Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust invests c. ÂŁ32million See page 6 on Fabric and Energy Projects INSIDE THIS ISSUE:
The cost of powering the Public Sector
The heat is on! Boosting energy efficiency in heating and HVAC
Four key criteria for industrial drive specification
FRONT COVER STORY: Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust invests c. £32million on Fabric and Energy Projects See Page 6
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ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
REDUCING CARBON EMISSIONS WHILE IMPROVING HEALTH IS ECONOMICALLY ATTRACTIVE, STUDY SHOWS FINDINGS SUPPORT PARIS AGREEMENT CLIMATE TARGETS It’s a classic policy dispute: How much should the current generation invest in reducing carbon emissions for the benefit of future generations?
study published in Nature Communications helps answer this question by quantifying whether reducing carbon emissions — which will have global benefits in the future — also improves air quality now. Preventing many of the human health burdens that result from air pollution would be a powerful positive incentive to act sooner than later. The study, which debuts a new climate policy model developed by Princeton University researchers and others, reports it is economically sound to quickly and dramatically cut greenhouse gas emissions given the immediate and significant human health benefits. The findings also support the climate targets prescribed by the Paris Climate Agreement in cost-benefit terms. The model combines the cost of reducing emissions with the potential health ‘co-benefits’ or synergies of climate policy; these co-benefits have traditionally been excluded in the costbenefit models that estimate how much the world should pay to reduce carbon emissions. When put together, the researchers find immediate net benefits globally from climate policy investments. “Increasingly, we are finding that is important to consider public health impacts in analyses of climate change decision-making. We’ve built these considerations directly into this new model to see how the cost-benefit calculation changes when these impacts are accounted for. If we include the health benefits, the model tells use to reduce our emissions much more quickly than it would otherwise,” said lead co-author Noah Scovronick, of Emory University, who worked on the model while at Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
The results provide an economic vindication of the Paris Agreement targets for limiting temperature rise: If improved air quality and better health are included in the analysis, then a target of 2 degrees Celsius (or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) is economically defensible. This is because the health benefits resulting from air pollution reductions significantly outweigh any near-term costs, especially in developing regions. Prior economic studies on this issue did not support such a strict climate target. “The climate problem has several features that make it particularly difficult to solve,” said Marc Fleurbaey, Robert E. Kuenne Professor in Economics and Humanistic Studies and professor of public affairs and the University Center for Human Values. “Here, we show that accounting for the human health dimension alleviates many of these difficulties: Health benefits begin immediately, occur near where emissions are reduced, and accrue mainly in developing regions with less historical responsibility for climate change. The finding that climate policy may not in fact entail an intergenerational trade-off could completely change the framing of the debate.” Their new modeling framework for analyzing CO2 policy incorporates the costs and benefits of reducing air pollutant emissions. In particular, the environmental impacts from aerosols – which result from air pollutant emissions – have never been fully incorporated into this type of modeling. This is important for two reasons. On the one hand, reducing aerosol pollution is good for human health. One the other hand, however, aerosols act to cool the earth and thus counterbalance some of the warming generated by greenhouse gases; this beneficial effect is lost when
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
Graphic: Egan Jimenez of Princeton University
air pollutant emissions are reduced. The researchers included both of these opposing effects in their framework. When all of the benefits and harms are taken into account, the researchers see immediate net benefits globally, both in health and economic terms. In particular, the global health benefits from this climate policy could reach trillions of dollars annually, but their magnitude will depend somewhat on air quality policies that nations adopt independently of climate change. The team found the strongest potential nearterm health benefits in China and India. “Some developing regions have been understandably reluctant to invest their limited resources in reducing emissions,” said Scovronick. “This and other studies demonstrate that many of these same regions are likely to gain most of the health co-benefits, which may add incentive for them to adopt stronger climate policies.” Scovronick and Fleurbaey conducted the study with Princeton University’s Robert Socolow, Mark Budolfson from the University of Vermont, Francis Dennig from Yale-NUS College in Singapore, Frank Errickson from the University of California, Berkeley, Wei Peng from Penn State University, Dean Spears of the University of Texas at Austin, and Fabian Wagner of the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis. In addition to Scovronick, Fleurbaey, and Socolow, Budolfson, Peng, Spears, and Wagner were all at Princeton when this study was initiated. The paper, “The impact of human health co-benefits on evaluations of global climate policy,” is available online: www.nature.com/ articles/s41467-019-09499-x
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EPSOM AND ST HELIER UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS NHS TRUST INVESTS C. £32MILLION ON FABRIC AND ENERGY PROJECTS
reathe, as part of the Mayor of London’s RE:FIT programme, are working in partnership with Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust on a programme of retrofitting works that will significantly reduce energy costs and CO2 emissions. Following a very successful fabric improvement programme which completed in February this year, Breathe are also delivering critical infrastructure upgrade schemes at both Epsom and St Helier Hospitals. The majority of this project is to be financed from the London Energy Efficiency Fund (“LEEF”) and the recently launched Mayor of London’s Energy Efficiency fund (“MEEF”), both of which are managed by Amber Infrastructure. The fabric improvements at St Helier have included structural repairs, updating external wall insulation and window replacements of the St Helier Hospital B and C blocks. The investment made by the Trust in this project will ensure an extension to the life of the hospital’s façade for many years to come and the fast track delivery of the backlog maintenance will deliver huge savings. Breathe was appointed to examine ways to reduce energy costs and improve energy infrastructure at these sites under the Mayor of London’s RE:FIT programme. As part of the project scope developed by Breathe, on the St Helier site, the steam central boiler
plant will be replaced by new energy efficient boilers and a low NOx Combined Heat and Power Plant will reduce ongoing operating costs. Steam systems throughout the hospital will also be replaced by easier to maintain low temperature hot water piping. Lighting, control systems and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems will also be replaced or upgraded, creating a safer, well equipped environment which promotes the wellbeing of staff and patients. On the Epsom site, the Hospital is undergoing a significant transformation with the relocation of core energy services to accommodate a land sale. The project will see a new high efficiency central boiler plant, a new combined heat and power plant
plus a new standby generator installed in a novel design intended to minimise spatial requirements for this new equipment and maximise the space available across the site. The lighting systems throughout the hospital will also be upgraded, providing a higher quality environment for patients and staff. As part of the RE:FIT programme Breathe will provide a long term performance guarantee to ensure the investment made by the Trust is underpinned by energy savings. https://breatheenergy.com
FLEXITRICITY SET TO POWER SMART LOCAL ENERGY SCHEME
lexitricity will help deliver a leadingedge demonstrator project aimed at jump-starting the energy revolution. The Smart Hub SLES project will take place in West Sussex and will aim to integrate energy management across council housing, private residential properties, transport infrastructure and commercial properties. The first of its kind project will mean greener and cheaper energy for local communities. The proposed project will deploy a number of innovative technologies, including a hybrid hydrogen/electric vehicle filling station and mesh networks for power management, alongside more established but not widely deployed technologies such as heat networks. Flexitricity will use its demand-response expertise to establish a virtual power plant which can dynamically monitor and respond to energy demand and generation.
This will also involve designing a platform which could be widely replicated and enable public sector organisations to adopt flexible energy assets and participate in local flexibility markets. Advanced Infrastructure will lead the project, with further partners including Connected Energy, Honda Motor Europe, ITM Power, ICAX, Moixa Technology, Passiv- Systems, Switch2 Energy, The Carbon and Energy Fund and West Sussex County Council. The project is one of four UK smart energy systems demonstrator projects that have been announced by Energy and Clean Growth Minister Claire Perry. The demonstrator will show how businesses can develop local clean energy approaches at scale that will create better outcomes for consumers and promote economic growth for the UK. By bringing together the best research
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
and expertise, the initiative aims to transform the way energy is delivered and used, whilst proving that smarter local energy systems can deliver cleaner and cheaper energy services. Funding for the project has been awarded competitively by UK Research and Innovation, the new organisation that brings together the UK Research Councils, Innovate UK and Research England. Flexitricity has pioneered the demandresponse industry, generating over £20million for its energy partners since its launch in 2004. It is the first supplier in the UK to provide full, active participation in the Balancing Mechanism for demand response assets. The Edinburgh-headquartered business now has over 450 MW under management – a virtual power station helping the National Grid meet the energy demands of the UK. www.flexitricity.com
WORK COMPLETES ON £1.6 MILLION ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENTS AT WHISTON HOSPITAL
t Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust is set to unlock an annual saving of more than £500,000 on its energy bills thanks to the installation of new energy technology at Whiston Hospital. The hospital, part of the St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, invested £1.6 million to upgrade its existing energy infrastructure with stateof-the-art energy technology. Delivered by Centrica Business Solutions in partnership with the hospital’s facilities management provider, Vinci Facilities, the project will also reduce the hospital’s annual carbon emissions by more than 3,000 tonnes– the equivalent to taking more than 615 cars off the road. Work at Whiston Hospital included the installation of a new combined heat and power unit that will generate heat and electricity on site, as well as the replacement of an existing 4.5 MW boiler.
David Downs, Facilities Manager at Whiston Hospital said: “This has been a fantastic project for Whiston Hospital. It has been so inspiring to see how driven every stakeholder was by the environmental and economic benefits the scheme brings to the Trust. Everyone involved worked so well together to deliver the scheme on time, on cost and to a very high quality.” Dyan Clegg, Deputy Director of Estates and Facilities at Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust said: “We are very proud to have implemented this project working in collaboration with the Trust’s partners, delivering financial savings for the Trust and reducing carbon emissions. This has been a fantastic achievement and demonstrates the drive and ambition of all the stakeholders involved.”
St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospital NHS Trust provides a full range of acute healthcare services across their two sites; St Helens Hospital and Whiston Hospital. Whiston Hospital has more than 800 beds and serves communities across Merseyside. www. centricabusinesssolutions.com
RINNAI – FREE TRAINING FOR ALL INSTALLERS & CONTRACTORS OFFERING SERVICE & MAINTENANCE TO END USERS
innai, the UK leader in continuous flow hot water heating units and systems, is now offering FREE training courses to any installer or contractor who wants to extend their business and offer service and maintenance to their customers. The FREE courses will include comprehensive training on Best Practise of system design, sizing, installation, service, maintenance, regulations and legislation both current and pending. There is an end user expectation of being offered Service & Maintenance plans largely as a result of the domestic boiler market and other consumer appliances. Rinnai has seen enquiries and demand increase in recent years. “We believe we make the best products in the continuous flow arena and we strive to offer the very best in customer service excellence. We are committed to the installer and contractor as the route to the end user. Offering training absolutely FREE of any charge is also part of that commitment, says Phil Nolan
(Training officer) for Rinnai. “We will be offering selected Service Plans to include Call Outs, Planned Maintenance & Safety checks in order to give specific customers a total solution. We will be, as always, working with our installer and contractor customers to enhance and add value to their business offering.“ adds Tony Gittings, MD. Rinnai produces over 12 million gas appliances every year and the products are distributed globally to all parts of the world. All units are ISO 9001 and ISO 1400I certified (International standard for environmental management systems). Supported by many optional extras including extensive warranties and fully qualified technical after sales service teams, Rinnai is the first choice for continuous flow hot water. Rinnai hot water systems fulfil all possible requirements on new or existing
projects, providing the optimum solution by using individual or multiple appliances in a cascade system. “Rinnai employ innovative manufacturing and testing techniques to deliver unparalleled levels of safety, comfort and efficiency for the end user.” says Tony Gittings For more information visit: www.rinnaiuk.com
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
ENGLAND’S MOST INNOVATIVE DISTRICT GROUND SOURCE SYSTEM WINS INDUSTRY ‘OSCAR’ Kensa Contracting, ENGIE & Enfield Council win at the H&V News Awards 2019
low-carbon renewable energy scheme involving the retrofit of ground source heat pumps into 400 flats in eight tower blocks in the London Borough of Enfield has been named District Heating Project Of The Year at the 25th annual H&V News Awards in London, Park Lane (25th April 2019). The award-winning district heating scheme saw Kensa Contracting and ENGIE deliver England’s largest shared ground loop array heat pump programme replacing electric heating for Enfield Council, all in under one year and whilst the flats remained inhabited. The H&V News Awards, commonly referred to as the ‘industry oscars’, are the longest running and largest ceremony for the UK’s building services. Competing against projects from GEM Environmental, Vaillant, Vital Energi, and Woodford Heating & Energy, the H&V News Awards judging panel described the Enfield tower block retrofit as, “a clear winner with demonstrable innovation, excellence in installation plus wide benefits to the client and residents.” The Enfield project’s remarkability comes from its scale of ambition. Due to space limitations Kensa removed the need for an energy centre, a tradition feature in district heating systems. This was achieved by installing a small ‘Shoebox’ ground source heat pump in each of the 400 flats, rather than a few large heat pumps centrally. The Shoebox heat pumps were connected to ambient temperature shared ground loop arrays totalling 100 boreholes drilled to depths over 200m. One of the big advantages of a shared ground loop system is that, unlike central plant systems, it is relatively simple to subdivide district schemes into smaller units. In Enfield’s case, Kensa split the system into 16 “micro-districts” each supplying half a tower block, simplifying project logistics and allowing for parallel work flows, reduced timescales and disruption to tenants. With each flat having its own heat pump, each property is responsible for its own energy bill, and able to switch supplier; again a common issue with more traditional district heating systems. Tenants have saved £450 – £700 per year in heating and hot water costs, giving
Kensa – Aerial view of Enfield site
nearly £9 million in collective lifetime bill savings over the nominal 40 year system lifetime. For many this means no longer having to live in fuel poverty, allowing them to heat their flats properly, thus improving their health and wellbeing. The EPC ratings on the properties have improved by an average of 8 points, and the project will save 773tCO₂ per year – a figure which will increase as the electrical grid decarbonises. As ground source heat pumps are non-combustion devices, there are zero point of use NOx, SOx or particulate emissions; a critical advantage in light of London’s air quality improvement campaign. The project was eligible for upfront investment from the Energy Company Obligations grant and funding from the Non Domestic Renewable Heat Incentive, allowing Enfield Council to recoup capital costs to sustainably re-invest into further energy saving projects through their ‘Sustainable Enfield’ initiative, ensuring the borough is a great place to live and work for future generations. Dr Matthew Trewhella, Managing Director of Kensa Contracting, says: “The H&V News Award affirms this project’s place as one of the most significant and ground-breaking milestones for district heating, ground source technology and the renewable energy industry as a whole. Kensa’s district heating system architecture produces the multiple benefits of reduced fuel bills, energy security, electrification of heat, decarbonisation and reduction of particulate emissions. The Enfield project demonstrates that the system can be deployed rapidly and
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
(L-R) Comedian and host Josh Widdicombe, Matthew Trewhella (Kensa), Andy Merrin (ENGIE), Stuart Gadsden (Kensa), Carol Larner (Enfield), Dan Roberts (Kensa), Ieman Barmaki (Enfield), Cornelius Grobler (Kensa), Alex Perry (Engie), Sponsor from Crane Fluid Systems
at large scale and represents a blueprint for the future of heating in tower blocks across London and the rest of the country.” Simon Lacey, Regional Managing Director for ENGIE’s Places & Communities division, comments: “One of the key reasons this project has been a resounding success is that all parties have a shared vision which centres on improving lives, and we have worked collaboratively to achieve this goal for the residents of Enfield. We’re delighted to have been recognised for taking a proactive approach in tackling fuel poverty and hope to replicate this model across the country, so more people can live in sustainable homes without breaking the bank.” Kensa Contracting has published a timelapse film of the Enfield ground source heat pump project, which captures the groundworks from start to finish, available to view here: www. kensacontracting.com/enfield-timelapse
THE COST OF POWERING THE PUBLIC SECTOR
esearch carried out by leading energy consultancy Energy Management LLP has revealed that NHS Trusts spend an estimated half-abillion pounds on gas and electricity. Powering the public sector is a costly business. Keeping offices, hospital wards, classrooms and leisure centres heated, lit, ventilated and air conditioned can be a major drain on finances. And information obtained under the Freedom of Information act by Energy Management LLP, one of the country’s leading energy and water management consultancies, has revealed the true extent of the cost in some of these key sectors. Of the 237 NHS Trusts contacted by Energy Management, 64 percent responded with their estimated annual energy consumption figures for both gas and electricity across all their sites coupled with the financial cost. The combined total spent on energy for the financial year up to 2017 was an eye-watering £375 million. If you take the average amount per Trust and apply it across the board to all 237 Trusts, the figure would pass through the half-a-billion mark. Unsurprisingly Barts Health, the largest
NHS Trust in the country with a turnover of over £1.4 billion and a workforce of 16,000, topped the energy spend table with an estimated 12.6 million. Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, with 76 hospitals and clinics, came a close second with £11.4 million. For Councils too, many of whom are under severe financial pressure, energy accounts for a large proportion of their overall spend. Taking England, Scotland and Wales into consideration, the overall combined spend of 23 Councils (out of 79) that responded was an estimated £93.6 million. In Nottinghamshire County Council alone, £4 million was spent on electricity in 2016/17 for street lighting, signs and signals. Increasingly there is a need for public sector organisations to lower energy bills, hedge against future volatility and adopt measures that help comply with green energy legislation. Decarbonisation and government taxes and levies (third-party costs) now account for the majority share of energy bills (over 60% and rising), placing as much emphasis on energy efficiency as procurement. The phrase ‘the cheapest unit of energy is the
one you never use’ is well-liked at Energy Management LLP for good reason. For many organisations, time poverty means that managing the work required to reduce their energy consumption is an undesirable distraction from their day-to-day core activities. To further compound this, there may also be a lack of energy expertise and distinct skills gap creating barriers to finding savings and implementing reduction initiatives. This is where a reputable energy management consultancy can step in to remove these barriers and ease the way forward to achieve effective reductions. It has never been more important to understand and control your energy costs and our bespoke energy management portal, EM-Powered, enables customers to do that. If you would like more information on EM-Powered and its wide range of features and benefits, please get in touch with Ian Scattergood on 01225 867722 or email email@example.com
FRAMEWORK FOR NET ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS LAUNCHED IN PARLIAMENT
he UK Green Building Council (UKGBC) has delivered a framework for the UK construction and property industry to transition new and existing buildings to becoming net zero carbon by 2050, to meet the ambitions of the Paris Climate Agreement. BSRIA is part of the net zero carbon buildings task group which has supported this framework. The task group brings together over 180 experts and stakeholders from across the built environment value chain and is being supported by 13 leading industry bodies. It was launched last November. The framework offers an all-embracing framework of consistent principles and metrics that can be integrated into tools, policies and practices. It aims to build consensus in the industry on the path to decarbonising buildings. The new framework recommends guidance for developers, owners and occupiers targeting net zero carbon buildings, setting out key principles to follow and summarising how this goal can be measured and evidenced. The two approaches to net zero carbon
are suggested by the framework: • Net zero carbon – construction: the embodied emissions associated with products and construction should be measured, reduced and offset to achieve net zero carbon. • Net zero carbon – operational energy: the energy used by the building in operation should be reduced and where possible any demand met through renewable energy. Any remaining emissions from operational energy use should be offset to achieve net zero carbon. The next decade will see the “scope and ambition” of the framework increased to boost “greater action”. In the short term, extra conditions will be introduced to “challenge industry”, including minimum energy efficiency targets and limits on the use of offsets. In the longer term, the two scopes for construction and operational energy will be combined into a wider approach for net zero whole life carbon, covering all the emissions associated with the construction, operation, maintenance and demolition of a building.
Peter Tse, Business Manager, BSRIA’s Sustainable Construction Group, said: “BSRIA is proud to be involved in the development of this essential net zero carbon buildings framework definition, along with the other built environment experts and stakeholders. The framework vitally provides clear definition of net zero carbon buildings and direction towards a zero-carbon future. This framework challenges the construction and property industry to reassess the way buildings are designed, constructed and run, which requires a cultural change. A verified net zero carbon building for operational energy is based on in-use energy, instead of modelled energy, demonstrating a building’s performance is at net zero carbon. BSRIA’s Soft Landings initiative is an established approach, supporting the industry refocus towards in-use performance.” www.ukgbc.org www.bsria.co.uk.
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
HARNESSING BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY
ave you ever thought about why you save energy at home but not at your workplace? Our research shows more than twice as many people turn the thermostat down at home than do when they are in the office. Why is that? The answer may seem obvious – your finances are going to suffer if you keep the heating on at home the entire time. What about the office though? Most people we surveyed have not even heard about their company’s energy saving practices and care more about flexible working hours. This is understandable - as human beings we care very deeply about what concerns us directly, so our personal finances or our wellbeing preoccupy us. We do not see office energy efficiency as part of our problem or an immediate threat and the same is true for climate change. When we think about climate change we often think of something distant, abstract and slow-moving, not requiring immediate action. In the UK though, buildings alone account for nearly 40% of the total country’s greenhouse gas emissions. So how do you get people to change their workplace attitudes and behaviours? Clearly, you cannot just order them, but what you can do is give them a nudge in the right direction. A recent behavioural science experiment, commissioned by E.ON,
John Walsh, Senior Strategic Account Manager at E.ON demonstrated how over the course of a year the efficiency savings in a small office represented enough energy to run 81 laptops for 12 months or boil a kettle nearly 54,000 times.
At the core of this experiment, we wanted to test how a range of behavioural science theories can be used to change your employees’ habits and help reduce energy use – from switching off computer monitors and printers at night, to turning off lights and leaving the office thermostats at a recommended setting. The set-up of the office used proved ideal for the experiment. Each side of the office has its own energy meter, which made it easy to directly compare the impact that small and low-cost nudges have on our energy use at work, as well as the financial savings to the business, compared to a control group with no nudges installed. What I mean by nudges are small interventions, designed to prompt people into a different pattern of behaviour, such as switching a light off that they may have left on. These make use of behavioural change techniques to guide employees into more sustainable choices. The prompts varied from simple
Public Sector Energy Event Scotland
stickers above light switches prompting people to turn them off, text above heating controls guiding employees to keep it within an advised range to goal-setting personal pledges and assigned energy ambassadors to keep people accountable. The nudges installed were all subtle and low cost to produce, coming in at less than £50. As a result of these nudges, the experiment saw significant reductions in energy use, with the amount used for sockets and lighting falling by 4%. Meanwhile, with the experiment taking place in the colder autumn months, energy use for heating in both halves of the office saw a rise. However, while the control group nearly doubled its usage, the experiment group saw a rise of only a quarter. This resulted in a total saving of 26% in energy use for the half of the office undertaking the experiment. The experiment demonstrated the powerful role behavioural science can play in energy saving. Conversely, nudges may not fundamentally shift people’s perception about climate change, but they can shift behaviours leading to offices saving energy and consequently contribute to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. www.eonenergy.com/
The second in a series of regional Public Sector Energy Events will take place in Glasgow on 6 November 2019 at Hampden Park.
For more information, please visit: publicsectorenergyevents.co.uk 10
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
THE KIDS ARE ALRIGHT – OR ARE THEY?
Why energy education is still a vital piece of realising a sustainable future David Hall, VP Power Systems UK & Ireland, Schneider Electric
f the newspaper headlines of the past few months were all you had to go by, it may seem as though the battle against climate change is one fought between Gen Z and Baby Boomers in positions of (corporate and political) power. But not so, according to recent research into attitudes towards environmental concerns by Schneider Electric. Though younger generations more often describe themselves as being committed to sustainability, with three-quarters saying they are willing to spend more money on products if it comes from a sustainable brand, young people’s commitment to the environment only goes so far. In fact, on certain issues this generation has views that would shock their parents who spent their own youth worried about the ozone layer. Schneider Electric’s research has revealed that Generation Z – those born from around the mid-1990s and who are mostly now reaching the age of majority – are far less worried about the planet (and their impact upon it) than their parents. We found that the youngest respondents were half as likely to think that reducing energy consumption is an issue of concern; what’s more, they show little regard for a host of environmental issues, from energy saving to reducing plastic waste. In the last few decades, we have made great strides towards reducing our impact on the planet, but the gains we’ve struggled so hard to achieve could be wiped out if the following generations fail to follow in our footsteps. We can hope that the older they get, the more today’s youth will become aware of our impact on the planet. Yet how can we encourage them to care about these issues today? One way, we believe, is to paint a picture of the world we need to build to ensure a renewable, low-carbon and energy-efficient future. The young are idealists, but they are also ambitious. If we can show them the exciting, technologically-driven advances we are making towards a greener world, we can ignite the passion of these digital-native generations and convince them that the future of the planet is a cause worth fighting for.
LEAVING BEHIND THE AGE OF CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION When discussing the future of energy to today’s youth, we might need to educate
them about the wastefulness of traditional energy generation and distribution systems that we have spent decades trying to consign to history. Conventional, oil- gasand coal-based power plants have yields which barely reach 40-50 percent, while combustion engines, which propel the vast majority of our means of transportation, barely achieve 30 percent efficiency. Compare this to electric systems. Electric engines often achieve 90 percent efficiency, while electric heat pumps achieve yields that are three to four times higher than fossil for electric engines. Two-thirds of the energy in the tank is wasted. Fossil-fuel based heating systems (furnaces) have also proven to achieve much lower efficiency levels than electricbased ones. Today’s electric heat pumps achieve yields that are three to four times higher than traditional fossil-based systems. One of the arguments against electricpowered appliances and vehicles is the perceived high cost of renewable energy generation. While this might have been true in the past, this is no longer true in most cases. In over 60 developing countries, solar is cheaper than fossil fuels, while earlier this year IRENA reported that, by 2020, wind and solar generation will be the least expensive electricity sources everywhere. The growth in renewable generation is one of the success stories of our age, the result of hard work and determination in the face of those who said that green power was an expensive pipe dream. More needs to be done, however, to create the energy infrastructure of the future, which is why it’s so important to get Generation Z on-side.
SUSTAINABILITY IS COOL, KIDS One example is, of course, smart grids. These enable grid operators to ensure that electricity demand is met sustainably, reliably and flexibly; in conjunction with modern energy storage systems, they ensure that utilities providers can meet demand in the most efficient way possible. But meeting our energy needs depends on more than smart grids, which is why we’ll see a big expansion in microgrids in the years ahead. Microgrids are zones where energy can be managed autonomously. Examples include university campuses, industrial plants, and factories that manage their energy
resources within their perimeter. These might include generation units — such as wind turbines, solar panels, and traditional fossil fuel generators — and energy storage. The microgrid weaves these power units into a single manageable whole. Power from the outside can be balanced with internal production and, if needed, these microgrids can run on an optional “islanded” mode, disconnected from outside power sources. Smart grids and microgrids can only work effectively if there is an effective way to store energy from renewable sources, since these do not necessarily generate electricity when demand is highest. That’s why advances in battery technology is so important to our future energy infrastructure – especially for appliances and facilities that require uninterruptible power supplies (UPS). We’ve already seen great progress in this area with the cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries becoming cheaper even as their efficiency continues to increase. In fact, it’s predicted that Li-ion batteries will break the all-important $100/kWh by 2025. Furthermore, they are being used in an ever-increasing number of more ambitious applications: they are now capable of powering not just electric vehicles, but even powering cities. Elon Musk’s celebrated achievement late last year of building a battery to power South Australia in under 100 days provides a vision of what future energy networks will look like.
LOOKING INTO A CRYSTAL BALL With age, comes experience. As the climate change crisis becomes progressively more severe, it seems inevitable that millennials and Gen Z will come to be as environmentally conscious as elder generations now are. But allowing this process to take its course may be too slow to be effective. Through pushing sustainable technologies to the fore now, we are presented with a unique opportunity to get ahead of the problem. But as our society continues to evolve and digitise, we cannot ask the next generation to deprive themselves of the advantages – but to embrace them in a more sustainable way than previous generations did. www.schneider-electric.co.uk
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
BACS BUILDING AUTOMATION CONTROLS – THE INFORMATION REVOLUTION The industry is in the early stages of what could become a revolution in which data, the Cloud, analytics, IP connectivity and system convergence all “come together” to create the genuinely ‘smart’ building. This is according to BSRIA’s latest global study of the market for Building Automation Control Systems (BACS), published in January 2019.
SRIA’s annual World BACS study for 2018 focusses in detail on nine national or regional markets. It shows that the global market for BACS products grew by an estimated four per cent AGR to reach more than 6.3 billion US dollars in 2018 and is forecast to reach 7.8 billion US dollars in 2023. This in turn supports the larger market for value added services and maintenance. While hardware such as controllers and field devices still accounts for most of the turnover, software is growing at 10 per cent CAGR, which is well over twice the overall rate for the market. This includes the software used to run building systems and, also increasingly, to analyse and optimise them, as well as building energy management (BEMS) and other more specialist software. Globally almost 90 per cent of BACS software installed is still run on local servers there is growing acceptance of the Cloud and Software as a Service (SaaS) applications. Europe leads this field with the Swedish market being “especially enthusiastic”. Clients in German speaking countries continue to be markedly “more cautious” about entrusting data to the Cloud. IP connectivity is also gaining ground and typically comes in two “waves”. In
the first wave, devices are delivered with inbuilt IP connectivity. This applies to about half of controllers sold globally. It is also increasingly true of big investment items, such as chillers, and of those where an IP connection is most useful. In the second “wave”, which often comes later, the device is then connected up “as and when” there is a need for the connection. BSRIA’s Senior Analyst, Henry Lawson, commented: “As part of the general quest for smarter and more integrated buildings, we are also seeing increasing convergence in building systems. While HVAC tends to remain the primary focus, we found that in over a quarter of projects there was convergence, especially with lighting where the synergy is most obvious but also with security and even fire safety systems. This trend is particularly pronounced in new buildings and especially for larger and higher profile projects. Often it is not technology that is holding convergence back, but management issues such as different departmental owners for different building systems. BSRIA research suggests that the trend towards smarter and more integrated and software-and data-driven buildings is set to continue. At the current
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
rate of change, it might still take decades for software data and analytics to become the dominant element. On the other hand, we could well see a kind of ‘tipping point’, where breakthroughs, whether in the technology or in market awareness, causes a rapid acceleration in this trend. If this happened then we could, for example, move from buildings which aim to improve wellbeing, to ones in which wellbeing can be accurately monitored and adjusted down to the level of individuals in the building. This could represent either the ‘dream’ or the ‘nightmare’ scenario. The world of BACS is going to become increasingly dynamic and exciting: there has never been a better time to be involved in buildings and their systems.” Contact details (content & methodology):- Henry Lawson: firstname.lastname@example.org More information at www.bsria.co.uk.
PRIVA CONTROLS BRAND NEW, SUPER-SUSTAINABLE OFFICE BUILDING FOR BIG GREEN EGG EUROPE
ig Green Egg Europe has moved to new architect-designed premises in De Lier, in Westland in the Netherlands. The company’s new premises, which are controlled by a Priva building management system (BMS), incorporate architect-led design with high levels sustainability. Big Green Egg’s new building meets its environmental ambitions through the inclusion of a range of sustainable technologies. As the building is not connected to the gas main this includes roof-mounted solar panels; heat and cold storage in the ground; and exceptional insulation. Integration of a Priva BMS means operations savings and efficiencies are expected: the intention is to keep energy consumption to a minimum whilst delivering a healthy and comfortable interior climate for staff and visitors. Crucially, all the rooms at Big Green Egg’s new offices can be controlled separately using Priva’s Touchpoint One technology. The Touchpoint One allows users to adjust room conditions
including heating and cooling via a userfriendly user interface – it constitutes the latest generation of powerful and aesthetically-pleasing operating units. In addition, TouchPoint One measures CO2 levels on a room-by-room basis. As an increased intake of CO2 can lead to poor decision-making, slower reaction times and greater tiredness, the system’s ability to automatically supply fresh air will be welcomed by across the business. The unit clearly also highlights the status of CO2 levels with the help of clear graphical ‘traffic light’ icons such as a green smiley face (good), a straightfaced amber and unhappy red face when air quality levels reach a high level. Commenting on his new building Wessel Buddingh, owner of Big Green Egg Europe says; “The building is very well insulated, with precast concrete walls featuring extra deep cavities. I come from the brick industry, so I knew right from the start what type of brick should be used: a stylish brick that’s bigger than average, so you have good insulation
in both summer and winter. The Priva building management system also contributes significantly to the low energy bill. In the first four months we occupied these premises, our energy bill was zero!” “We’ve only just got started in the new building, so we’re still discovering and learning lots of things. For instance, we’ve not yet got any air conditioning, only a supply of cool air. Because the building features so much glass, we’re still finding out how best to deal with it. In any event, we don’t have a single regret about opting for Priva!” www.priva.com/uk
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ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
ABTEC BT LIGHTING CONTROL SYSTEM DELIVERS 60% ENERGY SAVINGS AT NEW SIEMENS FACILITY
btec Building Technologies (Abtec BT) has provided the control system for the main and emergency lighting systems at a new Siemens facility in Lincoln, rated by BREEAM as ‘Very Good’. The HYDRA integrated building energy management system (BEMS) from Abtec provides the foundation for the solution, ensuring comfortable lighting levels for staff and the testing of emergency lighting in line with the highest safety standards. Moreover, Siemens is achieving energy savings of up to 60% when compared with a traditional installation, delivering an almost immediate return on its investment. When Abtec won the Siemens contract it immediately began to assess the task in hand. The new-build storage facility was set to feature a large quantity of racking between which lighting fixtures would be required. It was clear from
the outset that the choice and setting of such lighting would have to be optimised to deliver the correct lux levels. While the lighting was supplied by another company, Abtec’s remit was to provide the necessary controls, for both the main and emergency lighting provisions, and deliver system integration to the central battery system in the warehouse. A further task was to provide a solution for the office block, which takes up around one-third of the new site at Lincoln. Again, the objective was to provide the controls for main and emergency lighting. Daylight, presence and manual dimming control were among client requirements in the office block.
Engineer at Abtec. “HYDRA advocates open systems and, in this instance, is working with three different networks: IP, KNX and Dali. We needed to ensure that all three systems worked in unison.” At the Siemens facility, the IP-based network communicates with a two-wire bus system (KNX) for local control, and subsequently with a DALI system. Key to this is the Siemens Gamma N141 DALI/KNX gateway, which enables communication with DALI devices over KNX. A Tridium JACE® 8000 controller and server platform ‘hosts’ the Hydra graphics and facilitates the scheduling of the emergency lighting tests and timeclock functions on the system.
HYDRA IS FIRST CHOICE
LUX LEVEL CONTROL
“We installed HYDRA, which could not only control the lighting, but also report on the lighting levels being used and any associated cost savings,” explains Russell Downing, Building Controls
Full control is provided at the new Siemens facility, where lights can be programmed to come on at target lux levels that are defined by the user. Having this system in place means
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
LIGHTING Siemens can capitalise on daylight saving hours whereby lighting comes on at a lower level during the summer months due to the brighter days. In turn, significant savings can be achieved. “It is important to point out the maintenance capability of HYDRA,” explains Mr Downing. “For example, if a light doesn’t come on, it could be because the lamp needs replacing – HYDRA will tell you what’s wrong. If it’s a ballast failure, then the need to replace and recommission the ballast will be indicated. Ultimately, the client’s engineering team and their representatives now have the capability to maintain the system themselves, quickly, and without calling someone out, thus achieving further savings.” Emergency lighting was also an important part of the Siemens project. The system that Abtec has installed means that the testing of emergency lighting is performed by a scheduler within HYDRA. The scheduler ensures that maintenance is in-line with the BS5266-1 code of practice. “Emergency lighting at the facility has a duration test annually and a function test on a monthly basis,” says Mr Downing. “This allows for savings to
be made by Siemens as they don’t have to call out an engineer to undertake the tests. By adhering to this code of practice they are also future-proofing against any new legislation that might come into play moving forwards.”
BATTERY SYSTEM INTEGRATION The warehouse at the Lincoln site features a central battery system based on the use of normal luminaires. Here, the Abtec solution not only includes battery system testing, but full system integration. Final circuit monitoring also forms part of the system functionality. When a circuit failure is detected, not only is an alarm raised, but the illumination levels of the remaining lighting circuits are raised to 100%, thus compensating for the loss of illumination from the failed circuit. Logic functions are used to switch on central battery-supplied lighting over DALI, which ensures 100% maximum load on the central battery system during test periods. Across the site, the system created by Abtec is able to provide the status of PIR presence detectors over BACnet so they can be utilised by the zonal HVAC control system without any
requirement for additional sensors. Abtec also devised a test solution for the self-contained battery system installed within the office block. Here, the luminaires feature integral batteries.
MINIMAL DISRUPTION Crucially, the ability of Abtec to pre-program the HYDRA system offsite meant that disruption to the construction process could be minimised. Any late amendment requests were completed during final on-site commissioning. “Siemens will already be experiencing a highly energy-efficient building, with lower energy bills,” concludes Mr Downing. “What’s more, expenditure on maintenance tasks will be minimal.” www.abtecbt.com/
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ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
ECOLIGHTING’S PREMIUM LED FLOODLIGHTS GUARANTEED TO LAST YEAR AFTER YEAR The LED Atlantis luminaires from lighting specialists EcolightingUK are an innovative range of LED floodlights that are compact, robust and built for both indoor and outdoor environments.
obust and weatherproof to IP65, the Atlantis luminaire is easy to maintain, lightweight and has a stylish body with versatile mounting options. These include wall mounting for area lighting, arm mounting for signage boards and canopy mounting for shop facades. Ideal for use in stadiums, security lighting, car parks, sporting venues, signage lighting and service yards, the Atlantis luminaire allows users to benefit from huge cost savings and makes a substantial difference to energy bills. This includes a 60% saving over metal halide flood lighting.
By using top quality Luxeon and Osram LEDs in the Atlantis, Ecolighting ensures very stable performance and a 50,000hour lifespan. As a result, Ecolighting is able to offer a five-year guarantee. The Atlantis comes in five body sizes and 11 different LED power outputs from 60W to 600W with lumen outputs from 6,900 to 69,000. 800W and 1,000W options are also available. The luminaire uses LEDs producing up to 125 lumens per watt, a colour rendering (Ra) of 70 and a colour temperature of 4000K, 5000K or 6000K. The Atlantis is designed with three beam angles, 85x135°, 30x30°
and 60x60°, with other angles available on request. As members of the Carbon Trust, Ecolighting is also able to offer clients low interest loans for investment in LED lighting technology. Further information on energy saving LED lighting schemes is available from Ecolighting www.ecolightinguk.com
CHALMIT LAUNCHES PROTECTA X
halmit has launched the Protecta X LED. The revolutionary, new luminaire is up to 50% brighter than any traditional linear light on the market, it has user-definable light distribution, a lifespan of over 120,000 hours at 25°C, is easier to maintain, and thanks to an optional battery stick, can be installed in half the time. Chalmit, part of the Hubbell Harsh & Hazardous group, is the leading
supplier of lighting to the oil and gas industry; its luminaires are used by the sector’s leading companies, including Shell, BP, Adma, Opco and many more. The Protecta X is Chalmit’s largest ever investment in product development; with four patents pending it is expected to lead to a whole new generation of LED lighting within the sector. The Protecta X has specialised optics which deliver the light of a 4ft linear in a lightweight and slimline luminaire package. The optics control the light, generating a highly targeted, bright, white output over the desired area, and limiting the amount of wasted spill light. The optics are available in a variety of distinct distributions, designed for key site applications – such as mounted from handrails for walkway illumination and localised lighting in low/ medium bay applications. This higher, more focused output means fewer luminaires are required, reducing, installation, inspection times and overall project costs. Furthermore, the Protecta X is 50% more energy efficient than a fluorescent luminaire, reducing energy costs too. Chalmit has also innovated with the emergency version of the product. The Emergency Protecta X has an innovative
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
battery stick which slots into the side of the luminaire, eliminating the need to laboriously open the driver enclosure to access the battery. If battery issues arise, the stick can be simply removed or replaced in minutes – reducing maintenance times by a third. The position of the battery stick also means users can purchase the stick when they’re ready to use the luminaire. The Protecta X also avoids the overheating issues of traditional linear luminaires, making it more likely to meet the stipulated 120,000-hour lifespan; even at 60°C, it has a lifespan of 90,000 hours. Its LEDs and driver are housed in separate enclosures extending the life of both components. Air gaps between the luminaire and central body prevent the collection and dust and particulates, which can also encourage overheating. Made of highly recyclable marine grade aluminium, rather than plastic, heat is conducted away from the new luminaire’s central body. These design features ensure the Protecta X has an exceptional ambient temperature range of -40°C to +60°C in standard models and -25°C to +60°C in emergency variants. To find out more about the Protecta X visit www.XSeriesLED.com.
MONITORING & METERING
ASSOCIATION OF INDEPENDENT ENERGY METERING AND DATA HEAVYWEIGHTS LAUNCHES WEBSITE
he ‘Association of Independent Meter and Data Agents’ (AIMDA) has launched a website to provide the industry with updates on its work to lobby BEIS and OFGEM to preserve effective competition for non-domestic metering businesses in the UK. AIMDA is made up of seven of the UK’s largest and competing, independent non-domestic customer metering and data collection businesses. It is actively lobbying OFGEM and BEIS to influence government policy making, and so preserve effective competition for the benefit of the customer in the markets for energy metering and data for business users. AIMDA is calling for open access to the Data Communications Company (DCC) to ensure that independent UK businesses can continue to offer settlement services and preserve the ability to keep competition
and choice for energy customers; not a single provider but multiple service providers to choose from. The purpose of the new website is to keep the industry abreast of the lobbying AIMDA is undertaking on behalf of the independent, non-domestic energy metering and data businesses in the UK. It lists all of the AIMDA members with contact details and includes all letters issued between AIMDA, BEIS and OFGEM. Since its establishment in June 2018, the Association has been extremely pleased with some of the changes made by BEIS and OFGEM, specifically around advanced metering installations. The Association is delighted to confirm that there have been changes to the regulations around advanced metering installations delivering a number of benefits to businesses in the UK with the key benefits being:
Advanced metering continues to be allowable for all non-microbusiness or group customers. This means that end user customers with larger sites and a selection of smaller sites can continue to install advanced meters to bring data from all sites into a single platform. • That these group customer sites can move more quickly to obtain online visibility of their energy data and not delay or hinder their sustainability targets and energy efficiency activities; rather than waiting for SMETS2 to mature. • The installation of advanced metering contributes to the energy suppliers 2020 smart meter roll out requirements set by government. AIMDA continues to attend BEIS and OFGEM meetings and provide responses into the consultation processes being run, this information will be available via the new website www.aimda.co.uk
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
MONITORING & METERING
POWER QUALITY ISSUES – PART 3 – TRANSIENTS AND INTERFERENCE Discussed here together because they are both high frequency power quality events, interference and transients, or spikes as they are often referred, can have an effect on the equipment within and operation of an electrical installation ranging from mildly irritating to extremely damaging and costly. In part 3 of this series on power quality issues Julian Grant – General Manager at Chauvin Arnoux UK, looks at the causes and effects of interference and transient voltages on the electrical supply of an installation, along with solutions to protecting against, or removing them.
n electrical transient is a very fast, short duration spike in voltage which could be several kV in magnitude. This voltage spike produces a corresponding increase in current in the load, seen as a current spike, and this in turn results in a momentary increase in transferred energy. Depending on the magnitude and duration of the transient, the resulting transferred energy to the load can be of little to no consequence, or it could cause significant damage. Transients may also occur as bursts rather than singular events. As with most power quality issues transients are often assumed to be generated by outside sources such as lightning strikes, load switching, and fault clearance within the utility supply equipment. However, while lightning induced transients present the greatest risk of equipment failure and damage, due to the voltages they reach and the energy levels they may contain, most transients originate from internal sources within a facility. In fact, studies have
indicated that greater than 80% of transients in any particular facility are internally generated. So, accepting they are rare, why are lightning induced transients potentially so damaging? The current within a typical lightning strike rises quickly to its maximum level within 1 to 10 microseconds, before it then decays at a rate of about 50 to 200 microseconds. Because the current within a lightning strike is of a transient nature several phenomena come into play. Short duration current spikes tend to travel on the surface of a conductor due to skin effect, and rapidly changing currents also create electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) that radiate outward from the point of the strike. If the radiated pulses pass over conductive items such as power lines, communication lines, or metallic pipes, they may induce a transient current into those items that then runs along the surface to the point of termination. Even a strike to the ground near to a piece of electrical infrastructure can have such an effect. Other infrequent external factors like load switching and fault clearance within the utility supply can generate transients, although generally smaller than those generated by lightning. This is due to either the interaction between magnetic and electrostatic energy stored in the inductance and capacitance of the circuit, and a load being connected to it during the closing of the switch
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
contacts, or the interaction between the mechanical energy stored in rotating machines, and the energy stored in the inductance and capacitance of the circuit, when additional generation capacity is switched in and out. Transients are more often produced from within the installation each time a switching operation occurs, such as bus transfer switching or even a normal circuit breaker or contactor opening or closing. Simply turning a light switch on or off can create a transient, and in all cases the transients generated will be worsened by breakers and switches arcing due to faulty or corroded contacts. Abnormal events such as MCB’s tripping during the clearing of faults also cause transients. Office equipment such as photocopiers and laser printers are notorious for generating transients, as are HVAC systems. In fact, whenever an inductive or capacitive load is either connected to or disconnected from the power source it generates a surge impulse that propagates back through the electrical system. That shock you get after you walk across a carpeted office and touch the coffee machine, resulting from the static electricity generated through the interaction between your shoes and
MONITORING & METERING
the flooring material, can also induce a transient into the mains supply. With regards to the effect of spikes on an electrical installation and the equipment connected to it, it is generally the case that internally generated transient activity may weaken equipment over time, but the threat posed by lightning and the switching of large inductive loads can reach levels that can cause insulation breakdown and subsequently deliver vast amounts of energy into equipment resulting in premature failure. When a transient voltage occurs that is higher than the breakdown voltage of the insulation in a piece of equipment a flashover may occur. During the period of this flashover there is effectively a low impedance path created through the arc, which the lower normal supply voltage will now be able to flow through. With all of the energy of the mains supply behind it the burning effect of the arc will increase and can cause the immediate failure of insulation in rotating machines and other equipment. Modern electronic equipment is particularly vulnerable to transient voltages due to microcontrollers and other internal components containing millions of active circuits in a package with increasingly smaller dimensions. Basic electrical theory means that the smaller the spaces between conductors the lower the transient voltage required to cause a flashover. Consequently, the voltage element of a transient will stress these components, and repeated exposure to such spikes will result in an otherwise healthy silicone device failing. Based on the utilisation of electronic components in all aspects of the modern facility this could result in process automation disruption, including variable speed drive (VSD) failure, computer, network, or general IT crashes, loss of data, or the need for premature equipment replacement. Electrical spikes may also cause nuisance tripping of RCDs Methods for protecting against transients largely depend on what the voltage, duration and power levels
of the transients are, and the nature of the equipment connected to the installation. Power equipment, such as rotating machines, should be specified with an adequate level of insulation according to the point on the supply to which they are connected. Transients may be mitigated by utilising Surge protection devices (SPDs). SPDs are designed to prevent voltage spikes and surges damaging the installation wiring infrastructure and equipment. If an overvoltage event occurs the SPD diverts the resulting excess current flow to earth and clips the voltage. Depending on circumstances, they can be located close to the internal source of the transients, or close to the electronic load equipment, or both. There are three types of SPD currently available. Type 1 for protection against transient overvoltages due to direct lightning strikes. Type 2 for protection against transient overvoltages due to switching and indirect lightning strikes. And type 3 for local protection of sensitive loads. With sensitive electronic components being used in almost every piece of equipment vital for the smooth operation of everyday life, protection against transient overvoltages and the use of SPDs now has its own section in the UK wiring regulations.
Electrical interference is generally much less harmful and is caused by either electromagnetic interference (EMI), or radio-frequency interference (RFI), generated by external sources. It enters the installation by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction. Electrical interference can come from a variety of sources including Radar, TV, radio, mobile phone and microwave transmitters. It can be generated by equipment within the installation, although electrical appliances and equipment should be manufactured to EMC standards that minimise this. Other less obvious external sources of electrical interference include solar magnetic storms and other cosmic noise, atmospheric noise, and even noise generated by the earth’s magnetic field flux. Under normal conditions there is constant radiation from the sun, which varies over time in a solar cycle, and electrical disturbances such as corona
discharges and sunspots produce additional noise. Atmospheric noise, also called static noise or white noise, is another natural source of disturbance caused by lightning discharge in thunderstorms and other electrical disturbances occurring in nature. Electrical interference is generally unlikely to affect power equipment or lighting, although sensitive electronic equipment and devices controlling such items could be vulnerable. It most notably appears as noise, hum or hiss on audio equipment, and white lines or snow appearing on television and radar screens. It can degrade the performance of data networks, or even stop them from functioning completely, with effects ranging from an increase in error rate to total loss of data. Interference can be transmitted between close running cables through crosstalk and care should be taken to segregate power and data or signal cables and use appropriate screening. Electrical interference is relatively easily removed or blocked from entering equipment by a widely available array of products. EMI suppression filters and AC line filters efficiently suppress noise, ferrite cores and microwave absorbers help suppress it further, and ESD protection devices protect semiconductors from static electricity. These should be used in conjunction with appropriate shielding. Shields effectively shut out electromagnetic fields by enclosing sensitive items within a metal box, or Faraday cage. Screening on data cables is an obvious example of this. If you suspect you’ve got issues with transients or electrical interference it’s time to get a power quality analyser and set it up to monitor the installation. Interference will be immediately visible superimposed on the mains waveform, although it may be intermittent in nature and therefore only revealed by logging for a period of days or weeks. Thresholds and alarms can be set to alert of the presence of transients and capture them for analysis. www.chauvin-arnoux.co.uk
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
EVERYTHING CONNECTED: SECURING THE IOT IN CRITICAL NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE Jason Soroko, CTO-IoT, Sectigo
oday, there are 7 billion connected devices globally. By 2025, this number is expected to reach 50 billion. Bain & Company predicts the combined markets of the IoT will grow to about $520 billion in 2021 – more than double the $235 billion spent in 2017. A major buyer, among other Critical National Infrastructure installations, is the energy sector, which is seeing interactive appliances and apps and remote control capabilities integrated in industrial operations. The benefits of IoT in the energy sector are clear. It ensures the reliability of the supply and can prevent outages by controlling the flux of power at any given moment. The modernisation of the system also means increased energy efficiency and less need for human intervention, a cost-saving advantage for organisations. In addition, by retrieving a rich supply of data the smart grid can create predictive maintenance models and increase overall safety. The renewable energy sector, in particular, is an area of major growth: As much as 40% of global energy consumption is expected to come from renewable sources in the next five years. IoT adoption has been key for this sector to grow and become more efficient, but with the increased deployment of connected devices comes increased vulnerability. Renewable energy grids, like any mass deployment of IoT devices, face security as a key challenge. Connected IoT devices are often poorly secured due to lack of awareness of what adequate security looks like. Cases like the 2016 Mirai botnet, with its destructive effects, have forced legislators to take action in order to ensure manufacturers are implementing the necessary security
measures – which to this day remains a matter of some confusion. Circumstances are worsened by the two-way nature of the modern energy grid. Solar-collecting consumers who pour current back into the system further complicate our power infrastructure and create new attack surfaces in the system. A crucial part of the solution is digital identity certificates, which are used to uniquely verify that devices belonging to the enterprise are untampered with and can securely authenticate themselves. Without these certificates, devices are much more susceptible to hijacking with malicious intent. Digital device identities are specifically named as a pillar of current federally tabled legislation. Legislation is required because of the relatively slow uptake of this vital security technology in IoT. Digital identity certificates are often absent from the conversation on Critical National Infrastructure vulnerabilities. There is a pressing need to bring certificates to the forefront, especially given the Ponemon Institute’s revelations that 90% of CNI providers are already battling IoT attacks. As an increasing number of DDoS attacks continue to target
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unsecured devices, organisations need to wake up to the dangers posed by helpful IoT devices which create new vulnerabilities in networks, it’s only a matter of time until cyber criminals’ technology gets so advanced as to cause an unpredictable amount of lasting damage to key national resources. Should such an attack be successful against the energy sector (as it already has been in Ukraine), the nation’s power sources could become compromised, with predictably catastrophic effects. In the UK alone, more than 66 million people rely on electricity, gas, and water to survive. It only takes the exploitation of one insecure device for dire consequences to result. A key concern that’s glossed over time and time again is that just one infected device can potentially shut down a sizeable part of the energy grid. The potential cyber risks are still not well understood by the CNI community itself, hindering decision makers from taking the necessary measures to prevent and counteract them. With such a complex and farreaching issue, industries need as well to establish alliances to support member organisations in efficiently confronting
it. CableLabs subsidiary Kyrio is doing a great job in guiding customers through the entire process of maintaining their IoT ecosystems, including connected devices and their security status throughout their lifecycle, ensuring there are no uncovered and vulnerable points along the way. The key here is making use of automation to eliminate the possibility of human error and to provide blanket coverage to all connected devices. This way, providers can combine the architectural and operational experience needed to guide customers through the deployment and maintenance of their certificates, from PKI design and deployment to entire lifecycle management. This helps manufacturers, enterprises, and standards bodies – such as the SunSpec Alliance – control which devices are connecting to their networks and then block infected or rogue devices from doing so. In this way, organisations will once and for all gain control of their PKIs, without affecting production or incurring extra costs.
HOW IOT SECURITY IS BEING USED IN THE AIR: WIMAX AEROMACS One case study where digital identity certificates are being used to secure essential operations is Aeronautic Mobile Airport Communication Systems (AeroMACS), which uses a purpose built, automated, digital certificate platform to automate protection of millions of connections between devices in thousands of airports all over the world. Smooth operation and the very lives of travelers and airline personnel hinge on these communications between air and ground being carried out safely and efficiently. Through automated certificate management, WiMAX Forum was able to install trusted, mutual authentication solutions for all AeroMACS IoT devices and networks, securing the lifecycle of all AeroMACS PKI assets while enabling the IoT infrastructure. https://sectigo.com
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THE HEAT IS ON! BOOSTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HEATING AND HVAC Matt Wallace, Account Manager, Specification (BMS/EMS), Schneider Electric
ritain can do better when it comes to heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). Despite great strides in diversifying the country’s energy sources and stabilising the grid, endpoint consumption continues to be a bugbear. Recent analysis from Carbon Brief shows that, while the UK is doing well in reducing overall consumption, the country is let down by a lack of progress in heating efficiency. As the seasons change, businesses will waste millions in energy costs and generate tonnes of harmful emissions. The cause is wasteful HVAC practices within their built environments, such as heating and cooling underutilised building spaces or poor control strategies that do not make effective use of latest technologies. Unless we can find better ways to be more efficient, the UK stands little chance of meeting its climate targets.
The challenge is not as great as it first appears. Businesses can cut capital costs and, at the same time, reduce operational cost and risk by taking a smarter, more integrated approach to HVAC and building management.
and best practises, there is a genuine lack of thought and understanding around building controls. This, in turn, hinders the ability to actually implement systems that allow theoretical designs to be practically achieved.
However, to achieve this there must be more than an industry-wide rethink of building control philosophies in relation to HVAC. There must also be a greater appreciation of the building management system (BMS) as a valuable tool to connect data from traditionally disparate building systems to create tangible benefits to the end user, owner and operator. The overall operational efficiency of buildings beyond capital schemes is often an afterthought. Only once the right connected infrastructure is in place can we carry our ageing buildings into the 21st century.
There is little joined-up thinking between stakeholders, designers and construction teams while communication between engineers, the building management team and construction teams is limited. This results in a design that neither integrates well with the BMS, takes advantage of existing infrastructure or utilises the capabilities of smarter products available as standard.
NEW BLOOD AND NEW IDEAS
Yet this only hints towards a wider attitude across the industry that fails to see the true value of building management controls. It is possible to improve HVAC efficiency with greater early design collaboration and implementing connected technologies that enable smart building analytics.
One of the major problems holding us back is siloed, conservative thinking around HVAC design. Before it can be installed, a building’s HVAC system must be created according to specifications by a consultant or engineer. While they generally do an excellent job of mechanical design, system fundamentals
To achieve this will require a significant change in perspective. Many stakeholders are unaccustomed to change and wary of new technologies that, at first glance, seem to make their work more complicated. Luckily, there is already light at the end of the tunnel. Today’s young generation of engineers
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
based on energy cost, severity and comfort impact. Artificial intelligence capabilities can aid the process by identifying problem conditions and offering remedies to resolve them. This enables facility managers to ensure the operability of their equipment whilst identifying cost-saving measures and mechanical system inefficiencies.
and buildings professionals are digital natives by nature. They are more likely to see the benefits of the Internet of Things (IoT) and understand how to use its insights to drive improvements. When systems are connected and data constantly generated it is possible to highlight the links between energy, comfort and productivity, as well as between HVAC performance and profitability. It is up to building managers to make analytics part of the equation, and for HVAC engineers to work with them to build systems that utilise Internet of Things capabilities in turn creating insightful information to be qualified by analytics.
A NEW PHILOSOPHY To cut down on HVAC waste, building managers must leverage best of breed solutions. Smart sensors, valves and actuators – when embedded into the building structure and connected to its BMS – enable continuous monitoring of the HVAC system. They also aid commissioning and maintenance by providing mobile apps to test, commission and create auditable tracking while also providing quality information to the analytics packages. A centralised analytics function tracks both system and device health through BMS alarms and reports, and can use remote connection technology to keep managers and engineers informed. They can be kept up to date with a prioritised report of required actions based on comfort, maintenance and energy dependant on perspective. Using systems that allow cloud-based automated diagnostics, managers can pinpoint exactly which systems have irregularities before prioritising them
Building managers and engineers can then use the information captured to troubleshoot problems and identify service and savings opportunities. When an engineer is called in to solve a problem with building operation, they usually struggle to make sense of data that is disorganised and spread over numerous systems. Armed with analytics-driven insights, however, they can quickly offer recommendations for upgrades, repairs and maintenance based on the building owner or business priorities.
FROM DATA TO DECISIONS Data analytics drives positive interventions by building teams of all types looking to improve performance and sustainability. For example, it is common that buildings do not achieve their energy targets as per theoretical design. Indeed, there is rarely enough detailed information available from a building to understand why and where improvements can be made. By having a connected IoT infrastructure both mechanically
and electrically – combined with insightful analytics – it is possible to drive efficiencies by giving a better understanding of the systems and building to facilities teams. It will also allow design consultants to understand the operational status of working systems, revealing why a building may be consuming more energy than the design calculations suggested. This allows teams to base their findings on factual data rather than gut feeling. An embedded analytics function is also beneficial from a return on investment (ROI) viewpoint. In most construction projects, whether new-build or retrofit, each stage of construction pays for the next. That is, the money estimated to have been saved during one phase goes on to fund the next stage of the process. With a solution that actively monitors performance and can accurately predict costs and savings, engineers can use its insight to make better decisions and inform the rest of the project. Through this method, the most efficient buildings are built. When minds and technology meet, great things happen. More open controls philosophies and solutions, such as Schneider Electric’s EcoStruxure Building platform, deliver improved building performance and efficiency, equipment longevity, increased occupant engagement and productivity, increased resale and rental value, reduced operating costs and a stronger ROI. Connected thinking and analytics give us the insight we need to create the sustainable HVAC systems of the future. www.schneider-electric.co.uk
Rinnai enhances global branding with new logo
innai is introducing a new global logo as the company develops to meet the future. The new logo is a contemporary sans-serif typeface which is heavier but more friendly and gentle. Since the company’s inception just about a century ago, Rinnai has developed products specifically to enrich lifestyles and now has 16 bases around the globe and operations in over 80 countries.
The company is the acknowledged leader in the manufacturer of continuous flow hot water heating units and systems. For more information visit: www.rinnaiuk.com
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
DRIVING SUSTAINABILITY WITH HVAC SYSTEMS Shaun Hurworth – Head of UK Channel marketing at Glen Dimplex Heating & Ventilation
nergy managers will be more aware than most that the way we produce and use energy is changing. We can no longer afford to be complacent or wasteful with our energy resources, and regulations continue to set a benchmark for how quickly we need to progress towards using technologies which get us as close to providing net zero carbon buildings as possible. The UK government has been leading the way in improving sustainability. According to the Clean Growth Strategy (CGS), since 1990, the public sector has reduced its emissions by 40% as a result of energy efficiency and rationalisation of the central government estate. However, to meet the UK’s 2050 target of an 80% reduction, emissions from the buildings and activities of the public sector will need to be near zero. The drive to reduce emissions is supported in the housing sector by Phillip Hammond’s Spring Statement announcement introducing a Future Homes Standard, mandating the end of fossil-fuel heating systems in all new houses from 2025. This is in line with the latest recommendations from the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) on the need to reduce housing carbon emissions by at least 24% by 2030 if the UK is to meet its 2050 target. Heating in buildings and industry creates around 32% of all UK emissions according to the CGS. Decarbonising the heating and cooling of buildings goes a long way to achieving these targets, but it is equally important to improve energy efficiency and energy management at the same time. Currently, the annual energy bill across all public sector buildings in England and Wales is estimated to be around £2 billion, and this can only be reduced by implementing energy efficiencies at scale.
HOW DO REGULATIONS AFFECT HEATING, VENTILATION AND COOLING SOLUTIONS? The EU Directive on the energy performance of buildings has been in place since 2002 in a bid to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, reduce carbon emissions and reduce the impact of climate change. The original target was for all new buildings to be nearly zero energy buildings by 31 December 2020, and public sector buildings by 31 December 2018. This was revised by the European Parliament in 2018 to deliver more energy efficient systems into building renovations and strengthen the energy performance of new buildings even further. In fact, the new measures include: ‘Creating a clear path towards a low and zero-emission building stock in the EU by
2050 underpinned by national roadmaps to decarbonise buildings’. Building regulations look set to undergo significant change in order to move us towards this goal. For example, like elsewhere in the EU, primary energy targets are likely to become a more prominent part of compliance. These targets will define the maximum kWh/ m2 allowed in buildings for all energy use including heating, cooling, hot water, appliances and lighting. This target could significantly influence the HVAC technologies which are specified into buildings, but it is currently unclear as to whether primary energy will be introduced, and if continuing the reduction of carbon emissions will be considered in the revision. While any improvements in efficiency will be welcomed by energy managers, achieving sustainability through reduced carbon emissions is also essential and must be taken into account.
HVAC TECHNOLOGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE In government’s Future Framework for Heat in Buildings, it is suggested that heat pumps, integrated water, heating and electric systems, and heat networks are the way forward for viable, energy efficient technologies, with a reduction of dependence on more traditional high carbon systems such as CHP. Heat pumps are one form of electric heating which could make significant contributions to the long-term decarbonisation of heat in the UK. This could be in the form of traditional air and ground source heat pumps (ASHP / GSHP), or hybrid systems – for example hot water heat pumps (HWHP). Hot water is the dominant load within many newer buildings, so a significant amount of energy can be saved by producing it in a more efficient way. In smaller buildings, these units can be combined with direct acting panel heating to provide
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an alternative specification option alongside traditional heating and hot water systems.
CONCLUSION It may be easier and less costly to implement the latest efficient and low-carbon HVAC systems into new buildings. However, with such a vast number of existing buildings, change here alone won’t do enough to reduce the UK’s energy consumption or reach our decarbonisation targets. Innovation within the industry has already started working towards providing the technologies that are capable of delivering the change needed, and many of these could be suitable options for energy managers looking to transition their buildings from fossil fuel to low-carbon forms of heating. Adopting a low-carbon approach can provide ongoing energy savings and a building which is fit for the future. This means that it is important to get the right advice on selecting an HVAC system which meets these requirements. The next decade is pivotal for UK sustainability, and addressing our energy consumption is a complex process. Choosing an HVAC manufacturer who understands the sector’s needs and has a clear understanding of regulations, now and in the future, is key to unlocking the low-energy potential of our buildings. www.dimplex.co.uk
YORK HOSPITAL AGAIN CHOOSES RINNAI HOT WATER HEATING UNITS FOR UPGRADE Clifton Park Hospital in York, advised by A J Gastech - has chosen Rinnai to upgrade its hot wáter heating system to meet the increasing demand whilst staying economically and environmentally efficient.
lifton Park Hospital opened in 2006 has first-class medical facilities including 24 beds, two theatres, a day case unit, a large outpatient department with X-ray facilities and on-site physiotherapy, including a small gym area. In 2018, the hospital opened a new outpatient department with 11 consulting rooms, two treatment rooms and x-ray facilities. Clifton Park prides itself on offering exceptional care and service to all its patients and currently has a 5 star rating on NHS Choices, 4 star rating on Google and 4.7 rating on Facebook reviews. In the most recent survey - NHS Family & Friend’s Test, 100% of inpatients and 98% of outpatients recommend the hospital. The new water heating system features 3 Rinnai HDC 1200i plus a 500 litre cylinder. A Rinnai HD50i looked after the hot water demand for 10 years, without missing a beat, but due to expansion at the hospital a new bespoke system was required. The decision was taken to upgrade to more energy efficient condensing hot water heaters and incorporate the 500 litre storage vessel to give the hospital a means of dealing with peak hour demands. The heating engineer contractors, A J Gastech, were given just a 14 hour window in which to remove the existing system and replace it with the new one. This was achieved with a bit of time to spare, such is the expertise and professionalism of A J Gastech. A J Gastec Ltd provide plumbing and mechanical contracting and maintenance for private customers, construction organisations in domestic, commercial and industrial sectors. The company
offers services from installation to maintenance contracts with the variety of works involving sites throughout the UK for both public and private sector works. Says Adam Stante for A J Gastech, “We are based in Bradford, the heart of Yorkshire, and we have a dedicated team of specialists that work throughout the UK, delivering high spec projects on time and on budget. Our standards are of the highest quality, cost effectiveness and to our client’s approval.” The Rinnai HDC 1200i continuous model is for use on all high demand sites as it is easily capable of delivering 2000 litres per hour. It guarantees unparalleled levels of efficiency and hot water delivery for the end user whilst streamlining installations and guaranteeing future regulatory compliance. This is a precision engineered water heating unit can also be combined as multiple units into one single, easy to handle module. Both HDC1200 internal and external models turn in a market leading energy performance of 107% net efficiency and offer superlative ranges of modulation as the system’s internal analytical system can modulate the burner range from 54kw to 2.4kw. The Rinnai HDC 1200i is engineered for minimal energy wastage and maximum energy performance. It is worth remembering that Part L of the Building Regulations 2013 set minimum thermal efficiency levels of 90% for natural and 92% for LPG, consequently outlawing non-condensing gas fired water heaters for use in new build projects. Rinnai units and systems are now the number one choice for large buildings and businesses with a heavy demand for
constant hot water or where high peaks of demand occur at certain times. Any number of modules can be manifolded, so the water handling capacity is truly infinite and there is no risk of the ‘cascade’ of hot water ever running out. The manifolded 1200i units can be delivered direct to site in one complete, easy to manage package and at a very competitive price. For the end user this guarantees considerable cost savings over other forms of hot water generation. The relatively compact footprint of all Rinnai units and systems means it can optimise plant room space and safeguard accessibility for maintenance and servicing. There is huge potential for ondemand style water heaters such as the Rinnai HDC 1200i units to play their part in new build and in refurbishments where there are still many old systems that need replacing as well as old-style gravity fed water systems that use stored hot water. The Rinnai Infinity HDC 1200i has lower greenhouse emissions because of the new reduced NOx burner technology. As Clifton Park Hospital has a secondary flow and return system, complete range modulation is experienced ensuring that the system is running at optimum performance at all times. For more information visit: www.rinnaiuk.com
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
HIDDEN EXTRA’S IN NEW MODUSAT XR HIU’S – GIVING YOU MORE FOR LESS!
ith over 15 years of HIU supply under their belts, Evinox has unveiled their latest range of ModuSat® XR ‘Smart’ Heat Interface Units, which provide M&E Contractors and Consulting Engineers with a “whole lot more” for a “whole lot less” due to the myriad of hidden extras. Smaller, more compact dimensions; the ability to deliver high performance at low primary flow temperatures; TCP/IP communications connectivity; and new, lower output models to allow cost-effective compliance with the latest industry design standards are but a few of the ways Evinox ModuSat XR models offer more features, value and performance - but with less space requirements, lower heat network operating conditions, and less time on site to install, commission, support and maintain - than ever before.
LESS SPACE Building on Evinox’s BESA-tested range of Smart Heat Interface Units, the latest ModuSat XR and XR-ECO Twin Plate HIU’s have been enhanced to provide the same great performance but in a package requiring 27% less space in the home than before. Units are extra compact, ideal for tight installation constraints and help to minimise the size of prefabricated cupboards. The new units have been “designed by engineers for engineers”, with a real focus on providing flexible pipework connection options, easy access to key components and simple installation and maintenance.
LOWER OUTPUTS The range has also been extended to include smaller ModuSat XR & XR-ECO TP 30 units. These are perfectly placed to meet the recommendations in the soon to be released CIBSE ADE Code of Practice v1.2, which states that designers should specify a maximum of 25kW output for Studio apartments and 30-35kW for 1 & 2 bed properties. This recommendation has been included to avoid the oversizing of Domestic Hot Water, which can lead to increased costs and network inefficiency, so the new ModuSat range is perfectly placed to satisfy these new industry requirements.
LOW CARBON HEAT NETWORKS With the latest GLA planning guidance around carbon factors already causing a stir amongst consulting engineers and specifiers, there is already a clear incentive for heat networks to be designed around different heat generation
technologies, such as heat pumps, which in turn require lower primary flow temperatures. The high efficiency ModuSat XR-ECO models continue to provide impressive heating and domestic hot water performance at primary flow temperatures of 60°C (or even lower), making them the ideal choice where heat pumps are deployed. For example, at a primary flow temperature of just 60°C, the popular ModuSat XR-ECO TP 55-10 model can produce 34kW of instantaneous hot water at 55°C equating to a flow rate of around 11l/s; and higher thermal outputs and flow rates still where the hot water set point is dropped to 50°C.
installations is Evinox’s new ‘SmartTalk® Pro’ monitoring and diagnostics web portal, which now comes bundled with every ModuSat installation. Providing Contractors with remote access to each HIU on the site, any reported problems can be quickly and easily diagnosed – and often remedied – online, without the need for an engineer to attend site; saving time, increasing the first-timefix rate and reducing defects liability costs related to the heat network. As well as providing access to HIU operational parameters and settings, support engineers can even take control of the residents heating system, to update controller settings and overcome any reported resident issues without an engineer ever having to get in a van!
SMART, LOWER COST COMMUNICATION NETWORK CONNECTION
AN ESTABLISHED HEAT INTERFACE UNIT RANGE
Ethernet connectivity comes as a standard feature on all ModuSat units, allowing two-way communications for diagnostics, commissioning and support – as well as metering data – to be accessed across shared building infrastructure. This allows the significant cost associated with dedicated M-Bus networks to designed out, by sharing a common, robust and reliable communication network with other services, such as CCTV, access control/door entry, and lifts. And as part of this updated communications strategy, Evinox is also providing open protocol access to metering data through a new, customer configurable web-access to the SmartTalk® data logger, meaning the building operator can future proof the system and will never be tied to a single vendor for resident billing services.
LOWER DEFECTS LIABILITY AND AFTERCARE SUPPORT COSTS WITH ‘SMARTTALK® PRO’ And if all that wasn’t enough, yet another hidden extra giving Contractors opportunity to reduce costs and risks associated with their heat network
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The enhancements to Evinox’s ModuSat® XR and XR-ECO units contribute to the excellent features and benefits of the existing range, with quality, high efficiency and reliability at the core. This includes testing of every unit - hydraulically, electrically and electronically before leaving the factory. The ModuSat XR-ECO Twin Plate Unit is also independently tested to the UK Standard for HIUs from BESA, backing-up performance and efficiency claims; units come complete with smart room controls with optional energy display upgrade; feature inbuilt prepay technology and they can be commissioned and maintained remotely over the internet – a combination resulting in a truly Smart HIU range. Don’t just take Evinox’s word for it - units are currently in operation in hundreds of developments across the UK, including landmark projects such as Battersea Power Station, London City Island, and Wood Wharf at Canary Wharf. Find out more about Evinox’s ModuSat® XR Twin Plate Heat Interface Unit range by visiting www.evinoxenergy.co.uk or contact Evinox at email@example.com for further information.
SIZING UP HOT WATER STORAGE SYSTEMS FOR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS When specifying a hot water storage system there will be several considerations to make, but sizing will be key to ensuring a building’s demand for hot water is met. George Linder, Product Manager of Cylinders at Heatrae Sadia, explains how to size unvented hot water storage systems according to the application and usage of commercial buildings.
enerally, an unvented hot water heating system is fed directly from the cold water mains, delivering pressurised hot water to all outlets. With a wide range of types, hot water capacities and means of heating available, these systems are not restricted to domestic applications and can be suitable for other installations and applications, including those in the commercial space. For example, where there is continuous or substantial demand for instant hot water without loss in performance, such as in hotels, leisure centres, office blocks and shopping centres, unvented hot water heating systems can provide large scale, commercial capacity and fast flow rates to satisfy even the highest demands with fast heat recovery times.
STRIKING A BALANCE In a domestic application, the sizing of a hot water cylinder generally comes down to the number of occupants in a property, how many bedrooms and bathrooms there are, and the personal habits and lifestyles of individual occupants. In a commercial building though, the calculation becomes less about the size of the property and more about peak demand and hot water usage patterns, as understanding hot water usage on an individual-by-individual basis can be a near-on impossible task. There is a careful balancing act to consider - under-sizing the hot water storage system will mean there is not enough hot water for the building’s occupants while oversizing it will mean a vast amount of energy is wasted. If sized correctly, the system should meet the needs of the building without its occupants ever having to wait for it to become operational.
PREDICTING PEAK DEMAND With all schemes, it is important to be able deliver sufficient hot water during a building’s busiest period. These periods of peak demand will differ depending on the building at hand but establishing the natures of the scheme will help to determine likely hot water usage patterns and peak periods. Different sectors have different demand patterns. For example, domestic homes will have a completely different usage pattern to the likes of schools, offices and hotels. A school, for example, has set opening and closing hours and its pattern of hot water usage is likely to be fairly regular and continuous without noticeable peaks in demand. However, if a school has catering facilities to feed pupils at particular periods within the day and showering facilities for sports, this will likely determine peak demand. Offices, on the other hand, tend to have fairly continual usage so point of use style water heaters are often an effective solution. Other commercial use buildings have a very high hot water usage, particularly at certain parts of the day. For example, a hotel is open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and will often experience extremely high hot water usage over a period of around two hours in the morning and in the evening when guests are using showering facilities and on-site kitchen facilities are in use. In these instances, centrally located large capacity hot water stores tend to work well and applications can be met by unvented water heaters with capacities of up to several thousand litres and high recovery heat inputs.
SIZING AND RECOVERY In general, there are some key factors that need to be established to help
with the sizing of hot water generators effectively in commercial buildings. These include: the number of sanitary outlets and items such as kitchen appliances; their respective flow rates or cyclic consumption; how many busy peak periods are likely; the duration of each peak period and the time in between each spike; the number of occupants. Sizing and recovery go hand-inhand. Only once you have assessed the maximum demand, frequency of delivery and the recovery time necessary, can you determine the size of the vessel required to meet the end-user’s hot water needs. Recovery requirements will usually dictate the heating power required but this can also be dependent on the fuel type used and the output availability. This is especially significant where electricity is the primary heat source and the maximum power available is often limited.
FINAL THOUGHTS While it can be easy to oversize hot water storage systems, particularly for large-scale commercial applications, for commercial buildings which are already faced with large running costs for the building’s services, making savings on hot water usage can go a long way. Therefore, understanding a building’s hot water usage patterns as closely as possible will mean that demand is met effectively and efficiently. To register for Heatrae Sadia’s CPD course on unvented hot water systems, please visit www. heatraesadia.com/specification/cpd For more information on Heatrae Sadia’s range of unvented hot water systems, please visit www.heatraesadia. com/products/cylinders-and-hotwater/unvented-cylinders
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MAY 2019
NEWS & MOTORS DRIVES
FOUR KEY CRITERIA FOR INDUSTRIAL DRIVE SPECIFICATION
Specifying the right industrial drives is crucial to machine and overall process performance, but with industrial automation shaping the landscape for drive selection, it is vital to keep abreast of defining specification criteria. Paul Streatfield, Strategic Product Manager for industrial drives specialist Bosch Rexroth, explores four of the most recent key criteria for industrial drive specification, which meet the challenges of today’s industrial requirements. 28
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t can be challenging to continually update your specification choices in line with the rapidly evolving landscape of Industry 4.0 but in doing so, machinery manufacturers can offer their customers a wealth of financial benefits as well as better use of factory space, optimised machinery performance and improved safety standards. The key to selecting an industrial drive which is compatible with autonomy is to understand how that drive has been designed and constructed to operate in conjunction with other machines and control systems. In doing so, specifiers can better establish whether the drive will not only deliver tangible results, but also whether the investment will stand the test of time against the ongoing evolution of connectivity in the industrial sector.
ADAPTABLE PRODUCTION SPACE WITH CABINET-FREE DRIVE TECHNOLOGY Since intelligent servo drives have become an indispensable part of modern machines, end users have enjoyed efficient format changeovers and motion profile adaptations at the push of a button. This performance-enhancing technology comes at a cost though, and with more servo drives comes larger, space-hungry, control cabinets. These ‘unproductive’ cabinets essentially fill production space which would be better used for expanding a production facility through modulization. Historically the motor and control unit have been separated from each other with a power and encoder cable running from each motor into the control cabinet. This has long been the only way to utilise servo technology, until 2014
DRIVES & MOTORS NEWS removed from the system design. Compared to traditional automation, cabinet free solutions use a fraction of hybrid cabling with the same motor spacing. This not only cuts material costs and installation times, it also reduces the probability of faults in the cabling and delivers additional monetary savings through the direct connection of sensors, I/Os and field bus components to the decentralized drives.
INTEGRAL SAFETY FEATURES FOR FASTER ENGINEERING
saw the introduction of cabinet-free drive technology which retains all the advantages of servo drives, but which delivers up to 90 per cent lower cabling costs and a significant gain in space by eliminating control cabinets entirely. Designed in accordance with IP65, all network access components previously located in the control cabinet are installed directly into the machine. The mains module is a single unit and connects the entire system to the mains, containing the mains filter, the mains choke and the mains contactor. The regenerative supply module with control electronics, braking resistor and braking transistor completely replaces the supply and control electronics in the control cabinet, allowing the traditional cabinet structure to be completely
Drive-integrated safety functions offer an economical method of ensuring maximum protection for people and machines whilst increasing productivity ergonomics and efficiency in engineering. It is no secret that uncontrolled movements pose significant hazards and the more time operators have to spend inside a machine, the longer manufacturers are spending ensuring compliance with the highly stringent safety regulations outlined in the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EG or the relevant regional standards. Intelligent, drive-integrated safety functions make it easier and more efficient to perform maintenance work in accordance with legal requirements, offering a wealth of competitive advantages when it comes to reducing system downtime and labour costs. Building on the in-demand integrated safety functions such as ‘safe stop 1’, ‘safe limited speed’ and ‘safe direction of rotation’, leading innovators of driveintegrated safety features are already bringing to market a wider range of logic functions designed to deliver maximum machine safety even satisfying the highest safety level Category 4, Performance Level e and SIL3, in some instances. Some of these more sophisticated functions include safe door locking and safe braking and holding systems capable of monitoring and controlling two independent brakes via redundant channels in the drive, ensuring safety in the event that operatives need to spend time beneath gravity-loaded axes.
OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY WITH OPEN CORE ENGINEERING Open core engineering puts entirely new application possibilities within reach for the very first time, replacing traditional HMI devices with smart alternatives during the commissioning, operation and diagnostic phases. The ultimate in operational
convenience, open core engineering unlocks the cutting edge of machine performance by expanding access to the control core and inviting the use of mobile and digital technologies into the industrial environment. Applications made possible with open core engineering include commissioning machinery with scannable QR codes and the visualisation of processes within the machine, plus diagnostic tools which allow obtained data to be transmitted immediately for storage and evaluation. With new and extensive applications available using commonly used high level languages across all standard operating systems, developing bespoke solutions to a range of complex machining requirements is far more possible than ever before, making open core engineering a key specification criteria for drives moving forwards.
ELIMINATING HIGHERLEVEL CONTROLLERS BY COMBINING MOTION AND PLC FUNCTIONALITY Some class-leading drive solutions, such as Rexroth’s IndraMotion MLD units, combine motion and common PLC functionality to create a modern, open automation platform for modular machine concepts. By decentralizing the control architecture in a compact motion control system - with both motion and logic control handled directly in the drive - it is possible to completely eliminate the need for higher-level controllers. As well as offering financial benefits due to less hardware and cabling, this type of drive architecture also enables easier engineering, faster startup, faster diagnostics and the added benefit of only having to back up one data source. Scalable for a variety of process and manufacturing facilities, with ready-to-use function libraries to simplify use, this style of drive-based solution is available as a single axis control for basic applications as well as a multi-axis control for applications with a maximum of ten axes. Modules based on PLCopen also provide access to standardized motion control functions whilst open technology and communication interfaces simplify the integration of MLD with a variety of automation concepts. There is a wealth of further information online to further support specifiers in the drives selection process, ensuring that safety, operational and monetary efficiencies are paramount. For more information, visit www.boschrexroth.co.uk/drives
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IMPROVING SUSTAINABILITY WITH BATTERY STORAGE
ccording to UK greenhouse gas emissions figures, the combustion of fuel in public sector buildings directly accounts for 7.8 million tonnes of CO2 emissions and leads to an annual energy bill of more than £2 billion in England and Wales. Therefore, driving energy efficiencies and reducing carbon emissions play a huge part in the public sector achieving a sustainable future. And it is leading by example by reducing greenhouse gas emissions in its own buildings, according to 2017 greenhouse gas emission figures. The intent to see a more efficient, less polluting future is clear. However, it can be difficult to decide which areas to focus on and how to prioritise budgets in order to gain the best returns in reduced carbon and increased energy efficiency. One potential area of focus on is battery storage technology. Planning applications for battery storage capacity in the UK rose from just 2MW in 2012 to a cumulative total of 6,874MW in 2018 according to renewableUK. So, how can public sector organisations harness this technology to reduce carbon emissions and improve energy efficiency, as well as becoming more resilient to fluctuating energy prices, and reducing their reliance on the grid?
TECHNOLOGY IS MOVING FORWARD Battery costs have dropped significantly in recent years, largely driven by economies of scale in the electric vehicle industry. In fact, according to the Guardian, prices have fallen by more than €1,000 per kilowatt of energy capacity from 2010, to about €150-200 per kWh today. Additionally, lithium-ion batteries have been maximised in terms of charge speed and energy capacity over the last few decades. Batteries are integral to electric vehicles (EVs) and the government is planning for the public sector to ‘lead the way’ by increasing the use of these vehicles in their own fleets. Many EVs are becoming quick to charge and smart chargers make it possible to avoid peak charges on the grid. And the EV batteries can be used in the same way as any battery storage technology — providing energy for public sector estates during peak times or even putting energy back into the grid — a process known as vehicle-grid technology. Battery technology can also be put to use to enhance the function of sustainable sources such as wind and solar power. Although renewable, they are an intermittent and unreliable sole source of energy supply.
Paul Sheffield, Chief Operating Officer, Haven Power
But solar power is a low maintenance and effective form of energy supply when used in conjunction with battery storage as electricity generated via solar power can be stored for later use. Solar technology has also moved on significantly in the last ten years — and prices have dropped by 70% since 2010— leading to 3.4% of the UK’s total electricity now being generated via solar panels. Public sector organisations are well positioned to use the technology for their own energy consumption and storage, but the benefits in terms of energy resilience, cost and sustainability need to be identified before embarking on any strategy.
MAXIMISING COST SAVINGS Across the UK, electricity demand reaches a high from 4-7pm which leads to higher prices due to high thirdparty costs at this time. These costs are passed on by all electricity suppliers, so there is no way to avoid them during this period. However, switching to battery storage can help avoid these peak times and lead to large cost savings. Additionally, each winter season (running from November to the end of February), the National Grid retrospectively identifies the three half-hour periods – called Triads – with the highest system demand. These Triads are then used to calculate Transmission Network Use of System (TNUoS) charges for medium and large-sized businesses, including public sector organisations, based upon consumption during these three half-hours. By stopping or reducing consumption from the National Grid during predicted Triad periods – potentially by using battery stored energy – a public sector organisation could reduce its TNUoS charges and achieve significant savings.
DEMAND SIDE RESPONSE (DSR) DSR rewards organisations financially for switching their electricity use at certain times. Balancing the flow of power through the Grid is enormously challenging and DSR can be used to balance peak demand. The rewards increase according to how rapidly an organisation can switch its electricity use. Some use automated systems to switch at less than a second’s notice. Others adopt a simpler approach, but all benefit financially. And the rewards increase accordingly for organisations which also sell some electricity back to the Grid. In summary storing, and possibly generating
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renewable power, not only meets reduced CO2 government targets, but also has the benefit of generating income for public sector organisations.
BATTERIES FOR THE FUTURE The UK energy landscape is changing and with political instability around the world, wholesale energy prices are set to rise. And although Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) can no longer be claimed for new solar power installations, the business use case is still strong. When used together, solar and battery storage technology maximise cost savings. Furthermore, installation costs are falling all the time and are likely to keep on doing so. Additionally, the public sector can take advantage of energy performance contracts (EPCs) to finance the technology. These contracts have the benefit of no up-front costs, while delivering immediate cost savings, reduced carbon emissions and improved energy efficiencies. And these can be realised as soon as the installation is up and running. These factors have created an ideal landscape for public sector organisations to consider adopting battery storage as a way to reduce their costs and emissions. In addition, choosing an energy supplier which can optimise the battery by carrying out in-day trading and provide day ahead pricing, can assist public sector organisations to maximise these savings by informing when to buy and when to rely on batterystored electricity. Suppliers should also provide reporting which shows energy use from renewables and can be fed into an organisation’s total emissions report. Battery technology is certainly here to stay — it is attracting $620 billion of investment over the next 22 years according to Bloomberg. Expect to see lower costs, and innovative solutions which help to optimise both battery performance and charging times. And the public sector is ahead of most in the EV revolution — there are around 75,000 central and local government fleet vehicles and the government has committed to making 25% of its central vehicle fleet electric by 2022. The sector is already a leader in driving sustainability through EV battery technology — battery storage installations should be the next step. www. changewithhaven.co.uk/public-sector/
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• Join 200+ leading suppliers and build your sales pipeline • Connect with a highly engaged audience from your industry sector • Boost your brand presence, be seen as a thought leader in your field, and connect with new business contacts Organised by:
Contact the Sales Team today to secure your preferred stand location all-energy.co.uk @AllEnergy +44 (0)20 8439 5560
A UNIQUELY TARGETED EVENT FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONALS
JOIN US 30 September 1 October 2019 Radisson Blu Hotel, London Stansted
If you are an energy management professional, join us for a unique two-day event tailored to your individual requirements. For further information contact Lisa Rose on 01992 374077 or firstname.lastname@example.org
FACE TO FACE MEETINGS
NETWORK WITH LIKE-MINDED PROFESSIONALS
energymanagementsummit.co.uk Media Partners