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A Regenerative Architecture:

The Production of Meaning Through The Revelation of Derelict History

Abby Chryst


A Regenerative Architecture: The Production of Meaning Through The Revelation of Derelict History

Abby Chryst Advisor: Sneha Patel


Table of Contents

Table of Contents Abstract

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Statement of Intent

P.1

Conclusions . Investigations . Mappings

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P. 49

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P.2

History and Context of the Site--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P.3

Appendices A, B, & C

P. 53

Layers of the Past -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Appendix A: Endnotes, Illustration Credits) (Appendix B: Additional Photographs, Diagrams, Mappings, and Information)

P.7

Design Schedule

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P. 66

Characteristics of the City

P.9

Bibliography

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P. 67

CITY CONTEXTUAL

SCALE

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Venice: The Link Between Past and Present)

THE BUILDING Regenerative Architectural Form

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Hedmark Cathedral, Hamar: The Building as an Artifact)

P.22

THE ARTIFACT Imageability Within a City

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Querini Stampalia Foundation, Venice: Iconography and Focal Points)

P.27

Sustaining History Through Time

P.32

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Castelvecchio Museum, Venice: The Dialogue Between Past and Present)

THE DESIGN INVESTIGATION Program as a Means of Reactivation Theory / Design Link

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P.38

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P.47


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Abstract

“A pilar, an entirely solid component, but also an iron or wooden display stand, a suspended or supported frame, an object of complete definition: all of which, whether isolated, almost always strongly expressed but subordinate to context or function; a fusion of impressions and memories charged with future potential.� 1

Philadelphia is seen by many as a broken city, meaning that the city is fragmented and contains many derelict urban spaces. Here, areas within the urban fabric are separated, do not interact between each other, and are disengaged within the city as a whole. Throughout this thesis, I would like to explore the issue of urban voids and derelict spaces, and their reactivation within the urban context, through time, history and meaning. This reactivation of derelict spaces will reconnect areas of the city and revive social connections and urban life within these sectors of Philadelphia. This thesis will focus on the context of the once prosperous Divine Lorraine Hotel and its surrounding derelict spaces. Located at a unique intersection of three streets, the hotel sits within an urban context that has developed over time, the ancient heritage (Ridge Avenue), the Enlightenment Period (Broad Street), and the Beaux Arts movement (Fairmount Avenue) of

Philadelphia. The design thesis explores a method of overlay to map past information to generate future form.

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Different typologies, programs and conditions of the site through time, will be referential. A regenerative architecture in which the new forms are derived from past histories of the site will define the design. This new formation will bring new meaning to the site within the context of the city, merging the past histories, typologies, and programs of the site, with a new architectural intervention. The proposed regenerative form will be an institution space in which to house data, art, artifacts, stories, and information about the site and urban context, and its history within the city.

Image 1: Maps 1-4 highlighting the disparity within the Philadelphian urban context, showing voids and derelict spaces.


Statement of Intent

This thesis is an exploration of urban voids and derelict spaces and their reactivation within the urban context, through an investigation into past histories of built forms and their subsequent meaning. Philadelphia contains moments of “broken space,” interspersed into an eclectic city, of many different forms, people, and activities. The city contains many layers of rich history, but these are at times disconnected with the physical forms, or lack of, that are present within the city today. The urban voids present within the city, and the derelict buildings and spaces that are left untouched are eventually forgotten. These broken spaces within the urban fabric are not just broken themselves, but they affect a broader condition that begins to define moments of disconnect within a larger urban context. These spaces also disrupt connectivity within the city and maintain boundaries. They are not conducive spaces to maintain a dynamic city atmosphere, as their boundaries do not promote use, appropriation, or growth. This thesis will attempt to address these issues of design within the urban context, and the making of places for people, concerning

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

“the connections between people and places, movement and urban form, nature and the built environment.” 2 Philadelphia is a widely diverse city culturally, socially, and historically. There are many areas of Philadelphia which are historically or culturally significant as well, including but not limited to, Olde City, Northern Liberties, University City, City Hall, The Philadelphia Art Museum area, Logan Square, Rittenhouse Square, and China Town/ the Convention Center areas. All of these areas mentioned are diverse places within the city, characterized by architecture and design. The spaces between, that are void and derelict, only serve to aid in the confusion and disparity within the city. These spaces break down the connectivity of areas in the city and separate them from each other. These voids are often left to decay, which can subsequently effect and enhance perceived connotations of neglect and desolation. The boundaries they provoke are imminent in the urban context, as they are perceived within the experience of traveling through the city. “A legible city would be one whose districts or landmarks or pathways are easily identifiable

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and are easily grouped into an over-all pattern.” 3 The diversity of the city is an attribute that gives Philadelphia its character. The broken spaces however, interrupt the character and do not do anything to attract the inhabitants of the city. Eventually, they will lose their meaning as a “place” within the city. This thesis attempts to reconnect a once strong social and focal point of the city, that is now derelict, and the neglected urban voids surrounding and encompassing this site. The proposed method of this reconnection is through a mapping strategy of contextual changes over time, inspiring a regeneration of architectural form. These layers of mapping are explorations of both the “written” and the “read” history of the site. This new form can begin to reactivate the site to bring new life to a once broken space. This intervention will be generated from the layers of the past, read through various forms of representation, superimposed onto each other. Thus the past will be translated and rewritten to create a new form; therefore the void is provided new meaning within the urban context while retaining the past history of the site.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

History and Context of the Site

THE DIVINE LORRAINE: What becomes of derelict history, and the discarded past? Sometimes, all that is left is the empty shell, as a reminder of better days of a past that was vibrant and booming. Lavish with beautiful architectural details, a story is told about the character of this now neglected structure. Such is the case for the Divine Lorraine. The structure itself, just from a glance tells a story. A feeling is evoked by the grand cornice line, and the verticality of the structure. The Lorraine stands in such dignity, even amongst its current decaying state. The structure professes with exuberance an importance and mysteriousness such as a person who has a secret they are concealing. The structure gives a sense of awe to the viewer, a stunning sensation. The Lorraine Hotel was erected from 1892-1893 and opened its doors to the public in 1894. The architect, Willis Gaylord Hale, “labored in the shadow of the better known Frank Furness,” 4 yet was able to sustain his independent practice.

The structure previously at the site was the Lincoln Market and Hall, which was “sold under forfeit for $150,000 to a stock company of Philadelphian’s and New Yorkers.” 5 In 1892, Willis G. Hale had the plans already drawn for the apartment house. “They provided for a twelve story apartment house occupying the entire site, the material being buff brick…” 6 There were plans for a café and a restaurant on the ground floor, and on the uppermost floor, for a garden, where in the summers “concerts were to be given.” 7 Comprehensive of the acquired money, the cost of the completed hotel was estimated at $450,000.

Image 2: The Divine Lorraine circa the early 1900’s.

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A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

History and Context of the Site The structure itself attracted more wealthy travelers and residents, even though it was considered a “high-grade and transient family hotel.” 8 Its lavish furnishings, and grand architectural details, added to the final cost, which ran up to $1,500,000, greatly exceeding the estimated $450,000 previous cost. The Lorraine was designed “to contain all the best features of a first-class hotel and home…” 9 The hotel changed owners many different times, throughout its history, including being “bought in 1900 by the Metropolitan Hotel Company.” 10 Perhaps the most significant owner to date, has been Father Divine, birth name “George Baker,” 11 a New York religious leader, who formed hundreds of congregations throughout the nation and the world, and gained thousands of followers. When he purchased the Lorraine Hotel, in 1948, the name of the hotel changed to The Divine Lorraine Hotel, and became one of the first non-segregated hotels in the nation, geared towards helping any individuals who had fallen from grace.

Father Divine’s legacy lives on, as well as allegations that he ran a cult mission, and that his ministry was a ploy. Other alleged charges were pressed when discovering his acquisition of real estate. However, Father Divine’s “Peace Mission” spread to many foreign countries. “The unprecedented doctrines which formed the basis of Father Divine’s creed” 12 were not for the weak of spirit, nor the undisciplined. “The peace movement rested on the personal presence of God. Its restraints on conduct were more extreme than those of the revolutionary Puritans. Carnal marriages were forbidden. Sexual relations and all social interactions between men and women were tabooed. No smoking, drinking of intoxicants, and a score of other prohibitions were imposed upon his followers.” 13 In 1965, Father Divine passed, and Mother Divine took charge of carrying the peace mission forward. “On September 11, 1994, an official State Historical Marker was erected at the Divine Lorraine; in which, The Father Divine Peace Mission Movement was also a sponsor to this significant event.” 14

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In 2000, “after a Manhattan real estate firm purchased the property, the hotel shut its doors permanently.” 15 Recently, on May 3, 2006, the structure was purchased by “an investment group that includes the Sunergy Housing Group of Rotterdam, Netherlands.” The group “bought the hotel and an adjacent 3.7 acres for $10.1 million this month, according to property records and a real estate industry official familiar with the deal. It is the third time since 1999 that the hotel has changed hands. The new owners intend to convert the hotel into entry-level-priced condos for city residents and college students…” 16

History and Context of the Site

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

The meaning of the Divine Lorraine can be reinterpreted and redefined, by first reissuing its use within a new contemporary context. The Divine Lorraine is lost presently in the meaning of the city. The structure is no longer utilized and hence has been “let go,” and left a sense of emptiness and inactiveness where there once was a place of life. The history of the spaces and the site are not gone, but have been covered and forgotten over the course of time. In the creation of the spaces one can uncover hidden identities of the site and revitalize the area. This can then begin to give the site a new meaning, and a new function within the city context.

Images 3 & 4: Father Divine’s International modest code (top), and a listing of a handful of Father Divine’s Peace Missions (bottom).

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CITY CONTEXTUAL SCALE


Layers of the Past

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

LAYERS OF THE PAST AND THEIR CHANGES IN THE COURSE OF TIME:

THE EVOLUTION OF NORTH PHILADELPHIA:

“At every instant, there is more than the eye

“North Philadelphia is an area without Precise historical, political, or social boundaries, partly because it’s social and economic configuration has been in a more agitated state of flux than has that of almost any other part of the city.” 19 North Philadelphia was known as the industrial hub not just of the city itself, but of the entire nation; due to the ever growing industrial plants in the area, such as “Matthias Baldwin’s Locomotive Works, which had been expanding since 1835.” 20 Along the tracks of the Reading and Philadelphia Railroad System, major factories sprouted themselves. During the early 1850’s, “the industrial works of Bement and Dougherty began at 1851 at Twentieth and Callowhill Streets; in 1852 Hoopes and Townsend established their nuts-and-bolts plant on Buttonwood Street east of Broad; the next year Bancroft and Sellers (known as William Sellers and Co. after 1855) built their extensive machine shops on Pennsylvania Avenue between Sixteenth and Seventeenth Streets; in 1854 at the western end of

can see, more than the ear can hear, a setting or a view waiting to be explored by itself, but always in relation to its surroundings, the sequences of events leading up to it, the meaning of past experiences.” 17 Many of the inhabitants of Philadelphia have had long time links with some portion of the city and their images of the city are “soaked in memories and meanings.” 18 The Divine Lorraine Hotel and the surrounding derelict and voided spaces were at one time a very prosperous area in North Philadelphia. This is also the area of the city where Broad Street (constructed in the Enlightenment period), Fairmount Avenue (constructed in the Beaux Arts Movement), and Ridge Avenue (constructed as an ancient Indian footpath) coalesce. These layers of history are all superimposed upon each other, revealing how the site has emerged over time. The site has changed greatly over time, to its now less than desirable state.

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Callowhill Street near the Schuylkill, McKeone, Vangen and Co. Haagen and Co. opened the Pennsylvania soap-Works which by the 1880’s had become the largest soap manufactory in the state.” 21

Image 7: Shibe Park circa early 1900’s around 1910. Residents surrounding the park, gathering to watch the game. Image 5: North Broad Street circa 1900.

Image 6: North Braod Street, present day.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Layers of the Past

Between these decades, dwellings of all varieties were becoming more dominant in the areas mentioned. Row homes, cottages, and “terrace houses,” a new development promoted particularly by the noted architect Samuel Sloan were popular among the middle class.” 22 “Many members of the industrial city’s managerial and entrepreneurial class wanted something more opulent than row or terrace houses.” 23 North Philadelphian mansions were built specifically for these purposes. They appeared in large numbers in the 1850’s, Particularly on Broad Street, one of Philadelphia’s best addresses for more than fifty years, where the mansions of each decade were more grandiose than those of the preceding ones. Many homes were constructed in the area, between Poplar and Berks streets, during its building boom after 1850. Even though “North Broad Street reached its peak in the decade before WW1,” and the “extravagantly rich inhabitants like Widener and his close associate William Elkins moved out of the city to palatial estates in suburban counties; we must consider not just the city as a thing in itself, but the city being perceived by its inhabitants.” 24

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As the city became more and more dense, the wealthy relieved themselves of the overcrowding, and fancied to build elsewhere. “…Great open spaces ranged west of Broad street at the turn of the century.” 25 In 1909, Shibe Park was opened at Twenty-First Street and Leigh Avenue, where it stood completely by itself. Fears arose about the stadium being too far away, and people not venturing the trip. These were reconciled when in 1911 the stadium needed to be extended, which was “engulfed by open-porch row houses” 26 within a very short period of time. “By the time the Great Depression put an end to this boom, North Philadelphia’s frontier had been closed.” 27


Characteristics of the City

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

VENICE: THE LINK BETWEEN PAST AND PRESENT:

This thesis will explore the different characteristics of the site, and these changes over time, in addition to the building typologies and programmatic functions of the site. Different areas of the city have different users as well as different urban conditions. There are many diverse communities, neighborhoods, and interests to concentrate on within the site, in addition to their changes through time. The primary users of the site will be the inhabitants of the city, including but not limited to the surrounding residents, students, and tourists. There are also urban uses of the site, including the site’s connection back into the city (connecting the “piece” back into the whole), and urban context. The third inclusion involves the creation of an urban network that connects to the larger network of the city. “Although clarity or legibility is by no means the only important property of a beautiful city, it is of special importance when considering environments at the urban scale of size, time, and complexity. To understand this, we must consider not just the city as a thing in itself, but the city being perceived by its inhabitants.” 28

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“The city itself can also be a form of

memory…Venice provides a history and remembrance of itself, in which there is an unrelenting tension between the old and the new, in which the ancient fabric so beloved by tourists both hinders the everyday life of Venetians and threatens their ability to confront the future.” 29

Image 8: Piazza San Marco, seen as a source of collective memory, binding and connecting the city of Venice.

Both Venice and Philadelphia can be seen examples of highly imageable cities surrounded by rich historical contexts. Each city, however, has chosen to represent this historical significance and meaning in different ways. In comparison, the histories of both Venice and Philadelphia, are present within each city’s own context. The histories are prevalent everywhere, and the differences between these two cities lies within the formation patterns, topography, and physical contexts and characteristics of each city.

Characteristics of the City HISTORICAL CONTEXT: Philadelphia is a city of fragmentation, and incoherency, where remnants of past history of the city are present only in certain places. For example, in Northern Liberties, one can sense the rich past, and the area’s connection to its neighboring sister, Olde City. Olde city has retained its largely significant colonial characteristics, coupled with being the area that contains some of the most important structures and institutions involved in the founding of the city of Philadelphia, and of the forming of the nation as a whole. This area of the city has been preserved and there is a sense of experiencing the past upon moving through this significant portion of the city. Northern Liberties has not had the same sense of stability that the area of Olde City has had. This area has gone through many states of transition, and due to this transitory nature, the history of this sector of the city has been fragmented. One can especially sense this due to the recent re-development in the area, combined with the renovation of large

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

residential communities. Fragments of the past can be seen when one examines even the simple layering of the streets. Here, there is a combination and even a sudden abrupt interruption of cobblestone streets, with newly paved asphalt. Philadelphia has therefore isolated specific moments of history, yet these can only be seen or sensed upon their revelation within certain areas of the urban context. There are quick and ephemeral transitions between the past and the present within the city, however, Philadelphia has allowed itself to change drastically throughout the years, so that all that remains are remnants of the past. Venice is also a city with rich historical context which has undergone many transitions of power throughout the years. “Napoleon’s conquest” 30 “…was followed by a brief Austrian occupation,” of the city “… followed again in 1805 by the incorporation of the former Terraferma Empire into Napoleon’s Italian Kingdom or Regno Italia.” 31 The city of Venice, even with its changes in political power, has not changed very drastically in comparison to Philadelphia in regards to built form.

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The city has not allowed itself to change very dramatically, except for a few radical changes such as the adjustments to Piazza San Marco during Napoleon’s conquest, where an entirely new wing which was never arranged for, was added to the palace, along with “the demolition of the whole west end of the piazza…” 32 Architectural intervention in the Twentieth Century can be seen in architect Carlo Scarpa’s work, yet Scarpa chooses to intervene in a very subtle way, in which one can sense the subtle insertion yet the past is still preserved and unaltered. Venice has privileged the perpetuation of history that does not allow for change; and the city therefore, loses the ability to read time as passing; the entire city becomes a museum full of artifacts. However, this reluctance for change renders Venice a highly decipherable city. “A highly imageable (apparent, legible, or visible) city in this peculiar sense would seem well formed, distinct, remarkable; it would invite the eye and the ear to greater attention and participation….such a city would be one that could be apprehended over time as a pattern of high continuity with many distinctive parts clearly


Characteristics of the City interconnected…the city of Venice might be an example of such a highly imageable environment.” 33

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the present somehow does not seem to exist, or the past and present are indistinguishable from one another.

INTRODUCTION TO VENICE AND ITS FORMATION:

FORMATION OF THE CITY: Philadelphia and its suburbs grew from land that originally belonged to the Lene Lenape Indians. In fact, Ridge Avenue was originally an ancient Indian footpath. Today, this route is paved over, yet the history and the original topography of the route still remain today. With the Enlightenment period, came the imposition of the original grid over the city, which also fragmented the city into different wards and districts. In 1854, these separate districts were consolidated and became part of Philadelphia as a whole. Northern Liberties, Kensington, and Huntington are all examples of once separate districts of Philadelphia. The layers of history in Philadelphia are not clear and present, and many times lie somewhere underneath the surface of the existing urban context. The city of Venice is in complete opposition of this situation, where everywhere one looks one can see the past, and

Image 9: Map of Philadelphia 1802, showing original grid. By Charles P. Varle, (David Rumsey Collection).

Image 10: Philadelhpia divided into districts, Northern Liberties and Kensington are highlighted in red.

Characteristics of the City

Firstly, the marsh-like area that Venice was founded upon was a unique area of settlement Which “provided the city with a degree of physical security that was the envy of all other cities in Italy.” 34 This type of environment also provided ease of building concerning the foundations of structures. The security that the environment provided, “…meant that the city’s architecture could develop in a manner quite different to that of the terraferma (firm earth/ground), where the mass and security remained primary considerations. It was thus possible to develop “…a minimalist approach to the question of mass and loads…” 35 This specific type of landscape also connects the city in an intricate approach. One has a proclivity to romanticize and idealize the city of Venice, in ways unlike other cities of the past. In fact, “by the Fifteenth Century, Venice’s fame was universal.” 36 This renown was congealed by a number of different circumstances, the foremost being “…its prodigious wealth, derived

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from its role as one of the great international hubs of European trade…” 37 Venice, however, was more so unique, due to “…its position as the nucleus of trade between Western Europe and the Middle East.” 38 Secondly, the Venetian’s internationally famed skills in banking and insurance, supplemented this recognition. The

really extraordinary feature, however, of Venice, which made trade prosperous, was the city’s site and location, of which the Grand Canal was the main artery of traffic and transport; and the immense Basin of San Marco functioned as the city’s natural harbor.

Another pertinent role that Venice has played and still continues to play is the role of a religious center, not of just the city, but of the entire world, drawing pilgrims from far and near. “…Venice was the chief port of embarkation for Western pilgrims to the Holy Land…” 39 This then led to many business transactions occurring between such pilgrims and the Venetian merchants, in which “…the Venetian fleets dominated indeed monopolized this extensive (and lucrative) trade for centuries.” 39 The city, as mentioned above, was also a site of religious

Image 11: Venice circa 1500.

Image 12: The formation of circulation, via waterways, channels, and rii in connection to the Grand Canal.


Characteristics of the City pilgrimage. “The shrine of San Marco (the patron saint of “Mark the Evangelist,” whom brought Christianity to the heart of Venice), attracted millions of pilgrims over the centuries…” “The wealth that derived from all of these activities itself was reinvested into the building of an evermore splendid city to attract more and more visitors.” 40 THE LINK BETWEEN LAND AND WATER: ISLETS: Due to the unique configuration of land combined with water, Venice was a city composed of islets, which were connected through a series of canals (grand waterways), and smaller channels, (“rii”) . 41 The rii were smaller water courses, in which some were highly in-navigable except for small, individual boats. All of the islets were variegated in shape and size, yet were only separated by these very small water channels, most of which were dangerous and tumultuous in course. Due to the shallow nature of the water, and the islets themselves laying low on these water channels, flooding was a common occurrence, except for a few

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

of the larger islets that rose higher above the channels. These larger islets soon formed towns. “These fairly scattered nuclei formed the most fundamental primary skeleton which the city’s secondary structure of communities was to be built.” 42 Two formations were involved in the development of these communities, “…some were lay parochial foundations, essentially urban social nuclei, while others were monastic establishments.” “These early monasteries were of great importance in defining the city’s extent and the pattern of its growth…” 43 All of these different islets had important aspects to offer Venice as a whole. “Murano was the most populous, distinctly separate satellite community, an important town in its own right, governed by a “podesta” (“Venetian noble as governor”), appointed by the Republic, and with its own elected citizen’s assemblies.” “It was also home to several wealthy monastic houses, including San Cipriano. Equally important, and by now well established, were the numerous glass works that had been transferred here from Venice in 1291, and

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Characteristics of the City and which now underpinned the local economy.” 44 Another satellite islet was Chioggia, which was also the most important satellite town, being the producer of salt, and the home to “the largest fishing port on the Adriatic.” 45 THE GRAND CANAL (and smaller channels):

Image 13: Venice city context, highlighting the connections of the islets through waterways and the Grand Canal.

Image 14: Venice city context today, aerial view.

“The city’s internal structure remained entirely dominated by the course of the Grand Canal, the canalazzo, the lifeline of the metropolis; its chief artery served many functions both practical and symbolic.” 46 This historic symbolism is still seen today, as the Canal remains the “main highway,” 47 or thorough fare through which commerce and people traverse. Trading ships, barges carrying materials for building, and even royal ducal ships traversed this “street.” Therefore, “it was an axis of commerce at every level.” 48 This “artery” holds a collective memory pertaining to this important thorough fare and all of the history that has traveled through this major boulevard of water. The wealthy chose

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

to build their palaces along the Canal. The most expensive “are those near Rialto and San Marco.” 49 This symbolic display of wealth has never left Venice, and can be seen today as a reminder, a memory shared by the Venetian people of their glorious past; one which has never seemed to fade. In addition to this main canal, a few other larger channels had a significant role in the development of the city. “One was the Cannaregio Canal, which led directly North Westwards towards the mainland shore, near the little fort village of Mestre. Another was the Rio di Noale, which cut through the archipelago at its narrowest point and provided a direct route to Murano and the islands of the northern lagoon: Torcello, Burano, and Mazzorbo. Other navigable channels led East and Southwards towards Pellestrina and Venice’s furthermost major satellite, Chioggia.” 50 The two major districts that these channels focused upon were the Rialto archipelago (the Rialto) and the Basin of San Marco. The Grand Canal, is not unlike North Broad Street in Philadelphia, however the contexts are quite different. One can

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draw a common thread or comparison between both of these idealized “streets,” although North Broad Street has long ago passed its “golden years,” where as the Grand Canal is still seen very much today as it was seen hundreds of years ago. One can also compare the views of both of these thoroughfares. North Broad Street, used to be the industrial hub and a major passageway through the city, and of the nation as a whole. Manufacturers and entrepreneurs set up shop along this once grand avenue; and made the street and the surrounding area one of the richest places of the city. The Grand Canal was and still is today a grand avenue, supporting the history of Venice, and it’s extremely wealthy patrons, by presenting to the viewer beautifully designed monasteries and grand ducal palaces. This unaltered appearance and view of Venice has led more and more tourists to the city, and draws people from far and near, romanticizing the experience of the city. North Broad Street has changed greatly over time, and throughout the years more vacancies and derelict spaces have woven into the urban fabric. While people


Characteristics of the City have come and gone, the memories, however, have stayed and are persistent throughout the years. Ultimately, design and architecture offers a way in which to frame North Broad Street as a layered entity growing from past experiences and shifting to interconnect with an ever changing urban fabric. THE NUCLEUS OF THE CITY: PIAZZA SAN MARCO: In Philadelphia, the historic “heart” or nucleus of the city is Independence Hall. While Philadelphia contains other civic focal points, recreational focal points, and commercial focal points, Independence Hall constitutes an important historical node that becomes both a physical marker within the city as well as a cultural icon through which Philadelphia maintains a link to its historical past. In Venice, the heart or nucleus of the city is situated within the Basin of San Marco (Piazza San Marco), where the patron saint, Mark the Evangelist, made his pilgrimage “to the lagoons in the year 42 A.D., when it was said that he had established the first

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Christian church at Aquileia.” 51 “The Piazza San Marco is the heart of Venice, and was for many centuries the symbol of the Republic’s wealth and stability.” 52 Independence Hall, in Philadelphia, stands as the commemoration of the freedom of the thirteen original colonies from Great Britain; and their uniting into one free entity; the start of a nation. Similarly, in Venice, Piazza San Marco stood for the religious, governmental, and commercial hub of the city. “Concentrated at San Marco, were the national shrine, the seat of power of the empire, and the official residence of the head of state, the doge.” 53

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Characteristics of the City

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

During the Renaissance, Jacopo

Image 15: Piazza San Marco, surrounded by city context. Shown with water connections.

Image 16: Mapping of Venice highlighting palaces, churches and monastic houses, and small and large schools; Piazza San Marco is highlighted , surrounded by a black box / red (top image).

Sansovino made some important interventions at the Piazza San Marco, heightening the importance of this civic and cultural focal point, and bringing unique connections to the center. Sansovino designed the “Biblioteca Marciana, the Library San Marco,” which replaced “the squalid collection of hostelries and market stalls that had still defaced this most important civic location.” 54 He also designed “the little loggia at the base of the campanile, built at the same time as the library.” This “loggetta” played an important role in the urban forming of the Piazza itself, “as it terminates the axis which begins inside the Porta Della Carta of the Palazzo Ducale.” 55 As a source of collective memory, “it was thus intended to reinforce this important ceremonial route, down which the doge processed at his coronation.” 56 The Loggetta was small of scale but “rich in detail.” 57

Images 18 & 19: Independence Hall Historically, and Today.

Image 20: Independence Hall site, surrounded by city context.

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Characteristics of the City FUNCTION AND SYMBOLISM: In Philadelphia, the function of such a nucleus as Independence Hall, was to house the Declaration, the waiver of freedom and artifacts including the Liberty Belll, that represented this freedom. The building itself, stands as an archive, an artifact from a different time, yet symbolizes this freedom even today; just as Piazza San Marco recalls connotations of religion, wealth, and power of the Republic of Venice. The Piazza has changed very little since its inception and even “the repaving of its surface was the only alteration to the square’s appearance until the fall of this Republic.” 58 The Piazza stands as a focal point, not just of Christianity, wealth, or power, but a focal point for the entire city, epitomizing many connotations concerning the city. The built forms have become part of the rituals and the traditions of the people themselves. “Ritual and procession permeated the very fabric of the Republic, and the Piazza was its natural setting. Many rituals were an essential expression of Republican philosophy; by definition they were collective rather than individualistic; and

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

although there was always a rigid hierarchy of protocol, many different orders of men participated, followed the same route, and shared at least some of the same experience.” 59 Steeped in tradition, the meaning of the Piazza has promoted a reluctance to change. In Philadelphia, the idea of change comes and goes as it pleases, and in so doing, alters the urban fabric as seen fit at the moment. Philadelphia’s focal points don’t share the strong ritualized tradition of use that Venice’s Piazza does. Throughout the centuries, Piazza San Marco “… remained primarily an atrium for the patronal church.” “The two long sides are entirely occupied by the procuracy buildings, structures built not for the government but for the functionaries who administered San Marco, its income, and interests.” 60 These procurators have for centuries, as well as still do today, control the land that these buildings stand upon. Thus this collective sharing of the tradition that encompasses the Piazza has rendered it rapt or caught up in this tradition, and therefore unable to change.

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In Philadelphia, there are specific connections to religious centers, civic squares, and institutions of wealth through the planning organization of its original grid. However, over time, this grid has become fragmented with the urban voids and derelict spaces that have developed and become part of the fabric of the city. Venice however, contains clarity within the individual islets of the city. The clarity is experienced through the main connectors within the city - the channel, rii, and Grand Canal, which create fluid transitions between each of these separate islets and create pedestrian linkages between all places within the city. Bridges are also used as connectors between and over the channels to link the islets together. These can be seen as stitches that hold the city together, mapping circulation, movement, and connectivity.

Characteristics of the City INTERCONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, PURPOSEFUL VOIDS: In order to understand the interconnections present within the city of Venice, one must look to the external square, or the purposeful voided spaces between external structures. This external square, “the piazzetta” 61 was essentially a civic space. The other important external square was that of the piazza of the Palazzo (palace, or public building). “The interdependence and interconnection of these two spaces is one of the reasons for the uniqueness of the San Marco complex.” 62 This is especially unique considering, “…the two poles of ecclesiastical focus (usually the cathedral), and the civic focus (the Palazzo Comunale or the castle of the city’s lord) almost always have distinctly separate identities, standing some distance apart.” 63 The interconnection of these two usually normally separate squares creates a special type of relationship within this area of the city which calls the San Marco complex into focus and heightens its importance due to the present duality of function.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

“Purposeful voids” have been inserted and woven into the city context of Venice, Many of these voids were and are connected to the palazzi and the churches, and become great civic squares where the community can come to be together and share ideas. Located in front of churches were open exterior space, squares, known as “campos,” (literally fields ), because they were originally grassed, like a village green.” 64 Not unlike the islets that create the formation of the city, these squares are variegated in shape and size. Many of the larger islets had larger, more open campos, consisting of a church on one side, and a wealthy home on the other. The most characteristic, however, “…are small, more compact, rectangular campi, with a canal down one side, the church on another, and housing occupying the remaining two.” 65 There is a unique type of interaction that is created by the interconnections of “campi,” streets, canals, and the inhabitants; through the design of Venice’s fabric. In Venice, there is a clearly defined street pattern, with a central axial spine ending in an open square. These interconnections

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Image 21: Diagram of Venice, highlighting the purposeful voided spaces, gray, and the major canals and water channels connecting them, red.


Characteristics of the City

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

thus highlight the voided spaces, and these voids then become focal points within the city; and centers of social interaction linked to the main veins and arteries of the city opening up to such spaces.

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Characteristics of the City CLOSING ANNOTATIONS: This thesis aims at the revitalization of the Divine Lorraine site in Philadelphia as a way in which to reconnect the site to the rest of the city. The re-connection can then begin to create a more coherent atmosphere; through a focus on multiple scales of design offering unique experiences. The aim of this study was to discover similarities and differences within the urban forms and related images of Philadelphia and Venice; thus highlighting how these aspects have woven their way into the composition of each city’s context. These discoveries can then begin to focus upon the coherency (or lack of) inherent within each city and the translation between past and present. Venice was chosen as the main focus of this study due to its comparative quality to Philadelphia, its strong links to its past, and its waterways and bridges that provide a connective tissue through the city. In so doing, certain points of interest were focused upon, including:

Images 23, 24, 25: Small streets, and tight tumultuous waterways which connect the city and its islets.

Image 22: Diagram representing the coherency present within the city of Venice, the connections of the Grand Canal, smaller channels, rii, and streets.

Image 26: Bridging as a way of connection between islets and over rii.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

- Collective Memory: The reading of spatial experiences through interconnections, circulation, voids, and focal centers via rituals and traditions. - Historical Prevalence: The ability to read and experience the past within the present as isolated moments, as unaltered, as a trace or as merging of past and present. - Layering and Fragmentation: The role in which design and architecture can express meaning, symbolism, and iconography within the city. - Purposeful Voided Spaces: The creating of centers of activity and interaction as spaces of exchange. In addressing such issues, certain conclusions pertaining to the differences and similarities of these two cities, Philadelphia and Venice become evident. Philadelphia is a city rich with historical significance, yet this significance is not always prevalent. Therefore, the city has

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isolated these moments of history, and is revealed in an ephemeral and transitory nature. This revelation aids in the emphasis of the changes throughout the city over time, which has then become fragmented selectively throughout the urban fabric. In contrast, Venice is also a city rich with historical significance, yet has not allowed itself to change throughout the years, and thus one cannot read time as passing within the city. Time, in this sense, seems to stands still. The intricate connections between rii, channels, and canals along with open or “voided” spaces help to tie the urban fabric together however, creating one coherent entity, rather than disparity between spaces. “The built legacy of the city today is a mirror of that millennium of continuity, unique not only in its historical value and extraordinary profusion and quality but because so many of its characteristics are exclusively Venetian.” 66 Therefore, “Venice holds an imitable place in our collective memory.” Venice is more than just a city, it has become an icon “…a paradigm, representing many vulnerable and invaluable historic cities, scattered in time and space…” 67


T H E BU I L D I N G


A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Regenerative Architectural Form

The history of a city, is seen through its architecture, and the way in which this architecture has either sustained or been completely neglected through time. This relates directly to continuity in a city. The architecture present tells a story, a history, which has the ability to sustain through time. Sometimes built form can be sustained, yet the history can become misplaced or forgotten. This thesis will explore the possibilities inherent in regenerative architecture deriving its form from the past histories of the site and creating a structure that is inviting to the public. This will engage the site as a place of meaning and will aim at redefining the space, and reactivating the site. “Urban meaning is not immanent to architectural form and space, but changes according to the social interactions of city dwellers.” 68 This new form will be regenerative in the way it will sustain through time, in addition to physically being brought forth from past architectural expression. The new form will sustain in the way in which it is viewed within the city and within the realm

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of the city inhabitants. HEDMARK CATHEDRAL SVERRE FEHN:

artifact combined with elemental artifacts, and objects has the potential to emphasize the spaces and bring the site into focus once again.

MUSEUM,

The past typologies, programs, and relationships within the context around the site will grow together, and shape or regenerate a new form, conceived from the remnants of past attributes, that are left within the urban fabric. “A museum is the dance of “dead

ARCHITECTURAL INTENT:

things” in which the artifact and its relation to human movement is what is important – as opposed to architecture in which the human being plays the primary part and the artifact is secondary.” 69

There is an intriguing view posed within this study of a museum, pertaining to how a museum can potentially offer the viewer an intimate relationship to the artifacts themselves. This thesis delves into the idea of building as an artifact in itself and not necessarily separated from but seen as an integral piece of information in the museum design. This ideal is then combined along with the other artifacts present and part of the site. This connection of pre-existing structure as

Regenerative Architectural Form

Image 27: The integration of new form and artifacts from the site, bridging between past and present.

The Hedmark Cathedral Museum (1968-1979) characterizes the architectural idea that a museum’s function is not just about the arrangement of the exhibition. The museum draws the viewers through the space by aid of a new architectural insertion in order to emphasize the pre-existing structure on the site. This new insertion grows from the old, and captivates the viewer by stressing the existing structure as the artifact itself, that then houses singular elements, or fragments of a time past. Special attention was placed on the singular elements, or remnants that were excavated, and their relationship and connection back to the ruins of the site. “The main architectural concept has been to create a museum which preserves the existing remains of Hamar Bispegård and Storhamar barn and makes it possible for the archeological excavations to function as an important part

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

of the actual museum, in line with the exhibits. The bard itself is a medieval structure in which at no point does the museum addition touch “the medieval walls and ruins.” 70 The new museum is suspended within the existing structure, leading visitors through the spaces and opening up the experience of the artifact in relation to the connection between these artifacts and the ruins as well as the history and the meaning of the site. “The suspended museum” 71 has been created, “and this makes it possible to be in a position to understand history – not with the aid of pages of a book – but as it appears in the world of archeology.” 72 REGENERATION OF FORM: This thesis relies heavily upon the experience of architectural form within its relation to history, including eclectic artifacts which are a “collection of history,” telling a story about the changes of the history of the site and the space. These artifacts are a dialogue between the new and the pre-existing remnants of the past. The Hedmark Museum proposes

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a new idea for the housing of such artifacts; a regenerative architecture that grows from the past yet is clearly defined as the present. “If you chase after the past, you will never catch up with it. Only by manifesting the present can you make the past speak.” 73 The Hedmark Cathedral utilizes the new as a way in which to highlight the past, drawing forth the artifacts of the spaces, and reactivating them with a new physical connection to the site. This redefinition of elements within their place of origination creates new meaning and becomes the dialogue of past experience of the site. The new context given to the site aids in a rediscovery of this history and provides a way in which to reconnect artifact and structure through a newly introduced form. The original organization of the structure is broken with the newly introduced form and the placement of each singular artifact. The displacement of artifacts draws attention and focus to each individual piece of the whole, thus creating a complex dialogue broken into sections as the viewer moves through the space. “Every single thing taken from the depths of the earth has claims on the magic of history. The objects may be


Regenerative Architectural Form CIRCULATION: The newly added structure becomes the circulation spaces and viewing galleries for the ruins of the existing structure, and the other artifacts. “The museum is not limited to the interior of the walls and roof of the barn. With the aid of ramps, its rhythm and traffic are directed so that constant contact with the excavations is also maintained around the building.” 75 This thesis proposes a mesh of interior and exterior space as well as circulation, just as the Hedmark has accomplished to draw the exterior circulation inwards. This thesis proposes a series of “cut” paths of circulation that run through the site, and are inserted into the new structure of the museum, as well as the existing structure of the Divine Lorraine. These paths will focus on drawing the larger historical and geometrical context of the city, inwards, and will then connect and intersect with the historical and geometrical context of the site. This circulation will be a focal point of the spaces through time. As the viewer moves through this space, the artifacts themselves

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will visually speak of the rich history of the site. The viewer visually moves through time and space, as they proceed throughout the connections between the museum and the existing hotel. This experience will be visually portrayed within the context of the site and the building as a primary artifact housing specific elements.

Regenerative Architectural Form

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CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS:

Image 28 (top): Circulation containing newly suspended form. Image 29 (left): Circulation paths, cut through existing ruin, emphasizing the structure as an “artifact.”

The Hedmark Cathedral is exemplary of how space and time coalesce, and in so doing, create a new meaning for the site. This meaning is embedded with past experiences and histories of the site, but is also perceived in a new form, and this reinterpretation is what creates this new basis for meaning. The new form generated from the existing, focuses upon the past, yet places emphasis upon the combination of present context, and its affirmation of the passing of time, and the rediscovery of the juxtaposition between past and present. This thesis focuses upon such issues as presented above, pertaining to regenerative form as a way in which to emphasize, rediscover, and supersede the boundaries of time; but also taking past form, and creating from this, something new altogether. These processes will in so doing, thread together a collection of eclectic historical remnants. “The result of

this building process, in so many ways an impulse of the eye, manages to release a dialogue with your heart and mind.” 76

Image 30: Circulation extending to exterior space.

Image 31: The Regeneration of form, new form growing from past formalities of the site.


T H E A RT I FAC T


Imageability Within a City IMAGEABILITY WITH RESPONSE TO MEANING IN A CITY (Iconography, Focal Points): This thesis will explore the idea of imageability within the city and how image and meaning are connected in creating a coherent and unified city context. “A vivid and integrated physical setting capable of producing a sharp image plays a social role as well. It can furnish the raw material for the symbols and collective memories of group communication.” 77 The Divine Lorraine Hotel was a once prosperous focal point of the city. Affluent inhabitants of the city, lived, worked, and stayed at the Divine Lorraine. Over time, however, the site has slowly lost its iconographic presence, and its meaning has therefore diminished. It is not a prosperous focal point in the city today; however, it has not lost its character. The architecture that is left, still tells a story, a history; and the empty shell of the structure still remains, glorious in its decaying state. The many prominent patrons and passers by who either lived or stayed at the Divine Lorraine all account for the many

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

parts of its history and meaning. Today, the hotel sits neglected and empty, overlooked by city inhabitants. The tourists that come through the area are unaware of the history or significance that this structure has and holds in the city of Philadelphia. In reactivating the site, life can once again fill the site and reconnect this image of the city back into the city. The architecture can regenerate interest by removing the void of a broken space within the city. A disregarded history can be re-found, re-explored, and redefined. QUERINI STAMPALIA FOUNDATION, VENICE: The design of the Querini Stampalia Foundation, in Venice is based on ideas of image and iconography, and the way in which focal points are emphasized within a city. Similar in nature to the Castelvecchio Museum, Querini Stampalia’s combined elements are “a balanced coexistence of old and new.” 78 This palazzo is connected to the Doge’s Palace in Piazza San Marco, the “heart” and main focal point of the city. In

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1961-1963, Carlo Scarpa was “entrusted with the restoration of the sixteenth century palazzo which houses the collection, the library, and a lecture room of the Fondazione Querini Stampalia.” 79 Scarpa worked mainly with the ground floor, designing the access from the Campo Santa Maria Formosa. Due to the need felt to protect the palace, the privatized spaces were behind the reception space, or “portego, or the columned hall” 80 outside direct contact” with the exterior. One could not access these spaces from the main entrance to the palace. Scarpa also focused on the connection to a second palace that was owned by the Querini Stampalia and a church within the Campo di Santa Maria. His use of water connects the exterior environment with the interior spaces of the palace. Scarpa utilizes water, to emphasize the direct role that this element played in the past histories of the site.

Imageability Within a City

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

THE LINK BETWEEN OLD AND NEW:

DESIGN IDEOLOGIES:

The focus upon the connections between old and new design, is significant to this thesis; and relates to the ways in which “Scarpa sought differences, similarities, and above all autonomy in the relationship between old and new concepts of spatiality.” 81 He superimposed a layer of new forms on existing ones, “in many instances retaining their original form.” 82 The traces of the past are not only left, but are identifiable and evident within the structure. The new forms and spaces derived are taken from the site and its past forms, and in so doing, keep the character of the site alive.

Scarpa focuses upon “the restoration and rearrangement of the garden and entrances to the building.” 83 In 1973, he was asked to design guest wrooms that would overlook a central garden space. These rooms would also incorporate the existing structure. Scarpa’s design follows the “irregularities” 84 of the site in order to create a connection between the newly designed façade and the existing structure. He creates a more articulated front façade to the guest wing facing the internal garden spaces. In creating two “trapezoidal terraces” Scarpa creates a “focal point” 85 for the Querini Stampalia. Adhering to the simple geometry and forms of the pre-existing palace, Scarpa utilizes two reoccurring themes - the geometrical shape of the square, as seen before in the Castelvecchio Museum, and the element of water, which he uses here to emphasize the entrances to the palace.

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Image 32: Entrance to the Querini Stampalia Foundation, showing the iron bridge, merged with the preexisting form, creating a dialogue between the two.


Imageability Within a City

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INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR SPATIAL QUALITIES:

His use and addition of simple geometrical elements begins to emphasize and bring the existing structure into focus. “He designed the “portego” as focus for the entrances to the palace, building next to it a light bridge made of iron, brass, wood, and Istria stone that gave access to the building from the Campo di Santa Maria through a door that was an enlargement of an existing window.” 86 He also adds the element of water into the “portego” 87 Scarpa’s simple additions drawing from the pre-existing elements of the site, accentuate the old structure with the newly generated forms. This combination of fragments helps to tell the story of the site through the adapted use of such pre-existing rudiments. “There is a careful harmony of new and old colors and forms: the bridge with its simple design, the iron guardrail on the canal, from which one can see the internal water traffic, the hall up to the garden, and the scroll with the family’s motto and coat of arms in Istria stone.” 88 The simple addition of new forms and gestures that are expressed, frame the existing structure and artifacts; creating visual and physical pathways which the visitor follows through the site.

Image 33: The columned “portego” at the entrances to the museum, with the simple addition of the e lement of water.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Imageability Within a City

The reoccurring “theme of the square in its infinite variations continues into the garden.” 89 Scarpa focuses upon the redesigning of these exterior garden spaces and reconnecting them to the existing structure, with the use of this new geometry. “In the small space enclosed like many Venetian gardens, by high walls, Scarpa designed a path around the perimeter with slight differences in level.” 90 The simple geometry combined with the differences in levels is used as a layering technique which highlights an existing area of the site, calling this area into focus for the viewer. The edge of the square includes or leaves behind a remnant within the existing composition that then emphasizes a characteristic of the site. Such elements as “the Sixteenth - Century well head, the small lion belonging to the Querini Family, and the colonnade…” 91 help to define the ground level and “complete the compositions in a balanced coexistence of old and new.” 92

This reoccurrence of the rectilinear theme carries the interior spaces to the exterior garden spaces. This insertion of very linear and simple geometric planes is focused around pre-existing elements which emphasize the spaces. With each added element, a new space is manifested to the viewer. The placement of each new plane advocates the rediscovery of a remnant from the past, and the emphasis is placed on this remnant’s meaning in relation to the whole. “Scarpa’s gardens are somewhat similar to Japanese gardens, where nature is never left to itself, but is softened and rearranged in compositions. Nature becomes matter to be shaped and given meaning.” 93

Images 34 & 35: Travertine door between the great hall on the ground floor and the entrance hall; which is composed of simple geometric shapes alluding to the rectilinear qualities of the square.

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Imageability Within a City

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“The city itself can also be a form of memory…”

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS:

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Carlo Scarpa’s architecture professes a profound sense of craft and personal connection that is explicit in his designs. The design processes leading to the Querini Stampalia Foundation and the Castelvecchio Museum, are very closely related to the ideals and processes to be investigated in this thesis. The strong ties to the past significant histories of each site are made evident through his process and conclusions of each design. This thesis aspires to accomplish to a similar degree, this arrangement and combination of space. The elements he focuses upon within his design are implemented to a visually readable space. “The architectural elements, though expressed as independent parts, together form a magnificent whole.” 94 This thesis proposes a design that compositionally, spatially, and experientially combines the fragments of elements present within the site. The architecture aspires to produce a cohesive whole that is visually readable to the viewer, wherein each new element introduced into the spaces is an addition to the “diary” of the site.

Image 38: Garden sequences turning into paths, leading the viewer from interior to exterior space, and framing the pre-existing site.

Image 36: The idea of the square and the rectilinear theme drawn to the exterior garden sequences.

Image 37: Garden pathways and seating.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Sustaining History Through Time

By recapturing and translating these past memories, histories, typologies, functions, and programs of the site into built form, the layers of history will have been revealed, and made evident. The reference to a layered history will help to ground this form on the site and facilitate the sustainability of the intervention. New historical significance can be given to the Divine Lorraine and surrounding derelict voids. “When we think of a city, we first think of its look - the look of its buildings, streets and monuments. Or, we might recall the “flavour” of the city - the way people inhabit a London pub or a Parisian square. In either case, the built environment of the city is the most immediate clue to its identity.” 96

This new form that will be generated will become a historical museum, housing artifacts, and past histories of the site and its context. The museum will be connected to the vacant hotel occupying certain critical spaces, such as spaces of interaction between visitors and the historic built form. The museum will take into account the vertical nature of the existing hotel, and occupy such spaces as the lobby, a mode of vertical circulation, and a penthouse space. The design will also look to the smaller voided spaces surrounding the site. These will engage an exterior design intervention within the city that will maintain open space around the museum, for social interaction amongst the city inhabitants.

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THE CASTELVECCHIO MUSEUM, VERONA, ITALY: The Castelvecchio Museum, in Verona, is an example of the vehicle of design serving to sustain history through time. The Castelvecchio project was commissioned to Carlo Scarpa in 1957. The museum itself highlights and archives the castle, and sets out to achieve a new precedence for its viewing amongst the visitors to the site. “The castle was constructed in the second part of the Fourteenth Century by Cangrande, who was a “prominent ruler of the Ghibelline city, a ruler in peace and in war, the great signore of Verona, and a great promoter of art.” 97 Cangrande was part of the prominent Scala family of Verona, of which Castelvecchio became their second habitation. The palace was built exterior to the common walls adjoining the high watchtower with double fortifications that joined the existing wall. There was a “three arched bridge erected” 98 in the case of “Veronese hostilities,” 99 and became an escape path for Cangrande.


Sustaining History Through Time SCARPA’S DESIGN: Carlo Scarpa’s design creates somewhat of a monument in itself, one which pertains to the history and meaning of the site, as the artifacts are housed where they originated. These objects then speak to the viewer, and allude to the previous functions, and meanings of the site. Scarpa’s use of simple geometrical planes focuses on the actual architectural elements of the spaces that pre-exist his intervention and also upon the artifacts themselves. These help to define and recall the physical perceived meaning that these objects possess. Scarpa uses this simple geometry and form to “invite the viewer to retrace every step of the work’s creation and to perceive the sculpture and the architectural system surrounding it as a visual thought that has to be read.” 100 For example, Scarpa arrived at a design for a large corbel that was to be used as a very simple display, and alluding to the gesture of a hand presenting a statue of the knight to the visitor’s site. The objects in the space are themselves, presented, so as to stimulate the viewer’s senses.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

“The art object is no longer viewed frontally from afar, but is grafted onto modern spatial coordinates, which, while harmonizing with its form, break from its original significance.” 101 Scarpa uses the simple platonic form of the square, to break away from the original symmetry of the pre-existing structure, yet he leaves “the Gothic and Renaissance rudiments.” 102 This use of a highly repetitive modern architectural element references the break from, yet distinguishes the past with a combination of the new. “It is a form that binds together the parts of the composition.” 103 A similar “Elementarist” and “Constructivist” 104 approach related to this thesis was applied to Castelvecchio. Scarpa initiated his design intentions through mapping, graphics, and photography. He worked with a series of mappings and countless superimpositions of “original drawings, tracings, sketches, which combined, fragmented the execution of his work in all stages.” 105 Scarpa actually documented much of his work in a very visual manner, with photographic montages especially; much as this thesis aspires to perceive the change of history, time,

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and meaning through such visual language. Much of this thesis looks at the tool of mapping, and how to utilize this design tool in order to generate architectural form and space. and space. In Castelvecchio, “the unifying element of the complex, which was free from geometric or mathematical constraints, was the use of straight and orthogonal lines.” 106 These lines were formed into the context of the existing structure, much like the extensions of the city context, and site context will be interwoven into my design thesis. Memory plays a crucial role in the formation of the museum at Castelvecchio, as much as it plays a crucial role to the spaces derived, and how these spaces are perceived pertaining to this thesis. “The twists and turns of memory and imagination were hallowed ground for the growth of Scarpa’s creativity.” 107

Scarpa felt that in order to progress with a new design for the museum, that he first had to “go back to the old” as a way to “adapt the museum to the castle, so that the

works of art could live within the restored place.” 108 In doing so, the Castelvecchio project accomplishes what this thesis aspires

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Sustaining History Through Time to accomplish, by creating a new meaning for the artifacts and the space within which they are housed. INTERIOR VS. EXTERIOR SPACE: At Castelvecchio, the exterior and interior spaces are interwoven to create different spatial relationships. This thesis aspires to connect the interior and exterior spaces, through pathways, entrances, and exits amongst the site. Scarpa’s path through the museum is “linear, simple, and flexible, broken by openings to the outside and offering many alternative routes;” 109 just as this thesis proposes a series of entrances and exits within the site itself, and the combination of “cuts” through the site, creating circulation, with interior and exterior spaces interspersed from these “splices.” The entrance to the museum is “defined by a garden path rather than by accentuated elements of the façade.” 110 Here, Scarpa is alluding to an exterior space utilized as an interior space, combining these two ideas. This path “is composed of an alignment of shallow pools, fountains, and

sculptures that end at a low wall that bisects the entrance and penetrates into the interior.” 111

The Castelvecchio Museum focuses upon the idea of combining the circulation within the exterior and interior spaces of the museum, which this thesis is also focusing upon. The exterior space is brought to the interior of the design, thus combining these elements through the circulation. “The inner room corresponds to the external area at the entrance.” 112

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fewest mark;” 113 this thesis strives to highlight important areas of the site and recall certain spaces within the structure that held a special kind of significance in a previous point in time.

SPATIAL QUALITIES: As in Castelvecchio, the spaces of the museum proposed in this thesis encourage interactions and provoke participants to engage in the materials and objects presented within these spaces. By applying a new form to an existing structure the design promotes a dialogue between old and the progression of the new space derived from the past. As in Castelvecchio, how “the modern structure became the regulatory element of the existing structure’s interior and dominated areas in which the past had left the

Images 39, 40, & 41 (top to bottom): Section of door towards Gavi Arch, view of interior of tower next to library, and view of the exterior from the same tower.


Sustaining History Through Time HIERARCHY: Scarpa’s museum plays upon “the Elementarist theory that the diagonal line becomes the element of “counter-composition” within the orthogonal character of the whole.” 114 This idea of the defining formal and compositional relationships to provide visual continuity will be explored in the thesis. The design will explore lines which “cut” through the site creating points or splices of interaction and circulation, thus “imposing another order” 115 within the structure. CIRCULATION: The topic of circulation is important to the foundation of this thesis. Certain spaces can be highlighted through the use of different circulation patterns generated from the urban context. The circulation exhibited within the Castelvecchio Museum leads the visitor on a specific path upon entering. This then heightens the focus upon specific architectural and archival elements of the space, and in so doing, traces the past history

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of the site. The integration of modern elements with existing structure suggests the ideas of change and the history that has sustained within the site. There is also a strong significance in the way in which the museum “engages perceptions of the visitors by stimulating the processes of selection, integrations, memory, imagination, and allusion.” 116 These circulation patterns play a crucial role due to the specific experience that is made possible by following an issued path which takes the viewer along the” high walkways” 117 of the structure. “This experience cannot be imagined by visitors entering the courtyard by route of the drawbridge.” 118 This “experience” of the site, is what captivates the viewer, and then leads them throughout the space.

Image 42 (bottom left): New form as circulation, framing the space for the viewer, up above the pre-existing site. Image 43 (top left): rectilinear theme and circulation, leading the viewer. Image 44 (bottom right): Exit towards Morbio Door on ground floor. Image 45 (top right): Staircase in watchtower.

Sustaining History Through Time

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CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS: This thesis aspires to activate the viewer’s senses and emotions, through re-engaging a space with a significant past, much as Scarpa “used every means, every component of the space and design to open up the viewer’s capacity of interpretation…” 119 The visitors to Castelvecchio are led to the conclusion that “the exhibits are leading from

sensations to treasures of numberless images gathered from any kind of perceived object.” 120

Likewise, the museum that this thesis is proposing is one in which the objects and artifacts will be highlighted through the spaces surrounding these objects. These objects tell a story, a past, a physical history, which will now be recalled, remembered, and in each one’s own way be relived or re-imagined. Scarpa’s Castelvecchio achieves and retains to the fullest the traces of experience, as much as this thesis proposes to allude to the experience held in the spaces and within the objects salvaged from the site.

Image 48: Exterior of the museum, showing the subtle, re-configured entrance.

Image 46: Covered walkway connecting the palace to the watchtower.

Image 47: Scarpa drawing highlighting the placement of the Cangrande statue.


THE DESIGN INVESTIGATION


Program as a Means of Reactivation PROGRAM: I. Site This thesis will revitalize the site of the Divine Lorraine Hotel. This site, while currently unprogrammed, is not unoccupied; as the built form of the hotel remains and provides a context to which the new design will respond. The environment of the site consists of a neglected built fabric, containing urban voids, mixed with residential use buildings, and commercial structures. There is little to no vegetation existing on the site. The thesis will attempt to redefine these voids, rather than to completely fill the site with enclosed structures and therefore activate exterior spaces. The site is situated at the intersections of Broad Street, Fairmount Avenue, and Ridge Avenue; facing Broad Street. To the West, the site is surrounded by commercial structures, and to the East by residential neighborhoods. The hotel itself, sits in a decaying state as a reminder, a “memory” of North Philadelphia’s “golden” and more prosperous past. Issues of the site that will be explored further include:

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

- Connections between streets and the rest of the urban context though the extensions of the city grid, and the intersections of this grid. - Changes in the urban context throughout time, by overlaying these periods and comparing inherent differences. - The re-configuration of voids and the urban context. - The combination of present changes within the site, and the surrounding context, and mapping of their adjacencies and overlaps. - The combination of the three scales of the site: the city contextual scale, the scale of the building, and the scale of the artifact, or element; (these will be worked on simultaneously, and moved between throughout the design process). The exterior interventions will connect to the interior spaces, through the intersecting city context that is drawn through the site. Where the grid cuts through the site,

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paths will emerge, guiding the visitor throughout the exterior spaces, and leading them into the interior of the structure itself. However, these spaces will be utilized in a different manner, pertaining to program, use and activity. They will re-configure depending upon the area of the site and the desired creation of space. These pathways will sometimes enclose a space that will become public, and then open itself up once inside of the surrounding walls, which will function as a piazza area for social gathering. Paths can become cuts in the earth, or the simple gesture of a difference in material placed upon the earth which will guide the visitor to a specific area. These pathways will then continue through the interior of the building, hence drawing the context throughout the newly generated form, as a way of continuing the city grid inside of the structure. The pathways will re-configure themselves once they reach the interior, and will guide the viewer in a specific manner to specific areas inside of the structure. The paths will reshape themselves, sometimes becoming narrow, and then

Program as a Means of Reactivation opening up to the space a set program. These pathways will also be programmed gallery spaces. In certain areas, the circulation and gallery space will be merged, as a way of guiding the viewer through the structure, and as a way to create a focus upon certain elements and spatial relationships. These pathways also become edges, where they develop into walls, and cut off the viewer visually and physically from certain areas as a way in which to control the movement of the site; and then open up in certain areas and allow this passage visually and physically. The site itself holds many layers of history which comprises the dense and rich context within the urban fabric. This thesis proposes a design that highlights and reveals this context, and its changes through time, thus formulating a new meaning for the site. This new meaning will create a “non-void” by implying the past memories and meanings of the site in built form. Their reactivations and re-interpretations upon the site, will uncover the past meanings within the site, through the careful integration of built form. Specifics of the site that will be investigated

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further include: - Investigating the site as an area of historical significance. - Views and memories of the site, including its linkages to the industrialized area of the city and its iconography as a focal point of the city. - The site’s and the hotel’s current state of decay and neglect. - The site’s many transformations through time.

Image 60: Here, the Divine Lorraine sits, empty and neglected, against a setting sun off of North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA.


Program as a Means of Reactivation A. DESIGN ORIGINS: The design becomes part of the context and is charged with future potential as an idea to drive the design goals of this thesis. This design will originate from mappings that are derived from a layering of the past. The overlaying of past building typologies and forms will provide a reference for generating new form. The changes in the urban context that become evident when these maps are overlaid can generate new form from those pre-existing on the site and adjacent to the site. The focus of this new design will become a dialogue, a way of communicating, between the past and present site and context, the “old” and the “new.” The combination of open and enclosed spaces, will attempt to create a spatial sequence that guides the viewer through the site and up through the structure, bringing new life to the site.

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The combination of the three scales of the site, as mentioned previously, will also be crucial in the design process of this thesis. The design, then, really comes together when these three different scales are superimposed upon each other. These different scales and the different time periods of the site are overlaid and read together for compositional, spatial and narrative relationships. The differences and similarities discovered have the potential to become the link between the site and the rest of the context of the city that eventually reconnects (bonds) the site back with the city as a whole. Therefore the architecture and the artifacts are integral with each other, and they can generate a new form that is interconnected with the layers of history on the site. This then highlights the different layers of history that are present within the context of the site. A visual dialogue is then created between the two larger scales,the city and the building; which is then uncovered by the last scale, the details, artifacts, or objects, in which a collective memory is housed.

Image 61: The site, the three streets, Broad, Ridge Avenue, and Fairmount Avenue, and the Divine Lorraine highlighted in black.

Program as a Means of Reactivation

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B. DESIGN THOUGHT:

II. USERS / USES:

The basis for these design initiatives is to focus upon the city grid and the extensions of this grid from different periods through time. This will generate different organizations of grid overlays. There will be a strong focus upon where these grids intersect each other on the site. The new form generated will stem from these intersections and will in effect connect them not only to the city of the past, but will create a new present condition within the fabric. The connection of voided space into urban green / “piazza” space will create “purposeful voids ” and will describe spaces of new life for interaction within the city; wherein the open space acts as a piazza, or a space for people to relate and identify with.

This project involves three primary uses – social, adaptive re-use, and urban revitalization. Within social uses, the primary users will be the city inhabitants, the specific community surrounding the site as well as the encompassing neighborhoods, and tourists/ visitors to the site. The project also focuses upon adaptive reuse and the revitalization of urban voids and derelict spaces. The reuse will focus primarily on the creation of a new urban network, focusing on connecting the site back into the city context.

Image 62: Diagram representing voids and derelict spaces present on and around site. Image 63 (top right): Proposed areas, on and adjacent to site, that will be utilized throughout design inter-

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Program as a Means of Reactivation III. SPACES / ACTIVITIES: The project encompasses an uncovering and layering of spaces with specific focus upon such spatial issues as: - Exterior vs. Interior Spaces - Public vs. more Private / Individual Spaces - Edges - Nodes - Pathways -Access, both Physical and Visual - Orientation: Pertaining to the direction relating to the rest of the city context and the placement of the individual within the spaces. - Circulation: Created through pathways and edges, guiding the viewer to specific areas, as well as creating visual connections to the rest of the city and merging with the program of the structure itself.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

This project also focuses upon two different design initiatives: - The Generation of a New Form: Creating a new use for a derelict site as well as archive space of the site and surrounding context. - Landscape / Urban Green Spaces: Creating purposeful voids focusing upon social interaction and identification. The newly generated spaces of the museum/archive will be initiated through the design processes mentioned above. These spaces will intervene and programmatically mesh themselves within the existing Hotel Lorraine. They will be utilized to highlight and reveal specific, important spaces within the existing structure as well as to draw the city context into the site. The project will assume renovation of the Hotel in the future, which emphasizes a reuse/ re-visioning of the historical significance of the hotel, calling it back into focus and sharpening the edges of the site within the urban fabric.

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The program for the new form is as follows: - Existing Land Area: 13,808.34 sq. feet - Exterior Garden Space: These will become “purposeful voids,” which become open spaces of interaction connected to the existing and newly formed site through circulation pathways. These paths then become the link between interior and exterior spaces, and help to bridge the pre-existing and the new on the site. - Egress: Multiple entrances and exits will exist on the site. There will be access from each point of intersection within the open landscape spaces and the three major streets that cross the site. The entrance to the new form, will begin above ground, where the visitor will immediately be drawn downwards into the basement, where they will view the artifacts, and then will be drawn upwards through the space once again. The entrance to the bar will be located underground, as well as by street access on the ground level. There will

Program as a Means of Reactivation therefore be two entrances into the structure, through the underground, which will be able to be accessed through the subway, and then also through the street level. - Storage/ Basement (size dependent upon pre-existing room sq. footage) : Such space is set aside for the storing of artifacts. This is located at the basement level of the pre-existing structure, and will function as an entrance to the archive. Therefore, the visitor will be guided underground, and move vertically upwards through the structure, drawing the city into the spaces. In this manner, the visitor will be surrounded by past experiences and memories of the site, and then drawn through the rest of the spaces of the structure, that will continue the story of the site. This underground space will become a special kind of archive in itself, a strange and unique collection of storage, that the viewer can sift through at their leisure, and in so doing, discover the site. There will be a connection to the already established underground network of subways and transportation that can then be directly

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

correlated with the site. - Bar: This will be located on the ground floor, as well as connecting to the underground spaces as mentioned above. The bar will begin underground, and continue to the ground level.

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Images 64, 65, & 66 (top to bottom): Streets creating points of access and egress on the site; proposed areas for landscape intervention; proposed site of new form. Opposite Side: Image 67 (top): Existing Ground floor of the hotel (full size drawings at 1/8 “ -1’ 0” scale). Image 68 (bottom): Ground floor of hotel with proposed programmatic spaces.


Program as a Means of Reactivation - Lobby Space (avg. of 2500-3000 sq. feet) : This will be shared with the existing hotel, and will house a bar area, and dining facilities on the ground floor. This also becomes shared space with the existing hotel, and helps to ground the structure. - Ground Floor Kitchen (size dependent upon existing kitchen sq. footage): This kitchen will service hotel guests, and will extend its services to the upstairs dining facility / restaurant. - Gallery Spaces (size dependent upon pulled geometry of the site and context) : These will include upper and lower level viewing. They will also relate directly to circulation routes, by attaching to them or stemming from them, aiming at drawing the city contextual scale into the site scale. These spaces will be combined with the scale of the artifact in order for a dialogue to form between the coexistence of the past and present. The new form will partially initiate the placement of the artifacts, but this placement will also be focused upon the interspersion of artifact, original structure,

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

and newly generated form, so that the viewer will be able to read time through the object itself. - Circulation Spaces (size to be determined, depending upon spaces that circulation cuts through, varied): Corridors, abstracted from site lines taken from mapping, will “cut� through the structure, bringing the city into the site and aid in the creation of circulation pathways. - Archival Space/Rooms (2)avg. @ 1600 sq. feet each): This space will be reserved for visitors and students who wish to research more in depth, the artifacts displayed, and the histories of the site and their relevance to the history and the city of Philadelphia. This space is also set aside for group discussions and meetings.

Image 69: Existing fifth floor plan of hotel.

Image 70: Existing ninth floor plan of hotel.

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Program as a Means of Reactivation

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- Interactive Spaces: These will coincide with the circulation pathways. From these lines of lineage, the history through the years may become evident through moments of interaction along paths of circulation that become design devices to re-frame the site, the existing building, and the extending context. These moments will display past histories of the site, visually connecting the visitor to the site, as they move through the site. They will focus on the history as well as the idea that this history is pulled back into the site, and made evident through the abstraction of the layering of a new organizational grid.

- Roof Garden / Patio Space ( 1500 -2000 sq. feet): This will serve to recall the social interaction of the site and act in engaging the upper most level of the hotel, bringing new life back into the hotel and the space. There will also be the addition of a restaurant, connected to an open garden and patio space which will serve not only hotel guests, but the rest of the city. By drawing the inhabitants up through the structure, highlighting the existing and the past; the space aims at reconnecting the hotel visually with the rest of the context of the city, creating views within the structure to the city.

- Administrative Space (avg. 350-500 sq. feet each): This space is reserved for the curators and over seers of the archive, and for the storing of any important documents or records.

- Service Spaces (sizes to be determined) : These types of spaces include a mechanical room, and locations of elevators, which will service the restaurant, dining, and bar areas.

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Image 71: Proposed administrative / business spaces in existing structure on ninth floor.

Image 72: Proposed roof garden / patio spaces, above tenth floor.


Program as a Means of Reactivation The activities performed on and in the site include the interaction of people and a remembrance of history. The museum itself aims at becoming an interactive space for the user, as well as:

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- Nodes for a new urban network.

- New spaces combined with the pre-existing site conditions through interior and exterior spaces. The newly proposed program will occupy and stitch together all of these spaces.

- A combination of the past/present. - An information center. - A connector within the city which helps to re-appropriate neglected space. - A new network, both urban and social. The landscape initiative aims at the creation of:

“...The city is a cumulative and man-made

creation where each site and structure is an artifact - - a place of collective memory where earlier meanings are retained even as its function or context is forced to change.” 121

- “Purposeful” voided space that will not be empty, but rather open and inviting, and will promote a space of interaction. - Areas of social interaction, and urban green spaces, which are connected to the interior spaces of the museum, where the interior spaces unfold to the exterior areas of the city.

*** All sq. footages pertaining to the integration of the existing hotel and the new form are dependant upon the sizes of the pre-existing structure.

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Theory / Design Link

Image 73: Site aerial showing proposed areas of intervention and sizes.

-Aldo Rossi

The history and meaning of the site for this thesis must be articulated on many different levels. There is the level of memory which creates a certain subjective and collective meaning that connects the site to the larger context of the city. This level of history, then, is expressed through the memories and links with the found objects within this site. These artifacts begin to explain or express this history of the site. These elements or artifacts then become a separate yet connected layer which explains the site through a vicarious relationship of these artifacts and the viewer. The city scale attempts to draw the past layers of the site and the surrounding context into the scale of the building. The level of the city also plays a crucial role in discovering the articulation of site proposed through programmatic function and design initiative through the development of this thesis. By observing the changes the site has undergone throughout time, this thesis can begin to articulate these changes by superimposing them upon one another, and thus highlighting the differences within each composition through time. These changes

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can then begin to develop into formal design through the extension of the city grid and its changes over time. The spaces in between this grid and the present voids and derelict spaces are coupled with past changes of the site; the re-configurations, additions, and subtractions that the site has undergone throughout time. The emphasis upon layered information can begin to create a new form where these layers coalesce and thus influence each other. The newly generated form is where these two scales (the city and the object) unite, and in doing so, create spaces in which the newly generated form is inherent with and connected to the existing structure.


Theory / Design Link

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DESIGN THEORY/ RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS:

The artifacts then are selectively placed within these connections. Their arrangements create a situation where the new is connected with the old. The scale of the structure and form is emphasized by the found objects which creates a complex dialogue between the viewer and the site itself. The artifacts are not confined to a specific dimension of space, but are strategically combined amongst the new form and pre-existing structure so as to create a meaningful transcendence of time throughout the structures. This emphasis upon the history and meaning, shown through such artifacts, draws the viewer through different periods of time, while each individual artifact tells a different story of the site. “…The city is a cumulative and man-made creation where each site and structure in an artifact – a place of collective memory where earlier meanings are retained even as its function or context is forced to change.” 122

Conclusions • Investigations • Mappings

Image 49: Hedmark Cathedral, the placement of artifacts and their relationship to the viewer.

Images 50, 51, 52, & 53: The Divine Lorraine, portrayed collective memories, through artifacts telling a story...

As discussed previously, Philadelphia contains a rich historical background interspersed throughout the entirety of the city. The re-connection of a specific historically complex site has the ability to reconnect the city as a whole and to begin to rid the city of its apparent disparity. The utilization of three scales is extremely important to the design and the realms of this project. The chosen case studies do not have a direct relationship to the site chosen for the thesis; but they do however, have direct relationships concerning the underlying design initiative. They are also related through the juxtapositions of scale throughout the design. For example, Scarpa plays with more than one scale simultaneously throughout his design process. This is seen through his use of the element or artifact, becoming incorporated within the spaces of the design, as main focal points or areas of interest within the design. “In his Brion Chapel, he studied a “candelabrum,” which eventually became the backbone of his

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design. He derived a form for the individual pieces from the idea underlying this simple scheme…” 123 Therefore, Scarpa is utilizing the qualities he has abstracted from an artifact found within the site, in order to create a new form that can relate to the larger scale of the building and also to create a dialogue that speaks about the space through the use of such artifacts. These projects mentioned, deal with the “…articulating, connecting, and interlocking…” 124 of these three scales, in order to bring the site together in order for it to read coherently. The three scales involved within this thesis very considerably, but have the ability to mesh with one another and create a dialogue within the site.

Image 54: The Divine Lorraine, as shown ,previously Lincoln Market, with the rest of the city context,1886.


Conclusions • Investigations • Mappings

The context of the city shares its history with the buildings and then these buildings share their history with the objects that are indicative to each. Each scale relates to one another and thus creates connectivity within the site that once reconnected within the city, can rid the city of disparity; and these voided and derelict spaces. The underlying history and meaning, once made evident, can attempt to reconnect visually, physically, and mentally, the site. There is great potential at the site of this thesis project, for such a re-connection to occur. The three thoroughfares, Broad Street, Ridge Avenue, and Fairmount Avenue, pull city context into the site, and also radiate the site outwards throughout the city. These three streets act as an anchor, and ground the site where they coalesce, and these inherent histories of the city overlap. The Divine Lorraine, even though it sits derelict, still remains a social focal point within the many discussions of the city. It is the topic of interest for many city inhabitants, students, photographers, and neighbors of the site. The structure itself emanates a mysteriousness about it that draws one into

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the space. There is a certain kind of wonder surrounding the site. The character of the space evokes this sense of interest within the viewer. The imagination of a different time comes to life within the mind, and upon entering the space, the artifacts of the building begin to tell their own stories, even the detail of the brass drawer handles to the hutch in the dining room. One wonders where everything came from, and how the space acquired such eclectic elements. The discoloration of the frescos on the ceiling in the upper auditorium, or the faded turquoise paint in one of the bedrooms, creates a memory in the mind of the viewer, one in which they can place themselves back to when the space was fresh and the whole building seems to come alive again, even if only for a brief moment, within this memory of the site.

Conclusions • Investigations • Mappings

“I do art as a source of recall, as a source of my, shall I invent a word,” tributary.” I build altars celebrating the remembrance of the things that have been kind to our sensibilities….I build things because of the way I feel about living. I collect materials

because of how they have been associated or identified over time. In these places the things almost speak out to you: telling how they have been used, who they meant something to…” 125

Image 55 (top left): The once beautiful frescoes that have now turned into peeling paint chips. Image 56 (top right): A beautifully painted turquoise wall, with rich gold detail.

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The artifacts themselves contain a deeper meaning for the site. Where the building tells a story that relates to the context of the city, the artifacts speak of a dialogue between people and place, object and individual, object and building. They tell a much more in depth and in tune story pertaining to this history that is held within the building itself, and the remnants of the transient history that has come and gone at the site; and they allude to the “meaning of place.” The object or artifact could be anything, a hairpin, or brush, even a forgotten cuff link. They become pieces to the puzzle, and explain the spaces. They speak of who was there, and when; how wealthy they were, and so forth. They speak of a history of “place.” These objects, therefore, hold a collective memory relating to the site, and this memory is expressed upon viewing these objects. The building as well, becomes a kind of artifact, an “urban artifact.” This kind of artifact constantly differs from viewer to viewer, and its analysis is dependant upon each individual’s personal interpretation. “Thus the concept that one has of an urban

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artifact will always differ from that of someone who “lives” the same artifact.” 126 The building therefore, becomes a focal point and is associated with a collective memory, and houses the other memories of the site. There is then a uniqueness that is obtained by the mixed uses of the site. Throughout time, the sense of the place has changed, as well as the uses. Many transient people have come and gone at the hotel, as well as transient objects and situations. Many of these have lived and taken over the spaces for a while, and then they have left and the space have been re-configured for and by some one else to be used for awhile. These are then relived and viewed through the remnants that are left behind.


Conclusions • Investigations • Mappings

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Appendix A: Endnotes and Illustration Credits

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Bianca Albertini, and Sandro Bagnoli, Carlo Scarpa: Architecture in Details (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1988), 39. 2 Commissions for Architecture and the Built Environment, By Design, Urban Design in The Planning System: 3Towards Better Practice (London: Thomas Telford Publishing, 2000), 8. 4 Kevin Lynch, The Image of The City (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960), 3. 5 http://www.philadelphiabuildings.org/pab/app/ar_display.cfm/24990. 6 John F. Brisbane, “Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide,” The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and Builders’ 7Guide, 30 Nov., 1892, 1. 8 John F. Brisbane, “Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide,” The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and Builders’ 9Guide, 30 Nov., 1892, 1. 10 John F. Brisbane, “Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide,” The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide, 30 Nov., 1892, 1. 11 John F. Brisbane, “Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide,” The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide, 30 Nov., 1892, 1. 12 Information from Brian McLaughlin e-mail address: Bmcphila@aol.com 13 Information from Brian McLaughlin e-mail address: Bmcphila@aol.com 14 John F. Brisbane, “Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide,” The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide, 5 Jul., 1893, 366. 15 Truxton King, “Father Divine Has Been a Greater Influence for Good Wherever His Peace Mission Movement 16Operates Than Any Similar Size Body of Any Religious Denomination,” Courier Magazine, 17 Nov., 1951. 17 Truxton King, “Father Divine Has Been a Greater Influence for Good Wherever His Peace Mission Movement 18Operates Than Any Similar Size Body of Any Religious Denomination,” Courier Magazine, 17 Nov., 1951. 19 http://www.libertynet.org/fdipmm/940911mk.html 20 http://www.templenews.com/media/storage/paper143/news/2004/02/05/ Features/OldHotel.Awaits.Divine.Intervention-598777.shtml?norewrite200611060121 &sourcedomain=www.temple-news.com 21 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_kmtpi/is_200605/ai_n16386131 22 Kevin Lynch, The Image of The City (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960), 1. 23 Kevin Lynch, The Image of The City (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960), 1.

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“The configuration of the city is due to “the relationship between the dwelling areas and the primary elements …” 127 The Divine Lorraine becomes both; a dwelling space and a focal point within the city. “If this can be demonstrated in cities in which historical events have always acted to unify disparate elements, it is even more apparent in the case of cities that have never managed to integrate in an overall form the urban artifacts that constitute them.” 128 These elements, be they buildings, streets, or smaller scale objects, have been lost over time. Their connections have been broken and their meaning within the fabric of the city has been suppressed. Image 59: The Lorraine Hotel and Apartments, circa 1900, facing North Broad Street, Phila. PA. Image 58 (above left): The Lorraine Hotel in 1922, where the three streets, Broad, Ridge Ave., and Fairmount Ave. coalesce.

Image 57: The Lorraine Hotel, with surrounding site, 1909.

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Richard J. Webster, Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Histric American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: Temple University Press, 1976), 283. 25 Richard J. Webster, Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Histric American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: Temple University Press, 1976), 287. 26 Richard J. Webster, Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Histric American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: Temple University Press, 1976), 287. 27 Richard J. Webster, Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Histric American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: Temple University Press, 1976), 287. 28 Richard J. Webster, Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Histric American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: Temple University Press, 1976), 288. 29 Richard J. Webster, Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Histric American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: Temple University Press, 1976), 290. 30 Richard J. Webster, Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Histric American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: Temple University Press, 1976), 292. 31 Richard J. Webster, Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Histric American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: Temple University Press, 1976), 292. 32 Richard J. Webster, Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Histric American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: Temple University Press, 1976), 292. 33 Kevin Lynch, The Image of The City (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960), 3. 34 Lain Borden, Joe Kerr, Jane Rendell, and Alicia Pivaro, Strangely Familiar, Narratives of Architecture in the city.(New York: Routledge, 1996), 12. 35 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 72. 36 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 72. 37 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 72. 38 Kevin Lynch, The Image of The City (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960), 10. 39 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 7. 40 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 46. 41 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 8.


Appendix A: Endnotes and Illustration Credits

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 8. Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 8. 44 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 8. 45 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 8. 46 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 20. 47 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 21. 48 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 21. 49 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 30. 42 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 8. 43 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 8. 44 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 8. 45 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 8. 46 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 20. 47 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 21. 48 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 21. 49 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 30. 50 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 21. 51 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 34. 52 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 34. 53 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 34. 54 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 34. 55 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 20. 56 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 16. 57 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 60. 58 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 60. 59 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 66. 60 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 66. 61 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 66. 62 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 72. 63 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 70. 64 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 67. 65 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 67.

66

42 43

64

Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 67. 67 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 67. 68 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 22. 69 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 24. 70 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 10. 71 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 9. 72 Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 9. 73 Lain Borden, Joe Kerr, Jane Rendell, and Alicia Pivaro, The Unknown City, Contesting Architecture and Social spaces (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2001), 10. 74 Sverre Fehn, The Poetry of the Straight Line (Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, 1992), 16. 75 Sverre Fehn, The Poetry of the Straight Line (Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, 1992), 17. 76 Sverre Fehn, The Poetry of the Straight Line (Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, 1992), 17. 77 Sverre Fehn, The Poetry of the Straight Line (Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, 1992), 17-18. 78 Sverre Fehn, The Poetry of the Straight Line (Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, 1992), 17. 79 Sverre Fehn, The Poetry of the Straight Line (Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, 1992), 16. 80 Sverre Fehn, The Poetry of the Straight Line (Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, 1992), 18. 81 Sverre Fehn, The Poetry of the Straight Line (Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, 1992), 20. 82 Kevin Lynch, The Image of The City (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960), 4. 83 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge

Appendix A: Endnotes and Illustration Credits

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 157. 84 Peter Noever, Carlo Scarpa, The Craft of Architecture (Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2003), 40. 85 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 155. 86 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 155. 87 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 155. 88 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 156. 89 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 156. 90 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 156. 91 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 156. 92 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 156. 93 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 157. 94 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 157. 95 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 157. 96 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 157. 97 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 158. 98 Peter Noever, Carlo Scarpa, The Craft of Architecture (Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2003), 39. 99 Lain Borden, Joe Kerr, Jane Rendell, and Alicia Pivaro, The Unknown City, Contesting

Architecture and Social spaces (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2001), 12. 100 Lain Borden, Joe Kerr, Jane Rendell, and Alicia Pivaro, The Unknown City, Contesting Architecture and Social spaces (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2001), 64. 101 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 131. 102 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 131. 103 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 131. 104 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 131. 105 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 131. Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 132. Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 132. Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 150. Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 151. 106 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 152. 107 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 151. 108 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 151. 109 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 133. 110 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 133. 111 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge

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Appendix A: Endnotes and Illustration Credits

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 132. 112 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 132. 113 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 151. 114 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 154. 115 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 154. 116 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 132. 117 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 132. 118 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 155. 119 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 986), 155. 120 Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 155. 121 Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City (Chicago, Illinois: The Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, 1982), cover. 122 Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City (Chicago, Illinois: The Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, 1982), cover. 123 Bianca Albertini, and Sandro Bagnoli, Carlo Scarpa: Architecture in Details (Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1988) 32-33. 124 Bianca Albertini, and Sandro Bagnoli, Carlo Scarpa: Architecture in Details (Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1988) 32. 125 Steven Harris, and Deborah Berke, Architecture of the Everyday (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1997) 63. 126 Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City (Chicago, Illinois: The Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, 1982), 33. 127 Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City (Chicago, Illinois: The Graham Foundation

for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, 1982), 95. 128 Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City (Chicago, Illinois: The Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, 1982), 95.

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ILLUSTRATION CREDITS: Image 1: top map, Google Earth, maps 2-4 personal diagrams (Abby Chryst) Image 2: The Free Library of Philadelphia photo collection Image 3: Provenance Old Soul Architecturals, architectural salvage co. 1610 Fairmount Avenue, Phila., PA Image 4: Provenance Old Soul Architecturals, architectural salvage co. 1610 Fairmount Avenue, Phila., PA Image 5: Google Images: http://images.google.com/ Image 6: Google Images: http://images.google.com/ Image 7: Google Images: http://images.google.com/ Image 8: Lain Borden, Joe Kerr, Jane Rendell, and Alicia Pivaro, Strangely Familiar, Narratives of Architecture in the city.(New York: Routledge, 1996), 46. Image 9: map of Philadelphia, 1802, by Charles P. Varle (David Rumsey collection) Image 10: Philadelphia City Archives Image 11: Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 39. Image 12: personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 13: Google Earth / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 14: Google Earth Image 15: Google Earth / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 16: Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 312-314. Image 17: Google Images: http://images.google.com/ Image 18: Google Images: http://images.google.com/ Image 19: Google Earth: http://maps.live.com/printablemap.aspx?mkt=en-us

Appendix A: Endnotes and Illustration Credits

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Image 20: Richard Goy, Venice, The City and its Architecture ( London: Phaidon Press, 1997), 312-314./ personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 21: Google Earth / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 22: personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 23: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 24: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 25: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 26: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 27: Hedmark Cathedral, Hamar, private collection: Sneha Patel Image 28: Hedmark Cathedral, Hamar, private collection: Sneha Patel Image 29: Hedmark Cathedral, Hamar, private collection: Sneha Patel Image 30: Hedmark Cathedral, Hamar, private collection: Sneha Patel Image 31: Hedmark Cathedral, Hamar, private collection: Sneha Patel Image 32: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 205. Image 33: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 203. Image 34: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 207. Image 35: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 207. Image 36: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 212. Image 37: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 212. Image 38: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 211. Image 39: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 164. Image 40: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 164. Image 41: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge

Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 164. Image 42: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 185. Image 43: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 177. Image 44: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 188. Image 45: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 196. Image 46: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 187. Image 47: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 183. Image 48: Maria Antonietta Crippa, Carlo Scarpa Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 161. Image 49: Hedmark Cathedral, Hamar, private collection: Sneha Patel Image 50: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 51: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 52: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 53: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 54: map, Temple University Urban Archives 1886 Image 55: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 56: private collection: Abby Chryst Image 57: map, Temple University Urban Archives 1909 Image 58: map, Temple University Urban Archives 1922 Image 59: Lorraine hotel And Apartments, circa 1900, received from information obtained from Brian McLaughlin e-mail address: Bmcphila@aol.com Image 60: Google Images: http://images.google.com/ Image 61: Google Earth / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 62: personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 63: personal diagram (Abby Chryst)

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Appendix A: Endnotes and Illustration Credits

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Image 64: Google Earth / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 65: Google Earth / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 66: Google Earth / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 67: architectural drawings from DPKA Architects Image 68: architectural drawings from DPKA Architects / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 69: architectural drawings from DPKA Architects Image 70: architectural drawings from DPKA Architects Image 71: architectural drawings from DPKA Architects / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 72: architectural drawings from DPKA Architects / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 73: Google Earth / personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 74: Philadelphia City Archives Image 75: Philadelphia City Archives Image 76: Philadelphia City Archives Image 77: Philadelphia City Archives Image 78: architectural drawings from DPKA Architects Image 79: architectural drawings from DPKA Architects Image 80: Hexamer maps: Philadelphia City Archives Image 81: personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 82: Hexamer maps: Philadelphia City Archives Image 83: personal diagram (Abby Chryst) Image 84: Philadelphia City Archives Image 85: Philadelphia City Archives Image 86: Free Library of Philadelphia Image 87: Free Library of Philadelphia Image 88: Free Library of Philadelphia Image 89: Free Library of Philadelphia Image 90: Temple University Urban Archives Image 91: Temple University Urban Archives Image 92: Temple University Urban Archives

Image 93: personal rendering (Abby Chryst) Image 94: personal rendering (Abby Chryst) Image 95: personal rendering (Abby Chryst)

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Appendix B: Additional Information

Image 74: Map of Philadelphia and its districts, 1854.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Image 75: Ward map of Philadelphia, 1875.

Image 76: Ward map of Philadelphia, 1899.

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Appendix B: Additional Information

Image 77: Ward map of Philadelphia, 1914.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Image 78: Existing ground floor plan of hotel, original drawing: 1/8” - 1’0”.

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Appendix B: Additional Information

Image 79: Existing tenth floor plan of hotel, original drawing: 1/8” - 1’-0”.

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

71


Appendix B: Additional Information

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

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Appendix B: Additional Information

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

73

Image 85: North Broad Street, circa early 1890’s. Image 88: Broad Street at Girard Avenue , 1934. Image 86: Broad and Ridge Avenue, 1928. Image 81 & 82: The Hotel Lorraine and surrounding derelict and voided space 1888, Hexamer map.

Image 83 & 84: The Hotel Lorraine and surrounding derelict and voided space 1917, Hexamer map.

Image 89: Broad Street and Arch Street, 1934. Image 87: Broad Street and Huntington Park Avenue, 1930.


Appendix B: Additional Information

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

Images 90, 91, & 92: The Hotel Lorraine, 1940 (top right), The Divine Lorraine Hotel, 1951 (bottom left), and Father and Mother Divine, 1948, (bottom right).

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Appendix B: Additional Information

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

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Images 93, 94, & 95: Design ideologies, representing the idea of circulation and gallery space merged, and the “diary of a place” portrayed throughout the generated form.


Design Schedule

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

SCHEDULE OF DESIGN:

2nd Quarter Review (Mid-Jury): - Schematic / formal design formation(s) (city contextual, building, and artifact scales) - Study models - Ideas concerning materiality and structure - Structural models, testing materiality - Drawings and sketches / working drawings - Connection details (artifact/ object scale)

Scope of Design: 3 main scales, utilized simultaneously, and worked back and forth / between throughout the design process. - Scale 1: City contextual scale - Scale 2: That of the building - Scale 3: That of the artifact / object (detail) Fall 2006: •Book – written formulation of thesis: ideas congealed, beginning of design process (through diagramming, and broad mappings) Hiatus: - Mapping and diagramming of the site (city contextual scale) - (end of) Site analysis - Montages - Line drawings - Combining of diagrams (building scale) - Initial generation of form (city contextual / buildings scales) 1st Quarter Review: (site model generation, worked on between now and Mid-Review) - Conceptual design - Concept models - Hypothesized site arrangements - Initial conceptual form (city contextual scale, and building scale) - Drawings pertaining to the generation of form, and landscape formation/ connections between new structural form, and exterior “purposeful voids” (city contextual scale, building scale, and artifact scales)

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3rd Quarter Review: - Mechanical systems integration - Formal structural design - Plans, sections, elevations, (axonometric, perspectives) - Materiality studies (models) formal structural drawings 4th Quarter/Final Review: - Connection of any gaps present within structural design, M.E.P. integration, and formal design - Mock layouts for final presentation - Final site model completed - Final model (s),final drawings and layouts: plans, sections, elevations, perspectives, and axonometric, showing materiality, views, structure, (rendered) - Photo montages of site and design merged, etc. / montages to explain programmatic function (s) - PowerPoint presentation highlighting important aspects of thesis…or written pamphlet, for jurors to look at as a reference

Bibliography

A REGENERATIVE ARCHITECTURE: The Production of Meaning Through the Revelation of Derelict History

- Aldo Rossi The Architecture of the City (Massachusetts, The MIT Press), 1982. - Bianca Albertini and Sandro Bagnoli Carlo Scarpa: Architecture in Details (Massachusetts: The MIT Press), 1988. - Bruce Mau, Massive change (New York: Phaidon Press Limited), 2004. - Carol J. Burns and Andrea Kahn Site Matters: Design Concepts, Histories, and Strategies (New York: Routledge), 2005. - Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter Collage City ( Massachusetts: The MIT Press), 1978. - Commissions for Architecture and The Built Environment By Design, Urban Design in The Planning System: Towards Better Practice (London: Thomas Telford Publishing), 2000. - Dieter Kienast Kienast Vogt: Parks and Cemteries (Berlin: Birkhäuser – Verllag für Architektur), 2002. - http://www.libertynet.org/fdipmm/940911mk.html - http://www.templenews.com/media/storage/paper143/news/2004/02/05/ Features/OldHotel.Awaits.Divine.Intervention598777.shtml?norewrite2006110601 21&sourcedomain=www.temple-news.com - http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_kmtpi/is_200605/ai_n16386131 - John F. Brisbane, “Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide,” The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide, 30 Nov., 1892, 1. - Kevin Lynch The Image of the City (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press), 1960. - Lain Borden, Joe Kerr, Jane Rendell, and Alicia Pivaro The Unknown City, Contesting Architecture and Social spaces (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press), 2001. - Lain Borden, Joe Kerr, Jane Rendell, and Alicia Pivaro Strangely Familiar, Narratives of Architecture in the city (New York: Routledge), 1996. - Maria Antonietta Crippa Carlo Scarpa: Theory Design Projects (Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1986), 155. - O.M.A., Rem Koolhaas, and Bruce Mau S,M,L,XL (New York: Monacelli Press), 1995. - Peter Noever Carlo Scarpa, The Craft of Architecture (Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2003), 40.

- R. Buckminster Fuller Guinea Pig B, The 56 Year Experiment (Clayton, CA: Critical Path Publishing), 1983. - Richard Goy Venice, The City and its Architecture (London: Phaidon Press), 1997. - Richard Rogers Cities for a Small Planet (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press), 1997. - Richard J. Webster Philadelphia Preserved : Catalog of the Historic American Buildings Survey (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press), 1976. - Steven Harris, and Deborah Berke Architecture of the Everyday (New York: Princeton Architectural Press), 1997. - Sverre Fehn The Poetry of the Straight Line (Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture), 1992. - “Saving Old Iran,” Architectural Review, November, 2001. Eureka Interface. (9/19/2006). - Truxton King, “Father Divine Has Been a Greater Influence for Good Wherever His Peace Mission Movement 16Operates Than Any Similar Size Body of Any Religious Denomination,” Courier Magazine, 17 Nov., 1951.

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Abby Chryst's Bachelor Of Architecture Thesis  

This is a compilation of my thesis work and writing for my BArch 5 year professional degree from Temple University; which i received in May...

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