌور" فوً ابرٌو ‪2010‬ء وسوع‬ ‫دائرة الصرا بٌن العراق والكوٌت من حورب الحودود البرٌوة سوابما الوى حورب علوى المٌواو‬ ‫واالر هذو المرةء فة زا مٌناء مبارن ٌشك استفزازا اخر لترسٌم الحدود ء ٌنبوا بحورب‬ ‫مٌاو بٌناما كما حص مع اٌران علوى شوط العورب‪1988-80‬ء الن انشواء "مٌنواء مبوارن"ء‬ ‫سٌعط عم ثةث موانً عرالٌة هً‪ :‬مٌناء م لصر الشمالً والجنوبً وخور الزبٌر‪.‬‬ ‫اما خلٌجٌا ء فان تفالم معولة الجزر والممورات المائٌوة مثو مشوكلة "جزٌورة سولوى" بوٌن‬ ‫دولة لطر والمملكة العربٌة السعودٌةء و جزٌرتوً )تٌوران وصونافٌر( السوعودٌة‪/‬المصورٌة‬ ‫المتمابلتٌن مع لناتً بن ؼورٌون ولناة السوٌس بمصور جنووب السوعودٌة وموا لاموا مون‬ ‫ابعاد اللٌمٌة مستمبلٌة ‪.‬‬

‫‪17‬‬


‫ان شحت المٌاو او لطعت للاٌمنة علٌاا وعلى ممراتاا لاا اسباب واهداؾ متنوعوة وان كانوت‬ ‫ظاهرٌوة ذات صولة بووالعلوم الزراعٌوة ‪ /‬االروائٌوة ء لكناووا ال تخلوو مون اهووداؾ سٌاسوٌة مبطنووة‬ ‫بطابع لوجستً ؼاٌتاا المحتملةء تؽٌر الجؽرافٌوا الطبٌعٌوة للمودن والجؽرافٌوا البشورٌةء للعوراق‬ ‫وسورٌا ومنطمة الخلٌجء وٌحتم اٌران اٌوا‪.‬‬ ‫ونظرا لكون تلن التادٌدات الٌزا عةجاا دون المستوى المطلوبء ولكً ال ٌما عن امة الور‬

‫ال تمر ء رؼم ان دوال تعانً الٌوم من االجااد المائًء وماددة بالتصحر ءفان ك تلن االزموات‬ ‫المائٌة المؤجلة الحلو ء بحاجة الى حلو سورٌعة ومدروسوةء كوً ال تكوون تلون الودو مسوٌرة‬ ‫ؼٌوور مخٌوورة باسووتخدام الموووة المسوولحة للوودفا عوون حٌاتاوواء الن حووك الحٌوواة ٌعوود موون الوودس‬ ‫الحموق‪.‬‬

‫البحرٌة فً بحر الصٌن‪:‬‬ ‫التمارٌر الدولٌة بشان البحر االحمر واالبٌ‬

‫ومٌاو اسٌا الدولٌةء تعٌد بنا الذاكرة الى عصر‬

‫" ‪Viking‬الفاٌكنن" للتجارة والحرب فمد اكدت تلن التمارٌرء بان )النماط الساخنة( المحتملة‬ ‫والمرشحة للنزاعات المسلحة بٌن الدو الشاطئٌة هً‪ :‬الصٌن وفٌتنام وتاٌوان والٌابان‬ ‫ومالٌزٌا وبروناي والفلبٌنء ولع مواصلة الصٌن زٌادة وجودها العسكري فً بحرالصٌن‬ ‫الجنوبًء ووع الوالٌات المتحدة والمنطمة هنان فً حالة تاهب‪ .‬ومما ٌعززذلنء لٌام‬ ‫الوالٌات المتحدة بعملٌات عسكرٌة بحرٌة وجوٌة فً بحر الصٌن الجنوبً لب‬

‫انعماد‬

‫مؤتمررابطة دو جنوب شرق آسٌا )اآلسٌان( وارسالاا للمدمرات االمرٌكٌة الصاروخٌة فً‬ ‫سبتمر‪ .2018/‬الصٌن من طرفاا اعتبرت تلن التصرفاتء عملٌات استفزازٌة لمٌاهاا‬ ‫االللٌمٌة‪.‬‬

‫‪18‬‬


‫ثوووم لٌوووام )بٌووونس( نائوووب الووورئٌس االمرٌكوووً لتراموووب فوووً ‪ 4/10/2018‬بوصوووؾ الصوووٌن‬ ‫ب"الخصم االستراتٌجً" بسبب تواجدها ومنافستاا المرٌكوا فوً التجوارة البحرٌوةء معتبورا‬ ‫تواجوووودها هنووووان توووودخة بالشووووان السٌاسووووً وااللتصووووادي المرٌكووووا ‪ .‬لموووود نجووووم عوووون تلوووون‬

‫االستراتٌجٌة البحرٌة االمرٌكٌة ببحور الصوٌن ءتؽٌورا فوً سوتراتٌجٌةء الصوٌن والٌابوان فوً‬ ‫منتوودى شوورق اسووٌا لمجاباووة الخطوور العسووكري االمرٌكووً للتجووارة ببحوور الصووٌنء لووذلن فووان‬ ‫"مركز االمن البحري الدولً للتمٌٌمات االستراتٌجٌة الصٌنٌة" من جانبهء لد استعدء فاعود‬ ‫المٌزانٌووة الخاصووة بتطوووٌر الموودرات المتالٌووة البحرٌووة للصووٌنء لمواجاووة الخطوور البحووري‬ ‫االمرٌكً فً بحر الصٌن‪.‬‬ ‫‪Nathan Swire‬ء )‪November 20, 2018 ( 9‬‬ ‫كما ادى ذلنء الى اهتمام متزاٌد من لب الدو المتشاطئة لتطوٌر لدرات "خفور السوواح "‬ ‫فً شرق اسٌا لمواجاة حاالت الطوار والكوارث البٌئٌة للعملٌات العسكرٌة المادمة‪.‬‬ ‫‪https://www.lawfareblog.com/water-wars-agreements‬‬‫)‪and-disagreements (10‬‬ ‫وبناءا علٌهء تعد هذو االدلة والبوراهٌن وؼٌرهوا بمثابوة استحووارات دولٌوة مٌدانٌوة اولٌوة‬ ‫لحروب المٌاو العالمٌة فوً خووم شواور وسونً المسوتمب المرٌوب ‪ .‬وموا لاوا مون توداعٌات‬ ‫خلٌجٌووة‪ /‬شوورق اوسووطٌة علووى بحارهووا واناارهووا وخارطتاووا الجٌوبولتٌكٌووة بعٌوود او لرٌووب‬ ‫‪ 2025‬ء فاً بامس الحاجوة العوادة النظور بحمٌموة وجدٌوة تلون التادٌودات لألمون الموومً‬

‫العربً فً الصرا العربً ‪ /‬الخلٌجً ‪ /‬االٌرانً‪ /‬التركً‪. .‬‬

‫‪19‬‬


‫البحرٌة فً البحر االحمر ‪:‬‬ ‫ولوووو انتملنوووا الوووى المٌووواو والبحوووار العربٌوووة ء لوجووودنا بوووأن إسووورائٌ لاموووت بتنفٌوووذ مخططوووات‬ ‫بروتوكوووالت )هرتووز‬

‫( منووذ ‪ 1885‬و)بوون ؼورٌووون( منووذ‪ 1947‬فووً االسووتراتٌجٌة العسووكرٌة‬

‫الجٌوبولتٌكٌوووة ٌمابلوووه ؼٌووواب كامووو لةسوووتراتٌجٌة العربٌوووةء ففوووً عوووام ‪ 1955‬اي بعووود احوووتة‬ ‫فلسطٌن بسنواتء جاء تأكٌد لادة صاٌون للمرة الثالثة بالمو )ان معركتنا مع العورب مون جو‬ ‫المٌاو( نجم عنااء اندال الحورب العربٌوة ا سورائٌلٌة ‪ .1967‬جوراء ؼلوك مووٌك تٌوران‪ .‬التوً‬ ‫مادت السبٌ الى تحكم اسرائٌ الٌوم بنار االردن والٌرمون واللٌطانً والحاصوبانً والووزانً‬ ‫والبحووور االحمووورء حتوووى اصوووبحت اسووورائٌ تاووودد السوووعودٌة ودو البحووور االحمووور بشوووأن مٌنووواء‬ ‫"اٌةت" وتتدخ بشأن جزٌرتا )تٌران وصنافٌر( لبالة )لناة بن ؼورٌون( ء منذرة تلن الاٌمنوة‬

‫االسرائٌلٌة بحرب لادمة على منطمة الذهب االزرق‪ -‬المٌاو‬ ‫•استحوارات سعودٌة‪ :‬تأسٌس "كٌان دو البحر االحمر "‬ ‫كما ان لٌام المملكة العربٌة السعودٌة باستوافتاا لسبع دو مطلة على البحور االحمور وخلوٌج‬ ‫عودن فوً "دٌسومبر ‪ " 2018‬لتأسووٌس "كٌوان دو البحور االحموور " تفادٌوا للتادٌودات االٌرانٌووة‬ ‫المتكووررة بؽلوووك مووووٌك هرموووزء ولؽوور‬

‫الووودفا عووون امووون البحوور االحمووور لحماٌوووة مصوووالحاا‬

‫االسووتراتٌجٌة فووً خلووٌج عوودن والمحووٌط الانوودي عبوور موووٌك بوواب المنوودبء وشووماال إلووى البحوور‬ ‫اوبووٌ‬

‫المتوسووط عبوور لنوواة السوووٌس لبالووة لنوواة بوون ؼورٌووونء ولٌتسوونى لاووا نم و برامٌلاووا‬

‫النفطٌة بحرا بأمان للحفاظ على التصادها ومكانتاا فً التجارة الدولٌة ‪(11).‬‬ ‫فالمملكووة العربٌووة السووعودٌة وكووأجراء تحسووبً لتفووادي التادٌوودات ا ٌرانٌووة وا سوورائٌلٌة لامووت‬ ‫بإؼةق "موٌمً هرموز" و "مٌنواء اٌوةت" ء الن اٌوران مازالوت تحواو حرموان السوعودٌة مون‬ ‫الوصو إلى البحر اوحمرء عبر التنظٌم الحوثً الذي تسوٌطر بوه علوى "مٌنواء الحدٌودة" شوما‬ ‫موووٌك بوواب المنوودبء الووذي ٌاوودد وبشووك جوودي طرٌووك الوصووو إلووى خلووٌج عوودن وبحوور العوورب‬ ‫للملكة العربٌة السعودٌة ء ‪.‬كما تادد اسرائٌ المملكة العربٌة السعودٌة ب"مٌناء اٌوةت " مون‬ ‫البحر االحمر‬

‫‪20‬‬


‫استحوارات اسرائٌلٌة‪ :‬تحالؾ "دو شرق البحر المتوسط "‬

‫فً ظ االستعدادات واالستحوارات المتواصلة لحورب المٌواوء فمود تناموت مصوطلحات لخورائط‬ ‫دولٌووة جدٌوودةء لتشووكٌ كٌانووات لوودو البحوورٌن‪ :‬االحموور واالبووٌ‬

‫ء فلموود اتووت هووذو المسوومٌات‬

‫ولربمووا اخوورى ؼٌرهووا اتٌووة ال رٌووب فٌووهء تماٌوودا عووادة ترسووٌم الخارطووة الدولٌووة لوودو البحووار‬ ‫جٌوبولتٌكٌاءء علٌهء فان االستعدادات لذلنء كما ٌبودو لائموة علوى لودم وسواق لتأسوٌس كٌانوات‬ ‫دولٌووة بحرٌووة اخوورى علووى ؼوورار "كٌووان دو البحوور اوحموور" الووذي تزعمتووه المملكووة العربٌووة‬ ‫السعودٌة‪.‬‬ ‫علما ان اسرائٌ ء سبك وان دعت اٌوا الى تأسٌس “ دو شرق البحور المتوسوط" فوً المموة‬ ‫الخامسة التوً عمودت فوً ‪ 20/12/2018‬بٌناوا وبوٌن الٌونوان ولبورص‪...‬ء لمواجاوة "الممور‬ ‫الشٌعً" الذي تنوي اٌوران الامتوهء ذلون الممور الممتود مون الخلوٌج العربوً الوى البحور االبوٌ‬ ‫المتوسووطء لؽوور‬ ‫إللٌمٌة كدو‬

‫انشوواء لواعوود بحرٌووة وجوٌووة علووى سووواح البحوورء كووً تصووبح اٌووران لوووة‬

‫البلمان التً تتواجد فٌاا تركٌا اوافة الى عسكرة المواعد الروسٌة البحرٌة فوً‬

‫طرطوس ولاعدة حمٌم البحرٌة بسورٌا‪(12 ).‬‬ ‫إٌران وخراب البصرة ‪:‬‬ ‫لمد حاولت إٌران استثمار ذلن بإعداد مخططاتاا االستبالٌة باذا الشأن من خة ‪:‬‬

‫‪1980‬ء شناا لحرب المٌاو على شط العرب فً المادسٌة الثانٌة‪.‬‬ ‫‪1982‬خطة )عرب كوش( التوً طرحاوا "رفسونجانً" خوة الحورب العرالٌوة والحورب االهلٌوة‬ ‫اللبنانٌة الووطااد واجتثواث ثمافوة العورب فوً االحوواز وتمزٌوك العورب وتمسوٌمام الوى شوٌعة‬ ‫وسنة فً الدو العربٌةء كما ٌحص فً العراق‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 1987‬طوورح الوودكتور )الرٌجووانً( نظرٌووة )ام الموورى( السووتبدالاا ب )لووم الموورى( بؽٌووة انتووزا‬ ‫لدسٌة مكة المكرمةء وتحوٌلاا الوى منطموة حورة للسوٌاحة الدٌنٌوة لؽور‬

‫االلتوراب مون البحور‬

‫االحمر‬

‫‪21‬‬


‫هوذا وٌؤكوود صوحاب االختصوواص بوان وراء عملٌووات تلوٌوث وحووبس االناوار فووً االردن وسووورٌا‬ ‫()‪ (13‬اوووافة الووى اؼووراق الموودن فووً العووراق دوافووع امنٌووةء كووً تشووك خطووا دفاعٌووا ٌعرل و ي‬ ‫تحركووات عسووكرٌة مٌدانٌووة معادٌووة ٌووران تنفووذها الموووات اومرٌكٌووة وؼٌرهووا انطةلووا موون جنوووب‬ ‫العووراق ذات الؽالبٌووة العربٌووة الشووٌعٌة فووً العووراق ء لتوووع اٌووران الشووٌعة العوورب امووام خٌووارٌن‬ ‫لاتلٌن ال ثالث لاماء اولامواء كوً ٌبموى الشوٌعة العورب ولوودا ودروعوا بشورٌة وثاٌامواء اسوتخدام‬

‫استراتٌجٌة تسٌس المذهب وعسكرة الطائفةء كماعدة للمفازات المذهبٌة لمشورو إٌوران الموومً‬ ‫الفارسً‪.‬‬ ‫اهداؾ دٌموؼرافٌة ‪:‬‬ ‫الدراسات االسوتبالٌة لسوةح المٌواو كمصوطلح جدٌود فوً الحوروب المادموة مون اجو تؽٌٌور الؽوةؾ‬ ‫السووكانًء بواسووطةء الحوورب المائٌووةء البتوورو‪/‬بٌولوجٌووة المادمووة والمسووتادفة الهووم موودن السوولة‬ ‫الؽذائٌة للثروة البشرٌة والحٌوانٌة فً البصورةء نظورا لكوون البصورة المجواورة ٌوران الفارسوٌة‬ ‫بؽووةؾ شووٌعً موون اهووم منوواطك الووذهب االزرق لمٌوواو ناووري دجلووة والفووراتء والووذهب االخووورء‬ ‫النخٌو ء والووذهب االسووودء الوونفط‪ .‬لووذلن ٌنبؽووً االخووذ بنظوور االعتبووار التؽٌوورات المناخٌووة الطبٌعٌووة‬ ‫والمصطنعة وؼرا‬

‫عسكرٌة كً ال تدثر مدنا عربٌة اخرى كالبصرةء كموا حصو بؽورق جزٌورة‬

‫كلٌوباترا فً االسكندرٌة بمصر وؼٌرها‪.‬‬ ‫نافلة المو ان جووهر الصورا لودو منطموة الشورق الوسوط ٌودور حوو االمون الموائً والؽوذائً‬ ‫بؽٌوة السووٌطرة علووى بطوون الشووعوبء ونظوورا لكووون مصوادر اموون الطالووة مخطوط لاووا ان تمتوود موون‬ ‫البصرة الى حدٌثة وكركون الى اذربٌجان وارمٌنٌا المجاورة ٌران والوى جورجٌوا المحاذٌوة الوى‬ ‫روسٌا ومن المؤكد ان انبوب الؽاز الممتد من اذربٌجان الوى سوورٌا ‪ -‬العوراق ثوم تركٌوا بحورا لوه‬

‫عةلة بإعادة تشؽٌ خط نفط كركون بانٌواس حٌفوا –اسورائٌ كموا لمشورو انبووب اٌصوا الونفط‬ ‫العرالً الممتد من البصورة الوى حدٌثوة ثوم الوى العمبوة المجواور الوى اسورائٌ عون طرٌوك االردن‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(14‬‬

‫‪22‬‬


‫كما ان خط سٌر االمون الموائً ناور اوراس بوإٌران ٌصوب ببحور لوزوٌن‪-‬ؼواز نفوط‬ ‫ذهوووب اسوووود ‪ -‬الوووذي تتشووواطئ علٌوووه اٌوووران واذربٌجوووان الشووومالٌة وتركمانسوووتان‬ ‫واالحواز المجواورة للعوراقء فالمصوالح النفطٌوة والمائٌوة المشوتركة خلموت حالوة‬ ‫موون التخووادم والتفوواهم بووٌن الوودو المتحالفووة مووع روسووٌا مث و ء اٌووران وسووورٌا‬ ‫والعراق والمتصارعة مع تركٌا واسرائٌ وتوداعٌات ذلون الصورا علوى العةلوات‬ ‫الخلٌجٌووة البٌنٌووة‪ .‬وان اذربٌجووان وجورجٌووا وارمٌنٌووا تعوود المجووا الحٌوووي لتادٌوود‬ ‫الصٌن وامرٌكٌا وروسٌا ولع هذو احد اسباب تحالؾ اٌران مع روسٌا‪.‬‬ ‫فحرب المٌاو لادمةء اناا حرب مٌاو عالمٌة لل ‪New Viking-‬ؼاٌتاا التجارة‬ ‫الدولٌة فً ‪:‬‬ ‫البحارء كبحر العربء االبٌ واالحمرء وبحر الصٌن‪..‬‬ ‫واالناار االروائٌةء كنار دجلة والفرات والنٌ وبردى واالردن واللٌطانً‪.‬‬ ‫ولودهاء الشوعوب العربٌوة واالسوةمٌة المتشواطئة علوى البحوار الدولٌوة الكبورى‬ ‫لحو البحر االبٌ واالحمر والمٌت‪.‬‬ ‫حربء عواصماا دو عربٌة واسةمٌة شرق اوسطٌة ‪.‬‬ ‫حوووورب تمودهوووواء دو اللٌمٌووووة سوووواٌكوباثٌة تعووووانً موووون التؽطوووورس العوووواجزء‬ ‫وسٌكولوجٌة الحمد والكراهٌة واالنتموام مون العورب والمسولمٌنء دو سواٌكوباثٌة‬ ‫ٌوووتةلح فٌاوووا نظوووام الوالٌوووة االٌرانوووً التوسوووعً الحوووالً المتووووائم موووع النظوووام‬ ‫الشاهنشوواهً االمبراطوووري السووابك لووبةد فووارسء فكووة النظووامٌن مجوورد اسوومٌن‬ ‫مختلفٌن لادؾ واحدء وكةهما متوائمان مع ستراتٌجٌة اسرائٌ الكبورى البحرٌوة‬ ‫من النٌ الوى الفوراتء نظاموان سواٌكوباثٌان ال ٌمتلكوان عنصور تووازن داخلوً وال‬ ‫تعاٌش خارجً‪.‬‬

‫ممترحات ولائٌة وعةجٌة ‪:‬‬ ‫•االستفادة من التجارب الناجحة فً اوحوا المائٌة المشتركة مثو حوو ناور‬ ‫السنؽا فً ؼرب فرٌمٌا وحو نار المٌكونج جنوب شرق آسٌا‪.‬‬ ‫•االستفادة من مشرو تنمٌة الطالة الكارومائٌة الذي ساعد النروٌج وكندا علوى‬ ‫النمو والتجارة من )المٌاو االفتراوٌة( باالستعانة من نظمة الؽذاء العالمٌة التوً‬ ‫تمدم الخبرات والمعونات لتخفٌؾ االجااد االروائً والعجز المائً‪.‬‬ ‫‪23‬‬


‫•على إٌران واسرائٌ ء احترام المباد العامة للمانون الودولً للبحوار واالحووا‬ ‫المشتركةء وبموجب لواعد منظموة اوموم المتحودة واتفالٌوة لعوام ‪ 1997‬الماووٌة‬ ‫بمنع توجٌه المٌاو المالحة باتجاو حدودنا‪.‬‬ ‫•احترام "المباد التً لرتاا محكمة العود الدولٌوة فوً الهواي عوام ‪ 1974‬لحو‬ ‫النزاعووات الدولٌووة علووى المٌوواو حٌووث كوود الوونص المووانونً علووى «منووع ي عمووا‬ ‫تؤدي إلى حصو ورار بٌئٌة فً الدو المتشاطئة»‬ ‫•عدم السماح ٌران باستصةح مزارعاا الحدودٌة على حساب تخرٌب اوراووً‬ ‫العرالٌة الممابلة لاا وورورة مماواتاا امام المحاكم الجنائٌة الدولٌة‪.‬‬ ‫•معالجة حبس المٌاو عن نار شط العرب وولؾ إٌران تصرٌؾ النفاٌات إلٌه مون‬ ‫راوٌاا بمحافظة البصرة وبمٌة المدن الشٌعٌة الجنوبٌة‪.‬‬ ‫•وجوووب احتوورام الحكومووة العرالٌووة لدسووتورها بحماٌووة البٌئووة موون التلوووث لووومان‬ ‫عٌش المواطن فً ظروؾ بٌئٌة صحٌة وحسبما ورد فوً الموادتٌن )‪ (15‬والموادة‬ ‫)‪ (33‬من احكام الدستور العرالً‪.‬‬ ‫•على الحكومة العرالٌة ا سرا بعمد االتفالٌات مع إٌران وتركٌوا والكوٌوت تحوت‬ ‫اشراؾ االمم المتحدة وبموجب احكام اتفالٌة الموانون الودولً للبحوار والمحٌطوات‬ ‫واالناار‪.‬‬ ‫مصادر الجزء االو‬ ‫)‪(1) Israël - Palestine, la guerre de l'eau (docu Arte du 17/03/2010‬‬ ‫‪(2)https://insolentiae.com/guerre-de-leau-les-zones-des-futurs‬‬‫‪conflits-identifiees/‬‬ ‫‪& Se more‬‬ ‫‪https://svenska.yle.fi/artikel/2015/01/01/vatten-en-kalla-till-krig-i‬‬‫‪mellanostern‬‬ ‫‪(3-4)https://www.skynewsarabia.com/middle-east/1189685‬‬‫‪%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%94%D9%85%D8%B1‬‬‫‪%D8%AE%D8%A7%D9%85%D9%86%D9%8A%D9%94%D9%8A‬‬‫‪%D8%A7%D9%95%D9%8A%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86‬‬‫‪%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%B7%D8%B9‬‬‫‪%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%A7%D9%87‬‬‫‪%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%82‬‬

‫‪24‬‬


‫كذلن انظر‬ http://www.wijhatnadhar.org/article.php?id=11699( 4 ) https://www.almasryalyoum.com/news/details/1337142 (5) http://www.ankawa.com/forum/index.php?topic=477075.0 (6) (7) https://www.politico.eu/article/john-bolton-says-us-not-seekingiranian-tehran-regime-change-sanctions/ https://arabic.mojahedin.org/newsar/81195 (8) November 20, 2018 ( 9) ‫ء‬Nathan Swire https://www.lawfareblog.com/water-wars-agreements-anddisagreements (10) )(11)https://www.masrawy.com/news/news_publicaffairs/details/2018/ 12/13/1478805/-%D9%83%D9%8A%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%AA%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B9%D9%88%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B0%D9%8A%D8%AA%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%83-%D8%A8%D9%87%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%B1-%D9%885-%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84 https://arabicpost.net/politics/2019/01/17/%D8%AA%D8%B7%D8%A8 %D9%8A%D8%B9%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A6%D8%AD%D8%A9%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%81%D8%B7%D8%AA%D9%83%D8%AA%D9%91%D9%84%D8%BA%D8%A7%D8%B2-%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%84 http://www.ankawa.com/forum/index.php?topic=477075.0) (13) (14) http://almasalah.com/ar/news/24863/%D8%A3%D9%86%D8%A8%D9 %88%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%B5%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%82%D8%A8%D8%A9-1700%D9%83%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%86%D9%81%D8%B0

25


‫ا رهاب نشأته وانتشارو وتامة الصاله با سةم‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬لصً منصور التُركً‬ ‫باحث فً االثار والحوارات المدٌمة – والٌة ؼرب استرالٌا ‪ -‬استرالٌا‬ ‫الملخص‪:‬‬ ‫مما ٌؤسؾ له ن هنان لوى معادٌوة لسسوةم تسوتؽ موا‬ ‫ٌجووري علووى السوواحة العربٌووة وا سووةمٌة علووى السووواء‬ ‫من عما ا رهواب والتخرٌوب واالعتوداء علوى النفووس‬ ‫والممتلكووووات وإزهوووواق اورواح البرٌئووووةء لتنسووووب تلوووون‬ ‫اوعما لسسةم وهو عم ٌسًء إلى المسلمٌن وٌشووو‬ ‫صووورة ا سووةم الصووافٌة النمٌووةء ممووا حوودا بتلوون الموووى‬ ‫المعادٌة ن تستؽ تلن اوحداثء وتلصك تامة ا رهواب‬ ‫جزافًوووا با سوووةم والمسووولمٌنء متناسوووٌن ن ثموووة حمٌموووة‬

‫مفادهاء ن ا رهاب لٌس اختراعًا عربًٌا و إسةمًٌاء ب‬ ‫هوووو سووولون لووودٌم ال دٌووون لوووه وال وطووون‪ .‬فا سوووةم دٌووون‬ ‫ٌوورف‬

‫ا رهوواب وٌمنووع العوودوان وٌنشوور السووةم وٌوطوود‬

‫معووووانً العدالووووة والتسووووامح وسوووومو الحوووووار الاووووادؾ‬

‫الكلمات المفتاحٌة‪ :‬ا رهابء ا سةم‬ ‫ود االرهابء جذور االرهابء تارٌخ‬ ‫االرهابء ترجمة المرآن‪.‬‬

‫والتواصو ا ٌجووابً بووٌن النوواسء وٌوووع فوو اوسووس‬ ‫للعةلوووات بوووٌن الووودو دون اعتبوووار لعةلوووات المصووولحة‬ ‫المومٌة والموة المادٌة‪.‬‬

‫‪26‬‬


Abstract:

Unfortunately, there are forces that are hostile to Islam, exploiting what is going on in the Arab and Muslim arena alike from the acts of terrorism, vandalism, terrorism, assault on souls and property, and the loss of innocent lives, attributed to Islam, an act that offends the Muslims and distorts the image of pure Islam. To exploit these events, and to attach the charge of terrorism to Islam and Muslims, forgetting that there is a fact that terrorism is not an Arab or Islamic invention, but an old behavior without religion and no homeland. Islam is a religion that rejects terrorism, prevents aggression, spreads peace, strengthens the meaning of justice and tolerance, promotes meaningful dialogue and positive communication between people, and establishes the best basis for relations between states

without regard to the relations of national interest and material strength. Key words: Terrorism, Islam against terrorism, roots of terrorism, history of terrorism, translation of the meaning Quran.

27


‫الممدمة ‪:‬‬ ‫إن مفاوم ا رهاب الذي نسمعه كو ٌووم ؼوام‬

‫ؼوائم ٌبحوث عون تعرٌوؾء وال ٌوتم ذلون إال‬

‫من خة العودة إلى صو المصطلح اللؽوي وفام بداٌات اسوتخدامه ونشووئه وانتشواروء وال‬ ‫ٌعنً هذا ن االجتاادات فً تعرٌؾ ا رهاب حدٌثا للٌلةء ب على العكس كثُورت االجتاوادات إال‬ ‫ناووا ال تسووتند إلووى والووع تووارٌخً ولؽووويء فللؽوورب مفاومووه وللشوورق مفاومووهء ونتٌجووة لاووذا‬ ‫المفاووووم و ذانء صوووبحت لووووٌة ا رهووواب تأخوووذ صوووورة اوحكوووام الشخصوووٌة وتبتعووود عووون‬ ‫الموووعٌة فً العالم الؽربً من خة البحث فً المصادر االستشرافٌة‪.‬‬ ‫الادؾ ‪:‬‬ ‫ان مصطلح ا رهاب لدٌم لدم االنسان نفسهء لبو وبعود ظاوور الملكٌوة الشخصوٌة والعاموة فوً‬ ‫تارٌخ البشرٌةء ومع تعدد صور التطورؾ واسوتخدام العنوؾ البشوري فوً حو الموواٌا الخةفٌوة‬ ‫بٌن بنً البشر‪.‬‬ ‫ومن اولوٌات هداؾ البحث التعرٌج على مسألة دراسة مصوطلحً الؽلوو والتطورؾ )ا رهواب(‬

‫من خة تووٌح الخلفٌة التارٌخٌة لظاهرة ا رهاب باعتبارها من هم المسائ لوووع تعرٌوؾ‬ ‫شام لسرهاب من خة العودة إلى االصو ‪.‬‬ ‫كما ٌسعى البحوث إلوى تبٌوان السولون االجتمواعً والعمائودي المكتسوب بشوك خواطئ فوً نشووء‬ ‫ظوواهرة ا رهووابء لووٌس فووً عالمنووا العربووً وا سووةمً فحسووبء ب و بإلصوواق تامووة ا رهوواب‬ ‫با سةم والمسلمٌن من خة االستشااد بالنص المرآنً المفسر وترجمة معانٌه مون لبو كتوب‬ ‫االستشراق التً انتشرت لدى المراء الؽربٌٌن‪.‬‬

‫‪28‬‬


‫االشكالٌة‪:‬‬ ‫لع االشكالٌة المطروحة تكمن فً ورورة تتبع اوصو اوولوى لسرهواب ومعانٌوه مون خوة‬ ‫االجابة على التساؤالت االتٌة ‪:‬‬ ‫* ه ظاهرة ا رهاب سلون طبٌعً نشأ مع نشأة المجتمعات اوولى فوً توارٌخ البشورٌة؟ وهو‬ ‫للمصطلح جذور فً لدم اللؽات المدونة؟‬ ‫* ثم ه ان كتب االستشراق من خة ما طرحوه المستشورلون سواهمت فوً الفاوم الخواطئ لموا‬ ‫ورد فً المناج ا سةمً الحنٌؾ عن اسوتخدام كلموة ا رهواب بودٌة للؽلوو والتطورؾ والعنوؾ؟‬ ‫خاصووة وان و ترجمووة لمعووانً الموورآن العظووٌمء موون اللؽووة العربٌووة إلووى الةتٌنٌووة صوودرت فووً‬ ‫وروبا إبان المرن الحادي عشر المٌةدي )‪1143 - 1141‬م( والتوً نشورت بعود ربعوة لورون‬

‫)‪1543‬م(ء حٌث ترجموة كلموة "ت ُ ْر ِهبُ َ‬ ‫وون " و علوى سوبٌ المثوا‬

‫إلوى جملوة " ‪To Strike‬‬

‫"‪Terroir‬وتوم التركٌوز علوى كلموة " "‪Terroir‬التوً ترجموت الوى "إرهواب" ومناوا جواءت‬ ‫كلمة " "‪Terroristic‬بمعنى "إرهابً" نتٌجة لسوء فام مع شدٌد اوسؾ‪.‬‬ ‫عناصر البحث‪:‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫مشتمة على عناصر هامة هً‪:‬‬ ‫فً ووء ما سبك سوؾ ٌكون البحث‬ ‫* المبحث اوو ‪ -‬نشأة ا رهاب وانتشارو‪:‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫وال‪ -‬المدلو اللؽوي لمصطلح ا رهاب ونشؤو‪.‬‬ ‫ثانًٌا‪ -‬الشواهد ا رهابٌة فً التارٌخ ا سةمً‪.‬‬ ‫* المبحث الثانً ‪ -‬مفاوم ا رهاب وتامة الصاله با سةم‪:‬‬

‫ً‬ ‫اوال‪ -‬معنى كلمة ا رهاب فً النص المرآنً‪.‬‬ ‫ثانًٌا‪ -‬تامة الصاق ا رهاب با سةم‪.‬‬

‫‪29‬‬


‫المبحث االو ‪ -‬نشأة ا رهاب وانتشارو‪:‬‬ ‫ن ي ظاهرة فً ي مجتمع ال ٌمكن ن تظار بدون جذور و صو لدٌموةء تسواهم العناصور‬ ‫المحٌطة بالمجتمع فً إظاارها سوواء كانوت اجتماعٌوة و سٌاسوٌة و التصوادٌةء وعلوى مور‬ ‫العصور فً تارٌخ البشرٌةء وٌنطبك ذلون علوى ظواهرة ا رهوابء فوة ٌكواد ٌمور ٌووم دون ن‬ ‫تتنال و وسووائ ا عووةم نبوواء حادثووة موون حوووادث ا رهوواب التووً تبعووث الرعووب وتثٌوور الفووز‬ ‫وتوورو اآلمنووٌن وتمت و اوبرٌوواء وتوودمر اوموووا والممتلكووات العامووة والخاصووة وتخ و بووأمن‬ ‫وسووةمة المرافووك العامووة التووً تخوودم المةٌووٌن موون النوواس فووً شووتى نحوواء العووالمء وموون بووٌن‬ ‫ابشع صور ا رهاب نجد ا رهاب الذي اصبح ٌمارس بؽٌر لٌوود و لواعود و لووانٌنء فاوو‬ ‫حرب ال مٌودان لاوا تمتود إلوى العسوكرٌٌن والمودنٌٌن وإلوى الكبوار مون رجوا العلوم والسٌاسوة‬ ‫وتوودور عملٌاتاووا علووى مووتن طووائرة و سووطح بوواخرة و داخ و لطووار و حافلووة و فووً مبنووى‬ ‫حكومً و مركز تجاري و فً شار‬

‫و فً مٌدان عام‪.‬‬

‫إن مفاوم ا رهاب الذي نسومعه كو ٌووم ؼوام‬

‫ؼوائم ٌبحوث عون تعرٌوؾء وال ٌوتم ذلون إال‬

‫من خة العودة إلى صو المصطلح اللؽوي وفام بوداٌات اسوتخدامهء لبو ن نلصومه باوذا‬ ‫الدٌن و ذلن المجتموع‪ .‬وال ٌعنوً هوذا ن االجتاوادات فوً تعرٌوؾ ا رهواب حودٌثا للٌلوةء بو‬ ‫على العكس كثرت االجتاادات إال ناا ال تستند إلى والع تارٌخً ولؽوويء فللؽورب مفاوموه‬ ‫وللشوورق مفاومووهء ونتٌجووة لاووذا المفاوووم و ذانء صووبحت لوووٌة ا رهوواب تأخووذ صووورة‬ ‫اوحكام الشخصٌة وتبتعد عن الموووعٌةء ون ك دولوة و مجموعوة سٌاسوٌة تنظور للفعو‬ ‫وروعاء مووا إذا كووان‬ ‫ا رهووابً نظوورة ذاتٌووةء فووإذا كووان موجاووا ووود عوودائاا صووبح عمو ًوة مشو ً‬ ‫موجاا ود مصالحاا و حلفائاا فإنه ٌصبح إرهابا ٌجب إدانته ومواجاتوه بوالموة والحسومء‬ ‫لذلن لدٌنا ذكر للمصطلح فً و اللؽات التً تحدث‬

‫‪30‬‬


‫وكتب باا بنو البشر ٌجب العوودة إلٌاواء مثلموا ٌجوب العوودة إلوى نشووء الظواهرة وانتشوارهاء‬ ‫فوو ًوة عوون ن إلصوواق تامووة ا رهوواب با سووةم والمسوولمٌن موون خووة تفسووٌر وفاووم الوونص‬ ‫المرآنووً حسووب هووواء المووراءء جع و موون الوووروري ن ٌكووون للمثمووؾ دور فووً إزاحووة هووذو‬ ‫الؽمامووة عوون دٌننووا الحنٌووؾ المتسووامح والووداعً إلووى حسوون المجادلووة والحوووار ولووٌس بالوودٌن‬ ‫المتطرؾ والودموي كموا ٌوروج لوه الوبع‬

‫مون المحللوٌن والساسوة الؽوربء وتموع علوى عواتك‬

‫الباحث المسلم مامة تووٌح المفاهٌم واثبات الحمائك مع إلرارنا بوجود ظاهرة ا رهاب فوً‬ ‫العالم العربً وا سةمً بك سؾ‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫وال ‪ -‬المدلو اللؽوي لمصطلح ا رهاب ونشوئه‪:‬‬ ‫لوود ٌسووتؽرب الووبع‬

‫عنوودما ٌعوورؾ ن جووذور مصووطلح‬

‫ا رهاب و معنى من معانٌه ٌعوود إلوى اولوؾ الثالوث لبو‬ ‫المووٌةد و ربمووا لبو ذلوونء ون كلمووة عنووؾ و تخوٌووؾ و‬ ‫رعب ومناا إرعاب و إرهواب وردت فوً اللؽوات المدٌموة‬ ‫منوووذ كثووور مووون ربعوووة آالؾ عوووام عنووود لؽوووة مدونوووه لووودى‬ ‫السومرٌٌن ومن عمبام من اوكدٌٌن واآلشورٌٌن سوكان‬ ‫بوووةد الرافووودٌنء حٌوووث نجووود بووواديء ذي بووودء مصوووطلح‬ ‫الر َهب"ء‬ ‫"‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫الرعب" و " َ‬ ‫رعاب" ) )‪ráâbu‬من " ُ‬ ‫وٌترجم بشك دلٌك عن اللؽة اوكدٌوة ‪ -‬منتصوؾ االلوؾ الثالوث لبو الموٌةد ‪ -‬إلوى كلموة‬ ‫وب" ))‪raʼābu‬‬ ‫"ارتجووؾ"ء ونجوود مووا ٌطووابك اللفووظ فووً نفووس اللؽووة مصووطلح " َر َ‬ ‫عو ُ‬ ‫رخاب " ) )‪raḫābu‬ء‬ ‫وٌرادفاا كذلن المصطلح "‬ ‫ُ‬

‫‪31‬‬


‫وبما ن اللؽة اوكدٌة ال تحتوي فً صواتاا على لفظ حورؾ الاواء وعوادة موا ٌسوتعا‬

‫عنوه‬

‫رهواب" و إرهوابء وبوذلن ٌكوون اللفوظ متطابمًوا موع‬ ‫بحرؾ الخاءء فإن لفظ المصطلح ٌكون "‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫مصطلح إرهابء موا فوً اللؽوة السوومرٌة موع واخور االلوؾ الرابوع لبو الموٌةد والتوً بود ت‬ ‫صووورٌة ثووم تحولووت إلووى رمزٌووة فممطعٌووة فووإن المصووطلح "شووو‪ŠU2) ) "2‬هووو الووذي ٌمابو‬ ‫المصوووطلح اوكووودي السوووابكء وان لوووم ٌكووون اللفوووظ متطابمووواء فوووان الشوووك الصووووري للعةموووة‬ ‫المسمارٌة التوً كتوب باوا المصوطلح عبوارة عون آلوة جارحوة معموفوةء ومون لفاظاوا الممابلوة‬ ‫باللؽوة اوكدٌوة "سوخابو") )‪saḫapu‬بمعنوى طورح روًواء وكلموة "سوخٌبتو") )‪siḫiptu‬‬ ‫والتً تعنً فع البطش ء وٌبدو من الشك الصوري ن اآللوة المسوتخدمة كانوت هوً السوةح‬ ‫المستخدم للتخوٌؾ و ا رهاب و المت كما ن داللتاا تشٌر إلوى معنوى مون معوانً التخوٌوؾ‬ ‫َرهووابء تتشووابه مووع‬ ‫رخوواب و‬ ‫واالعتووداءء واوكثوور موون ذلوون فووان المصووطلحات "رعووابو" َو‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫مصوووطلح الرعوووب و الفعووو رهوووب إرهابًووواء لو ً‬ ‫وووال ومعنوووىء وباسوووتخدام المصوووطلح السوووومري‬ ‫"شو‪ŠU2) ) "2‬والذي ٌعنً "ٌد" ٌمكننوا ن نعررفوه با رهواب المسوتخدم باسوتخدام السوةح‬ ‫الٌوودوي الووذي ظاوور شووكله الصوووري فووً العةمووات الصووورٌة موون منتصووؾ اولووؾ الرابووع لب و‬ ‫المٌةد فً بةد الرافدٌن‪ٌ) .‬نظر الشك المرفك(‪.‬‬

‫كلمة ا رهاب )رعابو( فً لدم لؽة مكتوبة تعود إلى االلؾ الثالث لب المٌةد من المرحلة الصورٌة إلى المرحلة‬ ‫الممطعٌة‪ً .‬‬ ‫نمة عن‪Labat R(2002) Manuel D Épigraphie Akkadienne, Paris, No. :‬‬ ‫‪545, p. 227.‬‬

‫‪32‬‬


‫ما بلسان اللؽة العربٌة فان المصطلح الخاص با رهاب ال ٌكاد ٌخرج من المفاوم السوابك‬

‫ب رهبوةً ُورهبًواء بالوومء َو َرهبًوا‬ ‫سواء فً اللفظ و المعنىء حٌث نجد "َرهبء بالكسرء ٌَر َه ُ‬ ‫ًء رهبًا َو َرهبًا َورهبةً‪ :‬خافوه"ء وتماشوًٌا موع موا ذكور آنفًوا‬ ‫بالتحرٌنء ي خاؾ َو َ‬ ‫رهب الش َ‬ ‫ُبء الفز والخوؾ ‪.‬‬ ‫عبء‬ ‫والرع ُ‬ ‫الر ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫فً اللؽات المدٌمةء نجد مصطلح ُ‬ ‫ما ما ٌخص تارٌخ فع ا رهاب والمت البشريء فتذكر كتب اودٌان السماوٌة )الٌاودٌوة‬ ‫والنصوورانٌة وا سووةم(ء منووذ خلووك ن النبووً آدم علٌووه السووةمء مووا كووان موون موور "لابٌ و "‬ ‫و خٌه "هابٌو "ء حٌوث توعود لابٌو خواو بالوعٌود والتادٌود وا رهواب والمتو ء ومثو هكوذا‬ ‫فع اعتبر المثا اوو للجرٌموة بوٌن بنوً البشورء عنودما رهوب إنسوان إنسوانا آخور‪ .‬ومورد‬ ‫هووذا ا رهوواب ٌكموون فووً طبٌعووة ا نسووان نفسووهء وذلوون موون حٌووث اخووتةؾ نوازعووه و هوائووه‬ ‫وبتكون الجماعات البشرٌة اوولى مع بداٌة الخلٌمة كوان هنوان مون ٌعٌثوون‬ ‫وطرق تفكٌرو‪.‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫فً اور‬

‫فسادًا وعنفًا ود ؼٌرهم بمختلؾ الوسائ المتاحة لدٌامء ولد صور لنا المورآن‬

‫الكرٌمء الخوؾ الذي تملن المةئكة عندما جع ن خلٌفوة فوً اور‬

‫مون بنوً البشورء ون‬

‫ذلن المخلوق فً نظرهم ٌفسد وٌسفن الدماءء‬ ‫وهذو هً عنؾ صور و عموا ا رهوابء‬ ‫لووا تعووالى‪َ " :‬وإِ ْذ لَووا َ َربوونَ ِل ْل َمةَئِ َك و ِة إِ ِنّووً‬ ‫َجا ِع ٌ فًِ او َ ْر ِ َخ ِلٌفَةً لَالُواْ َتَجْ عَ ُ فٌِ َاا‬ ‫سووو ِفنُ الووو ِ ّد َماء َونَحْ ووو ُن‬ ‫سووو ُد فٌِ َاوووا َوٌَ ْ‬ ‫َمووون ٌُ ْف ِ‬ ‫ِس لَوونَ لَووا َ ِإ ِنّووً َ ْعلَو ُم‬ ‫نُ َ‬ ‫سو ِبّ ُح ِب َح ْمو ِدنَ َونُمَو ّد ُ‬ ‫َما الَ ت َ ْعلَ ُم َ‬ ‫ون" ‪.‬‬

‫‪33‬‬


‫وٌندرج ومن نزعة البشر ومٌلام الى العنؾ فً تحمٌوك هودافام موا كوان مون مبود "البمواء‬ ‫لأللوى" فً المجتمعات البدائٌةء والذي نجم عنه بموجب تطور هذو المجتمعاتء الحاجة إلوى‬ ‫تولً زعٌم للمجموعة و المبٌلوة فوً حالوة تعروواا للعنوؾ و الؽوزوء ثوم ن تلون المجتمعوات‬ ‫بدلت ا رهاب بمٌام الحوربء وٌبموى هوذا الوزعٌم هوو الشوخص اوكثور لووة وعنفًوا حتوى تعاود‬ ‫إلٌه مامة لت اوعداءء ثم بورزت الحاجوة إلوى ن ٌسوند إلٌوه المتو مون جو السولب والناوبء‬ ‫وهو بذلن ٌكسب احترام فراد لبٌلته و عشٌرته كما نام ٌخوعون له ولسلطانه ‪.‬‬ ‫ثم صبح التوجه نحو رد‬

‫عما المفسدٌن فً اور‬

‫والذٌن ٌموموون بأعموا إجرامٌوةء‬

‫من اومور المحبذة فً المجتمع ا نسانًء ب وصوت باوا الشورائع واودٌوان السوماوٌةء وبموا‬ ‫ٌمكننووا ن نمثلووه بالتصوودي للعنووؾ ا رهووابً ومكافحتووهء ولعو لصووة التوجووه ا لاووً بووورورة‬

‫التصوودي للشوور وا رهووابء كووان محووور الصوورا الووذي دارت رحوواو بووٌن نبووً ن داوود علٌووه‬ ‫السةمء والطاؼٌة جالوت الذي شا الفتن ولت الناسء لا تعالى‪:‬‬ ‫علَوى ا ْلمَ ْوو ِم‬ ‫ص ْرنَا َ‬ ‫" َولَ رما بَ َر ُزواْ ِل َجالُوتَ َو ُجنُو ِد ِو لَالُواْ َربرنَا َ ْف ِر ْغ َ‬ ‫علَ ٌْنَا َ‬ ‫صبْرا ً َوث َ ِبّتْ َ ْلدَا َمنَا َوان ُ‬ ‫ا ْلكَافِ ِر َ‬ ‫علر َموهُ ِم رموا ٌَشَوا ُء‬ ‫ّللاُ ا ْل ُم ْلونَ َوا ْل ِح ْك َموةَ َو َ‬ ‫ٌن فَ َا َز ُمو ُهم ِب ِإ ْذ ِن ّ ِ‬ ‫ّللا َولَتَو َ د ُ‬ ‫َاوو ُد َجوالُوتَ َوآتَواوُ ّ‬ ‫ّللا ذُو فَ ْ‬ ‫علَى ا ْل َعالَ ِم َ‬ ‫اس َب ْع َ‬ ‫ٌن " ‪.‬‬ ‫وٍ َ‬ ‫س َد ِ‬ ‫َولَ ْوالَ د َْف ُع ّ ِ‬ ‫و ُا ْم ِب َب ْع ٍ لرفَ َ‬ ‫ّللا النر َ‬ ‫ت او َ ْر ُ َولَ ِك رن ّ َ‬ ‫إذا كان هذا هو نصٌب البشرٌة فً عصور التارٌخ اوولى من شٌو صوور ا رهواب المتمثو‬ ‫بالشر والمت ء وهذا هوو دور الحكوام فوً مواجاتوهء فلوٌس مامنوا إال التصودٌك بوجوود جوذور‬ ‫للعنؾ وا رهاب وان اختلفت صورو و شكاله ووسائله باختةؾ اوزمنة واومكنوة ٌنموا وجود‬

‫حاكم ومحكوم‪.‬‬

‫‪34‬‬


‫ثانًٌا ‪ -‬الشواهد ا رهابٌة فً التارٌخ ا سةمً ‪:‬‬ ‫عرؾ التارٌخ ا سةمً اثر وفاة الرسوو دمحم )ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص( فوً بعو‬

‫البلودان واومصوار ا سوةمٌة‬

‫عوووددا مووون حووووادث ا رهووواب التوووً تنووودرج وووومن حوووداث التوووارٌخ التوووً تسوووتادؾ الرمووووز‬ ‫والشخصٌات الدٌنٌةء ومن المفٌد ن نذكر ن ا رهاب فً بداٌة ظاور ا سةم لم ٌأخوذ طوابع‬ ‫التكت الجماعً المنظمء ب التصر على بع‬

‫اوعموا الفردٌوة التوً كوان هودفاا سٌاسوٌا فوً‬

‫اؼلب اوحٌوانء ومناوا لتو الخلفواء الراشودٌن الثةثوة )رووً ن عونام( بعود خةفوة بوً بكور‬ ‫الصدٌك )روً ن عنوه(ء إال ن ا رهواب الموائم علوى سواس التطورؾ ا سوةمًء ٌرجوع فوً‬ ‫صوله إلى حركة واحودة انبثموت مناوا العدٌود مون الطوائوؾ والحركوات وهوً حركوة الخووارج‬ ‫التً شادها العالم ا سةمً إبان التحكٌم بٌن مٌر المؤمنٌن علً )روً ن عنوه( والخلٌفوة‬

‫معاوٌة بن بً سفٌانء اثر معركة صفٌن عام ‪37‬ه ء حٌث كفّر صحاب حركة الخوارج علوً‬ ‫بن بً طالب ونه لب مبد التحكٌمء كما كفّروا من لام بعملٌة التحكٌم تلنء واعتبروا كو مون‬ ‫ٌخالؾ ناجام من المسلمٌن كفّاراء‬ ‫ثووم تحووو ا رهوواب المتمث و بالمت و والتكفٌوور لموون خووالفام إلووى عنووؾ سٌاسووً فٌمووا بٌوونام إذ‬ ‫انمسوموا إلووى عشوورٌن فرلوة تعووادي كو واحودة اوخوورى وسووباب معظماوا سٌاسووٌة ترمووً إلووى‬ ‫كسب المناصب وتستأثر بالؽلبة لنفساا ومحاولة إلصواء اآلخورٌن باسوتعما ا رهواب والمتو‬ ‫للرموووز السٌاسووٌة ء ووصووفوا نفسووام ب و "الفوودائٌٌن" و "الموفووون بالعاوود"ء إال ن االسووم‬ ‫الشووائع وكثوور الحركووات التووً اسووتخدمت ا رهوواب سوولوبًا لتحمٌووك هوودافاا هووو اسووم "فرلووة‬

‫الحشاشٌن"ء وهً فر من الفورو المنسووبة إلوى الطائفوة ا سوماعٌلٌةء التوً كوان مركزهوا‬ ‫ً‬ ‫بودٌة عون الحورب المعلنوة وذلون لووعؾ لوتاوا‬ ‫إٌرانء وهوً و مون ابتكور سولوب ا رهواب‬ ‫وعدتاا وللة عددها‬

‫‪35‬‬


‫وإلووٌام ٌرجووع ابتكووار سوولوب االؼتٌووا بالمت و وو موورة فووً التووارٌخ ا سووةمً حتووى صووبح‬ ‫االسوم المشوتك مون اسوم فورلتام "حشاشوٌن" و " شاشوٌن" ) )‪Ashashin‬هوو المصوطلح‬ ‫الذي عرفته معاجم اللؽة االنجلٌزٌة لكلمة االؼتٌا " "‪Assassin‬ء وهذا العم الممٌز فوً‬ ‫واستنكارا مون‬ ‫إرهابام والمتمث فً اؼتٌا الحكّام ٌعتبر الٌوم كثر اوعما التً تةلً شجبًا‬ ‫ً‬ ‫لب المجالس الدولٌة والمنظمات الحكومٌة العالمٌة التً تشك محاكم خاصة لمعرفة مرتكبوً‬ ‫جرائم االؼتٌاالت السٌاسٌة ورموز الحكم فً العالمء وما ٌشفع لاذو الفرلة من كوناا تمتصر‬ ‫فً إرهاباا على اؼتٌا الحكام دون المدنٌٌنء ناا تتمٌز عن الفرق ا رهابٌوة السوالفة الوذكر‬ ‫فوً التووارٌخ ومناووا فرلوة السووٌكاري‪ .‬وموون هنوا ٌظاوور الفووارق الجووهري بووٌن عنووؾ الطوائووؾ‬ ‫ا سووةمٌة لوودٌ ًما وسووابماتاا بعو‬

‫الطوائووؾ الٌاودٌووة موون حٌووث كووون اوخٌوورة تمثو عمالاووا‬

‫إرهابًا لمعناو الحمٌمً لما تسببه عمالاوا المتمثلوة بوالحرق والاودم والتودمٌر وتسومٌم المٌواوء‬ ‫لٌعم الورر على العامة من بناء الشعب ولٌس لمن هم فً السلطة الحاكمةء بٌنما كوان عمو‬ ‫الحركة اوخرى من حٌث المودى واوسولوبء منصوبًا نحوو تحمٌوك هوداؾ سٌاسوٌة‪ .‬لكون ٌبموى‬ ‫ا رهاب والمت هو السمة الؽالبة فً إٌدٌولوجٌة فكار ك الطوائؾء وهو عمو ٌصودق علٌوه‬ ‫وصؾ ا رهاب بمعناو الحمٌمً فً ولتنا الحاور‪.‬‬ ‫ما معرفة العالم العربً ا سةمً لسرهاب والمت الجماعً وتدمٌر المصالح العامةء فانه لوم‬ ‫ٌظار إال فوً السونوات اوولوى مون المورن العشورٌن عنودما بود الووابط االنجلٌوزي " تومواس‬ ‫لورانس " والمعروؾ " بلورانس العورب " فوً الجزٌورة العربٌوةء فوً تودرٌب ثلوة مون بنواء‬ ‫الجزٌرة على سالٌب ا رهوابء مثو تفجٌور سوكن الحدٌود والممواهًء ومون ذلون العاود عورؾ‬ ‫عالمنا العربً ا سةمً ا رهاب بالتخرٌب والمت ء ثم انتشور فوً فلسوطٌن عون طرٌوك بعو‬ ‫الفووورق الٌاودٌوووة مثووو "الاجانوووة" و"عصوووابات االراجوووون" وؼٌرهووواء التوووً زهموووت رواح‬ ‫اوبرٌوواء موون النسوواء واوطفووا ء ممووا جبوور ذلوون العدٌوود موون الفلسووطٌنٌٌن علووى توورن منووازلام‬ ‫والنزوح عن راوٌام ‪.‬‬

‫‪36‬‬


‫وبعد هذو البسوطة التوً ردنوا ن نجعلاوا ؼٌور مخلوة علوى الورؼم مون إطناباواء ولٌسوت مملوة‬ ‫رؼووم إسوواابااء والتووً بٌنووا فٌاووا الموودلو اللؽوووي والتووارٌخً لمفاوووم ا رهووابء ٌظاوور لنووا ن‬ ‫ا رهاب ولد مع والدة بنو البشر وازداد مع ازدٌاد فراد المجتموع الواحود وتوسوع موع توسوع‬ ‫المدن والدوٌةت وا مبراطورٌات الحاكمة‪.‬‬ ‫إذن من ٌن للؽربٌٌن ن ٌلصموا ا رهاب وا رهاب بالمسلمٌن؟‬ ‫لسجابووة علووى هووذا السووؤا نسوووق االسووتنتاج اآلتووً موون خووة فاووم مفاوووم ا رهوواب وتامووة‬ ‫الصاله با سةم فً المبحث الثانً من الدراسة‪.‬‬ ‫المبحث الثانً ‪ -‬مفاوم ا رهاب وتامة الصاله با سةم ‪:‬‬ ‫على الرؼم من وجود إشوارات كثٌورة عون جورائم متعوددة فوً الشورٌعة ا سوةمٌة كجرٌموة‬

‫المت العمد والخطأ والسرلة وؼٌرهاء إال ن الشرٌعة ا سةمٌة اهتمت اشد االهتمام بجرٌموة‬ ‫ٌمكن ن تجمع عدة جرائم فً جرٌمة واحدة السٌما و ناا تتصؾ فً ا فساد وإرعاب الناس‬ ‫وتخوٌفام مثلاا مثو المعنوى اللؽووي االصوطةحً لكلموة إرهواب ‪ -‬التوً سوبك تناولاوا ‪ -‬إناوا‬ ‫جرٌمووة الحرابووة والتووً تعنووً فووً اللؽووة "الحوورب" وهووً نمووٌ‬

‫للسوولم وتووأتً بمعنووى المت و‬

‫والمعصووٌة ء وهووذا هووو المعنووى العووام الووذي ٌماب و جرٌمووة ا رهوواب فووً لوانٌننووا المعاصوورةء‬ ‫السٌما و نه جرم اتفك جمٌع الفمااء المسلمٌن بجمٌوع موذاهبام بتحرٌموه كموا وٌشوتم علوى‬ ‫إخافووة النوواس وإرهووابام بووالموة وبووأي صووورة موون الصووور مامووا كووان مسووماهاء وانووه ٌجووب‬ ‫التصدي لاا ومكافحتااء وباذا تكون الحرابة بالمفاوم الواسع للفموه ا سوةمً هوً عوٌن موا‬ ‫ٌتداوله العالم الٌوم وسماو بجرٌمة ا رهاب ء وبذلن ٌكون الدٌن ا سةمً و مون دعوا إلوى‬ ‫محاربة ا رهاب منذ كثر من ربعة عشر لرنًا‪.‬‬

‫‪37‬‬


‫ً‬ ‫اوال ‪ -‬معنى كلمة ا رهاب فً النص المرآنً‪:‬‬ ‫لمد وردت كلموة الرهبوة فوً المورآن الكورٌم فوً عودة معوانء مناواء الخووؾ والخشوٌة وتمووى‬ ‫نء فً لوله تعالى فً سورة البمرة‪:‬‬ ‫سو َورائٌِ َ ْ‬ ‫واي‬ ‫ً الرتِووً َ ْن َع ْمووتُ َ‬ ‫" ٌَووا َبنِووً ِإ ْ‬ ‫علَ و ٌْ ُك ْم َو َ ْوفُووواْ ِب َع ْا ودِي ُ ِ‬ ‫اذ ُكو ُورواْ نِ ْع َمتِ و َ‬ ‫وؾ ِب َع ْا و ِد ُك ْم َو ِإٌرو َ‬ ‫ون" ‪.‬‬ ‫فَ ْ‬ ‫ار َهبُ ِ‬ ‫وبمعنى ان الوفاء بالعاد ٌأتً من خة دعوة بنً اسرائٌ ان ٌخافوا ن وحودو وان ٌفوردوو‬ ‫بالخشٌة‪.‬‬ ‫ووردت بمعنى الخوؾ والرعبء فً لوله تعالى فً سورة المصص‪:‬‬ ‫" َوا ْ‬ ‫ب" ‪.‬‬ ‫الر ْه ِ‬ ‫و ُم ْم ِإ َل ٌْنَ َجنَا َحنَ ِم َن ر‬

‫كما نمر فً سورة اونفا فً لوله تعالى‪:‬‬ ‫ست َ َ‬ ‫اط ا ْل َخ ٌْ ِ ت ُ ْر ِهبُ َ‬ ‫عد رُو ُك ْم" ‪.‬‬ ‫ّللا َو َ‬ ‫ون بِ ِه َ‬ ‫عد رْو ّ ِ‬ ‫ط ْعتُم ِ ّمن لُ رو ٍة َو ِمن ِ ّربَ ِ‬ ‫" َو َ ِعدواْ لَ ُام رما ا ْ‬ ‫واآلٌة اوخٌرة للداللة على معنى الرد المعروؾ فً موازٌن الموى العسكرٌة الحالٌةء ونجد‬ ‫فً آٌوة كرٌموة خورى داللوة واووحة نسوتد مناوا علوى تعرٌوؾ لشوًء آخور ٌمكون ن نسومٌه‬ ‫"با سترهاب"ء وذلن فً لوله تعالى فً سورة اوعراؾ‪:‬‬ ‫ٌم" ‪.‬‬ ‫اس َوا ْ‬ ‫"لَا َ َ ْلمُ ْواْ فَلَ رما َ ْلمَ ْواْ َ‬ ‫س َح ُرواْ َ ْعٌُ َن النر ِ‬ ‫ست َ ْر َهبُو ُه ْم َو َجاءوا بِسِحْ ٍر ع َِظ ٍ‬ ‫ومن معنى اآلٌة الكرٌمة ٌمكن ن نصوؾ العملٌوة الحاصولة بأناواء عبوارة عون "لووة ؼاشومة‬ ‫مزٌفة وؼٌر شرعٌة ومظلة فعلت موام عوٌن النواس لتسوحرهم وتثنوٌام عون طرٌوك الصوواب‬ ‫وتجبرهم على إتبا باط " ‪.‬‬ ‫إذن ك هذو اآلٌات الكرٌمة ورد فٌاا ذكور لمعنوى مون معوانً ا رهواب المشوتم علوى الرعوب‬ ‫والخوؾء و ن تفسٌر هذو اآلٌات ٌد داللوة واووحة علوى نبوذ ا سوةم لسرهوابء إذًا مون ٌون‬ ‫جاءت التصورات الؽربٌة حو إدانة المسلمٌن وا سةم وتجعلام لتلة للبشرٌة؟!!!‬

‫‪38‬‬


‫ثانًٌا ‪ -‬تامة الصاق ا رهاب با سةم‪:‬‬ ‫ان ا جابة على كٌفٌة الصاق تامة ا رهاب با سةم تكمن فً و ترجموة لمعوانً المورآن‬ ‫العظٌمء من اللؽة العربٌوة إلوى الةتٌنٌوة والتوً صودرت فوً وروبوا إبوان المورن الحوادي عشور‬ ‫المووٌةدي )‪1143 – 1141‬م( والتووً نشوورت بعوود ربعووة لوورون )‪1543‬م(ء إوووافة إلووى‬ ‫الترجمة التً طبعت فً لندن عام ‪1648‬مء فمد ترجمت كلمة "ترهبون" عند ك هؤالء إلوى‬ ‫المصوطلح االنكلٌوزي" "‪to Strike Terror‬وكلموة " "‪Terror‬تعنوً "إرهواب" ومناوا‬ ‫كلمووة " "‪Terrorstic‬بمعنووى "إرهووابً"ء كمووا نجوود موون معانٌاووا" التخوٌووؾ ولتو اوبرٌوواء‬ ‫وك ما ٌولع الرعب فً النفوس"ء ما معنى الكلمة الثانٌة فتأتً بمعنى ٌمات وٌطعون وٌنوز‬ ‫بوةء مفوواجئ ء وبشوك عووام نجود هووذا المفاووم فووً المحافو الدولٌووة بمعنوى التخوٌووؾ والوورد‬ ‫المعنوي لعدو الناس‪.‬‬ ‫وبالمماب تذكر المصادر انوه فوً سونة ‪1966‬مء ظاورت ترجموة المستشورق اولموانً )رودي‬ ‫بارت(ء وتعتبر حسن ترجمة للمرآن الكورٌم باللؽوة اولمانٌوةء بو واللؽوات اووروبٌوة عمو ًمواء‬ ‫ولد حرص صاحباا على ن ٌكون عمله علمًٌا و لورب موا ٌكوون مون الدلوة واومانوة فوً نمو‬ ‫المعنً المرآنً مون العربٌوة إلوى اولمانٌوة حتوى إنوه حٌنموا تعترووه كلموة ٌشو ُك علٌوه فاماوا‬ ‫على الوجه الممصود منااء و ال ٌطمئن إلى لدرته علوى تحدٌود معناهوا باللؽوة اولمانٌوةء فإنوه‬ ‫ٌثبتاا بنصاا العربً كما وردت فوً اآلٌوة الكرٌموةء ولكون بوالحروؾ الةتٌنٌوة لٌفسوح المجوا‬ ‫مام المار ون ٌتوص بنفسه إلى إعطائاوا المعنوى الوذي ٌوراو مةئ ًموا لسوٌاق الكوةم دون ن‬ ‫ٌفر‬

‫علٌه وجاة نظرو الشخصٌة‪ .‬ما مرحلة دخو المسلمٌن مٌدان الترجموة مون العربٌوة‬

‫إلووى اللؽووة الفرنسووٌةء فنجوود ترجمووة الجزائوورٌٌن )اٌمووشء وابوون داود(ء وترجمووة حموود ٌتحووانً‬ ‫عووام ‪1936‬مء وترجمووة حمٌوود ن سوونة ‪1959‬مء وترجمووة الوودكتور)صووبحً الصووالح( سوونة‬ ‫‪1979‬م ‪.‬‬

‫‪39‬‬


‫وكمصطلح عرفته المحاف الدولٌة لسرهاب فانوه ٌتطوابك تما ًموا موع لفواظ الترجموات تلون فوً‬ ‫ؼلووب الموورارات الصووادرة عوون اومووم المتحوودة حووو ا رهوواب والعملٌووات ا رهابٌووة لب و وبعوود‬ ‫حداث ‪ 11‬سبتمبر ‪.‬‬ ‫ومن هنا مع شدٌد االسؾ صبح مصوطلح ا رهواب مرتب ً‬ ‫طوا بوالتخوٌؾ والتروٌوع الوذي ٌمووم‬ ‫به المسلمون الملتزمون بالنص المرآنًء وبذلن تكون مث هذو الترجمات وتوابعاا لد لاموت‬ ‫س ودًا منٌعًووا بووٌن المجتمعووات اووروبٌووة والمعووانً الصووافٌة للموورآن الكوورٌمء و ورثووتام العووداوة‬ ‫والبؽوووواء والكووورو الشووودٌد لسسوووةم والمسووولمٌنء وهوووذو مةحظوووة هاموووة تسوووترعً االنتبووواو‬ ‫والتصحٌح لفاوم معوانً المورآن حتوى ال ٌمودح المورآن وٌفاوم جزافًوا معنًوا مون معانٌوهء كموا ن‬ ‫جمٌع النصوص المرآنٌة تدعوا إلى الحوار والمجادلوة الحسونة والتعامو بالحكموة والموعظوة‬ ‫واالبتعاد عن الؽلو والتطرؾ والتكفٌرء لا تعالى‪:‬‬ ‫س ِبٌ ِ َر ِبّنَ ِبا ْل ِح ْك َم ِة َوا ْل َم ْو ِع َ‬ ‫س ُن ِإ رن َربرنَ ُه َو َ ْعلَو ُم‬ ‫ً َحْ َ‬ ‫ظ ِة ا ْل َح َ‬ ‫"ا ْد ُ إلى َ‬ ‫سنَ ِة َو َجا ِد ْل ُا ْم ِبالرتًِ ِه َ‬ ‫سبٌِ ِل ِه َو ُه َو َ ْعلَ ُم بِا ْل ُم ْاتَد َ‬ ‫بِ َم ْن َ‬ ‫ٌِن"‪ .‬سورة النح ‪ :‬اآلٌة ‪.125‬‬ ‫و ر ع َْن َ‬ ‫وموون ٌوودعو إلووى عكووس ذلوون فووان الوودٌن ا سووةمً وكو الوودٌانات السووماوٌة برٌئووة منووه بووراءة‬ ‫الذئب من دم ٌوسؾ كما ٌما ‪.‬‬

‫الخاتمة‪:‬‬ ‫الدراسة الموووعٌة التً بٌن ٌودٌنا فٌاوا محاولوة لمعالجوة جوانوب عودة تتعلوك با رهواب‬ ‫كمصووطلح و تعرٌووؾ و نشوووءء ون مفاوووم ا رهوواب ال ٌووزا مفاو ًمووا ؼام ً‬ ‫وووا ؼٌوور محوودد‬ ‫وتعرٌفاته متباٌنةء ولد تعددت اآلراء حوو هوذا المصوطلح وكثورة اولووا ء وإذا تسواءلنا عون‬ ‫سباب ذلن نجد ن مردو راجع إلى اخوتةؾ العمائود و اوٌودٌولوجٌات التوً تعتنماوا جماعوات‬ ‫معٌنووة وترتوووٌااء وبالتووالً تتخووذها هووذو الجماعووات مرجعًووا وفلسووفة تصوودر عناووا فووً سوون‬ ‫تشرٌعاتاا ونظماا ولوانٌنااء ومن الطبٌعً فان نتٌجة هذا التباٌن والتووارب ْن ُجعةرتكواز‬ ‫التعرٌؾ على العمٌدة و اوٌدٌولوجٌةء فمد تم االعتماد على نو ما من االعتبارات‬

‫‪40‬‬


‫والمٌم ا نسانٌة والمعطٌات الوالعٌةء نتج عنه ظاور نو من الممارسوات للسوٌطرة الفكرٌوة‬ ‫علووى العمووو بفوور‬

‫هووذا المصووطلح "ا رهوواب" مصووبو ً‬ ‫ؼا بصووبؽة ٌدٌولوجٌووة خاصووة باووذو‬

‫المجموعة التً تمارس هذا النو من ا رهاب وكأنه ظاهرة حدٌثة الوالدة فً المجتمع‪.‬‬ ‫وممووا ٌؤسووؾ لووه ن هنووان لوووى معادٌووة لسسووةم تسووتؽ مووا ٌجووري علووى السوواحة العربٌووة‬ ‫وا سةمٌة على السواء من عما ا رهواب والتخرٌوب واالعتوداء علوى النفووس والممتلكوات‬ ‫وإزهوواق اورواح البرٌئووةء لتنسووب تلوون اوعمووا لسسووةم وهووو عموو ٌسووًء إلووى المسوولمٌن‬ ‫وٌشوو صورة ا سةم الصافٌة النمٌةء مما حدا بتلن الموى المعادٌة ن تستؽ تلون اوحوداثء‬ ‫وتلصووك تامووة ا رهوواب جزافًووا با سووةم والمسوولمٌنء متناسووٌن ن ثمووة حمٌمووة مفادهوواء ن‬ ‫ا رهاب لٌس اختراعًا عربًٌوا و إسوةمًٌاء بو هوو سولون لودٌم ال دٌون لوه وال وطون‪ .‬فا سوةم‬ ‫دٌن ٌرف‬

‫ا رهواب وٌمنوع العودوان وٌنشور السوةم وٌوطود معوانً العدالوة والتسوامح وسومو‬

‫الحووار الاووادؾ والتواصو ا ٌجووابً بوٌن النوواسء وٌوووع فوو اوسوس للعةلووات بووٌن الوودو‬ ‫دون اعتبووار لعةلووات المصوولحة المومٌووة والموووة المادٌووةء كمووا كووان سووائدًا فووً الجاهلٌووة وفووً‬ ‫الحوارة المعاصرةء ولد جرب العالم العةلات المائمة على سواس المصولحة المومٌوة والمووة‬ ‫المادٌووة ولووم ٌجنووً مناووا إال الحووروب الطاحنووةء كمووا ولووع فووً الحووروب العالمٌووة المعروفووة‬

‫بشراستاا إبان المرن الماوً ومطلع هذا المرنء وا سةم بريء مناا‪.‬‬ ‫وال عجب فمبد العم ا رهوابً ال ٌختلوؾ عون مبود لطوا الطورق و عصوابات ا جورامء وال‬ ‫ي تجمع من تجمعات الحٌوانات المفترسة فً الؽابةء والدلٌ اوووح على نبذ ا رهواب مون‬ ‫لبوو الوودٌن ا سووةمً نووه ال ٌشووجع الحوورب وال ا رهووابء كمووا ن موون هووم مبادئووه السووةم‬ ‫والتسامح‪ .‬لا تعالى‪:‬‬ ‫س ِومٌ ُع ا ْلعَ ِلوٌ ُم" ولولوه تعوالى‪" :‬فَو ِإ ْن‬ ‫س ْل ِم فَاجْ نَ ْح لَ َاوا َوت َ َوكرو ْ علوى نُ ِإنروهُ ُه َوو ال ر‬ ‫" َو ِإ ْن َجنَ ُحوا ِلل ر‬ ‫س ِبٌةً"‪.‬‬ ‫سلَ َم فَ َما َج َع َ نُ لَ ُك ْم َ‬ ‫علٌَ ِْا ْم َ‬ ‫ا ْعت َ َزلُو ُك ْم فَلَ ْم ٌُمَاتِلُو ُك ْم َو َ ْلمَ ْوا ِإلَ ٌْ ُك ْم ال ر‬ ‫صدق ن العظٌم‬

‫‪41‬‬


‫تمر المكتوم العرالً ‪Iraqi Maktoom Dates‬‬ ‫‪.‬د‪ .‬حسن خالد حسن العكٌدي‬ ‫خبٌر النخٌ والتمور‬ ‫ٌعتبر تمر المكتوم مون التموور العرالٌوة المتمٌوزة‬ ‫بالنوعٌووة والطعووم حٌووث ٌؤك و فووً جمٌووع مراح و‬ ‫النوووووج البسووورء والرطوووبء والتمووورء وهوووو مووون‬ ‫التمووور الطرٌووة ‪Soft Date‬وتموور المكتوووم هووو‬ ‫من تمور المنطمة الوسطى وجنوب العوراق وهوو‬ ‫صنؾ لدٌم ومعروؾ بحةوته المتوسوطة كموا ن‬ ‫تمووووورو صووووالحة للكووووبس وٌصوووولح لكثٌوووور موووون‬ ‫الصناعات و هم المناطك فوً زراعتوه هوً مدٌنوة‬

‫السماوة ومحافظة المثنى وبابو وكوربةء وبود ت‬ ‫زراعته فً دٌالى ومٌسان وا لبا على زراعتوه‬ ‫كبٌر‪.‬‬

‫مزاٌا تمر المكتوم ‪Soft Dates:‬‬ ‫‪ 1‬لون الثمار البسر صفراء تم تتحو إلى اللون اوحمر‪.‬‬‫‪ -2‬لون الثمرة حمراء مسمرة و كستنائٌة عند النوج‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬حجم الثمار متوسطة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬شك الثمار بٌووٌة و سطوانٌة‪.‬‬

‫‪42‬‬


‫‪-5‬الثمرة للٌلة اولٌاؾ عند النوج‪.‬‬

‫مزاٌا نخلة المكتوم‪:‬‬

‫‪-6‬لحم الثمرة )اللب( مائع ولٌن )طري(‪.‬‬

‫‪-1‬الجذ معتد الوخامة‪.‬‬

‫‪-7‬لذٌذة الطعم والنكاة‪.‬‬

‫‪-2‬السوووعؾ خوووور فووواتح مشووووب بؽبووورة‬

‫‪-8‬الثمرة للٌلة المادة المابوة‪.‬‬

‫شمعٌة‪.‬‬

‫‪-9‬لشووورة الثمووورة متوسوووطة السووومن لووود تنفصووو‬

‫‪ -3‬عموووووواب السووووووعؾ خوووووووراء اللووووووون‬

‫المشرة و تلتصك وتتجعد‪.‬‬

‫ومتوسطة الؽةظة‪.‬‬

‫‪-10‬سمن اللحم )اللب( ‪ 8-5‬مم‪.‬‬

‫‪-4‬الخوص متدلً من نص السعؾ عنود‬

‫‪-11‬وزن الثمرة ‪ 10.5‬ؼرام‬

‫اوطراؾ‪.‬‬

‫‪-12‬طو الثمرة ‪ 3.78‬سم‪.‬‬

‫‪-5‬منطموووة اوشووووان تحتووو مووون ‪– 1/6‬‬

‫‪-13‬عر‬

‫)لطر( الثمرة ‪ 2.66‬سم‪.‬‬

‫‪ 1/8‬من طو نص السعفة‪.‬‬

‫‪-14‬وزن النواة ‪ 1.3‬ؼم‪.‬‬

‫‪-6‬الخوووص لصووٌر الطووو ولونووه خووور‬

‫‪-15‬طو البذرة ‪ 3.69‬سم‪.‬‬

‫فاتح والعدد متوسط‪.‬‬

‫‪-16‬عر‬

‫البذرة ‪0.63‬‬

‫‪-17‬الممع متوسط إلى كبٌر ملتصك‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٌ-18‬ؤك فً كافة مراح النوج‪.‬‬ ‫‪-19‬لون النواة بنٌة‪.‬‬ ‫‪-20‬جلد الثمرة سمٌن‪.‬‬ ‫‪-21‬متأخر بالنوج نوعا ً ما‪.‬‬ ‫‪-22‬رطبة من فو اورطاب‪.‬‬

‫‪43‬‬


‫‪-7‬اوشوووان للٌلووة ولصووٌرة الطووو‬ ‫وعدد اوشوان ‪ 18-10‬تكوون ‪4-2‬‬ ‫مزدوجة‪.‬‬

‫مكتوم اوحمر‪:‬‬ ‫المكتوم اوحمر هو ورب من صونؾ المكتووم‬

‫‪ -8‬لصر اوشوان ‪ 2-1‬سم‪.‬‬

‫مشابه له مع بع‬

‫‪ -9‬طو اوشوان ‪ 16-8‬سم‪.‬‬

‫‪-1‬اللون حمر‪.‬‬

‫‪-10‬العووذق صووفر برتمووالً متوسووط‬

‫‪-2‬السوووعؾ متوسوووط الطوووو ء انحنووواؤو معتووود‬

‫الطو ‪ 130‬سم ومتوسط الؽةظة‪.‬‬

‫على طو السعفة‪.‬‬

‫‪ -11‬لصر الشمارٌخ ‪ 35‬سم وعودد‬

‫‪-3‬الخوص منتصب‪.‬‬

‫اوزهار ‪.39‬‬ ‫‪ -12‬طو الشمارٌخ ‪ 63‬سم وعودد‬ ‫اوزهار ‪ 43‬وعدد الشمارٌخ ‪.61‬‬ ‫‪-13‬مماوم للملوحة‪.‬‬

‫االختةؾ وهو اللون‪.‬‬

‫‪-4‬العرجوووووون متوسوووووط إلوووووى لصوووووٌر اللوووووون‬

‫برتمالً‪.‬‬ ‫‪-5‬الخة )البسر( ذو شوك سوطوانً ممتلوئ‬

‫‪-14‬مماوم للجفاؾ‪.‬‬

‫الحجم متوسط‪.‬‬

‫‪-15‬موعد التزهٌر متوسط‪.‬‬

‫‪-6‬المادة المابوة للٌلة‪.‬‬

‫‪-16‬موعد النوج متوسط‪.‬‬

‫‪-7‬الرطب عسلً اللون ذو لب لٌن‪.‬‬

‫‪-17‬نسووووووبة تسووووووالط الثمووووووار ‪-15‬‬

‫‪-8‬الحةوة متوسطة‪.‬‬

‫‪.%30‬‬ ‫‪-18‬درجوووة حووورارة ا نوووواج ‪-45‬‬ ‫‪ْ 46‬م لموووووودة ‪ٌ 4-2‬وووووووم ورطوبووووووة‬ ‫‪.%70‬‬

‫‪44‬‬


‫تحلٌ تمور المكتوم‪:‬‬ ‫نو التحلٌ‬

‫‪ %‬النسبة‬

‫السكرٌات الكلٌة‬

‫‪58.34‬‬

‫السكرٌات المختزلة‬

‫‪64.37‬‬

‫الرطوبة‬

‫‪29.25‬‬

‫لٌاؾ‬

‫‪3.14‬‬

‫الرماد‬

‫‪1.01‬‬

‫الحمووة‬

‫‪0.20‬‬

‫‪PH‬‬

‫‪7.15‬‬

‫المادة الجافة‬

‫‪70.76‬‬

‫الفركتوز‬

‫‪34.97‬‬

‫الكلوكوز‬

‫‪31.94‬‬

‫‪45‬‬


‫البو ّد لنووا موون إعطوواء صوورة واوووحة لاووذو النخلووة )نخلوة المكتوووم( ون ثمرتاووا جٌوودة وتؤكو‬ ‫بسورا ً ورطبوا ً وتمورا ً وا لبوا علٌاوا ٌتزاٌود ٌوموا ً بعود ٌووم لزراعتاوا والعناٌوة باوا والبود موون‬ ‫إعطاء بع‬

‫التوصٌات لمزارعً المكتوم ومناا‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬االهتمووام بالمسووافات الزراعٌووة الةزمووة )بووٌن نخلووة و خوورى( كثافووة الزراعووة والمفو و‬ ‫الزراعة تكون ‪ 8 × 8‬م و ‪ 9 × 9‬م‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ٌ (2‬فو العناٌة بنخلة المكتوم من حٌث التسمٌد العووي والمعدنً سنوٌا ً‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬عملٌة الري ٌفو حالٌا ً الري بالتنمٌط للمحافظة على المٌاو من الادر‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (4‬من اومور المامة فً تخطٌط بستان المكتوم ٌعنً موالوع الوذكور بشوك صوحٌح بحٌوث‬ ‫تحص على نجاح عملٌة التلمٌح بحٌث تزر خوط الوذكور موا بوٌن النخٌو ٌعنوً كو ‪12-10‬‬ ‫خط إناث خط ذكور وإوافة إلى ذلن تحدٌد نو الذكور المةئمة مث ذكر الؽنامً اوخور‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (5‬عند بداٌة الموسم الزراعً لبستان نخٌ المكتوم ٌفو إجراء العملٌات التالٌة‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬االلتزام بالرزنامة الزراعٌة لنخلة المكتووم مون حٌوث التسومٌد ‪N.P.K‬وللمعوادن النوادرة‬ ‫ك سماد فً ولته المحدد‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -‬السماد الفوسفوري ‪P‬فً شار ‪11‬ء ‪ 12‬من ك سنة‪.‬‬

‫ب‪ -‬السماد النٌتروجٌنً ‪N‬فً شار ‪11‬ء شار ‪.1‬‬ ‫ج‪ -‬السماد البوتاسٌوم ‪K‬بعد عملٌة العمد‪.‬‬ ‫د‪ -‬السماد العووي فً الشار ‪10‬ء ‪.11‬‬

‫‪46‬‬


‫)‪ (6‬تبوود عملٌووات خدمووة ر س نخلووة المكتوووم ابتوودا ًء فووً الشووار الثووانً موون ك و سوونة بعملٌووة‬ ‫التشوووٌن وناووا عملٌووة مامووة لحماٌووة الثمووار وال ً وحماٌووة المووزار الملمووح كمووا و ناووا تحمووً‬ ‫الثمار من التجرٌح والتشطٌب‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (7‬عملٌة التلمٌح تبد دائما ً وحسب درجات الحرارة المتوفرة فً نااٌة الشار الثانً وبداٌوة‬ ‫الشار الثالث وتستمر إلى نااٌته‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (8‬عملٌووة الخووؾ مامووة فووً تحسووٌن نوعٌووة الثمووار للصوونؾ مكتوووم موون حٌووث الحجووم واللووون‬ ‫والتجانس حٌث ٌتم إزالة ما ٌلً‪:‬‬

‫ خووؾ العووذوق بحٌووث ٌبمووى عوودد مناسووب علووى ر س النخلووة تبعوا ً لعموور النخلووة وٌفوو إزالووة‬‫العووذوق المشوووهةء والوووعٌفة والمرٌوووة والعووذوق ذات الشوومارٌخ المصووٌرة وٌفو و عملٌووة‬ ‫الخؾ بعد عملٌة العمد والتأكد من سةمة العذوق‪.‬‬ ‫ب‪ -‬خؾ الشمارٌخ‪ :‬وذلن بإزالة عدد من الشمارٌخ من وسط العذق بحٌث ٌتورن علوى العوذق‬ ‫شمارٌخ بعدد )‪ (60-50‬شمراخ حسب صحة النخلة كما وتمصر الشومارٌخ بحٌوث تبموى علوى‬ ‫الشمراخ )‪ (15-12‬حبة‪.‬‬ ‫ج‪ -‬خؾ الثمار‪ٌ :‬تم خؾ الثموار بإزالوة عودد مون الثموار وتورن )‪ (15-12‬حبوة علوى الشومراخ‬ ‫الواحد‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (9‬عملٌة التحدٌر )التركٌس( للصنؾ مكتوم‪ :‬تجري هذو العملٌة فوً وسوط و نااٌوة مرحلوة‬ ‫الجمري حٌث ٌكون عود العرجون طرٌا ً وٌمكن تثبٌته وربطه بشك جٌود ومتودلً وال ٌفوو‬ ‫تأخٌر هذو العملٌة ون عود العرجون ٌتصلب علما ً ن عملٌة التحدٌر والتدلٌة لألسف ٌسواهم‬ ‫وٌسا فً عملٌة نم وانسٌاب السكرٌات والمواد اوخرى إلى الثمار‪.‬‬

‫‪47‬‬


‫)‪ (10‬تؽطٌة العذوق باوكٌاس الخاصة‪ :‬تبد بإجراء هذو العملٌوة عنودما تبود الثموار بوالتلون إلوى‬ ‫اللون اوصفر وتراكم السوكرٌات بالثموار حٌوث تؽطوى العوذوق بأكٌواس خاصوة ذات مسوامٌة جٌودة‬ ‫ومحددة وٌفو اللون اوخور و اوبٌ‬

‫لحماٌة الثموار مون الطٌوور والودبابٌر وتحسوٌن لٌمتاوا‬

‫التسوٌمٌة وال ٌفو استخدام اوكٌاس عدٌمة المسامٌة‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (11‬االهتمام بعملٌة الري للصنؾ مكتوم‪ :‬إن للري دورا ً كبٌرا ً فوً نموو وتطوور ثمورة المكتووم‬ ‫نتٌجة انمسام الخةٌا وزٌادة حجاماا فً مراح الحبابون والجمري والبسر مما ٌجعلاوا تحتواج‬ ‫إلى كمٌات مون المٌواو لمواكبوة عملٌوة انمسوام الخةٌوا وٌمكون تملٌو و إٌمواؾ عملٌوة الوري عنود‬ ‫مرحلة البسر وعند ظاور الندبة اوولى للرطوبة فً الثمرة‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (12‬نمو ونوج تمر المكتوم‪ٌ :‬مر تمر المكتوم بالمراح التالٌة‪:‬‬ ‫ مرحلة الحبابون وتحتاج إلى )‪ (4‬سابٌع‪.‬‬‫ب‪ -‬مرحلة الجمري تحتاج إلى فترة طو )‪ (6-5‬سابٌع‪.‬‬ ‫ج‪ -‬مرحلة الخة )البسر( تحتاج إلى )‪ (4-2‬سابٌع‪.‬‬ ‫د‪ -‬مرحلة الرطب تستمر إلى )‪ (4-2‬سابٌع‪.‬‬ ‫علما ً ن هذو المراح تعتمد على درجة حرارة الموسم باالعتماد على التوراكم الحوراري للصونؾ‬ ‫الذي ٌتحدد باوٌام ودرجات الحرارة الٌومٌة‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (13‬عملٌة النوج ‪Rippening:‬عملٌة النوج تعتمد على ما ٌأتً ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬عملٌووة الطاووً‪ :‬وتعتموود علووى توووفر درجووات الحوورارة الةزمووة والتؽذٌووة المسووتمرة والووري‬ ‫المنتظم من عملٌة العمد إلى ن تصو إلوى مرحلوة البسور حوٌن تكتمو عملٌوة الطوبخ فوً السوعؾ‬ ‫وتنتم السكرٌات والمواد الصلبة الذائبة ‪T.S.S‬واوحما‬ ‫وإلى الثمار‪.‬‬

‫العووٌة مون السوعؾ إلوى العوذوق‬

‫‪48‬‬


‫‪ -2‬عملٌة االستواء‪ :‬وهوذو العملٌوة تعتمود علوى التؽٌورات التوً تحودث فوً الثمورة مون تؽٌور اللوون‬ ‫وتحو السكرٌات الثنائٌة إلى حادٌة واختفاء المواد المابووة ‪Tanin‬وتحوو بعو‬

‫الموواد مون‬

‫الصووورة ؼٌوور الذائبووة إلووى ذائبووة وٌمكوون لٌوواس االسووتواء موون الشووك الخووارجً للثموورة كمووا ٌمكوون‬ ‫لٌاسواا بواوجازة )رفراكتوومتر( والتوً تموٌس الموواد الصولبة الذائبوة ‪T.S.S‬الكلٌوة والتوً تحودد‬ ‫‪ %70-60‬وكذلن بنسبة رطوبة ‪.%25‬‬ ‫)‪ (14‬معاٌٌر الجودة للنصؾ مكتوم‪ :‬تعزى الجودة فً تمر المكتوم إلى اآلتً‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬الحجم الجٌد‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬اللون الجٌد والبّراق‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬السمن اللحمً للثمرة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬لشرة الثمرة ملتصمة باللحم وذات لمعة‪.‬‬

‫‪ -5‬خالً من البلورات السكرٌة تحت لشرة التمرة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬خلو الثمار من اووساخ واوتربة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬خالً من آثار الطٌور والحشرات والموار‬

‫واومرا‬

‫الفطرٌة‪.‬‬

‫‪ٌ -8‬عتبر من التمور الجٌدة والممتازة‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (15‬الخزن ‪Storage:‬عموما ً إن التمور ذات لدرة تخزٌنٌة عالٌوة لمحتواهوا السوكري العوالً‬ ‫ومحتواها الرطوبً المنخف‬

‫لذلن تخزن فً درجات حرارة الؽرفة ما فوً المودد الطوٌلوة تخوزن‬

‫فً برادات ‪ 1-‬إلى ‪ْ 5‬م‪.‬‬

‫‪49‬‬


‫)‪ (16‬اوعداد والتعبئة لتمر المكتوم ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬استةم التمور‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬عملٌة الفرز اوولً وعز التمور المصابة وؼٌر الناوجة وؼٌر المتجانسة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬عملٌة تنظٌؾ التمور‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬عملٌة الفرز على ساس الحجم و اللون والتجانس وتماسن اللحم‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬التعبئة‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (17‬هم المنتجات من تمر المكتوم‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬عصٌر التمر المخفؾ والمركز‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬الدبس‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬الخ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬المدلولة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬كبس المكتوم‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬عجٌنة التمر‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬الحلوٌات الشرلٌة كافة‪.‬‬

‫المراجع‪:‬‬ ‫العكٌدي حسن خالد حسنء الشبكة العرالٌة لنخلة التمرء صناؾ التمور العرالٌة‪.‬‬‫العكٌدي حسن خالد حسنء نخلة التمر سٌدة الشجر ودرة الثمرء ‪2010‬ء دار آمنة‪.‬‬‫عبووود الجبوووار البكووورء ‪1972‬ء نخلوووة التمووور ماووووٌاا وحاوووورها ومسوووتمبلااء وزارة الزراعوووة‬‫العرالٌة‪.‬‬ ‫‪-‬فرعون حمد المةء ‪2004 - 2002‬ء الجزء اوو والثانً وصؾ لبع‬

‫اوصناؾ العرالٌة‪.‬‬

‫‪-‬مولع عشاق التمورء مولع نخٌ البصرةء فٌس بون‪.‬‬

‫‪50‬‬


‫المسم الثانً‬ ‫باللؽة االنكلٌزٌة‬

‫‪51‬‬

‫‪51‬‬


“Feminism in John McGrath‟s Yobbo Nowt” Professor Maysoon Abdul-Latif Abdul-Karim John McGrath‟s Yobbo Nowt was a fringe production performed by 7:84 England Theatre Company on tour in 1975. The tour took the play to England, Scotland, Wales, and Holland for nearly a year, 1975-1976.1 Afterwards, the play was produced under a new title, Mum‟s the Word2, at the Liverpool Everyman Theatre by the Everyman Company. It received its London production in 1976 under the original title, which was changed to Left Out Lady when the play was performed in New York in 1981. In 7:84‟s production of Yobbo Nowt, a cast of eight actors

and actresses play the roles of twenty characters, and there is a minimum use of sets, for purposes of economy, both of which

are

prime

characteristics

of

7:84

and

fringe

companies' productions. The setting of the play is, as in Fish in the Sea, Liverpool3 at the present time, i.e.1975.4 John McGrath‟s Yobbo Nowt is cast into what appears to be like a musical comedy form, a decision the playwright took after

52


discussions with the entire 7:84 England Company, in an attempt to produce a more personal story in contrast with the earlier McGrath play, „Lay Off‟,5 which the company had toured earlier in 1975. The result, however, is not precisely a musical comedy, despite the fact that Yobbo Nowt is both „musical, and a comedy‟6. The elements of music and comedy are two features which this play shares with the earlier Fish in the Sea, both of which characteristics are prerequisites in McGrath‟s popular theatre to provide entertainment value to the audience. The purpose of the music and song technique is to „[relate] music to speech and story-telling: the sung narrative, straightforward character- and situation- songs, plus scenes in which the characters cut from speech to song, and scenes completely set to music‟.7 Thus, the playwright integrates the elements of song, music, dialogue, and narration (or story-

telling) in the fabric of the play, on a wider scale and in a more extensive fashion than their employment in Fish in the Sea In addition to the use of songs, which are given titles, and music for

entertainment, and as devices central to the content of the play, in terms of story development, commenting on the action and characterization, they are attempts to explore the skills and artistic possibilities of the 7:84 Company, 8 whose members combine the multiple skills of acting, singing, playing music as well as dancing. This is relevant to McGrath's definition of a play as a "show" offering various types of popular entertainment,9 as opposed to the bourgeois theatre's concept of it as a “drama”.

53


McGrath's Yobbo Nowt, about a working-class woman‟s political consciousness, has its sources in Gorky's novel The Mother and Brecht‟s adaptation of it under the same title.10Though the story of the play bears a resemblance to these two literary sources, McGrath‟s version is gravely dissimilar to the Gorky/ Brecht model.

Brecht‟s dramatization of Gorky‟s The Mother, written in 1930-1931 and performed several times in London and elsewhere in England in the early 1970s, is a play about a working-class woman, named Vlassova, who develops into a politically conscious and militant person in Russia between 1905-1917. The story had a particular attraction to McGrath, by virtue of its relevance to the British scene in the 1970s: „ We had all met on our travels many women who were going through a similar process.‟11 However, a major significant difference between the source and McGrath's play resides in the fact that in the political atmosphere of present day England, McGrath „could not show Marie‟s learning experiences as including the vital strength of a coherent mass … movement.‟12

54


Another prime dissimilarity is that Yobbo Nowt is concerned with the personal and political development of its heroine, Marie, whereas Brecht‟s The Mother13 charts the progress of the mother Vlassova from being a backward individual, who depicts her hostility to politics and her ignorance, to a mature political person, thus concentrating solely on the woman‟s political development. Michelene Wandor detects an ironic and a reverse effect on the audience resulting from the destruction of the mother‟s femaleness in Brecht‟s The Mother: „The mother remains a token isolated woman in a world of men, with no choice but to accept their terms -- the terms of the „rational‟ class struggle of men at the expense of the irrational‟ private world of

women‟.14 The balance between the personal and the political is achieved, however, in McGrath‟s Yobbo Nowt,15 and Red Ladder‟s Strike While the Iron Is Hot,16 later entitled A Woman‟s Work Is Never Done and toured in 1974-1976. In both plays, the ordinary wife and mother becomes a militant socialist as a consequence of her personal struggles at home regarding housework and sexual oppression. Additionally, she acquires socio-political consciousness by virtue of her employment and involvement in the social and political life outside the home, thus achieving an equal personal and political

partnership with the men instead of following their model. Thus, the case of the mother in Yobbo Nowt and Strike While the Iron Is Hot is dissimilar to that of the heroine in Brecht‟s play.

55


A predominant theme in McGrathâ€&#x;s plays is the relationship of the individual to society and, ultimately, to history.17 Politics plays a central role, too, in the work of 7:84, because of its relevance to the reality of present-day life.18 The individualâ€&#x;s relationship to other individuals, men and women, at home and at the workplace, to the economic social structure based on class, to religious patterns, and to the political system, is the subject of Yobbo Nowt.

The play dramatizes a working-class woman named Marie, who embarks on a journey leading to self-discovery and the nature of the social and political system in which she lives. Her rejection of a marital relationship in which she is stifled, subjected, and repressed paves the way for an investigation

into the capitalist system, which she conducts on her own, and which leads her to political maturity and activism, thus progressing from a mother and housewife to a committed and active socialist.19 At the beginning of the play, the heroine is portrayed 'in the oppressed, passive state of many women.

56


She is then shown in the process of self-assertion, selfrealisation, active participation in life, and articulate, positive militancyâ€&#x;20.

Her

progress

from

a

state

of

repressed

domesticity to a militant socialist worker provides the action of the play itself.

In Yobbo Nowt, Marie, wife and mother, takes centre stage. Her process of socio-political consciousness-raising is the focus of the play, and this is dramatized stage by stage, with the aid of song, music, and story-telling. Moreover, Marie undergoes a parallel process of personal emancipation. She is the focal point of the play, which offers a portrayal of her development from a passive, docile, and repressed housewife and mother, to a worker gaining personal and economic

independence as well as political maturity. In this respect, the play presents a positive statement in the portrayal of workingclass women. Structurally, Yobbo Nowt falls into two Acts, the first depicting Marie's personal emancipation, and the second emphasizing her politicization outside the domestic sphere, by investigating the British capitalist system.

57


As in Fish in the Sea, the songs and the story-telling are used as devices to divide each Act into short sections or scenes, thus indicating the change in location as well as the development of the action, as scenery in the usual sense is not used. The setting of the first scene of the play is a kitchen, representing Marie's domain, the home, as well as referring to her status as a housewife, toiling all day. Marie is married to Jack, a working-class person, and has two adolescent children, Valerie and Stephen. Thus, she has the added responsibility of motherhood .

The play begins with a song referring to Marie‟s situation. The mood is conveyed by the verse „And life‟s all grey and brown‟ (p.1). The Song tells Marie‟s story: that of a „normal mother‟ married to a „normal man‟ (p.1) who have two children. There is an obvious irony in the use of the word normal here. Mari‟s domestic situation is contrasted with that of

her husband and children who, instead of being confined to the home, experience the liberating world outside: they go „To work, to school, to life‟ (p.1), leaving her filled with a sense of void and futility experienced by “normal” working-class wives like her. She is termed „yobbo nowt‟ (p.1), which gives a title to the play. So, Mari‟s territory, the house, contrasts with that of the other members of the family, which is the world outside

58


Marie‟s coldness of feeling and lack of warmth in her life are symbolized by the cold tea which „got no warmth left in it‟, by „the fire

[which] wouldn‟t light‟, and the bacon [which is] all froze together‟ (p.2). She is dissatisfied with her enforced domesticity, her role as a wife and mother, and expresses her desire to experience the world at the workplace, as a worker herself. She sees her husband as progressing from a boiler man to an electrical fitter in a plastics factory after taking night classes, envying him his manual job. In contrast to Marie, her husband Jack is cheerful. Jack, however, it is revealed later, is involved with a teenage girl, who is his daughter‟s schoolgirl friend. Thus, the first scene establishes Marie as a representative working-class mother, who undergoes a dull daily routine, the monotonous nature of which is reflected by the repetitions in the songs. It is also noticeable that Marie, the protagonist, addresses the audience directly, thus creating a relationship with them and involving them in the action taking place on stage, as is the case in the earlier Fish in the Sea, a trait characteristic of most of McGrath‟s work, especially those plays presented by 7:84 Theatre Companies for a

working-class audience. Apart from the songs being entitled, McGrath also follows the Brechtian practice in giving titles or headings to the short scenes within each Act, giving a summary of the main idea of each. In the second scene, „Never Be the Same‟,

59


Marie blames herself for her feeling of discontent with her life and her sense of lethargy. (p.3) So, she embarks on a search for the cause of lethargy, apathy, and mental exhaustion, by trying to locate an inner cause, thinking it might be due to her early experience of life as a young girl. She moves swiftly from narration to singing in her attempt to reminisce about her past.

Marie became a wife and mother at the early age of seventeen. Apparently, her married life has not been a happy one from the beginning: she was burdened with housework and rearing two young children, confined to the home, whilst her husband went out every evening. (p.4) Being innocent and naïve, she does not suspect that her husband led a double life, but assumes that „he could have been out with the lads‟, concluding that a man has to live with a certain amount of freedom (p.4), whilst denying herself his share of freedom. She then tries to see the cause of her unhappy marriage in the birth of the second child, which added to her responsibility, but left her husband with discontent. (p.4) She feels sympathy for her husband‟s hard work (p.4), thus holding herself responsible for all the domestic problems arising, and looks down on herself in relation to her husband, defining

her role as that of providing comfort for him, doing all the house chores, and looking after her children, i.e. in terms of her functions as a wife and mother and not as a person equal to her husband.

60


This is followed by a scene which provides a dramatization of the souring relationship between Marie and Jack in the past, making a transition or a flashback to the year 1961. The husband is seen drunk, brutal, and insensitive. There is a reference here, in Jack‟s

drunkenness, to the social problem of alcoholism. McGrath later dramatized this problem in a Scottish working-class setting in his play, Out of Our Heads, performed in Edinburgh in 1976. Jack‟s behaviour here is also seen as typical of some of the negative qualities of working-class male behaviour, in the same manner that Marie‟s reaction to his aggressiveness represents the unenviable aspects of working-class women‟s behaviour in its portrayal of women as passive, submissive, ridden with guilt for other people‟s mistakes, unconfident, and docile: Jack: Get out of my way.

Marie: No, Jack, no, I‟m sorry -- don‟t go off like that. Jack: Well shut up then. Marie: Oh Jack -- don‟t talk to me like that … Jack: Well what‟s the matter with you? Marie: Come on to bed. (p.5)

61


Thus, she is willing to fulfil his whims of „Adventure‟, „Excitement‟, and „Fulfilment‟ (p.5), but hindered by her exhaustion from performing her daily household duties. This dialogue is followed by a song outlining her need for love, care, gentleness, and passion, all of which are left unrequited, and met by lack of tenderness, selfishness, and misunderstanding. The song explains the absence of any positive aspects in Marie‟s marital life:

even

her

personal

relationship

with

her

husband

is

characterized by dissatisfaction and lack of real affection or tender feelings.

Discontented with her domestic status, Marie tries to seek fulfilment outside the home, voicing her intentions to seek employment.

Her wishes are rejected by her husband, who

conceives of the role of women as that of mothers in the home: „He says it wouldn't be a home, without a mother in it.‟ (p.7) This is rather ironic, for it simultaneously criticizes his role of being an incompetent and irresponsible father, as well as referring to the theme of the play by foreshadowing future events: the paternal presence may, as in Jack‟s case, be an irrelevance in the creation of a home, as evidenced by Marie‟s economic independence, which results in her taking over the role of the missing father by offering advice and guidance to her growing teenage children, especially her daughter.

62


An example of the actress stepping aside from her role is noticeable in Marie‟s attempt to create a personal contact on the human level with the audience, by asking them direct questions: „Do you want to know what I‟m going to do? (p.7), thus arousing their interest in her story, then satisfying their curiosity by providing answers to her rhetorical questions. This is a device to keep the audience‟s interest in the general questions awake. A similar effect is achieved by the use of

humour and jokes in Marie‟s narration: thus, there is a notable irony in her comment on her daily routine: I‟m on my feet -- must take advantage of that burst of energy …. It‟s really exciting. I‟m going to make the beds, tidy the bathroom, hoover the landing, dust and hoover the stairs, hoover the hall, flick around the front room with a duster for five minutes, polish the door-knocker, sweep the doorstep, sweep the backyard. Some days I get really carried away and change the sheets. Then I can go shopping. That‟s all right. There are nice people in this part of town -- they‟re friendly …. You‟d think there was a friendliness competition. (p.7) The scene shifts from Marie‟s domestic domain to the exterior world inhabited by her husband, where he is seen involved with a seventeenyear-old girl, his daughter‟s school friend, Alma, who is waiting for him under a hedge.

63


Alma may be said to present an extreme version of the playful Sandra in Fish in the Sea, both depicting a mentality which McGrath views as objectionable. Alma is the prototype of the younger generation of teenage working-class women, whose mentality is formed by glossy adolescent magazines reinforcing “female” traits. Valerie‟s judgement on the negative character of Alma as well as the playwright‟s judgement, are intended for his audience. The play alternates between indoor and outdoor scenes to refer to Marie‟s private world, the home, as opposed to the public world occupied by the rest of the family. Her sexual oppression is evident in the scene where her husband and daughter return home to find out that their dinner is still unprepared. Marie is the accused here, treated like a guilty person by both characters, for thinking instead of

performing her unappreciated housework. It is worth noting that most of McGrath‟s working-class young daughters convey a closer link with the father against the mother and the son, who form an opposing relationship. This may depict an Oedipal factor in McGrath‟s characters. In this play, however, a similar pattern of relationship is revealed between Jack and his daughter, Valerie, who, for the most part, forms an alliance with her father in opposition to that established by the mother, Marie, and her son, Stephen.

64


Marie reiterates her intention to seek an occupation, an idea utterly

rejected by her husband, who has fixed notions on the role of women in the family. Marie sees the difference between paid employment, whose advantages are reaped by her husband, and unpaid employment like hers, i.e. her domestic duties, which are executed gratuitously. Her husband retorts: „you get kept. And clothed. And a roof over your head. And satisfication -- seein‟ your kids grow up. ‟ (p.11) However, Marie sees her motherly role as unsatisfactory and uninteresting, and seems determined, despite her husband‟s protestations, to earn a living and gain economic independence. Jack views her decision „to get a job‟ (p.11) like him „unnatural‟, and decides, on his part, to „to get a pie in the boozer‟ (p.11), whereupon Marie decides to join him. He refuses, stressing that her role is to cook for her children who, she sees, are old enough to look after themselves. She warns her husband against returning to the house if he is determined to go to the pub unaccompanied. Jack seems to be brutal in his treatment of both his wife and children. (p.15) Turned down by Marie, a new development

found unpalatable to Jack, he overturns the situation to change the balance of power in his favour: „Now, when I come back, I expect them kids fed, this place cleaned up, and you back to your senses. Or you‟ll get your cards‟, upon which Marie confirms: „You‟ve just had yours.‟ (p.11) It is evident, in this respect, that strong swear words are common amongst McGrath‟s working-class characters: even Valerie shows here disrespect for her mother, for turning her father out, thus indicating her lack of sympathetic understanding of her mother‟s repressed condition.

65


Jack reveals his involvement with another woman, known to the audience -- Alma, and reminds Marie of the need for a husband and a father in the family. Marie, on the contrary, sees his role as subsidiary. (p.12) However, Marie‟s curiosity about the identity of her husband‟s mistress is satisfied; but to her husband‟s broken dignity, she finds his involvement with a young girl of his daughter‟s age a cause for laughter. Unlike Valerie,

Stephen seems unconcerned with his

father‟s

permanent departure. One of the major roles played by the character Stephen is that of providing comic relief. The humorous element he introduces into the play is associated with his enthusiasm about sport in all its manifestations, which gradually leads to disastrous consequences, as he appears to have a new, physically harmful accident each time he appears on the scene, resulting from the practice of some form of sport. This may also be intended as a critical commentary on the part of the playwright to invalidate the sexual

repression of women, based on men‟s belief in their physical prowess, a belief clearly undermined here as having false premises. The song ending the scene foreshadows Marie‟s difficulties in comparison with middle-class women deciding to live independently of their husbands, for Marie is in a precarious position economically. Thus, the play adds another dimension to the personal one typified by Marie‟s relationship with her husband, namely the economic struggle for independence, the focus of the forthcoming scenes.

66


It is noticeable that „Marie‟s Ballad‟ which opens the play, and is repeated at regular intervals throughout, gains increasing irony by referring to Marie as a „yobbo nowt‟ or a „a nobody‟ an interpretation emphasized by the singer‟s „mock-tragic pose‟ (p.12) in the stage

instruction. Marie is next seen searching for employment. There is social criticism implied by the Labour Exchange man, David, presenting Marie as in a disadvantageous position, due to her gender, and the fact that she is a married woman with children. This makes reference to the exploitation faced by working-class women whose hardships are twofold, since they battle against discrimination based against their gender as well as social class. Marie expresses her desire to be employed in a manual occupation-which McGrath himself experienced in his youth -- characteristic of working-class people, who usually manifest their dislike of intellectual professions because of their intangible or abstract “products”. (p.14) Marie is offered opportunities of work specially reserved for women which are at the bottom of the social scale and the least profitable: laundry and serving school meals, which involve cooking and washing dishes, both of which suggestions are utterly rejected by Marie, who

sees in them reminders of her housework toil, and perhaps of her former self.

67


Marie initially refuses Social Security money, preferring to earn a lowerpaid living. However, her endeavours to seek employment prove to be failures, due, in her speculation, to her age and social class: „You‟re a middle-aged‟, though she is only thirty-three, „working-class woman. Go away.‟ (p.16) It is noticeable that Marie shows no sympathy for middle-class employers, regardless of their gender, seeing them as her enemies, as they deprive her of the occupation she urgently needs. Thus, she holds the same hostile attitude towards the Labour Exchange official, David, and the chain store‟s female interviewer, viewing them both as agents working for the capitalist state against the working class. A marked development in the use of music in this play is that, occasionally, it replaces dialogue; thus, the exchanges between Marie and David are sung. This is a feature of musicals, which the play borrows. Marie‟s personal attempts to find a paid occupation prove futile, but

she learns, in the process, about the nature of the capitalist system, as revealed by its agent David. This lesson about the workings of capitalism is intended not solely for the politically ignorant Marie, but is also addressed to the audience to raise their political consciousness. The gist of David‟s words is that capitalism exploits the majority for the privileges of the minority. Unemployed people are aided by Social Security to prevent them from changing the system, giving them barely enough for survival.

68


To this explanation, Marie‟s reaction is that of necessary change to the system: „it ought to be changed, I‟ve got no money, and my kids won‟t have anything to eat come tomorrow night, and the rent‟s not been paid for a fortnight -- it‟s not on, your capitalist system, how do you go about changing it?‟ (p. 16). David‟s

character is

obviously

a

caricature.

He

is

not

individualized as a person, but represents his function in the plot, which is determined by his occupation. It may be relevant to note, in this connection, that the majority of McGrath‟s late plays portray

types of human beings rather than psychologically motivated creations, in order to convey his political message to the audience, instead of allowing them to identify themselves with personalities on stage. It may appear unrealistic or dramatically unbelievable that David gives voice to beliefs adverse to capitalism. McGrath‟s paramount concern is not the credibility or realistic portrayal of the subsidiary characters, whose presence mainly serves as an educational tool in the process of politicizing the working-class audience. Hence, the direct and blunt political statements made by the agents of the capitalist state in this play, be they upper-class or middle-class .

69


In an unpublished article by John McGrath21 on the methods of characterization in plays, he defends the use of caricature to open a dialogue with the audience concerning their real experience and the interpretation of that experience by the media, for, to him, all characters are, in the final analysis, emblems, mere generalizations in the minds of the audience, without being static, but revealing their own reality, which is defined by their opposition to other characters, and without reduction in their humanity: The very „deformation‟ of the reality present in the caricature will indicate very clearly the attitude of the people who created it. And this will set in motion an argument within the mind of the person watching about the validity of the attitude, about the truth of the deformation …. the „attitude‟ to the character is, in a normal theatre situation, being offered not only to each individual, but also to the audience as a social entity. Their collective social validation of the

attitude (or disapproval of the attitude) will be in the air, and will colour the individual‟s response: it will be formed in the light of awareness of a more general social response.22 It may be worth noting here that allegorical characters in morality plays have often been recalled in later centuries, and even in Shakespeare‟s Richard III describing himself.

70


Marie decides to accept Social Security benefits, which she now considers to be charity. The pride of the unemployed and workingclass people is conveyed by her comment: „it [charity] can‟t do your pride much good. My dad said he‟d rather beg than ask for charity.‟ (p.17) The song that follows makes an obvious connection between the past and present in terms of the basically unchanged and continuous exploitation of the working class throughout history, though in varying guises. Marie‟s interview with Mrs. Harrison, the Social Security officer, establishes the former‟s determination to maintain her personal and economic independence of her husband, seen as threatened by her financial need. There is an apparent criticism of the Welfare State, whose agents devise every means to humiliate those at the receiving end, like Marie, by interfering with people‟s personal lives (p.18), presenting people as greedy (p.18), and representing the epitome of

bureaucracy. (p.18) The hostile tone of the Social Security officer is interpreted by Marie as denoting animosity. Mrs. Harrison reveals her humanity (p.19), which seems to be overshadowed by the nature of her occupation. Marie, however, gradually develops from the submissive and passive housewife we met earlier in the family scenes, into an articulate, more confident, and defiant woman;

71


thus, she protests against the lack of respect with which Mrs. Harrison treats her and people in a similar position, who are dependent on state aid: „you‟ll insult me, humiliate me, pry into my laundry basket and end up giving me just enough to keep me off the streets -- how‟s that then?‟ (p.19). Mrs. Harrison explains how the Welfare system works:

Social Security is given to the poor to prevent their starvation and rage reaching such a degree as to plan the overthrow of the system. In an earlier scene, Stephen dislocates his shoulder. At this point of the action, he appears with a black eye, thus providing a moment of humour for the audience. Marie‟s family scenes with her children indicate a continuation between her personal life as a mother of two adolescent children and her economic and political struggles outside the domestic sphere. The elder sister Valerie is manifestly immature and lacks an understanding of the overall domestic situation. She over-reacts to the economic crisis in the family, whines about the lack of food, and despairs, summarizing the situation in gloomy terms: „We‟re finished. Bankrupt. Begging for charity.‟ (p.20) Stephen, on the other hand, resorts to stealing bread from school, a revelation which Marie finds saddening. Valerie holds her mother responsible for the absence of her father from the family scene, to which she attributes their declining

fortunes. Marie, however, has an optimistic outlook, finding her personal independence and political development challenging and increasingly rewarding:

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If your dad [c] ame back through the door right now – I wouldn‟t want him. I wouldn‟t want to go back to four walls and a dishcloth. There‟s a big world out there, love, I want to be part of it. I want to see what‟s wrong with it, and what‟s right with it, and I‟m finding out already . (p.21)

So, Marie looks back with satisfaction on her recently gained personal liberation from her brutal, insensitive, and disloyal husband, and tries to build a new life with her children, without dependence on men for emotional or economic support. She also finds the search for the essence of capitalism an intriguing and enlightening process. At this point, she begins to educate her children in the political sphere by explaining to them, and to the working-class audience, that Social Security and unemployment benefits are not charity, but given to the needy in order not to meddle with the basic structure of the system. Marie‟s husband leaves on a merchant navy ship bound for the

Pacific for two years. Valerie is attached to her father, but because of his neglect of his paternal role, she voices her determination to oppose his former wishes by seeking employment instead of pursuing her higher studies at a university. Marie establishes her authority over the children by insisting that they must complete their school education. Moreover, she is seen as sharing the housework with son Stephen, a factor enabling her to educate the male audience about male repression.

73


In contrast with this scene recording the growth of Marie‟s personality, the following scene features her husband‟s remorse for his past deeds by deserting his wife and children: „You were right, I‟ve broke-en every rule‟ (p.22), he addresses the audience, thus

passing a moral judgement on himself, in the same fashion that his daughter judges her friend Alma, with whom he was involved, in a previous scene. In her efforts to relieve the financial crisis confronting the family, Valerie seeks employment from Seymour, the prototype of the young capitalist as perceived by McGrath, described as „spoilt, affected‟ (p.23), apparently playful, and interested in taking advantage of Valerie. Seymour, presented in negative terms, is the son of a capitalist owning a firm, for which Valerie hopes to work. She outlines her upwardly-mobile mentality. (p.24) Marie‟s personal emancipation does not conflict with her maternal concerns regarding the welfare of her daughter Valerie (whose consistent absence from the home is a source of worry for her) and the well-being of her younger son Stephen, who appears with a broken arm, as a result of a faulty pole-vault exercise. However, she comments on her strong relationship with the latter,

finding him „a real comfort‟ (p.25).

74


Marie receives employment in an electronics firm, where she will be trained for two months, after which period she will be on piecework. She indicates her political naivety in her interview with Mr Pugh, the assistant personnel manager, as she affirms his judgement: „You‟ll work till you‟re dropping and cause no trouble‟ (p.26), which is ironically proved untrue by the sequence of events. The scene shifts to a domestic one, where Valerie reveals the nature of her occupation in promotion, where she will be dressed as a rabbit, attracting clients to join a new social club associated with the media, as represented by „Radio Valium‟ (p.28), indicating

McGrath‟s critical view of the hypnotic role played by the media in a capitalist society. Unlike her gradually progressive mother, Valerie‟s choice of this type of employment is seen by the playwright as enforcing women‟s stereotypical image by alluding to their sexual exploitation. Stephen appears with a broken leg, providing a humorous element in the play. He joins his mother‟s and sister‟s celebration on the occasion of their acquiring employment, and when he expresses his view that he, as „the man of the house…should be supporting [them]‟, his mother protests: „Well, you can forget that idea, just for a start, we‟ve had a man of the house.‟ (p.28) This is a clear indication that he balance of power in the household is overturned,

75


with the women playing a more dominant role, in contrast with the situation in the early scenes, where the husband holds the reins of power. The song ending the Act foreshadows Marie‟s future efforts to „shake that town‟ and „turn it upside down‟ (p.29), by embarking on her „hobby‟ to investigate the capitalist system. It is the same song that begins the first Act, thus giving it a whole circular entity, but with added comic implications embodied in „yobbo nowt‟ (p.29). The first section of Act II of Yobbo Nowt, introduces us to two more working-class women, Josey and Frances, factory workers at Marie‟s workplace. It is noticeable that there is a great gap between employer and employed, indicated by Josey‟s and Frances‟ use of the

respectful term of address „Mr Pugh‟, and the latter‟s reference to them by the intimidating „girls‟ and „these two‟ (p.31) when introducing Marie to them. Marie‟s colleagues alert her to the exploitation facing all the factory workers. Marie is to be paid low wages for two months‟ training period, whereas the actual training requires only ten minutes to complete; thus, she will be exploited economically by being paid less than the average worker for performing the same task. Most women in her position, i.e. newcomers, are expelled after the official training period. If she survives, then she will join Josey, Frances and all the female work force by moving to piece-work, thus continuing the chain of exploitation by her employers by depriving them of „a guaranteed wage and bonus system‟ (p.32). Marie faces Mr Pugh, asking to alter her agreement,

76


a request found objectionable by him. Unlike the other two women workers, Marie intends to change the status quo. (p.33) The revelations made by Josey and Frances help further in politicizing Marie, who announces her intention to launch an

investigation into the capitalist system, which „need[s] scrapping‟ (p.33), as a consequence of her realization that she is its victim. (p.33) Thus, Marie plans to „transform things‟ (p.33). Her political enthusiasm is in sharp contrast to her colleagues‟ dreams about „fellers that are big and strong‟, who turn out to be „vain‟, „pretty thick‟, and „mental‟ instead of being „gentle‟ (p.33). Here is an indication of a critical comment passed on working-class men as lacking in sensitivity and gentle manners, as typified by Marie‟s husband, Jack. Josey‟s and Frances‟s negative attitudes to men are also established here, as in the opening song of the scene. Frances is the shop-steward and hopes to start a union shop to protect the workers from being exploited by the training scheme and piece-work practice. Marie, however, is still not entirely knowledgeable in political matters, conveying a view of trade unions usually presented by the media, as being responsible for the economic crisis of the country, and ruled by a group of

„extremists‟ (p.34).

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Potshot is a university student, who works in the factory during the holidays. He is politically conscious and well-versed in the socialist theory, playing a role similar to that of Yorry in Fish in the Sea, by educating Marie and, indirectly, the audience, in political theory. Marie expresses her willingness to learn, unlike Josey and Frances, who harass Potshot (pp.34,35). The gist of Potshot‟s long speech, or lecture, in response to Marie‟s query whether she should join the trade union, is that the trade unions are the only organizations formed to defend the interests of the workers and the sole „weapon to overthrow the entire capitalist system‟ (p.35). This is a recurrent

theme in most of McGrath‟s work, especially highlighted by his university-educated men, as evidenced by Jimmy in Random Happenings, Yorry in Fish in the Sea, and Potshot in Yobbo Nowt. Marie‟s growing articulateness and activism at the workplace do not blur her maternal instincts, especially manifested in her concern over Valerie‟s work and involvement with the „right mardy clown‟ (p.36) Seymour, a view of him shared by Stephen. She is in control of the household, where her sports-fanatic son is made to participate in the house duties by laying the table and cooking. Marie‟s character contrasts with that of her daughter, who earns her living by working as „a sugar-plum fairy to titillate men‟s fantasies‟ (p.39), thus depicting her lack of political consciousness.

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Marie develops her „hobby‟ of investigating how the capitalist system works. For this purpose, she contacts Lady Spike, wife of Sir Jules Spike, chairman and managing director of the factory in which she works. Marie betrays an apparent scene of humour; in response to Lady Spike‟s suggestion to go on a package holiday to the Costa Brava, she says: „The Costa Brava might be cheap; it‟s the Costa Living I can‟t afford.‟ (p.43) However, Lady Spike, like the other figures Marie contacts to explain the capitalist system, bears a name which reveals the true nature of the character, as is the case in Ben Josnon‟s 23 and Restoration comedies. These capitalist figures also affirm their exploitation of Marie and the working class. Thus, Lady Spike: „[M]y husband has to make millions and be ruthless and drive you and your kind into misery‟ (p.44). Mr. Cleghorn, Stephen‟s history teacher and Labour candidate, represents another establishment character seen as collaborating

with the system. The creation of this character provides McGrath with an opportunity to level an attack on the Left and the reformist polices of the Labour Party, which keep the basic capitalist structure of the country intact. When asked why the people do not force the Party to change, Cleghorn comments on the apathy and confusion enhanced by the media. (p.47)

79


Marie criticizes the press baron, Lord Leverbroom, by contacting his assistant, Miss Williams, who is symbolically chained to her desk as an indication of her slavery and lack of freedom, thus undermining the Free Press notion. Marieâ€&#x;s criticism focuses on the gradual accumulation of untruths manufactured by the press, which creates a climate of political apathy and hostility among the working class towards their representative trade unions. Like the other agents of capitalism, Miss Williams reveals the true nature of the media to Marie and the audience. (p.49) The character of the curate, Chris Plum, conveys McGrathâ€&#x;s critical view of the role of the Church. Plum adds to the comic dimension in

the play. He is a caricature and a contradictory character. (pp.50,51,52) Marieâ€&#x;s quest about capitalism, leading to her political maturity, coincides with her personal growth as a mother of teenage children undergoing a critical age. Marie summarizes the outcome of her quest and involves the audience in it, by urging them to take action. (p.54) George, the union representative, is presented as sexist -- Marie protests on seeing his behaviour with Josey and Frances (p.56) -- and a compromiser with the factory management. Marie defies his inaction and she plans to organize a strike and occupy the factory with the women workers until their demands of having their wages increased, bonuses reviewed, and piece-work removed, are fully metIt is the working-class

woman

Marie

who

confronts

her

male

union

representative by pointing out his inadequacies and collaboration with the system. George

80


, feeling defenceless, sees her and other women‟s activism as a threat to his position in the movement and to his male chauvinism. (p.57) Marie recognizes that her „one-woman uprising‟ (p.58) may be ineffectual in the long term, and expresses the need to join an organization working on behalf of the British working class. For this purpose, she asks Potshot for advice. He charts the different forms of socialism and socialist organizations, criticizing some, whilst asserting her need to „choose, and join, and work, or you will remain confused and apathetic‟ (p.58). Marie decides to call all the workers to a meeting, including the men, thus showing her class solidarity. Marie‟s husband‟s return is not welcomed by his son Stephen, in

contrast with Valerie‟s reaction. It is obvious that Jack has not changed: when Stephen announces that the meal, he has cooked is ready, his father comments: „Soon get this place in order‟ (p.61); and, when rejected by Marie, he protests: „But I have nowhere to stay. No one to cook my food, look after me.‟ (p.61) Unlike Valerie, Stephen asks his father to leave: „Go away and come back when you‟re a human being.‟ (p.61) It is an opinion shared by Marie, who finds his return unacceptable at present: „It‟s just -- things have changed -attitudes, ways of looking at things…. there might come a time when I‟m prepared to take you on. I hope there will. But just now -- I can‟t.‟ (p.61) He recognizes the transformation from „the girl I married‟ to „a hard, bitter, unnatural -- I almost said woman‟, which Marie confirms: „Come back when you‟re prepared to find out who I am now. Not before.‟ (p.62)

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Valerie announces her readiness to learn from her mother‟s

experience and listen to her advice, thus indicating a notable shift in character. The theme song ends the play, inconclusively, like Fish in the Sea and the majority of McGrath‟s plays, by inviting the audience to provide an end for the story. It is to be noted that the theme song „Marie‟s Ballad‟, appearing at the beginning and end of Act I, and at the end of the play, has variations, and is sung at different stages in Marie‟s development from a passive, repressed person at the beginning of the play, to an articulate, emancipated woman ready to participate in the outside world and take her place as a factory worker at the end of Act I, to a person, who is both personally and politically mature and shows signs of ability to lead the workers to a better future at the end of Act II. Hence, the ironic implication of the phrase „yobbo nowt‟ in the second and third occurrence of the song, and, ultimately, in the title of the play. In Little Red Hen (1975) and Yobbo Nowt, McGrath combines

individual characterization with collective consciousness, i.e. he emphasizes the personality of the working-class woman as leader in her attempt to overthrow the capitalist system and blends it with his presentation of the working class as a community out of which political consciousness arises24. In both plays, the working-class heroine undergoes a process of consciousness-raising and political education, and is taken as a model of her class and an example of an alternative

working-class

culture,

representing

consciousness and attacking middle-class ideology25

82

her

class


Yobbo Nowt is an account of the growing authority of the proletariat, who „have…started on their long journey from being the objects of history to becoming its subjects‟26. The play aims to educate, politicize, raise the consciousness of the working class, and make them aware of the dangers of capitalism. Like the earlier Fish in the

Sea, it shows the need to diverge from the reformist and compromising policies of the Labour Party27, and create a mass movement28 led by the working class. As McGrath states: „The most urgent need now is for a stronger, more mature, working-class structured society…. This makes me want to work the way I‟m working, with the people, with and for them‟.29 In Fish in the Sea and Yobbo Nowt, most working-class characters are criticized, but presented, despite their foibles, with humanity and passion: „[T]he characters he [McGrath] presents are so honestly described and he possesses such an emotional interest in their welfare that it is easy to forgive the technical failings and his political and Liverpudlian obsessions. His writing has passion.‟ 30 Moreover, the politicization process of the masses is presented as a facet of human experience, instead of being confined to the realm of vapid propaganda .31 Yobbo Nowt „has less overt political content‟ than Fish in the Sea and is „aimed at making increased contact with a wider

base‟. 32

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Michelene Wandor criticizes what she sees as the limitations of Yobbo

Nowt: Through her hobby she [Marie] finds out all about the State, class exploitation, Trade unionism, but nothing about sexism, feminism or sexuality …. Her journey to self-determination includes tussling through her relationship with her children …. Marie doesn‟t join anything, nor does she produce a correct class line -- but she still acts as a tabula rasa on which can be inscribed lessons about politics, as defined by men. The play is full of vigour and wit -- McGrath acknowledges the „personal‟ insofar as Marie decides to live independently without her husband -- but in the didactic scenes, where Marie is „learning‟ about politics, sexual oppression is subsumed under a pre-existing definition of class exploitation, rather than bringing its own analysis with it to add to the traditional class analysis.33 This seems to me less than fair to McGrath. It may appear that Marie‟s

self-discovery

and

consciousness-raising

process

is

subsidiary to her political conversion, on the basis that the scenes involving her confrontations with her husband are less in number -due to his two-year absence, on board a merchant navy ship, away from home -- than the public scenes in which she gradually develops politically. But, I tend to regard the dramatization of her personal development in her private world, i.e. the home, as being parallel to that of her political maturity in the struggle against capitalism. The domestic scenes constitute nearly half the play, and Marie tries to fight sexism in the home as well as at the workplace.

84


Marie‟s feminism and fight against sexism and for women‟s equality with men are carried out both in the domestic sphere and the public world, concerns which are more dramatized instead of, as is the case of feminist drama by women, being reported and explicitly stated.

There is a notable change and ambivalence in Marie‟s position in response to Jack‟s return. She offers him the alternative of changing his character, especially his stereotypical image of women, in order to be rendered acceptable amidst the family. Even Valerie reflects this ambivalent attitude by rejecting her initial decision of accompanying her father as she turns, rather abruptly, to her mother for guidance, despite the fact that throughout the play she manifests a closer relationship with her father than with her mother. 34 Unlike her static husband, Marie is a developing, highlyindividualized character, who progresses personally and sociopolitically. Her change in character is seen to influence those surrounding her in the domestic sphere -- she successfully teaches her son equality between the sexes on all levels, starting with housework; she also, thought indirectly, points the way for her daughter to abandon her stereotypical thoughts, which the latter shows her willingness to give up.

85


Though Marie is an individualized character, social and political forces are at play in the formation of her consciousness, factors which McGrath sees as paramount in his characterization: „The dramatist is concerned with consciousness as something related to ongoing historical events and as something that comes and goes in relation to many conjectures. 35 To conclude, the working-class heroine Marie is at centre stage, dominating the action throughout its duration. The play charts her development, individually and politically. Her progression leads to a dialectical quest of the essence of capitalism -- one of McGrathâ€&#x;s recurrent themes -- which provides her with the experience and political maturity to assume a position of leadership in organizing the working class.36 Her political struggle, however, is not seen as conflicting with, but enriching, her personality as a woman, who attains personal freedom and gains economic independence, as well

as a responsible mother not devoid of maternal instincts. In fact, it is her personal liberation which progressively leads to her political and social awareness. Marie shares many similarities with Mary of Fish in the Sea -- both are working-class women who attain individual, economic, and political independence, with the major difference that Marie will lead, instead of merely joining or following (as is the case with Mary), the political liberation of her class.

86


NOTES 1- John McGrath, „Appendix‟, in A Good Night Out -- Popular Theatre: Audience, Class and Form, London: Eyre Methuen, 1981, p.124. 2- This title is mentioned by Mary Maconochie, in John McGrath‟s Fish in the Sea, London: Pluto, 1977, p.40, in her critical comment on the sexual oppression of women, especially housewives, by men. 3- Mentioned in Jack‟s song, in John McGrath, Yobbo Nowt, London: Pluto, 1978, p.22. All subsequent references to the text are from this edition. 4- The year is stated by Marie, in ibid., p.10. 5- See McGrath, „Preface‟, in Yobbo Nowt.

6- Ibid. Cf. McGrath, „Appendix‟, p.123, where he states that Yobbo Nowt is „a “musical comedy”.‟ 7- McGrath, „Preface‟, in Yobbo Nowt. 8- See Michael Anderson, „Edinburgh 72‟, Plays and Players, Vol. 20, No.2, November 1972, p.51. See also, Jonathan Hammond, „Fringe‟, Plays and Players, Vol. 20, No.2, 1972, p.62. 9- See Michael Billington, „The Wrath of John McGrath‟, an interview with John McGrath, The Guardian, 1 April 1986, p.12, where McGrath states: „I‟ve always believed passionately… that you can do complex issues in a popular form…. I‟ve never believed in simple-minded messages and I agree that people want to be pushed much harder than they are in the average agitprop show‟

87


10- See McGrath, „Preface‟, in Yobbo Nowt. 11- Ibid. 12- Ibid. 13- On this play, see Michelene Wandor, Understudies: Theatre and Sexual Politics, London: Methuen, 1981, pp. 79-80. 14- Ibid. 15- Cf. ibid., p.83. 16- See ibid., p.80. 17- See Paul Lawley, „John McGrath‟, in Contemporary Dramatists, edited by James Vinson, London: Macmillan, 3rd edn, 1982, p.537. 18- „7:84 Theatre Company England‟s Programme of Claire Luckham‟s Trafford Tanzi‟, unpaged. 19- See, on this point, McGrath, „Appendix‟, pp. 123-124; Catherine Itzin, Stages in the Revolution: Political Theatre in Britain Since 1968, London: Eyre Methuen, 1980, p.124; and Sandy Craig, „Unmasking the Lie: Political Theatre‟, in Dreams and Deconstructions, edited by

Sandy Craig, Amber Lane Press, 1980, p. 46. 20- John McGrath, „Letter to Time Out‟, Time Out, 29 April 1977,p.3. 21- John McGrath, „Some Uses of Caricature‟, an unpublished article made available to me by kind permission of the author. 22- Ibid., p.9. 23- John McGrath‟s „All the Fun of the Fair‟, performed at the Half Moon, London, in April 1986, borrows structurally from Ben Jonson‟s Bartholomew Fair.

88


24- See Christian W. Thomsen, „Three Socialist Playwrights: John McGrath, Caryl Churchill, Trevor Griffiths,‟ in Contemporary English Drama, Stratford-upon-Avon Studies: 19, London: Edward Arnold, 1981, p. 158. 25- See Ibid.; and C.W.E. Bigsby, „The Politics of Anxiety: Contemporary Socialist Theatre in England‟, Modren Drama, Vol. XXIV, No.4, December 1981, p.396. 26- Günther Klotz, „Alternatives in Recent British Drama‟, Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1977, p. 154. 27- See Peter Ansorge, Disrupting the Spectacle, London: Pitman, 1975, p.66. 28- See McGrath, „Preface‟, in Yobbo Nowt. 29- Anne McFerran, „7:84 Six Years On‟, an interview with John McGrath, Time Out, No.367, 8-14 April 1977, p.13. In „Letter to Time Out,‟ Time Out,

29 April 1977, p.3, John McGrath comments on this interview: „I … was appalled when I read it. It in no way represents the true position of either 7:84 Company, nor does it express my own considered views. I hereby renounce it as a whole and in many details.‟ 30- Eric Shorter, „Regions‟, Drama, No. 108, Spring 1973, p. 36. See on this point, Ronald Hayman, British Theatre Since 1955: A Reassessment, Oxford University

Press, 1979, p.92. 31- See Anderson, „Edinburgh 72‟, p.51. 32- Ann McFerran, Steve Peak, and Mandy Merck, „Agitprop Theatre‟, The Leveller, February 1976, p.23. 33- Wandor, Understudies, p.80. 34- This is similar to the end of Henrik Ibsen‟s A Doll‟s House, although it is the wife who leaves the home in Ibsen‟s play. 35- John McGrath, „Power to the Imagination‟, Scottish International, October 1971, p.15.

89


Climate change and water security in Iraq Samah Ibrahim

1. Introduction Global Climate Change (GCC) has potential impacts in areas where water is scarce, (Duran-Encalada et al., 2017) such as Iraq, and this concern will continue for the future.

The impact of the climate system in recent years is unequivocal (Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu, 2008). What is more, it is related to the increases of sea level that have worldwide effects for the last five decades and it is expected to continue for the future unless humanâ€&#x;s courses reversed to avoid system further degradation (Adamo et al., 2018)

90


A number of components of the hydrological cycle and hydrological systems are affected. For example climate change is responsible for: perception patterns changing, changing intensity and extremes,

widespread changes causing quick ice and snow melting, increasing atmospheric water vapour likewise for evaporation as well as changing soil moisture and runoff (Huntington, 2006). Furthermore, human well-being and society is linked to water security and the availability of water resource that are also needed for industrial activities, agriculture, drinking, hygiene and recreation. Changes in the water availability through construction dams, precipitation, droughts and depletion of aquifer volumes, have significant consequences for the development local lands and communities.(Duran-Encalada et al., 2017) Iraq is a country anguished by climate change, as located in one of the most vulnerable regions of the world, hence water security in Iraq is worse than for other countries worldwide.(Al-Ansari Nadhir, Adamo Nasrat, Sissakian Varoujan K, Kuntsson Sven, Laue Jan, 2018a; Adamo and Al-Ansari, 2018). Climate change, coupled by intense water needs and water insecurity means that overall there

are diminishing the water resources in Iraq.(Adamo and Al-Ansari, 2018)

91


Tigris and Euphrates are the longest rivers in South Asia.(AlAnsari, N., Adamo, N., Knutsson, S., Laue, J., 2018) the major part of Iraqi‟s land relied on the fresh waters of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers for its resources and upkeep (AL-Ansari, Nadhir, 3).Climate Change is affecting the Tigris and the Euphrates River basins in similar ways to all other parts of the

Middle East and the East Mediterranean region. This contains also what is historically known as the “Fertile Crescent”, which is threatened in the same way as the other parts and may disappear altogether. (AL-Ansari, Nadhir, 3) The Tigris River‟s basin is about 1800km in length and covers a total of 473103 km2 shared by four countries; 24.5% lies in Turkey, whereas 56.1%, 0.4% and 19% lies in Iraq, Syria and Iran.

With

total

population

reaches

about

23.4

million

inhabitants of which 18 million in Iraq, 3.5, 0.05 and 1.5 million in Turkey, Syria and Iran (Al-Ansari, Nadhir et al., 2018; Dabbous, 2013)While the Euphrates River catchment area cover 444000km2 shared with four countries: Iraq, Turkey, Syria and Saudi Arabia: 28.2% Turkey, while 17.1%39.9% and 14.9% Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia(AL-Ansari, Nadhir, 3).

92


The importance of freshwater to our life support system is widely recognised, as can be seen clearly in the international context (e.g., Agenda 21, World Water Fora, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the World Water Development Report). Freshwater is indispensable for all forms of life and is needed, in large quantities, in almost all human activities. Climate, freshwater, biophysical and socioeconomic systems are interconnected in complex ways (Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu, 2008) Studies modelling the future trends of climate change impacts reveal clearly that these negative impacts are continuous in the future (Adamo et al., 2018). To evaluate the variation in Iraqâ€&#x;s water quality parameters, I

proposed a systems approach to explore potential future global climate change, and consequently understand its impacts on the water security of Iraq, with special review to social and environmental aspects. .

93


The purpose of this paper is to developing a conceptual system approach with set of distinct parts form the complex whole is necessary and from two stages, where the second stage is a reform for the first one, to define and measure water scarcity and its effect in Iraq also organise the ideas behind water security impact where discovered that the most effected aspects are: Social, historical, economical, enviermental, political and geographical.

1.1 System dynamic approach (SDA) SDA system has been used on different type of contexts, however the way the system is connected depends on

relationships between variables and their behaviour, from problem evaluation to solution predicted (Richardson and Pugh III, 1981). At first I developed a full size conceptual model, as I addressed the wide impacts of the Climate change effect on water resources in Iraq.(Al-Ansari Nadhir, Adamo Nasrat, Sissakian Varoujan K, Kuntsson Sven, Laue Jan, 2018a) In this full-size conceptual model figure (1), sub-aspects (in blue)

drives

larger

social,

historical,

economical,

geographical, environmental and political aspects (in green)

94


The double headed arrows explain that the relationships are complex and dynamic while climate change affect them all simultaneously, all factors have feedback mechanisms that impacts on climate change as well as each other aspects. For example, the more industrialized economy will have higher greenhouse gas emissions and hence will cause further climate change. A larger population means more people and large carbon footprint of total population and hence more emissions more climate change. Accordingly as Iraq develops it also moving towards higher emissions especially that the current government has no interest nor

invest in green energy in their current or future policies therefore this exacerbate water security in Iraq.(Al-Ansari, N., Adamo, N., Knutsson, S., Laue, J., 2018)

Figure (1): Model of system approach adressing the mulitible drivers affect water security in Iraq

95


Iraq is located in one of the most vulnerable regions of the world and it has felt these effects in the forms of recurrent droughts, disturbed pattern of precipitation in the form of its quantity, intensity and timing, increased desertification and sand storms. In addition, salinification of freshwater supplies, increased droughts, pollution, food insecurity, pest and virus invasion, more frequent and extreme weather events and changes in seasonal weather patterns exacerbate

existing water security challenges. (Adamo and Al-Ansari, 2018)

Perhaps most fundamental risks alarming from these impacts are food security, resource provisioning and health. This can also threaten the social and physical wellbeing of local communities, with displacement and conflict become common responses. It has long been acknowledged that climate events can drive population movements however the true interrelatedness of climate change and itâ€&#x;s impacts on human migration is highly complex, poorly understood and very difficult to quantify.(Adamo and Al-Ansari, 2018) However, water is involved in all components of the climate system (atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surface and biosphere). Therefore, climate change affects water through a

number of mechanisms figure (2). Several gaps in knowledge exist in terms of observations and research needs related to climate change and water.

60


Information about the impacts related to water and climate change is insufficient – especially with respect to quality of water, groundwater and the aquatic ecosystems together with their environmental and socio-economic extent.(Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu,

2008)

The

current

measurement

to

enable

integrated

evaluations of mitigation and adaptation options across multiple water-dependent

segments.

In

contrast,

according

to

many

researchers, measuring water security, water quality and its availability will be the main burdens for the countries and their societies. (Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu, 2008)

The next step of exploratory research was to reform the first model. I downsized it and focused in on the environmental pressures under climate change; as it is necessary to improve our understanding of the problems involved. The consequences of climate change are water availability and water quality, established influences on water quality include population growth, urbanization and land use. Changes Increases regions demand of scarcity can force the use of poor or unsuitable water with severe consequences for human health, industry and the costs associated for health care. (Hunter, 2003) .

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Figure (2): big piture of Climate change impacts

2. Discussion This section uses the conceptual system designed above to explore and discuss observations of recent changes in water-related variables of the river Tigers and the river Euphrates of Iraq, and projections of future climate change. Attribution studies shows increases in global temperatures since the last century is likely due to the observed increase in greenhouse gas concentrations (Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu, 2008).Water usage, infrastructure, institutions have developed the current conditions. Changes in the frequency of drought and floods, or in the quantity and quality or

seasonal

timing

of

water

availability,

needed

cost

adjustments, not only in financially but also in societal terms and ecological impacts, beside the need to manage potential conflicts among different interest group.(Al-Ansari, N., Adamo, N., Knutsson, S., Laue, J., 2018)

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Agricultural productivity, of fisheries and forestry systems major depends on the time-based and spatial dissemination of evaporation and precipitation, especially of freshwater availability for crops (Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu, 2008)

2.1 A reform of the new system approach A further reform of the first conceptual system approach has been developed figure (3) both environmental and social aspects are enhanced. We explore these particular functions since they connect so closely with each other and with the other drivers and have significant overall impacts on the multi-functional capacity of water in Iraq. There are additional complexities of the climate change within this topic but which are outside the scope of this research question.

Figure (3): Research Question; how environmental and social aspect drivers the impacts of water security in Iraq, also consider the Climate change pressure.

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2.2. Environmental aspects: with less stream flow To illustrate the complexity of this system in the reform model figure (3) environment is one of the two key component that has been selected for the zoom in for this study. Nine sub-factors (agriculture, salinity, sand storm, desertification, drought, scarcity, biodiversity, food insecurity and pollution) (blue-arrows) have been identified as current problems. The relationship between the environmental aspects and Climate change is two ways direction due to the global warming that influenced

all

the

sub-elements

therefore,

effecting

the

environmental aspects not only in Iraq, but all the surrounding countries.(Al-Ansari Nadhir, Adamo Nasrat, Sissakian Varoujan K, Kuntsson Sven, Laue Jan, 2018a). In the same way climate change lead to water quantity decrease due to the less flow accompanied by water quality deterioration and this increase pollution and salinity, water and soil contamination. (Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu, 2008). Furthermore, analysis of long term records of annual average

rainfall worsen over the time, alongside population increase, (AlAnsari, Nadhir et al., 2014). The above factors behave differently as result environmental parameters changed accordingly.(DuranEncalada et al., 2017) Environmental resources have impacts on food utilisation, for example, less stream flow plays a crucial role in food production and food availability regionally and globally,

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since 80% of global agricultural are land fed by rain; therefore,

crop productivity depends sufficient water precipitation to meet soil moisture distribution and evaporative demand. (Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu, 2008) In Iraq, the last can be decreased and tempered by the impacts is drought, desertification, scarcity and sand storm. Since these effects become this land fixture, both crop yield and livestock numbers reduced dramatically (Adamo and Al-Ansari, 2018). A few recent studies have further quantified that Climate Changes exacerbates desertification through changes temporal patterns of rainfall. In this region, the negative trend of the climate change influence including temperature rise, rainfall intensities, and Tigris and Euphrates

Rivers

stream

flow

capacities.

This

further

accelerates desertification through changing the regional water resourcesâ€&#x; systems outflow and inflow disrupting. It is estimated that the pattern will decline due to the accumulation level of (GHG) emission by (15 to 25) % over the area. (Adamo

and Al-Ansari, 2018) (Al-Ansari Nadhir, Adamo Nasrat, Sissakian Varoujan K, Kuntsson Sven, Laue Jan, 2018b)

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A study of sand and dust storms events in Iraq by Sissakian et al. (2013) indicated that the frequency of occurrence of dust storms has increased drastically during the last decade and it is increasing continuously. United Nations report evident, indicates that the Iraqi Ministry of Environment has recorded 122 dust storms and 283 dusty days in 2012, the estimate to be increase to 300 dusty days per year in the next decade. (UN, 2013). Alternatively, air quality and population health in distant areas have been affected. A comparison indicate, dust weather condition

can carry large concentrations of respirable particles; elements that can affect human health; and bacteria fungal spores. (Van Leeuwen and Földvári, 2013)

Climate change may impose additional stresses water security, causing drought and increased desertification in a developing country like Iraq, it‟s become evident that

agricultures is the

current marginal enterprise after the area of Iraq and Middle East being known as “Fertile Crescent” for centuries but currently suffering from annual discharge and sever water reduction (Adamo and Al-Ansari, 2018)

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2.3. Social aspects with less stream flow Similar to the environmental aspect in the reform model figure (3), social is the second selected component for this study zoom in, with eight Sub-factors (blue-arrows) as the following (age, education, population health, employment, urbanisation, social networking, demographic changes and displaced population) can be used to measure the both ways effects of the social component therefore on Climate change and water issue in Iraq.

For example, age define the level of vulnerability of an individual and population, therefore researchers measure the level of social vulnerability by the life expectancy of the population by monitoring the differences between age with highlight to the education and education condition in areas within climate impacts, employments rates in consideration to work condition. Likewise when poverty increases, so does pollution and poor population health increases due to poorer conditions, population growth and significant demand on the health care and their association with climate change as discussed above: observational records and climate projections provide abundant evidence that freshwater resources are vulnerable and have the potential to be strongly impacted by climate change, with

wide-ranging

consequences

for

human

societies

and

ecosystems.(Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu, 2008). As natural resource redacts, contamination of marine life; water quality; population health and life expectancy are affected.

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Furthermore, any assessments of future health impacts via changes in water availability need to take into account future improvements in access to „safe‟ water, as uninhabited area lead to migration. (Bates, Kundzewicz and Wu, 2008) Urbanization and urban pollution demands is highly increased, because of population growth. Furthermore, population growth necessitates the need for more lands in order to provide space for schools, work places and hospitals. (Shepherd et al., 2002; Klein et al., 2003; London Climate Change Partnership, 2004; Sherbinin et al., 2006). Some of these factors are effect climate change therefore effecting Iraq‟s water security at the centre of this effect directly others in phase indirectly.

The above affect the demographic changes of the area, for less resources and population growth stress the health care, where the last don‟t meet the level of demand. Examples include Basra city in the south and Mosul city in the north of Iraq. As these areas become high risk locations, it is very likely that there will be an increase in the water-related impacts and population‟s vulnerability of climate change and water quality degradation as result of saline intrusion. (Hayhoe et al., 2004) With respect to water supply, it is very likely that the costs of climate change will outweigh the benefits globally. One reason is that precipitation variability is very likely to increase, and more frequent floods and droughts are anticipated

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In addition, much of the growth is occurring in mostly water-scarce areas, thus exacerbating imbalances between water demand and

availability (Cardinale et al., 2012)

3. Conclusion The purpose of this work is to create a systems approach model that helps to understand and monitor, measure to carry out a research in complex enviermental challenges under the planetary health complexity concept, with Iraqiâ€&#x;s water security in the centre. Iraq is facing great challenges due to climate change impacts on the whole world. Iraqâ€&#x;s role to combat these however, is limited. It follows that corrective

and

protective

actions

should

be

taken

in

to

consideration immediately within Iraq itself to limit and reduce future negative consequences.

In this paper, I proposed that the Climate Change and water problem in Iraq are complex and dynamic system. I discovered that a reformed structure to the origin system design was necessary to accommodate the unique Iraqi situation. It was found that environmental and social aspect and their connection with the big image of the first model was the most effective way to approach it. The paper then explored and elucidated how identified factors affect water security in Iraq and how that effect is other dimensions such as socio-economic, climate and how they all in process affect the Climate change, and thus continuing in feedback loops..

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Furthermore, explaining the effect of population growth in Iraq, increasing GHG emissions levels due to developed projects economic growth and poor sustainable management beside the dams‟ construction and poor irrigation system are all key challenge and a difficult taskPossible opportunities in Iraq include converting all the existing irrigation projects to the use of modern methods complementary measure, rehabilitation of all the irrigation structures and use of automation, strengthening the administrative and management framework with better monitoring and control of water sharing and supported by effective legislations and strong authority

for their implementation(Al-Ansari Nadhir, Adamo Nasrat, Sissakian Varoujan K, Kuntsson Sven, Laue Jan, 2018a). Literature and works on Iraq‟s water security is very limited due to geopolitical fragmentation since 2003, where the invasion of Iraq occurred.

4. References Adamo, N. and Al-Ansari, N. (2018) Climate Change Impacts: The Middle East and Iraq in Focus. Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Knutsson, S. and Laue, J. (2018) Climate Change: The Uncertain Future of Tigris River Tributaries‟ Basins: Climate Change: The Uncertain Future of Tigris River Tributaries‟ Basins Scienpress Ltd, Adamo, N. and Al-Ansari, N. (2018) Climate Change Impacts: The Middle East and Iraq in Focus..

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Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Knutsson, S. and Laue, J. (2018) Climate Change: The Uncertain Future of Tigris River

Tributariesâ€&#x; Basins: Climate Change: The Uncertain Future of Tigris River Tributariesâ€&#x; Basins Scienpress Ltd,. Al-Ansari Nadhir, Adamo Nasrat, Sissakian Varoujan K, Kuntsson Sven, Laue Jan (2018a) Climate change: consequences on Iraq's environment Al-Ansari Nadhir, Adamo Nasrat, Sissakian Varoujan K, Kuntsson Sven, Laue Jan (2018b) The future of the Tigris and Euphrates water resources in view of Climate Change . AL-Ansari, N. (3) Water Quality within the Tigris and Euphrates Catchments. Al-Ansari, N., Abdellatif, M., Ezz-Aldeen, M., Ali, S.S. and Knutsson, S. (2014) Climate change and future long term trends of rainfall at north-east Part of Iraq. Al-Ansari, N., Adamo, N., Sissakian, V., Knutsson, S. and Laue, J. (2018) Water Resources of the Tigris River Catchment: Water Resources of the Tigris River Catchment.

Al-Ansari,N., Adamo,N., Knutsson,S. ,Laue,J. (2018) Geopolitics of the Tigris and Euphrates Basins. Bates, B., Kundzewicz, Z. and Wu, S. (2008) Climate change and water Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Secretariat.

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Cardinale, B.J., Duffy, J.E., Gonzalez, A., Hooper, D.U., Perrings, C., Venail, P., Narwani, A., Mace, G.M., Tilman, D. and Wardle, D.A.

(2012) Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity Nature Publishing Group. Dabbous, S. (2013) ESCWA, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. Duran-Encalada, J.A., Paucar-Caceres, A., Bandala, E.R. and Wright, G.H. (2017) the impact of global climate change on water quantity and quality: A system dynamics approach to the US– Mexican transborder region. Hayhoe, K., Cayan, D., Field, C.B., Frumhoff, P.C., Maurer, E.P., Miller, N.L., Moser, S.C., Schneider, S.H., Cahill, K.N. and Cleland, E.E. (2004) Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California National Acad Sciences. Hunter,

P.R.

(2003)

Climate

change

and

waterborne

and

vector‐borne disease Wiley Online Library. Huntington, T.G. (2006) Evidence for intensification of the global

water cycle: Review and synthesis. Richardson, G.P. and Pugh III, A.I. (1981) Introduction to system dynamics modeling with DYNAMO Productivity Press Inc. Van Leeuwen, B. and Földvári, P. (2013) Capital accumulation and growth in Central Europe, 1920-2006 Taylor & Francis.

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ATTITUDES OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN JORDANIAN UNIVERSITIES TOWARDS APPLYING INFORMATION AND MODERN COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING LANGUAGES Professor Abed Al-Razaq AlDlyime A field Study Abstract Information and communication technology such as CDs and the Internet are considered as recommended means in supporting education and making it more efficient. It is also recommended in managing teaching activities; especially teaching languages and making them easier. Studies which were done on an international level show that information and communication technology provides a distinct quality to develop students in a suitable environment which builds up knowledge through a great variety of technological programs. This environment also provides students a rich content of encouragement and development. As a result of the great evolution of information and communication technology and the spread of digital technology in the recent years, teaching has witnessed a great transformation in the forms of spreading knowledge in universities.

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THIS HAS BEEN CARRIED OUT THROUGH CREATING NEW EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT IN CONTENT AND METHODS OF TEACHING. THIS WILL BE SHOWN THROUGH DISCUSSING THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF TEACHING, THE ROLE OF TEACHERS IN TEACHING LANGUAGES IN A MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT, MEDIA TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION, HIGHER EDUCATION, DISTANCE LEARNING, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS, DIGITAL EDUCATION CHANNELS, EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND TEACHING STRATEGIES. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ARE DEFINED AS A WAY OF ELECTRONIC MEANS WHICH IS STORED DIGITALLY UNLIKE ANALOGUE. IT ALSO MEANS THE TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF INFORMATION STORAGE AND SENDING IT SUCH AS CDS AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS AND THE FINAL PRODUCT SUCH AS DIGITAL VIDEOS, BOARDS, SOUND AND ART. CONSEQUENTLY, DIGITAL MEDIA HAS BECOME THE MOST COMMON MEDIA THAT IS USED IN EXPRESSING HUMANKIND BECAUSE IT DEALS WITH SPECIFIC DETAILS AS IT USES THE MOST MODERN AND PRECISE EQUIPMENT, FOR EXAMPLE THE INTERNET. THIS RESEARCH APPLIES THE DESCRIPTIVE METHOD AND THE RESEARCHER USES THE QUESTIONNAIRE AS A RESEARCHING AID. THE SAMPLE STUDY WILL BE 200 TEACHERS FROM DIFFERENT PUBLIC AND PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES. THE PRACTICAL ASPECT OF THE RESEARCH WILL BE APPLIED, IF BEING ACCEPTED IN THE CONFERENCE, DURING THE SECOND COURSE (1/3/2018-1/6/2018). THE RESEARCHER PREDICTS THE ATTITUDES OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN JORDANIAN UNIVERSITIES TOWARDS APPLYING INFORMATION AND MODERN COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING LANGUAGES POSITIVE.

Key Words: Attitudes, Foreign language teachers, Jordanian universities, Application, Teaching languages, Information and communication technology 110

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Introduction THE TECHNOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT HAS SHARED IN ACHIEVING A LUXURY IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION; ESPECIALLY IN SUPPLYING COMMUNICATION SERVICES IN ALL FORMS. THE LAST DECADE WITNESSED THE EMERGENCE OF NEW SITES FOR SOCIAL MEDIA, SMARTPHONES AND ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS WHICH ATTRACTED MILLIONS OF USERS WHO COMBINED USING THESE SITES AND THE APPLICATION WITH THEIR DAILY LIVES. AS A RESULT, THIS HAS BECOME AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THE STRUCTURE OF MOST PEOPLEâ€&#x;S LIVES. THIS HAS HELPED PEOPLE IN THEIR COMMUNICATION AND BEING UPDATED WITH THE LATEST NEWS MOMENT BY MOMENT AND IN CHANGING THE ATTITUDES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ALL ASPECTS; POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL. THE DEVELOPMENT HAS ALSO HELPED IN CHANGING MEANS OF GETTING INFORMATION AND ENTERTAINMENT AND HOW THEIR USERS SEE THE WORLD AND HOW THEY INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER. THEREFORE, THE WORLD HAD BECOME A SMALL VILLAGE WHERE ITS INDIVIDUALS COMMUNICATE EASILY AND EXCHANGE INFORMATION AT ANY TIME AND IN ANY PLACE (DLEIMI: 2015 P 78)

The need of new media and social media has increased to achieve many inner objectives such as survival, security and feeling tranquility. Moreover, people need the new media to practise power and influence on others and to help them in taking decisions and understanding the world around them. More importantly, what matters to our research is the applications of the new media, which have become essential parts of modern education for media teachers.

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Thus, the new media is a new chance for launching to support and develop the process of education, which is a chance for competitive comprehensive program in all aspects. Digital technology had provided new flexible means in education and strategy of teaching which were not known before. It also led to the emergence of new challenged for universities and higher education (Mills;Yanes and Casebeer, 2009). Supposedly, universities will not only respond to this kind of technology but also lead it. It is shown that the members of education institutions in higher education respond slowly to the challenges of digital technology or some of them fight the new teaching patterns which depend on using this kind of technology (Mills, et al., 2009). Modern education is a kind of teaching depends on using the Internet and computers by teachers and students. Digital technology has developed education tools to cover script, picture, video, sound and games. What is more, Power Point Programs would enrich education, video conferences and virtual world. Technological development and the use of the Internet have found new challenges for the traditional education pattern that depends on lecturing. (Rodny, 2002) showed some obstacles in implementing the digital technology such as: the absence of active leadership and suitable training, and not having the suitable equipment. Most worryingly, the most important obstacle is the weakness of the infrastructure of the Internet in some Arab countries. On the other hand, learning English as a foreign language is considered as a huge challenge for the members of education institutions in Arab countries such as 112 Jordan; especially this language is the most common used

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through the Internet as 35.6%, while the Japanese language 9.5%, Chinese 12.2%, Spanish 8%, French 3.7% and Russian 2.5%. The research results showed that a few numbers of the members of education institutions donâ€&#x;t like to practice the complicated activities. However, Mills thinks that the traditional education (face to face) and classroom interaction help a lot in forming and keeping the feeling of teaching as an educational expert (Mills, et.al. 2009). From this prospect, traditional education would fulfill the needs of the members of education institutions as well as students. Moreover, higher education in some universities resist using digital technology in education as 95% of their staff believe in the efficiency of traditional education and the sanctity of the traditional classroom. Since 1980, the world has faced tremendous revolution in mass technology as it has developed in all aspects. Satellites, computers, modern services in communication, cable TV, TV, emails, digital information, smartphones and social media are different forms of the technological revolutions that we have witnessed recently (Oâ€&#x;Shaughnessy, Michael and Jane Stadler, Media and Society, 2012, 3-4).

The technological and scientific development has helped in achieving individual luxury by supplying communication services in all kinds. In the last ten years, the world witnessed the emergence of new sites for social media, smartphones and electronic applications which attracted millions of users who combined using these sites and the application with their daily lives. As a result, this has become an essential part of 113 the structure of most peopleâ€&#x;s lives (Hassan Emad Makkawi 1993).

113


Digital technology has become an essential part in modern teaching methods of language teachers as it is a great chance to support and develop the education process. Some applications of using digital technology in teaching (Dleimi, 2011, New Media, p 164): 1: Smart Boards 2: Class Blog 3: Social Media 4: YouTube 5: Cloud Sharing 6: Flipped Classroom 7: Using IPad in education 8: Email & Social Media Messaging University education is in a constant education as well as the great impact technology has on the process of traditional education and developed learning. The researcher states that there are three possible prospects for the future which are: 1: The first prospect: the decrease of the number of higher education institutions has been shown tremendously due to the great chances of education through the Internet. Expectedly, a great number of universities would become just service centers to distribute different education forms to students through the Internet via open education as university fees would be a great factor in determining studentsâ€&#x; choices (Hasaneen Shafeeq 2010). 114

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2: The second prospect is that communication revolution would have a limit effect on educational institutions as it is a fad and soon will disappear. On the other hand, the huge developments of this revolution; especially the digital one canâ€&#x;t be withdrawn (Mohammad Klo Sabah 2001). 3: The third prospect is based on keeping most educational institutions with changes related to their roles. The reports indicate that most universities do not give enough interest on pedagogy, whereas communication revolution will revive this kind of science and the creative interaction by using modern classrooms and labs. The importance of developed education will increase but the main role will be for traditional education institutions. Moreover, assessment criteria will develop rapidly and there will be Internet for libraries and labs which will be a suitable means for spreading information easily, criticizing the latest news and for all kinds of discussions. What is more, the communication revolution will provide the members of education institutions who are isolated geographically or politically all kinds of communication and interaction with all researchers worldwide (Tony Beatz 2015).

Research Problem: The problem can be summarized in the following question: What are the attitudes of foreign language teachers in Jordanian universities towards applying information and modern communication in teaching languages?

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Research Aims: 1: Showing new and important aspects for using modern technology in teaching different languages from the prospect of language teachers in Jordanian universities who are the research sample. 2: Exploring the attitudes of foreign language teachers in Jordanian universities towards applying information and modern communication in teaching languages who are the research sample. 3: The percentage of language teachers in Jordanian universities who use modern communication technology in teaching different languages from the prospect of language teachers in Jordanian universities who are the research sample.

Research Importance: 1: Focusing on the latest development in using modern communication technology in teaching different languages from the prospect of language teachers in Jordanian universities who are the research sample. 2: Focusing on the experience of Jordan in using modern communication technology in teaching different languages from the prospect of language teachers in Jordanian universities who are the research sample. It is a rare experience compared to others. 3: The research could be considered as a suitable scientific resource in Arab and Jordanian libraries as 116 well as international ones. 116


4: The research could also be considered as one of the new generation researches that are related to the use of modern communication technology in teaching different languages from the prospect of language teachers in Jordanian universities who are the research sample. This research is considered as an Arab rare one according to the researcher. Research Methodology: The research aims and concept impose using the descriptive analysis method and the researcher uses the questionnaire as a researching aid. Research Settings: 1: Research place settings: the research was done in Jordan (Jordan University and Yarmouk University which are public and Petra University and Middle East University which are private). It was also done in Jordanian governorates (Amman, Madaba and Irbid), where there are colleges for teaching languages. 2: Research time settings: the research was done in the second semester of 2018. It started on (1/3/2018-1/6/2018) and the period study was three months. 3: Research human settings: the research studied teaching languages for both genders (male and female) in the following universities: Jordan University, Yarmouk University, Petra University and the Middle East University. 117

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Research Limits: According to the nature of the study, its sample and its similarities with educational environment in language colleges in Jordan and the Arab World, the researcher believes the possibility of spreading its results on similar cases in the colleges which teach languages in Arab countries. Research Terms and Definitions: Attitudes: The plural of the word “attitudeâ€? which means a stable coherent tendency to a respond, situations and individuals. The attitudes contain a group of feelings and emotions directed to certain aims (Dleimi, 2012). The revolution of communication technology: it means the technological developments in communication that happened in the last quarter of the twentieth century. It was classified as a very fast means and of a great impact which was spread rapidly among people in all societies, containing three fields. The first one is information revolution or what is called the great explosion of knowledge. The second one is communication revolution represented in modern communication technology which started in wired and wireless communication and ended in satellites and fibre optic electronics (AlRahbani 2011). The Internet is a great example of this kind of revolution. As for the concept of technological information, it means all kinds of technology used in running, transmitting and storing information electronically. It consists of computers, linking webs, faxes and all equipment that are used in communication. Consequently, technological communication went in a parallel way with information 118 technology and couldnâ€&#x;t be separated by having in common the digital system.

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Thus, all communication systems have developed and linked with information webs and social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, My Space and others (Dleimi, 2011, New Media and Electronic Journalism, p194-195). It contains the following: 1: Discovery: It will not happen just by doing discontinuous individual researches but by having an environmental research aiming to achieve the required discovery in the specialized and knowledgeable field. 2: Integration: It means sharing in necessary interaction and integration among those who are in the same specialty or other fields that are related. Thus, the academic process had a social cultural responsibility in the same field not just performing the process of education and living isolated of others. 3: Application: It is the practical application either in contributing in the community service of the same specialty or working on useful application of the same field. Universities have been trying to graduate qualified people for work force and who work as a teacher and not applying what they know canâ€&#x;t understand the needs of the work force and the profession they belong to. 4: Teaching: Excelling in education does not mean just lecturing but only teaching and developing in the same field (syllabuses, books, teaching aids, etc.‌) Foreign language teachers: They are defined according to the research as those who practice teaching in colleges which teach languages in the two public universities (Jordan University and Yarmouk University) and the two private universities (Petra and the Middle East University).119 Jordanian Universities: are (Jordan University, Yarmouk, Petra and the Middle East University).

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Research Theories: Media theories focus on all interactions and processes which combine communication or follow it. Also, they try to give explanations which contribute in comprehending effects and interactions. Therefore, according to the nature of the research and its aims, the researcher deals with the most common media theories related to the conceptual framework of the research topic. Definition of a theory: A theory is a group of points of views which try to explain scientific or speculative situations or research in problems related between a person and an issue or cause and causation. The theory means in human studies speculations or assumptions which explain social and media phenomena that are affected with experiences, events, applied scientific researches and intellectual doctrines (Dleime, 2016, Communication Theories in the twenty First Century, p 8). The researcher depends on two theories to prove his research, which are Uses and Gratifications Theory and Depending on Mass Media Theory. Uses and Gratifications Theory: Psychologists see that a need is moved by a motive which is defined as a psychological and physiological state that directs an individual to act a specific behavior. As each individual has a number of social and psychological factors that demand certain needs. These factors limit the individual in choosing media means to fulfill those needs. This theory assumes that the public do an active role in the communicative process and they are motivated to achieve certain aims while communicating through different means. It also assumes that needs and motives of individuals are fulfilled by using different means 120 of communication (Dleimi, 2015, Communication Sciences in in the twenty First Century, p 136).

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Maqcuell classified needs and motives according to functions as follows: 1: Media function: it is represented in the individual‟s desire to know what events and situations happen around them in the society and the outer world. 2: Personal Identity function: it is represented in the need to support personal values, behavior patterns, believing in the others‟ values and acquiring a job to achieve oneself. 3: Social Interaction and cohesion function: it is represented in the individual‟s need to get acquainted to the others‟ situations, dialogue and social interaction to support communication with others. 4: Entertainment function: it is represented in the individual‟s need to run away from problems, rest, filling their free time and releasing emotions (Mohammad Abd Al-Hameed, Media Theories, 2004, P 216). On the other hand, this theory assumes that public use media to fulfill their hidden desires as they are who define the kind of media content which they desire so the role of mass media is only to fulfill their needs (Dleimi, Mass Media and the Child, 2012, p 66). Dleimi sorts the gratifications in two kinds: 1: Requires gratifications: They are those gratifications which public seek for in order to obtain them through continuous use of public mass communication. 2: Achieved gratifications: They are those gratifications which individuals gain and get though through their use of public mass communication. Some studies try to support this classification by stressing on two sides: -What mass media public need? 121 -What public need from mass media (Dleimi, Mass Media and the Child, 2012, p 73).

121


Uses and Gratifications theory depends on five assumptions: 1: All individuals are active participants in the process of public mass communication and they use means of communication to achieve targeted aims for their expectations. 2: Using mass communication media expresses individualsâ€&#x; needs which are controlled by individual factors so they differ according to individuals (Hamed Zahran, 2003, p 321). 3: Stressing on the fact that it is the public who choose the content and the messages which fulfill their needs as they use mass communication media not vice versa. 4: Individuals can always specify their needs and motives. 5: Common cultural criteria can be noticed though the use of mass communication media not only from the content (Dleimi, Studies and Researches in Media, p 1990). Depending on Mass Media Theory: This theory depends on the use of mass media canâ€&#x;t be isolated from the effect of the society where we live. The effect of mass media increases when their function is transferring information extensively (Dleimi, 2016, Communication Theories, p 89). The extent of depending on mass media depends on the following differences: 1: Personal aims 2: Personal status 3: Expectations related to possible benefit of mass media content 4: Easy access to the content 122

122


Melvin De Fleur and Sandra Rokeach who are the establishers of this theory state that there are a group of effects resulting from individuals depending on mass media (Melvin L. De Fleur & Sandra B. Rokeach, 2005, P 424). There are three basic effects: 1: Cognitive Effects: They include the cognitive effects of mass media according to the theory of depending on mass media which are: exploring mystery, attitudes formation, interest priority, breadth beliefs and values. -Mystery: It is a problem resulting either of lack of information or contradictory information. -Attitudes Formation: It is using mass media to get information in forming the attitudes towards controversial issues in the society. -Interest Priority: It is when mass media play a role in arranging public priorities when the public depend on mass media to know the prominent issues and the urgent problems in the society. -Breadth Beliefs: Mass media share in the breadth of beliefs which individuals know as they learn from people and different places from mass media. These beliefs are classifying in categories belonging to family, religion or politics which reflect the main interests of social activities. -Values: They are a group of beliefs shared by a community who desire to promote them and keep them such as honesty, freedom, equality and forgiveness as mass media play a great role in clarifying the importance of these values. 123

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2: Emotional effects: They are associated with certain expressions such as feelings or emotions. The emotional effects of mass media can be noticed and measured through emotional laziness, carelessness, fear, worries, emotional support and alienation. -Emotional laziness: To be exposed massively to violence in mass media would lead to carelessness and not desiring to offer help to others when violent actions happen in real world. -Fear and anxiety: When mass media show violent actions, disasters and assassinations, it evokes fear in the recipients as well as worry of being victims to those violent actions in reality. -Emotional support: Among emotional effects of mass media is raising the morale of citizens as Klapp stresses on. Therefore, societies where mass media plays major roles have a high morale among individuals resulting of feeling of unity and coalition. 3: Behavioral effects: These effects are limited in two main behaviors because of depending on mass media according to Fleur & Rockeach. They are activation and inactivity. -Activation: It means when an individual does an action when being exposed to mass media and it is the final result of uniting emotional and cognitive effects. -Inactivity: It means being inactive and avoiding doing the action and this kind of effect has not been studied enough (Dleimi, 2012, Mass Media and the Child, p 79). 124

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The functions of these two theories in this research: These two theories are associated mainly with the topic of the research and they complement each other to prove the result of the research which is the great effect of using digital technology in teaching languages from the perspective of foreign language teachers in Jordanian universities. This research also states that using digital technology by teachers and students is to fulfill their different needs in communication and interaction and this is what Uses and Gratifications Theory discussed. Moreover, teachers and students depend on mass media in their personal and scholastic needs and this is what justifies Depending on Mass Media Theory. Using modern communication technology in learning and teaching: Using modern communication technology in learning and teaching has a great importance in developing the process of education in universities. Thus, it increases the interaction between students in exchanging information and getting it easily without being in the same place or the same classroom as it was in traditional method of teaching. It also makes the process of communication between students easier and between students and teachers as well. There are several ways of technology that are used in integrating technology with education starting from PC to others such as: laptops, smartphones, the Internet and social media. Moreover, using digital technology is considered one of the most modern fields in education because teachers have been looking for more ways to help them in performing their 125 teaching ways

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Sometimes, teachers use colored photos and sometimes they use stereoscopic shapes. Besides that, they use whiteboards, telescopes, microscopes, educational films, data show, educational TV and other ways of teaching. Despite the fact that there are numerous methods of teaching, each one has its specific aim. However, some of these methods are expensive and complicated which have made many schools not buying those (TFN Lareed & George 2005). In the last years, using digital technology started in learning and teaching in the modern countries. It is not merely one educational aid but a group of methods ions one. It has a lot of functions which canâ€&#x;t be achieved by other means of teaching methods because it provides an interactive educational environment of two sides. It is also considered as a syllabus or an entrance in the field of education of different academic subjects. Consequently, this way of teaching has developed at the same time of the development of computers and teaching methods. Most importantly, it has become a great phenomenon which has its significance and effects on the process of education. The success of this process depends on preparing teachers for the future as the integration of digital technology and communication with the project of teaching has a main role in developing the education process. Education institutions effect directly on a great number of individuals especially focusing on teaching foreign languages using digital developed labs (F.E.A.D.A.B, Tony Beetz, 2014). The researcher finds that there are a lot of educational aspects have changed as a result of using technology in learning and teaching, which would affect the future of the educational 126 process. Here are some aspects:

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1: Classroom environment: It was restricted in the past on some students and a teacher with some teaching aids, while now there are a lot of aids which bring the whole world to the classroom. Therefore, development is now on process such as Steel Node Classroom which is equipped with moveable chairs with IPad or Laptop that replaces the scholastic book. Hence, all required materials are available on the Internet which represents no-paper-future schools. 2: Traditional tests which can be excluded or minimized by having electronic tests synchronized or non-synchronized. They are commonly used in developed universities where students can do the exams electronically and be assessed directly. 3: A diversity of educational templates that are available for teachers in order to choose the right method of teaching in the classroom according to suitable circumstances (Tony Beetz, “2020 Vision: Expectations for Education Though Internet and After� 2015). The researcher states that there are several educational, expressive and vocational excuses for using digital technology in all developed forms and kinds in education such as: (Dleimi, 2011, Educational Media). 1: Tutorial Programs 2: Drill and Practice Programs 3: Problem Solving Programs 4: Simulation Programs 5: Games Programs 127

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Information Communication Technology term has appeared in education with the development of the Internet and modern communication and technology. As a result, classrooms have expanded to the extent of obtaining the information at any time and any place through the Internet and doing international conferences and questionnaires. Also, a teacher can give a feedback to students electronically and this kind of technology has shared in expanding studentsâ€&#x; knowledge through many aspects: (Glen, Maria & D Augustine, 2008) 1: Collecting information through webs, processing it and comparing it with what is applied in labs. 2: Solving problems that can be faced through studying by using different technological means as in reality. 3: Using computer simulation programs in analyzing many scientific experiments. 4: Exchanging information through different means of communication such as emails and social media. Previous Studies: The researcher couldnâ€&#x;t find enough previous studies in the same topic directly due to scarcity of researches in this topic. Here are the foreign and Arabic previous studies that have been studies by the researcher: 1: Eid, Naemeh Muhammad Mahkameh, 1973, New Attitudes Towards Teaching Foreign Languages, 2: Bab, Fernek, 1987. Computers in Teaching Foreign Languages in Scandinavia 3: Abd Al-Majeed, Muaweyah, 2000, Learning Languages with the Help of Computers: Theory and Application 4: Al-Jarf, Reema Saad, 2006, The Extent of Electronic 128 Learning Efficiency in Teaching English Language in University Education in Saudi Arabia

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5: abdo, eid and others, 2006, recommendation of teaching foreign languages in public sector in arab countries seminar. 6: ibrahim, abo al-souod, 2010, internet role in preparing graduates and teaching languages: towards strategic vision in education in the arab countries. 7: prospective language teachers‟ perspectives on the use of technology in the foreign language classroom: survey of attitudes towards the practical implications and outcomes of lessons incorporating technology: assel chaklikova, kazakh university of international 8: relations and world languages, kazakhstan, kamilya karabayeva, kazakh university of international relations and world languages 9: barriers to the adoption of ict in teaching chinese as a foreign language in us universities chun-yu lin university of illinois at urbana-champaign, national taipei college of business, taiwan chang-hua chen national academy for educational research, taiwan 2014 10: relational aspects between ict and the modernization of differentiated and individualized teaching of foreign languages in higher education niculescu georgeta obilişteanu “nicolae bălcescu” land forces academy, romania2016 11: teaching and learning foreign languages with ict alina negoescu bălcescu” land forces academy, sibiu, romani2016

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Comments on the Previous Studies: This research differs from previous studies as it deals digital communication technology in teaching foreign languages from the perspective of language teachers in Jordanian universities. The use of technology is a challenge that is faced by the members of education institutions in Jordanian universities which are the sample study of the research. Moreover, this study focuses on the latest developments in using digital communication technology in teaching foreign languages from the perspective of language teachers in Jordanian universities. It also focuses on Jordan experience in using digital communication technology in teaching foreign languages from the perspective of language teachers in Jordanian universities which are the sample study of the research. It is a pioneering experience compared to other experiences in the region and it could be considered as a suitable scientific reference in Arab and Jordanian libraries and what is more in international ones. Moreover, this research is considered as one of the new generation researches which are interested in using digital communication technology in teaching foreign languages from the perspective of language teachers in Jordanian universities which are the sample study of the research. It is also a pioneering Arab research according to the researcher as it deals with the following dependent variables which are: gender, experience, university, academic rank and kind of college. 130

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Research Methods: Descriptive Method: It is considered as a broad and flexible umbrella which contains a number of minor methods and syllabuses like social surveys and status and field studies. This descriptive method is based on specifying the phenomena traits and describing its nature and kind of relationship between its causes and its variables. It also deals with all aspects of a problem and identifies its reality. Some researchers consider that this kind of method contains all other methods except the historic and experimental methods since describing process is a common issue among all kinds of scientific researches. The descriptive method depends on explaining then current situation whatever it is and defining situations and all relationships between variables. It is not only a data descriptive collection but also an analysis and explanation of given data. It also measures and classifies given results. The importance of this method is considered greatly by scientists because this kind of method is suitable for studying social states objectively through what it gets from data by using scientific research techniques and tools (Dleimi, 2015, Lectures of Higher Education Studies of Media and Information Faculty at Petra University).

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Research Tool: The researcher has developed the research tool which is the questionnaire to collect data and has depended on the method of virtual honesty. The questionnaire has been shown in its first draft to some specialists in Media and teaching foreign languages of members of institutions in Jordanian universities consulting them on the viability of the items of the questionnaire or adding any ones. After having modified the questionnaire and taken into consideration the opinions of the specialists, the questionnaire was distributed to the sample study and collected. Then, data was processed technologically to analyze it statistically. Research Society: The research society represents all foreign language teachers of Jordanian universities and they were 200 teachers in public and private Jordanian universities (according to the information given by faculty institutions to the researcher). Sample Research: A sample was taken randomly as a research sample study. 100 questionnaires were distributed to foreign language teachers of Jordanian universities with a percentage of 50 % of the sample study. The researcher aimed the targeted faculty institutions of teaching foreign languages in four universities (Jordanian University, Yarmouk University, Petra University and Middle East University). 99 questionnaires were collecte4d back and one questionnaire was dismissed from research aims. 98 questionnaires were analyzed and 132 table (1) shows the description of sample study characteristics:

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Table (1) Distribution of sample research according to personal and job variables: Variable

Variable Class

Age

Less than 30 years From 30-40 years From 41-50 years 51 years and more Male Female

4 21 13 60

4.1 21.4 13.3 61.2

68 30

69.4 30.6

Master Ph.D

32 66

32.7 67.3

Gender Academic Status

Number

Percentage %

This table shows those ages from 51 and more are the majority and the number of males is more than the number of females. Also, the number of those who have PhD is 66, which is a positive indication. Table (2) Total years of experience in university teaching: Variable

Variable Class

Experience

From 3 to 7 years From 8-12 years From 13-17 years 18 years and more

133

Number 21 21 16 40

Percentage% 20.8 20.8 16.7 41.7 133


This table shows that those who have experience more than 18 years are the majority, which is a positive indication. A questionnaire was designed about language teachersâ€&#x; opinions towards using modern communication technology in teaching different languages in Jordanian universities and it was as follows: Part One: It contains the following information (Gender, Age, Marital Status, Academic Qualifications, and Years of Experience in University Teaching). Part Two: It contains paragraphs which cover variables and topics of study. Answers were classified according to Liquert Pentacle Scale and were measured in five answers: agree strongly, agree, neutral, disagree, and disagree strongly). The answers were also given numbers from 1-5 since number 1 shows disagree strongly, number 2 disagree, number 3 neutral, number 4 agree and number 5 agree strongly. Research Tool Stability: Research Tool Stability was affirmed by arbitration and finding Cronbach's alpha value of the tool in its final form and for each aspect of the research and the results were as follows:

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Table (3) Cronbach's alpha value of internal consistency of the tool and of each aspect of the research: Topi c

Variable

1

Assessment of education curriculum that are approved in teaching foreign languages Applications of digital communication

2

Number of paragraphs 20

Cronbach's alp ha 0.79

4

0.82

3

Assessment of used communication digital applications

10

0.81

4

Assessment of digital communications achievements in mental development Academic preparation to use digital communication techniques

11

0.76

8

0.78

Using digital communication applications in teaching Extent of digital communication benefit

5

0.77

5

0.77

Amount

69

0.78

5

6

7 1-7

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View Results: Answers of the questions: Answer of question one: How much is the assessment of the members of institutions of education curriculum approved in teaching foreign languages in Jordanian universities? Mean and standard deviation of the expectations of the sample study of the research were found according to the assessment paragraphs of education curriculum by the members of institutions and table (4) shows that. Table (4) Mean and standard deviation of the expectations of the sample study of the research to the assessment paragraphs of education curriculum by the members of institutions: Number of Paragraphs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total Average

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Mean 4.20 4.18 4.30 3.80 3.79 3.82 3.60 3.50 3.90 3.64 3.61 4.15 3.88 3.67 3.85 3.40 3.75 3.66 3.74 3.87 3.81

Standard Deviation 0.53 0.80 0.89 0.70 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.91 1.08 0.97 0.72 0.60 0.93 0.94 1.04 1.02 0.96 0.71 0.85 1.12 1.62

Rank 2 3 1 9 9 8 19 20 5 16 18 4 6 14 7 20 12 15 13 11 -

Level High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High

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The above results in the previous table show the expectations of the members of institutions to using modern communication in teaching different languages from the perspective of language teachers in Jordanian universities. The results show that the level of assessment was high since the total average amounted to 3.81 with standard deviation amounted to 1.62. As for the paragraphs, paragraph three which states: “topics of education curricular of teaching foreign languages are characterized with interdependence and integration” was number one with a mean of 4.30. Moreover, paragraph 16 which states: “education curricular of teaching foreign languages directs students to auto learning skills” was also a high level with a mean of 3.40. Answer of question two: What are the digital applications that are used by members of institutions during work? Table (5) Mean and standard deviation of the expectations of the sample study of the research to the assessment paragraphs of digital applications that are used by members of institutions during work.

Number of Mean Paragraph s 1 3.45

Standard Deviation

Rank

Level

1.34

1

Moderate

2

3.35

1.40

2

Moderate

3

3.32

1.64

3

Moderate

4

2.95

1.50

4

Moderate

Average

3.26

1.47

-

Moderate 137

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The above results in the previous table show that the most important of modern applications that are used by the members of institutions during work are web sites which were number one with a mean of 3.45 while the least application used was script application with a mean of 2.95 moderately. Answer of question three: How much was the assessment of the members of institutions to modern communication applications and uses in teaching courses of foreign languages in Jordanian universities? Number of Mean Paragraph s 1 3.60

Standard Deviation

Rank

Level

1.50

3

High

2

3.30

1.11

18

Moderate

3

3.37

1.31

7

Moderate

4

3.40

1.35

5

Moderate

5

3.89

1.23

2

High

6

2.85

1.45

9

Moderate

7

3.55

1.37

4

Moderate

8

3.19

1.42

8

Moderate

9

3.25

1.30

10

Moderate

10

4.40

0.88

1

High

Average

3.48

1.29

-

Moderate138

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The above results in the previous table show a high perspective towards using modern communication applications in teaching courses of foreign languages in Jordanian universities with a mean of 3.84 moderately according to the criteria that is used. Answer of question four: How much is the assessment of modern communication contribution in achieving the intellectual development? Table (7) Mean and standard deviation of the expectations of the sample study of the research to the assessment paragraphs of modern communication contribution in achieving the intellectual development: Number of Mean Paragraph s 1 4.30

Standard Deviation

Rank

Level

0.80

2

High

2

4.15

0.90

3

High

3

4.10

1.01

4

High

4

3.80

1.30

10

High

5

3.89

1.35

9

High

6

3.50

1.25

11

Moderate

7

3.06

1.40

12

Moderate

8

4.76

0.90

1

High

9

3.89

1.05

8

High

10

4.18

1.10

5

High

11

3.88

1.15

7

High 139

Average

139

3.95

1.11

-

High


The above results in the previous table show a high perspective of the members of institutions of foreign languages in Jordanian universities towards using modern communication technology in achieving the intellectual development with a mean of 3.95 moderately according to the criteria that is used. Answer of question five: How much is the assessment of academic rehabilitation of using modern applications of mass media in teaching? Table (8) Mean and standard deviation of the expectations of the sample study of the research to the assessment paragraphs of academic rehabilitation of using modern applications of mass media in teaching: Number of Mean Paragraph s 1 3.50

Standard Deviation

Rank

Level

1.20

2

Moderate

2

3.45

1.21

1

Moderate

3

3.45

1.12

4

Moderate

4

3.35

1.15

5

Moderate

5

3.44

1.25

3

Moderate

6

2.90

0.98

7

Moderate

7

3.12

1.08

8

Moderate

8

3.11

0.79

6

Moderate

Average

3.29

1.09

-

Moderate140

140


The above results in the previous table show a moderate average in the level of academic rehabilitation of using modern applications of mass media in teaching from the perspective of the members of institutions of foreign languages in Jordanian universities with a mean of 3.29 moderately. Answer of question six: How much is the assessment of the members of institutions of Jordanian universities of using modern communication applications in teaching? Number of Mean Paragraph s 1 3.73

Standard Deviation

Rank

Level

1.38

7

High

2

3.95

1.14

8

High

3

3.50

1.35

2

High

4

3.71

1.31

4

High

5

3.37

1.38

5

High

6

3.95

1.14

3

High

7

3.50

1.35

6

High

8

3.71

1.31

11

Moderate

9

3.37

1.38

1

High

10

3.95

1.14

10

High

11

3.50

1.35

9

High

Average

3.62

1.29

-

High

141

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The above results in the previous table show the assessment of the members of institutions of Jordanian universities of using modern communication applications in teaching at a high level with a mean of 3.62. Answer of question seven: How much is the assessment of the members of institutions of Jordanian universities of the benefit modern communication? Table (10) Mean and standard deviation of the expectations of the sample study of the research to the assessment paragraphs of how much benefit of using modern communication:

Number of Mean Paragraph s

Standard Deviation

Rank

Level

1

3.743

1.384

1

Moderate

2

3.37

1.40

2

Moderate

3

3.31

1.64

3

Moderate

4

2.98

1.50

5

Moderate

5

3.11

1.44

4

Moderate

Average

3.24

1.46

-

Moderate

142

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The above results in the previous table show the paragraph: “Using modern communication personally gives u a great secure” with a mean of 3.24 moderately.

Results: To sum up, modern communication technology has provided a great potential in learning and education fields, thus using the Internet in teaching has developed the process of education. Moreover, this kind of technology has contributed in changing methods of teaching and the teacher-student role through interactive demonstrations and attractive effective ways of teaching. It also uses colours, pictures, sounds and videos to provoke initialism more than traditional methods of teaching. What is more, it had enriched students needed information according to their specialty which increases the effect of the process of teaching and minimizes learning time. Other than that, it increases the students „activity in learning and enables teachers to be exposed to new teaching experiences which can‟t be reached in other ways. Consequently, this has given a great energy to learning and teaching systems as to what it had provided of quick and effective communication in all forms: individual, public and massive.

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Besides that, modern communication technology has provided great information, learning-teaching situations which fulfill the target objectives and the potential of researching. All this has enriched the increasing desire of using modern communication technology in the process of education. This kind of technology has given students the required status in the process of education, where they share effectively in discussions, experiment, research, judge and assess situations. Hence, studentsâ€&#x; life has become a joined series of learning and training, which is the bases of an effective interaction with teachers and peers in all aspects. Students can lecture or give opinions and participate in planning and doing different activities. Also, modern technology has given the suitable status of teachers by describing them as engineering of teaching environment and forming teaching situations. Moreover, teachers can be mentors to their students and follow up their studentsâ€&#x; activities. So, it has made a dramatic change in teaching and learning strategies and guided teaching individualism and group teaching through exploring and team work. It had also provided the learner self-dependence and achievement by taking decisions convincingly and choosing the kind of education that suits their potential and needs to lead them to excellence. The researcher shows that using modern communication technology and what associates with it such as computers and national or international information webs which has changed teaching from solid systems to flexible ones. Moreover, these webs have changed teacher role from just a receiver to explorer and researcher using developed technology to have the ability 144 to create, innovate and depend on oneself.

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Recommendations: 1: The necessity of encouraging teachers in departments and faculties which teach foreign languages in using digital communication technology in teaching. 2: Increasing workshops in quality and quantity for those who need them from teachers to develop their skills in using digital communication technology in their work. 3: The importance of activating of using digital communication technology in teaching foreign languages and considering it as an assistant of getting information besides other means of getting it. 4: Mentoring the students of foreign languages to get as much benefit of massi8ve learning sites on the Internet as it depends on researching sources of information provided by digital technology. 5: Developing creative potential of students to comprehend the rapid development of digital communication technology which has provided students more chances to increase his creativity and selfcapabilities. It also helps students to look for learning resources where students learn to use this kind of technology in learning, developing and investing time to enrich oneâ€&#x;s mind not losing time.

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Arabic and foreign references: 1: T. F. N. Lareed & George 2005 “Students „Experiments with Communication Technology and Its Relationship with Students‟ Participation in Higher Education” 2: Horizon Report for Higher Education, 2104 3: M. Harvey “Advantages and Disadvantages of using communication technology in teaching” 4: Glen, Maria & D Augustine, 2008 “The Future of Higher Education: How will the form of teaching technology be? The New Media Union” 5: F.E.A.D.A.B., Tony Beetz,2014 “Teaching in Digital Era” 6: Tony Beetz, “2020 Vision: Expectations for Education Though Internet and After” 2015” 7: Hassan Emad Makkawi 1993 “Modern Communication Technology in Information Era” Cairo, Egyptian Lebanese Publisher 8: Hasaneen Shafeeq, 2010, “Mew Media: Alternative Media of New Technology in After Interactive Era” Baghdad, Intellect & Art Publisher 9: Sabah Muhammad Kloo, 2001 “Communication Technology and information and its Reflections on Learning Institutions” King Fahd Library Magazine: V.6 n.2 10: Dleimi, Abd Al-Razaq, 2011 “Educational Media‟ Amman, Maseera Publisher 11: Dleimi, Abd Al-Razaq, 2015 “Media and Digital Information Technology” Amman, Yazouri Publisher 12: Dleimi, Abd Al-Razaq, 2015 “Studies and Researches in Media” Amman, Yazouri Publisher 13: Dleimi, Abd Al-Razaq, 2011 “Electronic Journalism and Digital Revolution” Amman, Thaqafa Publisher 14: Dleimi, Abd Al-Razaq, 2016 “Theories of Communication in the Twenty-First Century” Amman, Yazouri Publisher 15: Dleimi, Abd Al-Razaq, 2015 “Lectures of Higher Education Studies of Media and Information Faculty at Petra University” 146

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16: Dleimi, Abd Al-Razaq, 2011 “New Medis” Wael Publisher, Amman 17: Dleimi, Abd Al-Razaq, 2015 “Communication Sciences in the Twenty-First Century” Amman, Yazouri Publisher 18: Dleimi, Abd Al-Razaq, 2015 “Researches and Studies in Communication” Amman, Yazouri Publisher 19: Abeer Al-Rahbani, 2011 “Electronic Media” Amman, Osama Publisher 20: Shirley J. Mills ‫ء‬Martha Jeanne Yanes: 21: Cindy M. Casebeer Perceptions of Distance Learning Among Faculty of a College of Education: MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 1, March 2009 19 22: Rodney Strong Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon 2002 Cabernet Sauvignon from Sonoma County, California 23: -O‟Shaughnessy, Michael and Jane Stadler, Media and Society, 2012.

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