Smart City Lighting Strategy launched for the Square Mile
INSIDE THIS ISSUE:
Ignoring energy efficiency is big risk for public sector
The unsung hero of boilerhouse efficiency
How local government can drive the EV agenda
Reducing water and waste water costs “It’s simple when you have the knowledge”
Water Strategy Water Audit Water Procurement
Centralise billing data Compile a water and waste water database Clean data base Complete a water audit by identifying any historical water company overcharging and undercharging Identify and implement “low hanging fruit” – fixed and none variable charges Water management – Drive down water consumption, benchmark sites, compile high users list Complete site surveys where applicable, compile written report containing recommendations for reducing water costs Implementation of recommendations The Scottish and English water retail markets - procurement of Scottish and English water supply contracts Future water strategy – ongoing monitoring and water bill validation
Tel: 01924 387 873
FRONT COVER STORY: Smart City Lighting Strategy launched for the Square Mile. See Page 26
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PAPER USED TO PRODUCE THIS MAGAZINE IS SOURCED FROM SUSTAINABLE FORESTS. Please Note: No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without prior permission from the publishers. The publishers do not accept any responsibility for, or necessarily agree with, any views expressed in articles, letters or supplied advertisements. All contents © Energy Manager Magazine 2018
Power company named most improved in top 25 places to work
Why specialist project management partners are needed in the capacity market
How would a nation-backed energy sector hack unfold?
Energy efficiency expectations
Power and Energy Logging
Fuelling the UK’s green gas revolution
SOCOTEC’s enhanced OASIS water recycling unit delivers cost savings to cooling towers
ISSN 2057-5912 (Print) ISSN 2057-5920 (Online)
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
WATER BILLS SET TO INCREASE UP TO 100 PERCENT IN THE SCOTTISH WATER REGION
That’s right you read it correctly – water bills in Scotland set to increase. WHY IS THIS? The charges which will increase are the property and roads drainage charges, these charges are based on the rateable value of your property. The rateable values are increasing from 01/04/18 as the Scottish Government has announced the water industry will move towards using the most up to date rateable value (RV) for all properties. When these charges come into effect the basis of the property and roads drainage charges will change.
WHAT ARE PROPERTY AND ROADS DRAINAGE CHARGES? Property drainage is the term that is used for the service of dealing with rainwater drainage from within the boundary of a property such as roofs,
private car parks and private roads that drain to Scottish Waters sewers. If rain water drains to the public sewer then property drainage charges apply. Roads drainage charges is the term used for the service of dealing with rain water that drains to Scottish Waters sewers from public roads and footpaths. If your property has either a sewerage connection for waste water or for property drainage then you will also have to pay a charge for roads drainage.
HOW ARE THE CHARGES CALCULATED? Property and roads drainage charges are based on the rateable value of the property, at the moment (2017 / 2018 rate of charge) the charges are calculated for property drainage at £0.02733 x RV per annum and the charges calculated for roads drainage
is at £0.01755 x RV per annum. As a Scottish Water customer you will soon be receiving a letter confirming the increase in the property rateable values. Now is the perfect time to have your property and roads drainage charges checked by water audit experts such as H20 Building Services as the charges may not have been levied correctly historically. You may have been paying more than you need and be entitled to a 5 year refund of overcharges and reduced charges going forwards which will go a long way to off set any increases in your rateable value charges. The charges will be phased in over the next 3 years commencing 1st April 2018. Don’t forget to get a free desktop water audit on your water bills by calling H20 Building Services on 01924 387 873 or emailing firstname.lastname@example.org.
POWER COMPANY NAMED MOST IMPROVED IN TOP 25 PLACES TO WORK
he UK’s largest electricity distribution network, UK Power Networks, has been named as the most improved company in the Sunday Times Top 25 Best Big Companies to Work For list. The company rose 18 places and won a special award for Best Improver at an awards ceremony in London. The company, which employs over 6000 staff and keeps the lights on in homes, schools, hospitals and businesses across London, the East and South East of England, was placed 11th in this year’s Top 25 Best Big Companies to Work For, marking its
fourth consecutive year in the list. UK Power Networks is the only energy company to feature in the list. The rankings are based on a detailed employee survey of UK Power Networks’ staff about a number of topics ranging from the support the company gives to the communities it serves to staff development and training. The survey found that people love their jobs at UK Power Networks and 69% would not leave to work elsewhere. UK Power Networks also scooped the Innovation in Engagement prize at this year’s ceremony for its ‘Your Energy’ health programme, which helps staff focus on their health and wellbeing and was designed in conjunction with six-time world champion kayaker Anna Hemmings and two-time world champion rower Toby Garbett. Andrew Pace, UK Power Networks HR Director, said: “We are delighted that our staff have once again rated us among one of Britain’s best big companies to work for. “When staff feel positive about their job and their employer, they are
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
much more likely to go out of their way to deliver a great service. The health, wellbeing and safety of our staff is very important to us and I’m delighted that our work on these issues in particular was recognised at last night’s awards.” The Sunday Times Top 25 list covers companies employing more than 5,000 employees. UK Power Networks ranks among household names such as Halfords, Iceland and Warburton’s. UK Power Networks has now gained 1-Star accreditation from Best Companies, which is the hallmark of a company that takes workplace engagement seriously and signifies ‘very good’ levels of workplace engagement. An overview of the list can be found here: https://www.b.co. uk/the-lists/big-companies/ It has been a year of achievement for UK Power Networks and in 2017 the company received its second gold accreditation against the Investors in People Standard, retaining its place in the top 7% of accredited organisations. www.ukpowernetworks. co.uk or tweet @UKPNnews
GMB CALLS ON THAMES WATER TO BE BOLDER
t is essential that there is never a repeat of the near miss of the 2012 drought so a belt and braces approach is the right one to rule out the £330m daily costs of failure of inadequate water supply says GMB GMB, the union for workers in the water industry, commented on the plans published by Thames Water for consultation on how it will source enough water for the growing population of London and the South East of England into the rest of this century through to 2100. Justin Bowden, GMB National Secretary, said: “There is much in this document that GMB can appreciate and evaluate as the basis for planning for the future. “First is the assessment, even after Brexit, that the population will grow by 2 million people by 2045 and by 6 million by 2100, with 70% of this in London. “Second, the aim to get consumption per person down from 145 litres per day down to 125 litres per day. “Third, the aspiration to cut by 15% the 700 million litres of leakages every day. “What is clear however is that whatever way you cut it, additional water sources will be needed to meet ongoing demand
and to avoid the near miss of running out of water in a drought as per 2012. “Thames Water plans to reuse waste water from sewerage works above the weir at Teddington and from the Beckton sewerage works. “This, they estimate, will yield 550 million litres per day. GMB will now study these proposals. “More contentious is the revived plans for a new Thames reservoir at Abingdon covering an area the size of the footprint of Heathrow Airport. “This is forecast to supply 300 million litres per day after it is filled each winter. An earlier version of this plan was rejected by the Planning system in 2010 and this latest draft is likely still to face opposition. “There are also proposals to move water from the Midlands via the Oxford canal. “The plan acknowledges that any serious interruption in water supply to the region would cost a staggering £330 million every day. As London and the South East are the engine room of the UK economy, this is not something that can be put at risk. “GMB is calling on politicians and the public to urge Thames Water to be bolder
and to move up the priority list a plan first developed by the Victorians to move water from the west of the UK via the Severn and the Cotswold canals and Sapperton tunnel into the Thames. This is covered in the plan but is not included in the current list of things Thames Water plan to do. “GMB urges everyone to push for this common sense and financially viable solution. Water is not something that is scare in the UK, in fact quite the contrary: we use less than 2% of the water that falls each year and which flows into the sea. “This is a win-win proposal. Thames Water should accept the water being offered by United Utilities from Lake Vyrnwy and get it to the Thames via the restoration of the Cotswold canals and Sapperton tunnel. “This has the capacity to supply 300 million litres per day and as a bonus, the canals are restored for leisure and recreational use. “It is essential that there is never a repeat of the near miss of the 2012 drought so a belt and braces approach is the right one to rule out the £330m daily costs of failure of inadequate water supply.” www.gmb.org.uk
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INDUSTRY IS WASTING POTENTIAL 44TWH EACH YEAR, WHITEPAPER FINDS
Power quality specialist proposes energy savings in whitepaper
ower quality specialist REO UK has released a whitepaper proposing that a lack of efficiency in industrial power drive systems means there is currently 44TWh/a of energy savings that could be made across the sector. REO has demonstrated the results in its own laboratory tests outlined in the paper and suggests that better harmonic mitigation and a change in the rules is required. The focus on climate change and the targets set by many countries to achieve a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions by 2020 has prompted many industrial businesses to re-evaluate their equipment and processes. This focus is now turning to variable speed drives (VSDs) in an effort to meet BS EN 50598 standards: Ecodesign for power drive systems, motor starters, power electronics & their driven applications. The whitepaper explains how power quality issues resulting from the use of VSDs without a harmonic filter can result in electromagnetic interference and inefficiencies that lead to higher energy bills. The paper calls on businesses to prevent themselves from falling foul of the EN 50598 standards and failing to meet efficiency targets.
“Through collaboration with VSD manufacturers, REO has identified and documented a significant energy saving opportunity, which could result in an energy reduction of 44.56TWh per annum,” explained Steve Hughes, managing director of REO UK. “We know from previous legislation that a small percentage of motors contribute to an overwhelming portion of the electricity consumed by motor systems. “Standards such as EN 50598 and IEC 61800 set limits on the energy efficiency of motors, power drive systems (PDS) and on the complete
drive module (CDM), which includes motors combined with a VSD. “For manufacturers using equipment that does not meet these regulations, they either need to upgrade their systems or use harmonic filters to bring existing equipment into line. In the lab tests that REO has conducted in this paper, we’ve found that the use of a REOWAVE Passive harmonic filter reduces the paid-for energy consumption of the PDS by between 19.1 and 24.5 per cent.” The whitepaper can be downloaded from REO UK’s website http://www.reo.co.uk/news
WATER WHOLESALER AND RETAILER PERFORMANCE IN THE SPOTLIGHT
epresentatives from self-supply licence holders and applicants Greene King, Whitbread, Marston’s and Coca-Cola European Partners have come together for the first time for an inaugural Self-Supply Users Forum (SSUF) meeting. The Forum, designed to enable the self-supply community to engage directly with key market stakeholders MOSL and Ofwat, plans to meet quarterly to discuss issues, activity, performance, improvements and general updates on the market. It provides an opportunity to engage with the regulator and market operator – and, in future, wholesalers and interested bodies - to inform and lobby for change within the water industry. Key themes discussed at the meeting were: wholesaler and retailer performance, switching experiences and discussion on any concerns the
participants had. In addition, market consultation and code changes were raised, including the current consultation on the self-supply application process. Gavin Worthington, Senior Procurement Manager at Greene King, said: “This Forum offered the perfect platform for engagement with Ofwat and MOSL and it gave a great opportunity to discuss performance of self-supply. The content was excellent and we found it valuable to be able to provide direct feedback.” Wayne Boden, Senior Manager Environment at Coca-Cola European Partners, Great Britain commented: “As the most recent self-supply applicant, the event was hugely beneficial for us in terms of understanding the experiences of those that have gone before us. This level of engagement will certainly support a smooth transition for our business.”
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
Neil Pendle, Managing Director of Waterscan which hosted the Forum, added: “The inaugural Self-Supply Users Forum has proved to be a great success with positive feedback from all involved. This level of customer interest in the water sector should be welcomed if the industry as a whole is to fully realise the opportunities that the open water market offers.” The next Self-Supply Users Forum meeting will be held in March 2018 and is open to existing and new licence holders or applicants. There’s also an opportunity for those potentially interested in self-supply to attend an Open Forum following the Self-Supply Users Forum, during which they can meet and discuss self-supply first hand with existing Forum members. To express an interest, contact the hosts Waterscan on firstname.lastname@example.org.
ENERGYS GROUP URGES NHS TO TAKE ACTION NOW AND NOT WAIT FOR INCREASED GOVERNMENT FUNDS Kevin Cox explains why the NHS and other public bodies must make energy efficiency savings to release more funds for over-stretched ‘front-line’ services.
hile uncertainty about Brexit dominates the political landscape, causing equal amounts of anxiety and expectation in the public at large, other aspects of public life continue to loom large. In particular is the perennial strain on the NHS budget and stress on its staff and patients. In its recent survey findings of respondents in England, released in September 2017, The Kings Fund found that despite the “significant challenges faced by the NHS, it continues to enjoy unwavering support among the public which endures across the generations.” Indeed 77% of the public believes the NHS should be maintained in its current form; around 90% of people support the founding principles of the NHS and 66% are willing to pay more of their own taxes to fund the NHS, underlining growing support among the public for tax rises to increase NHS funding. “We’re not here to comment on the political aspects of the findings of The King’s Fund and IPSOS Mori survey
or to call for increased taxation to support the NHS,” comments Kevin Cox, Managing Director of Energys Group. “However, we are calling on the NHS facilities managers, energy managers and Trust chiefs to take the lead in making their estates more energy efficient, and return the savings to where there is the most need – patient care. “There is no argument from us that Energys Group urges NHS to take action now and not wait for increased government funds staff at the NHS do crucial work, whether on the front-line caring for, transporting and supporting patients directly, or in the critical, unseen and unheralded backroom services, such as administration, maintenance, HR and finance.” The recently released third annual Impact Report released by the independent NHS Sustainability Campaign highlights the work that is being done by individual trusts to develop low-carbon measures and make considerable savings. For example the
North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust expects to save around £1.2m each year thanks to a carbon management plan. Kevin Cox applauds the work being done by Trusts to develop low-carbon measures: “But there is more to be done to ensure that those who work in this 24-hour, 365 days a year service, are not paying the price for their care, in poor working conditions, inefficient buildings and at increased risk to their own health and wellbeing. The NHS needs to look after itself in order that it can look after the public.” Energys Group will be launching a year-long campaign to help the NHS achieve estate-wide cost savings that will have a significant effect on productivity, staff wellbeing and ultimately, enable savings that will benefit patient care. www.energysgroup.com
• news • news • news • news • news • news • news •
100% GREEN ELECTRICITY SUPPLIER WINS ESSEX ENERGY SWITCH AUCTION
green energy supplier has won the right to provide electricity and gas to almost 6,000 people who signed up to the Essex Energy Switch. So Energy, the first eco-friendly provider to win an energy switch auction since its launch, is promising 100% renewable electricity to switchers and residents still have until March 27 to sign up. Cllr David Finch, Leader of Essex County Council, said: “Almost 6,000 residents answered the call to join the collective energy switch, proving that people power can really make a difference in securing cheaper
deals from energy suppliers. “Now that we know the electricity on offer comes from 100% renewable sources, we have a fantastic opportunity to sign up and create a greener Essex. “So Energy has deals with electricity generators across Great Britain who provide Ofgem regulated renewable energy guarantees. “Customers can even have their say on where the energy is sourced from, whether it be solar, wind, hydro, biomass or tidal.” The Essex Energy Switch has already saved thousands of Essex people more than £2,297,539
from the past five switches, with many saving over £250 a year. Everyone who registers will receive a personalised offer on 23 February, 2018, which details how much they could save by switching to the winning provider, or cheaper tariff. But there is no obligation for people to take up the offer. Cllr Finch added: “Paying over the odds for your electric and gas is not fair, so I hope people take advantage of the Essex Energy Switch. It’s a safe and easy way to save money in which we take all the hassle out of switching.” To register visit www.essex. gov.uk/energyswitch
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
LEADING DATA CENTRE EXPERT CONTRIBUTES TO NEW PARLIAMENTARY REPORT ON THE FUTURE OF ENERGY
university of East London (UEL) expert in software and energy distribution has contributed to a new report launched in Parliament, which calls on the Government and the public sector to shore up the nation’s expertise and lead the way in the area of energy consumption, as Britain prepares to leave the EU. Furthermore, it urges the Government to support the development and wide-scale adoption of emerging technologies, which could improve ICT systems and provide the UK with export opportunities as it develops trade deals outside the EU. UEL Reader in Distributed Systems and Software Engineering, Dr Rabih Bashroush, joined MPs and experts for the All Party Parliamentary Group on Climate Change launch of “Is Staying Online Costing the Earth” produced by think tank Policy Connect and sponsored by Sony Interactive Entertainment Europe, who invited Dr Bashroush to contribute to the report section on data centres. Dr Bashroush recently led EURECA, a 36 month 1.5 million Euro project funded by the EU, working with partners across Europe on ways to make data
centres more energy efficient. Dr Bashroush said, “Although the increased efficiency in ICT technology means the environmental impact of the internet is stabilising in some areas, we can’t be complacent. “Jevons paradox tells us that improved energy efficiency can increase the overall consumption of energy, which we are already witnessing in ICT.” The report predicts smart developments in ICT energy use could bring about a 15 per cent reduction in greenhouse emissions by 2030, even when six billion smart phones and 20 billion internet-enabled devices are expected by 2020, globally. It also says that the UK has cut emissions by 42 per cent since 1990, while growing the economy by twothirds. Additionally, 2.9 tonnes of carbon dioxide is saved in the UK each year, thanks to smart building measures, including advanced building energy management systems, improved heating, ventilation and air conditioning controls, and smart meter installations. The report claims that data centres, networks and connected devices correspond to around 3.6 per cent of global electricity use, and around 1.4 per cent of global carbon emissions. If entertainment, media, and office printers are included, this increases to roughly 6 per cent of global electricity and about 2.4 per cent of global carbon emissions. However, over recent years, total global energy consumption and carbon emissions from ICT have levelled and in some cases decreased due to both energy efficiency improvements and increased use of renewable energy. Dr Bashroush said, “In 2015 data centres are estimated to have corresponded to around one per cent of global energy consumption, and there workload is predicted to triple by 2020, but the amount of energy needed is expected to increase by only around 3 per cent, because of smart energy use measures and cooling equipment.”
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
Data centres are where servers, storage devices, and networking equipment are kept secure and within safe operating temperature and humidity range, and are used to power IT and infrastructure equipment. But continuous running and thousands of severs densely packed, make them energy intensive and produce lots of heat waste. He continued, “In Northern Ireland, the Department of Finance spent £1.8 million to consolidate and virtualise their public sector data centres, saving about £500,000 a year, and reduced carbon emissions by nearly 637 tones. “So far, most of the focus is on making large data centres more energy efficient. However, for example, our research found that 80 per cent of public sector data centres were small servers rooms containing less than 25 racks. Hence, going forward, work should focus on helping consolidate these facilities in order to make them more efficient.” Full report here: http://www.policyconnect.org.uk/ appccg/research/staying-onlinecosting-earth EURECA website: https://www.dceureca.eu/
WHY SPECIALIST PROJECT MANAGEMENT PARTNERS ARE NEEDED IN THE CAPACITY MARKET Many with a stake in the capacity market often rely on a range of manufacturers and engineers to develop their projects. Here, N-ERGY managing director David Bowman makes the case for appointing a single project management partner, while examining the alternative scenarios.
y its very nature, the Capacity Market is sensitive, and the UK government relies on it for providing the grid with electricity when the demand is high. It has been more competitive than ever with the latest T-1 and T-4 auctions provisional results. The clearing prices have hit an all-time low, reaching £6.00 per kW per year for T-1 and £8.4 for T-4 (down from £18 - £22.5). New Build Generating Capacity Market Units have scored a very small share of the awarded Capacity Agreements with only 11.1% in T-1 for the delivery year 2018/2019 and 1.51% in T-4 for the delivery year 2021/2022. Gas was the leading awarded fuel type in both auctions with 75.55% in T-1 and 58.74% in T-4. Thus, new generating Capacity Market units need to be developed in the most efficient and cost-effective way possible to increase the bidders’ chances of winning agreements and actually making a profit. New Build Capacity Market projects might seem like any other energy generation project to conventional energy developers. But after analysing the nature of these projects and the existing approaches, Capacity Market Developers (and all other power generation projects such as building substations and DNOs) might realise there is a more effective alternative to handling projects from design through to delivery. Capacity Market projects typically include a number of energy generation sites that are more or less similar, with minor differences relevant to construction sites variations. Thus, this requires selecting the right level of engineering and creating innovative models to minimise cost with no delays in delivery. Capacity Market projects are usually granted to OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) or EPCs (Engineering, Procurement, and Construction). These two models handle projects differently and deliver the project within the allocated budget and timeframe. However, Developers should pay closer attention to the way Capacity Market projects are being handled. OEMs are usually specialised in one
part of the system (for example, engine manufacturing) with minimum construction expertise, thus, they tend to outsource the construction part. Procuring other parts of the project is usually left to suppliers along with setting up the components. Suppliers tend to enable all product features regardless of the required specifications. This and other issues might arise when the construction, procurement, and build are being handled by different bodies. EPCs handle Capacity Market projects from design to construction. The downside to conventional EPCs is the long contractual procedures they follow to avoid falling in any specifications or compliance risks. This leaves very little room for flexibility and changes the Capacity Market Developer might ask for, especially if the construction lacks transparency and does not tend to engage Capacity Market Developers. The ideal solution to these problems is to engage a Specialist Project Management Contractor and Consultancy throughout the entire project lifecycle. Here are a few advantages for integrating such companies in Capacity Market projects; • Fit-for-Purpose Design Developers tend to fall in one of two traps when designing a project; overengineering for convenience and to avoid risks, or under-design to minimise expenses in a way to fulfil minimum requirements and meet deadlines. Standardising the design of generation sites by creating a modular solution, helps cater to site variations with minor differences and drives the cost down as the economy of scales becomes feasible. Contact point for the design between OEMs and contractors is usually the sales team, not engineers, and they usually have minimum technical experience to spot issues in design (if they exist). Solely relying on suppliers to set up different system components (such as switchgear) results in having all features enabled. In reality, this affects
the overall project performance. Unbiased Procurement Advice The traditional procurement process involves choosing from an existing list of suppliers built over the years. This approach eliminates exploring alternatives more fit for the project. A Specialist Project Management partner provides an independent and unbiased advice on procurement as it is not tied to any suppliers. • Exposure to Disruptive Technologies Specialist Project Management partners with consultancy experience are more likely to use their resources to explore disruptive technologies fit for the project to enhance the overall performance and to increase return on investment. Not having a vested interest in the technology or brand used, increases the exposure to latest innovations. • Financial Savings A Specialist Project Management partner can achieve savings more than 10% on Capacity Market power plants development. This can be reached by effectively having a fit-for-purpose design with modular solutions, ontime delivery, and an independent unbiased procurement with exposure to disruptive technologies. This approach of having a Specialist Project Management partner with consultancy experience as an integrated part of Capacity Market projects development helps enhance the design and construction. If taken into consideration from the bedding stage, a Specialist Project Management Consultancy can increase the competitiveness of the bidders. It is a healthy alternative to conventional power plants developers that utilises expertise and ensures consistency, compliance, and effectiveness. This model is not limited to the Capacity Market and can be adopted by other power plants developers and DNOs. http://n-ergy.solutions/ •
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
HOW WOULD A NATIONBACKED ENERGY SECTOR HACK UNFOLD? Adam Vincent, CEO, ThreatConnect
n December 23 2015, 230,000 people in Ukraine were left in the dark for six hours after hackers compromised several power distribution centres which provide electricity to residents in Ukraine. The attackers used spearphishing emails and variants of the BlackEnergy 3 malware to gain a foothold into the Information Technology (IT) networks of the electricity companies and knock real-world systems offline. This incident was the first recorded successful cyberattack on an electric grid - and if a power outage at the beginning of winter doesn’t sound too bad, just consider the impact if such a breach were to affect the country’s hospitals.
2018 TACTICS Attackers are becoming smarter and more apt, illustrating a degree of learning which is concerning to the security community. In 2018, we’ll likely see threat actors increase their focus on critical infrastructure. It’s often said that the great battles of the 21st Century will take place online, and with the example of the Ukrainian attack it’s not hard to see why. Imagine if a hostile actor hacked into the rail signalling network and crashed speeding trains into one another. Or say the power in Parliament was cut for days. As we connect more of our critical infrastructure to the internet, the scope for attacks with real-world consequences is constantly increasing. The energy sector needs to be acutely aware of the potential danger posed by cyberattacks like this one. Energy companies need to be able to defend themselves effectively, and intelligence analysis is a key component of achieving that goal. Here we explore how energy companies can
collect and organise intelligence to inform their cybersecurity efforts.
KNOW YOUR ENEMY When facing a threat like that posed by BlackEnergy it’s essential that potential targets understand as much as they can about the threats they face. The more you know, the better you’ll be able to respond to a new threat. Basic details including where the malware comes from, what it does, and how it was targeted in the past can help form the basis of an intelligence-led defence. A good place to begin is open source intelligence collection, collating indicators from openly available sources. Many security companies publish blogs and reports that include indicators of compromise (IOCs) like file indicators such as hashes and network indicators like hostnames and IP addresses. This information can be used as the basis of a threat profile that includes important details like malware capabilities and targeting focuses, data which can aid a company in determining whether the activity poses a threat to its organisation. In the case of BlackEnergy, for example, ThreatConnect analysts started with a 2014 Kaspersky report, which detailed BlackEnergy use and contained MD5 hashes, network indicators, and target information associated with BlackEnergy 2 and BlackEnergy 3.
BUILD YOUR INTEL After collecting intelligence from publicly available reporting, researchers can pivot on network information by looking for additional domains on dedicated IP addresses and identifying hosts registered with the same registration information as those associated with a given threat. Companies can also use techniques like YARA hunting to identify additional, related malware samples. YARA rules can be used to look for strings in malware samples uploaded to public malware scanning sites. If a sample matching a given YARA rule is found, the researcher is notified. Once a sample is identified, researchers can use automated malware
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
analysis (AMA) services to analyse the malware. Many AMA services have a feature that associates similar files to the sample being analysed. This feature can be used to find related samples without waiting for a file to match on a deployed YARA rule.
PUTTING INSIGHT TO WORK Intelligence doesn’t exist for its own sake: it exists to inform decisions. There are automated platforms that make it easy to take action on information pulled together in this way, further simplifying the process and allowing staff to quickly send indicators to be blocked or assigned to an analyst for further investigation. For example, an automated platform can enable security analysts to pull out trends based on information from multiple intelligence sources that manual research would take months to uncover, if it uncovered them at all. Security teams can then use those trends to inform policy, ensuring that vulnerabilities are patched and likely targets are preprepared against attack. Automation can take much of the load of back-end administration off the shoulders of the analysts, leaving them to apply their expertise to the decision-making process once all relevant information has been combined and parsed. That adds up to a more effective defence and a more economical spread of resources.
FOREWARNED IS FOREARMED The Ukrainian BlackEnergy attack ended within hours and affected just a small proportion of the population. In 2018, after three years of technological advancement, attacks could conceivably last longer and be more widespread. In the case of an advanced attack, energy providers and governments must be prepared to defend their systems. An ongoing programme of threat analysis, where indicators related to common threats are aggregated and mined for patterns and tactics, can play a large part in building an effective defence. Forewarned is forearmed. www.threatconnect.com
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Accommodation managers can be alerted to issues that require maintenance, provide compliance with regulations to support the wellbeing of students and be confident of optimum energy efficiency as heat is only used when needed - without ever setting foot in a room. Students are able to control the comfort of their environment, safe in the knowledge that they cannot waste energy by leaving the heat on high when they go out or if windows are opened.
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Atif Saleri, Market Development Manager for ABB Ability explains new peak time penalty charges for electricity and how the latest generation of smart circuit breakers can help avoid them.
he UK’s electrical utilities are preparing to apply new peak charges under new legislation being introduced on 1st April by Ofgem, the energy regulator. The new DCP161 regulation will allow grid operators to charge up to three times the standard rate for energy that exceeds a customer’s agreed peak consumption. Ofgem took the decision to introduce DCP161 after recognising that Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) have been incurring significant costs to manage ever-higher levels of peak consumption. Although utility customers pay a fee for a new connection, this only covers consumption up to an agreed level. Utilities reported a trend for some customers to regularly draw more than their agreed maximum and until this year, excess consumption has always been charged at the standard rate. Since this arrangement meant that utilities had to invest in network upgrades, Ofgem took the view that it was an equivalent to a discount – and therefore applying a penalty rate would encourage more careful energy consumption. The new penalty fee will vary between regions and voltage levels and will be applied over half-hour average consumption periods. This presents building operators with the challenge of controlling a building’s loads. For example, on a hot summer’s day, HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) systems may power up simultaneously, creating a peak in consumption and potentially incurring a penalty.
NEW GENERATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS For those who find that they regularly draw more than their agreed limit, there are two choices. They can either negotiate a new peak energy level with their DNO or install a fail-
safe system to cap consumption while maintaining uninterrupted services for the building’s occupants. The conventional way to limit electricity consumption to a specified maximum is to install load control devices to individually manage each load. These can be extremely complex and costly to engineer and maintain and require accurate metering, PLCs and switchgear controllers. However, the latest generation of low voltage circuit breakers has the capability to do more than its traditional role of controlling the flow of power in a facility. Modern circuit breakers benefit from in-built protection, control and automation technology. They were developed in anticipation of the trend for facility managers to exert more control over their energy consumption. In addition, they have applications on board ships and in other installations that have an absolute limit in available power and where exceeding peak power could lead to a blackout.
INTELLIGENT DECISION MAKING The key to keeping consumption below a peak is the ability to monitor consumption and switch off low priority loads automatically, before switching them back on again (also automatically) so that building occupants are not aware of any changes. With this type of intelligent decision making, integrated metering and control built into a single unit, such circuit breakers can completely replace the need for a load control installation. The new capabilities have given circuit breakers the ability to perform as a self-contained power manager. Inside the circuit breaker, accurate metering continuously measures the total power flow through the breaker and calculates the average consumption. In the case of DCP 161,
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the building operator can choose to calculate consumption over half-hour periods and set a cap that is equal to the maximum in their contract. The breaker’s algorithm then runs a regular decision-making process. As well as constantly monitoring consumption, it also forecasts average consumption over the half-hour periods – and chooses either to maintain the existing loads, decrease or increase them. The final step is deciding which loads to switch and this is based on a set of rules that prioritise loads based on importance, “respect time” (the minimum time that a load must remain connected or powered down to avoid damage) and whether any loads are available again once their respect time is past.
SIGNIFICANT SAVINGS One manufacturing facility in Bergamo, Italy is using smart circuit breakers to control HVAC loads and save up to 11,000 Euros per year. The plant’s HVAC loads have a combined capacity of 400 kW and are controlled through four smart circuit breakers that are fed from two transformer units and control up to 15 individual loads or 15 groups of loads. Three of the breakers are operated as general low-voltage circuit breakers – but the fourth has been fitted with power management software. This is embedded into the breaker’s electronic trip unit – and because this is already used for overcurrent protection, no complex control system or dedicated software was required. A dedicated Ethernet communication cable connects the four breakers together to enable remote control. The breaker equipped with power management software monitors the total consumption through all four breakers, which have in-built metering. It then decides whether to disconnect or reconnect loads – as well as which loads. www.abb.com/abb-ability
ENERGY EFFICIENCY EXPECTATIONS According to the Data for the Public Good report by the National Infrastructure Commission (NIC) in December 2017, a digital twin of UK infrastructure is necessary to identify inefficiencies in national energy use. Here, Nick Boughton, sales manager at systems integrator Boulting Technology explains how to manage energy efficiency across sectors.
nefficient machinery, which increases wasteful energy use, is a key area of improvement for many businesses, as a way of complying with the Carbon Trust’s Industrial Energy Efficiency Accelerator (IEEA). You can’t manage what you can’t measure, so the first step towards the efficient management of energy is analysis of unique energy requirements.
ENERGY DEMAND With a few exceptions, such as Liberty Steel in Newport, which renewed its entire production process as part of its green steel strategy, ahead of reopening in 2015, a complete process remodel and brand-new methods are often unrealistic or impossible. It could also be that the result is even less efficient than the process being replaced; because new doesn’t necessarily mean better. Instead, gradual improvements to machinery, maintenance and operating processes are the focus for many engineering and manufacturing directors, with incremental improvement the focus. Data centres, which traditionally operate using a hot aisle/cold aisle cooling method, have become the infamous energy inefficiency example. In this scenario, server racks are lined up in alternating rows, with cold air intakes facing one way and hot air exhausts facing the other. Typically, cold aisles face air conditioner output duct and hot aisles face air conditioner return ducts. Optimum server operating temperatures range between 20 and 24 degrees Celsius, but with Moore’s Law stating that processing power for computers will double every two years, the heat produced by the state-of-the-art machinery within data centres will only increase. For data centres, investing in more efficient cooling methods such as on-rack cooling is necessary to provide energy efficiency, while avoiding equipment damage from overheating.
Reducing energy use is an issue at the forefront of many plant managers’ minds.
On-rack cooling replaces the back doors of an enclosure with a heat exchanger, bringing the cooling equipment much closer to the heat source. This can eliminate the hot aisle/cold aisle row arrangement as there’s no need to worry about hot and cold air mixing because hot air never enters an ambient space. A similar scenario is playing out in manufacturing plants, particularly those embracing industry 4.0 and choosing to use local edge computing rather than making use of the cloud.
MONITORING Surveys, which provide a top-down approach to ensure no part of a plant is overlooked and no piece of machinery is missed due to oversight, should be carried out regularly by facilities managers to meet energy efficiency requirements. However, a more specific approach must be taken by energy managers, when a specialist piece of equipment, such as a pump centre is assessed. Boulting has many years’ of experience working with pump centres, including the award-winning upgrade to the Thames Water raw water pumping station at Littleton. The solution implemented increased the site’s performance, while making it more flexible, reliable and energy efficient. A complete redesign and manufacture of pump impellers improved pump efficiency, resulting in an improvement from 80 to 87 per cent. Using their experience, Boulting’s engineers suggest innovative solutions that reduce energy waste. A holistic process, which analyses each plant’s unique requirements, ensures the engineers deliver the best energy
efficiency improvements possible, increasing return on investment. The measures Boulting’s experts apply range from replacing cables or executing a maintenance plan to replacing an essential piece of equipment such as a motor control centre with a smarter model equipped with monitoring abilities
THE FUTURE Smart sensors will be installed on much new machinery, as more process plants, data centres and even offices begin taking advantage of the industrial internet of things to deliver a variety of benefits, including remote monitoring and digital twin enabled design. The data captured by these sensors will build on the surveys currently employed, allowing for efficiency decreases to be recognised and counteracted immediately. Because sensors will be built directly into components, such as motors, inverters, gears and bearings, manufacturing and engineering directors can sleep soundly, without worrying that inefficiencies are creeping into the application. Whether the facility in question is a data centre, office or processing plant, the most powerful way to reduce energy loss is through a holistic and overarching process, which can be supplemented by correct use of data from in-built sensors alongside other methods such as surveys and digital twins. In the future, we won’t just see the National Infrastructure Commission (NIC)’s predictions for a digital twin of the UK becoming a reality, we will also see a data driven approach to maintenance being introduced across the board. www.boultingtechnology.co.uk
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
IGNORING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IS BIG RISK FOR PUBLIC SECTOR
ith squeezed budgets and resources across the public sector, the temptation to put energy efficiency on the back burner is understandable. However, this is a short-sighted and risky decision that could result in even less money to spend on public services.
THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPERATIVE The wholesale energy markets are extremely volatile – putting public sector organisations at risk of massive price swings. Organisations also face increasing third-party, non-commodity charges, which now account for more than half of a power bill and are rising steeply yearon-year. The only way of reducing these third party charges is using less energy or shifting patterns of energy consumption to avoid peak time energy costs. The urgent need to tackle energy efficiency is also driven by ambitious climate change targets and ever harsher environmental taxes, as well as the reputational advantages of being seen to be green.
ENERGY SAVING STEPS When undertaking energy surveys, our assessors typically identify energy savings opportunities of 5 to 20%, which can often be delivered at low cost or
Those who overlook the opportunity to save energy now are likely to regret it when faced with predicted higher energy bills of the future, warns Rob Leak, Head of Energy Solutions for Inprova Energy. with speedy payback on investment. This can help straitened budgets stretch much further. But how can public sector energy managers get the ‘biggest bang for their buck’ from energy efficiency? The first step is to measure and understand your energy consumption. There is a huge untapped resource of existing valuable data available in meter and sub meter readings and energy bills, which should help you to make a start in understanding your energy profile, the factors that affect energy use, and where waste might be occurring. The next stage is to use the information you have gathered to help inform an energy audit. This process will usually cover: • Energy use and profiling – the way energy is used and where • Energy policy and procedure – goals and objectives for saving
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Management systems – how energy is managed and accounted for Savings – Identifying areas where wastage can be reduced
THE ENERGY WALK A useful starting point is to conduct a basic walk-through of the building or estate using the data insights to inform investigation. This may identify obvious opportunities and determine whether you need further specialist support. Most professional audits will be presented in an energy management report, including a detailed action plan with cost estimates and potential payback on investment for recommended energy/carbon saving measures.
WHERE SHOULD YOU FOCUS Some of the most common areas of energy wastage in the public sector are: • Lighting – can account for up to 40% of a building’s power demand, so make the most of natural daylight. Switching to high efficiency technologies, such as LED, can deliver cost savings of up to 70% with rapid return on investment. • Heating/hot water, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) – space heating is a common area of waste and basic energy saving measures can reduce costs by as much as 30%. Consider switching heating off for the final hour of the day and keep boilers and other equipment regularly serviced to optimise efficiency. Use air conditioning sparingly
and avoid heating and cooling areas at the same time. Lack of energy control – check thermostats and controls regularly – each 1°C of overheating can increase fuel consumption by 8–10%. Use time switches to turn heating and lighting off when areas are not in use. New generation Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS) will typically result in cost savings of 10 to 20% by ensuring energy optimisation across buildings and sites. Insulation and pipe work – check the level and quality of your pipe work insulation, and whether pipes are blocked or dirty. Improving insulation is also a quick and inexpensive win for roofs, windows and doors, particularly in heated or cooled areas. Office equipment – accounts for around 15% of power used in UK offices. Ensure IT equipment/ photocopiers are turned off when not in use and not left on standby for long periods. Remove unauthorised equipment, such as personal heaters, etc. People power – engage
your employees in energy conservation and make saving energy everybody’s responsibility. Onsite generation – consider the potential for using combined heat and power (CHP) or other low carbon/renewable technologies, such as solar photovoltaic and thermal, wind, heat pumps and biomass. This could improve your energy
performance and resilience. There is huge potential for public sector organisations to control and reduce costs and minimise their carbon footprint by using less energy. Undertaking a site energy audit is a great starting point and will provide a route map for long-term cost savings and better budget control. Further information: www. inprovaenergy.com
Schneider Electric saves space and time with new NSXm circuit breaker
chneider Electric, the global leader in energy management and automation, has launched the latest addition to its NSX family of industrial circuit breakers. The Compact NSXm moulded case circuit breaker is the smallest of its range and offers new features for fast, simple and flexible installation. By choosing the NSXm, installers can save up 40 per cent of installation time. Schneider Electric’s NSX range is designed to protect electrical assets in demanding industrial environments. The NSXm expands this offering with a solution for commercial and light industrial applications. At 81 x 137 x 80 mm, it is ideal for installation in the smaller switchboards, panels used by original equipment manufacturers, and in industrial and commercial buildings. The NSX’s small size is especially useful in boards with limited space or which require multiple
circuit breakers to be fitted. The NSXm also introduces new installation and safety features for the range that reduce installation time and boost value for customers. The circuit breaker features a built-in DIN rail which can be easily attached to the distribution board with a simple clip. Most market solutions require an additional, special plate to attach to the switchboard, making the NSXm an attractive, cheaper and faster alternative. Schneider Electric’s Everlink terminals replace the standard lug connectors found on the majority of circuit breakers. When connecting the NSXm to the switchboard, the Everlink terminals will reduce the number of installation steps needed while providing the same secure connection. The Everlink terminals also feature Schneider Electric’s patented creep compensation technology. Creep describes the gradual crushing and
degrading of copper conductors over time. Everlink reduces this effect with an inbuilt spring that maintains contact pressure, making possible accurate and durable tightening that holds the terminal in place. Not only does this provide more space in the switchboard, it guarantees a reliable and safe connection. An earth-leakage circuit breaker (ECLB) variant of the NSXm is also available. The ECLB NSXm senses leakage currents, and can interrupt the circuit if the current is over threshold. This solution is ideal for businesses that want to provide the highest level of electrical safety, or for industries who are required to provide earth leakage protection by law. The NSXm is available globally and can be purchased from Schneider Electric directly or via its network of wholesaler partners. www.schneiderelectric.com/en/work/products/ product-launch/compact-nsxm/
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
MONITORING & METERING
POWER AND ENERGY LOGGING Monitoring power and energy usage in a facility or installation can often identify hidden issues that affect both operational and environmental quality, can pinpoint the reason for higher than desired energy costs, and can reveal the causes of more frequent equipment repair and replacement. Julian Grant, General Manager for Chauvin Arnoux UK looks at the instruments available to the engineer and maintenance staff, designed specifically to help identify these problems and costs.
he fundamental piece of kit required here is a Power and Energy Logger (PEL). Whether for troubleshooting a known problem, or proactively seeking opportunities to optimise power distribution systems, PELs, and their accessories, should be as common in a building maintenance technicians’ arsenal of tools as a multimeter or thermometer. Nowadays, energy service industry professionals are making good use of power and energy logging equipment, and are discovering both the significance and benefits of short-term diagnostic monitoring for plant maintenance and expansion.
SO, WHAT ARE POWER AND ENERGY LOGGERS? Modern portable power and energy loggers are compact, lightweight, battery or mains powered, electronic monitoring instruments used for collecting electrical data without the need for operator intervention or presence. They can be installed in distribution panels or around the facility without difficulty, and removed as easily without the need to shut down the installation or office building first. They are capable of storing tens of thousands to several million readings, and can be programmed to collect data on a sub cycle basis or store averages at user programmable aggregation periods. They are available with or without displays and can transmit their recorded data locally or remotely. PELs gather electrical data such as current and voltage, power and energy and are also able to indicate phase angle cos φ, tan Φ, power factor THD and harmonics. The most versatile loggers employ separate sensors for each parameter to be recorded and will automatically recognize those sensors and set the ratio and measurement parameters accordingly. Multi-channel data loggers will collect data from several input types simultaneously. So, for example, a six or eight channel logger may be set up to collect measurements from three or four voltage and three or four current inputs providing the ability to monitor three-phase power systems. Mathematical capabilities provide the ability to calculate power and
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MONITORING & METERING equipment and/or procedures to upper management that require investment because of the lack of data to support their recommendations. PELs and their analysis software provide energy managers a clear, documented way to graphically present specific data on activities in the facility that increase or decrease energy use. This clear information based on measured data can help document the need for operational changes and procurement of more energy efficient machinery. They also provide the ability to record and document the savings by monitoring the energy usage after the changes have been made, and comparing this with the information recorded prior to those changes.
energy, as well as the cost associated with that energy consumption. Remote access to the data collection process from the office, or at remote locations with wireless or Internet access, provides the ability to track several consumption points around the facility, or multiple facilities, without the expense of travel to retrieve the data. Many energy management systems in place today provide logging, however, they are often installed with only a limited amount of memory and will only capture summary data. They tend to be permanently installed devices and will only monitor data from one point in the facility, making it difficult to troubleshoot problems around the entirety of the site. Portable power and energy loggers overcome these limitations, providing the ability to locate problems and provide information vital to improving energy consumption. To fully understand what is happening on an electrical installation with regards to energy consumption, etc. requires some form of data analysis software giving a picture of the monitored data over time and the ability to download to a computer for analysis. Most software packages are capable of displaying in line graphs often referred to as X/T plots with time on the X axis and amplitude on the Y axis. When evaluating harmonic data, it is often easier to view it in a bar graph format rather than a line graph. The ability to look at several channels of data on the same graph such as three voltage phases or three current phases provides a convenient way to easily troubleshoot power systems. Also, the ability to zoom in and analyse smaller
time sections or compare this week’s data to last weeks is an invaluable tool. In the energy game, you can’t manage what you can’t measure. Energy consumption takes place over time and therefore should be recorded over time. PELs increase the technician’ ability to manage energy by providing the tool to measure and analyse that energy over time. Energy waste is an ongoing issue and is often undetected. Installing an energy logger on equipment that uses large amounts of power or in electrical panels can provide clear and revealing information about energy use when the facility is in a nonoperating state. There is a tremendous opportunity to save on energy costs by reviewing this information. Energy managers usually track monthly utility bills to understand a building’s energy use and demand. This helps managers understand when energy use or demand has increased or decreased. Although good energy reviewing practices will sometimes indicate that a problem may exist, it does not always help in understanding where, at what time, and why the increases are occurring, or whether they are correct. The use of power and energy loggers along with energy reviewing practices provides the missing information necessary to properly evaluate energy problems. Power and energy loggers can help identify and document when in time and where energy waste is occurring, which allows the technician and manager to proactively make improvements and cost savings. Energy managers can often find it difficult to propose changes in
BENEFITS FOR PLANT MAINTENANCE STAFF AND SERVICE CONTRACTORS Performing preventive maintenance alone is not always enough. No matter how well technicians maintain equipment, if it operates inefficiently, or more often than needed, energy waste will occur. The cost of not paying attention to operational issues along with the maintenance issues can be significant. Many studies performed in recent years indicate that most energy saving opportunities are operational in nature. Energy savings as much as 20% of the annual energy cost can be realised through low-cost improvements, with operating improvements accounting for a good portion of the savings. Internal facility staff, maintenance personnel, and service contractors, can assist the building management more effectively by addressing operational, as well as equipment maintenance, issues. Measuring and recording the performance of energy-using equipment over time is the only way to verify whether the equipment or system performs optimally. Use here of power and energy loggers will prove invaluable to service technicians and will increase their ability to locate costly building operation problems quickly. Periodically, monitoring critical machinery and high energy consuming building equipment to ensure proper operation should be as important as periodically performing other maintenance tasks such as cleaning coils, lubricating motors, or changing filters. Power and energy loggers allow facility staff and maintenance contractors to expand their preventative maintenance programs to also include pre-emptive operation tasks. www.chauvin-arnoux.co.uk
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
MONITORING & METERING
BECOMING SMARTER THROUGH REAL-TIME GIS AND INFORMATION: GIS FOR THE
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are not a new phenomenon. The technology was first used during the Second World War to gather intelligence by taking aerial photographs. However, today’s applications for GIS are far more sophisticated. Here, Martyn Williams, managing director of industrial software provider, COPA-DATA UK, explains how the world’s energy industry is becoming smarter, using real-time GIS.
IS mapping is everywhere. In its most basic format, the technology is simply a computerised mapping system that collects location-based data — think Google Maps and its live traffic data. Crime mapping, computerised road networking and the tech that tags your social media posts in specific locations? That’s GIS too. Put simply, anywhere that data can be generated, analysed and pinned to a specific geographical point, there’s potential for GIS mapping. That said, for the energy industry, GIS can provide more value than simply pinning where your most recent selfie was taken.
MANAGING REMOTE ASSETS One of the biggest challenges for the industry is effectively managing geographically dispersed sites and unmanned assets, such as wind turbines, offshore oil rigs or remote electrical substations. Take an electrical distribution grid as an example. Of the 400,000 substations scattered across Britain, many are remote and unmanned. Therefore, it is common for operators to rely on a connected infrastructure and control software to obtain data from these sites. While this data is valuable, it is the integration of GIS mapping that enables operators to gain a full visual overview of their entire grid. Using GIS, operators are provided with a map of the grid and every substation associated with it. When this visualisation is combined with intelligent control software, the operator can pin data from these remote sites on one easy-to-read map. Depending on the sophistication of the control software used, the map can illustrate the productivity, energy consumption or operational data from each substation. In fact, operators can often choose to see whatever data is relevant to them and adjust their view to retrieve either more, or less, data from the map. When used for renewable energy generation, the operator may want to see the full geographical scope of the wind turbines they control, pin-pointed on a geographically accurate map. However, upon zooming into the map, it is possible for the
operator to view the status, control and operational data from each turbine on the grid. GIS mapping is not only advantageous for monitoring routine operations, but also for alerting operators of unexpected faults in the system.
TAKING OUT THE GUESSWORK Unexpected equipment failure can be devastating to any business. However, when managing assets in the energy industry, providing a fundamental service to the public, the impact of downtime can be devastating. Traditionally, energy organisations would employ huge maintenance teams to quickly react to unexpected errors, like power outages or equipment breakdowns. However, with GIS and software integration, this guesswork approach to maintenance is not necessary. The combination of GIS with an intelligent control system means that operators will be alerted of faults in realtime, regardless of whether it occurs at an offshore wind turbine, a remote pumping station or a substation. When an error is identified, the operator is automatically informed of exactly where the fault has occurred, by a pinpoint on the map.
ENABLING INTELLIGENT MAINTENANCE In the energy industry, there is no sure-fire way to predict exactly how and when faults will occur, but there
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are ways to deploy reliability centred maintenance (RCM) techniques to minimise downtime when they do. Using GIS-mapping and alerts, an operator can accurately pinpoint the location of the error, and a maintenance engineer can be deployed to the site immediately. This allows organisations to plan more effectively from a human asset perspective, ensuring their engineers are in the right places at the right time. In addition, using the data acquired by the control software, the engineer can then take a more intelligent approach to maintenance. GIS mapping allows an operator to easily extract data from the exact location that the fault occurred, passing this to the engineer for more intelligent maintenance. For the energy industry, GIS technology provides an opportunity to better understand remote operations, enables more effective maintenance and could dramatically minimises downtime caused by unexpected errors. The reliability of the technology has already been proven in other industry areas, like crime mapping, road networking — and for novelty applications, like social media tagging. www.copadata.com
BOILERS & BURNERS
RINNAI HOT WATER – INSTANT, CONTINUOUS, LIMITLESS AND SENSIBLY ECONOMIC FOR ALL LARGE COMMERCIAL SITES The Infinity 1600 offers lowest low-NOx guaranteed.
innai, the UK’s leading manufacturer of the ErP A-rated Infinity range of continuous flow condensing gas fired water heaters, supplies the best energy efficient range of low-NOx water heating units currently on the market. Advanced condensing heat exchangers combined with innovative down firing pre-mix burner technology ensures that every cubic metre of natural gas or LPG is used to the maximum in the Infinity HDC 1600. The renewablesready units are suitable for use as a temperature booster for solar thermal and heat-pump installations. The HDC1600 is also future-proofed against future regulatory and legislative changes. The Rinnai low-NOx Infinity HDC 1600 external wall mounted unit (together with the interior HDC 1600i version) utilises Rinnai’s patented pre-mix burner technology with a 14-1 turn down ratio – the largest on the market – of 58.4kw4.05kw and is ultra quiet in operation. Integral controls on the units also enable the water heater to achieve high efficiencies whether locally or when integrated into a building management system. Legionella proliferation is reduced significantly by Rinnai: the company has developed additional ‘SMART’ controls for secondary return DHW systems in the form of an advanced temperature control system which allows for safe running of water at 42°C core temperature during the day and 60°C at a time when the building is closed. By the time the building reopens, core temperature is 42°C for safe use. “The industry uptake on the whole series of Rinnai’s low-NOx, high efficiency products, across all sectors, has been nothing short of phenomenal,” says Rinnai UK Associate Director Chris Goggin. “We are supplying products and systems that give our customers compliance and perform at economic costs far superior to the conventional mode of stored water systems.”
Another Rinnai innovation addresses an age-old industry problem with hot water delivery - lime scale build-up. The company’s integrated scale control system is an innovative solution and comes in the form of an LC (lime check) code on the display of the controller. The system helps to ensure the performance and efficiency of Rinnai‘s 1600, and all of its continuous flow water heaters installed in hard water areas. Almost all water-fed appliances, including plate heat exchangers, boilers and water heaters will accumulate scale deposits when used within hard water areas over time. Lime scale consists chiefly of calcium carbonate (calcite), and lime scale deposits can build up affecting the performance of water heaters by reducing their efficiency and overall performance. Ultimately, ongoing use with hard water may shorten the lifespan of conventional water heating appliances and systems. To safeguard against this Rinnai units continually self-monitor for lime scale deposits around the heat exchanger. If a lime scale build up has being identified, a message is sent to the built-in interface panel on the front of the appliance. The message is displayed as ‘LC’, which alerts the end user that it is time to call a Rinnai service agent to perform a lime scale flush to clear the potentially harmful deposits. This avoids and eliminates the adverse effects associated with lime scale build up, including lower energy efficiencies and potential product de-generation. Rinnai Infinity HDC range offers condensing technology with up to 107% gross efficiency, ultra-lowNOx of less than 20 ppm, a widely expansive modulation range of 54kW4kW and high flow rates of 37/ltr/min. Add to these benefits are the peace of mind of an extended warranty, a top A-rating exceeding the demands of
eco-labelling legislation, the flexibility of external wall mounting and delivery to site with all relevant accessories and the knowledge that the HDC1600 is future-proofed against future regulatory and legislative changes. For more information on the RINNAI product range visit www.rinnaiuk.com
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
BOILERS & BURNERS
THE UNSUNG HERO OF BOILERHOUSE EFFICIENCY Boilerhouse managers and operators are constantly battling with rising energy prices. With pressure to remain competitive and reduce these costs, the search to combat energy consumption is top of the wish list. Chris Coleman, Boilerhouse National Specialist at Spirax Sarco, argues that truly efficient condensate recovery can boost productivity and improve regulation, at a much lower cost to steam users than we might imagine.
t’s no longer enough to strike a good deal on energy supplies or achieve high levels of productivity: now we are expected to do both, while complying with a complex web of regulation. Striking the right balance can make that crucial, tangible contribution to your company’s revenue flow, but, with ageing equipment and economic uncertainty coming into play, the potential to achieve precisely that is virtually impossible. That is, until we consider our use of condensate and the heat we may have otherwise wasted.
THE VALUE OF CONDENSATE To put it simply, condensate is the hot water that forms when steam passes from a vapour to a liquid state. While it is widely known that condensate is hot, it’s only when we consider how this translates to heat energy that we realise how useful it is as a resource. The condensate generated by the steam heating system will normally have about 25% of the energy that the steam had, and contains little to no dissolved solids. If the condensate is merely discharged from the system and disposed of, that valuable energy resource is thrown away with it. That is an easily avoidable waste that few of us can afford. Draining condensate, rather than re-using it, can trigger water and effluent management costs, which can be significant. Similarly, draining condensate can make it harder for us to comply with the regulatory standards around environmental effluent. In many countries, including the UK, condensate often has to be cooled before it can be drained which, again, will often come at an extra cost. Put bluntly, those who are disposing of their condensate are throwing money away. Recovering and reusing as much of it as possible can have huge financial advantages.
THE USES OF CONDENSATE We might now realise that condensate – and the heat energy
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it carries – is too valuable to be tipped down the drain, but how can it be put to better use?
BOILER FEEDWATER If condensate is not used as feedwater, the boiler must be topped up continually with cold water. This is costly in terms of both water and energy because the cold feedwater must be heated. In contrast, condensate is already hot, which reduces the need for (and cost of) fresh water and treatment chemicals. It also requires much less energy than cold make-up water does to be ready for use.
FLASH STEAM RECOVERY Flash steam can be harvested and reused. This is formed when high pressure condensate is exposed to a large pressure drop, often created during the blowdown process. A flash vessel is just one method that can be used to recover energy by separating flash steam from condensate. As condensate enters the flash vessel, flash steam is produced and can be piped from the top of the vessel to the feedtank through the deaerator. We can fit float traps to the outlet of the flash vessel where residual blowdown water will be drained. The water will still be hot at this point and is allowed to pass into the plated heat exchanger, where it gives up its heat to the circulating cold make-up water. In other words, if we recover the heat energy from the hot
BOILERS & BURNERS water coming from the flash vessel. The use of both a flash vessel and plated heat exchanger pack will allow you to recover up to 80% of the energy from the rejected Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) water, which can also result in fuel savings, a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, and the elimination of unsightly plumes of steam. Concerns that contaminates may enter the boiler are only natural, but this is a challenge that can be overcome. Conductivity or turbidity meters can be used with an existing condensate return system to detect contamination and dump the condensate before it reaches the boiler.
THE RECOVERY PROCESS As you’re well aware by now, steam is usually generated for most industrial and process industries. How it is recovered can broadly be summarised in three important steps. 1. Steam traps are used to remove condensate from
the steam system. A steam trap survey can often offer some invaluable insight into the performance of a given system, and will almost certainly reveal impressive savings potential through reduced fuel consumption, fuel emissions, water, and effluent charges. 2. Pumps are used to return any condensate not captured by steam traps to the boiler feedtank. 3. Condensate is mixed with other types of feedwater to heat it within the feedtank. This may outline the basic process, but there are other points to bear in mind. 1. The flash steam released from hot condensate when the pressure drops can be recovered using a flash steam system before it goes back into the feedwater tank. 2. Pressurised low-loss condensate
recovery can deliver huge savings in annual fuel and water costs, resulting in payback times of less than a year in some cases. Condensate recovery is one process that is genuinely capable of boosting boiler efficiency, saving energy, enhancing equipment lifespan and complying with legislation – all of which can, in turn, generate substantial savings to those who use steam systems. Rising energy costs are having a major impact on all types of businesses across every industry. Saving energy from condensate is a simple, yet highly effective technique. It may not be the protagonist or the leading role in the steam system, but it is undeniably the unsung hero of the boilerhouse. Spirax Sarco’s full report, The unsung hero of boiler house efficiency: How condensate recovery can transform steam system performance is available to download from http:// sxscom.uk/boilerhouseefficiency.
Stokvis EVOLUTION boilers connecting with boom in communal heating Stokvis Energy Systems’ Econoplate H2 and the R600 Evolution series
he continuing housing shortage and the demographics of an ageing population are increasing the popularity of apartment living as well as sheltered housing schemes, and also fuelling rapid growth in the uptake of communal or district heating schemes. The new EVOLUTION boiler ranges from Stokvis Energy Systems are ideally suited to power such projects. The R40 EVOLUTION and R600 EVOLUTION series represent the latest generation of Stokvis Energy Systems’ long-established and widelyspecified boilers, which can be installed along with the manufacturer’s H Series Heat Interface Units (HIUs) to supply heating and domestic hot water to individual dwellings. Using the R40 and R600 EVOLUTION boilers in centralised plant rooms provides a primary heat source for the HIU’s with an excellent efficiency while saving landlords the headache of gaining access for annual gas safety inspections and maintaining individual units in each flat where space is often limited. Instead, connecting heating
circuits to Stokvis H Series HIUs ensures residents can enjoy DHW and space heating comfort around the clock. The Econoflame R600 EVOLUTION, in fact, offers outputs from 142 to 540KW and incorporates a patented downward firing pre-mix burner and stainless steel heat exchanger. Low weight and compact dimensions enables them to pass through standard, single leaf doorways on wheels that are incorporated with the boilers. They can also be installed in a cascade arrangement to share load. Equally versatile, the R40 EVOLUTION wall hung range encompasses six models delivering between 56 and 138KW. These can be combined either back-to-back or in line to provide a maximum capacity of 1,102KW as a Modupak solution. It is vital that developers or building owners such as social housing providers understand the importance of accurate specification to meet the special requirements of communal heating systems: including calculating combined demand of multiple households, as well as sizing the boilers and the HIUs to suit. As a highly experienced supplier
working with a network of installers, Stokvis Energy Systems can offer specifiers extensive design support from conception through to commissioning. This can include combining the R40 or R600 boilers with solar thermal input or other renewables and thermal vessels at the central plantroom and then coupling the plant to a number of WRAS approved H Series heat interface units that can deliver heating and hot water to a number of dwellings in an efficient and hygienic manner. For further information on Stokvis Energy Systems, please call 020 8733 3050, or visit www.stokvisboilers.com
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
BOILERS & BURNERS
NEW HEATING TECHNOLOGY SECURES EXCELLENT BREEAM RATING FOR LOW CARBON STUDENT BLOCK The newly-built Walpole in South London is the UK’s first installation of Viessmann’s award-winning Vitocrossal 100 boilers.
new five-storey student accommodation development opposite Goldsmiths University in London’s New Cross has achieved an Excellent BREEAM rating by using space-saving, state-of-the-art heating equipment. Walpole, which houses 87 students in cluster flats and self-contained studios, uses both awardwinning Viessmann gas-fired condensing boilers and a Viessmann combined heat and power (CHP) unit to generate warmth and electricity for its flats, common room, study area and outdoor spaces. The technology was selected for its high performance and compact design. The CHP unit, a Viessmann Vitobloc 200 EM 9/20, is sized to perfectly suit the well-designed city-centre site, while three 320 kW Viessmann Vitocrossal 100 floor-standing gas boilers are used in cascade to provide heating and hot water throughout the accommodation. This is the first completed UK installation of the Vitocrossal 100 which was launched earlier this year. Integrated controls across the two technologies make it easy to monitor the system’s overall performance from a PC or a mobile phone app. At 680 mm wide, the Vitocrossal 100 has an exceptionally small footprint, leaving plenty of room for the CHP technology in Walpole’s compact plant room. Because it comes pre-wired and pre-assembled and has integrated wheels, it was also easier for contractor JW Morris to install. The new boilers support the low carbon philosophy of the Walpole site, with a rated output of 960 kW, NOx ratings below 39 mg/ kWh and low power consumption which does not require a boiler circuit pump. The modulation range of 1:5 guarantees a long burner run time and further economical energy consumption. The Vitocrossal 100 is the first floor-standing gas-fired condensing boiler on the market to feature Lambda Pro technology for optimum performance and efficiency. It was recently
named Commercial/Industrial Heating Product of the Year 2017 at the HVR Awards. Jonathan Grist, Viessmann commercial sales director, commented, “It’s great to see the student accommodation developer sector match our excitement for the new Vitocrossal 100 boiler. What we have created at Walpole is an ideal heating package – together with our CHP units and integrated controls – to serve the typical demands of a 50 to 100 apartment block, even in
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space-restricted city developments.” Walpole opened in September 2017. www.viessmann.co.uk
BOILERS & BURNERS
RINNAI TACKLES RUGBY LEAGUE SPONSORSHIP WITH WIDNES VIKINGS
innai, the UK’s leading manufacturing supplier of commercial hot water heating systems, has a major sports sponsorship with one of Rugby Leagues most historic clubs - Widnes Vikings. A big part of that sponsorship is on two community-based programs called “Rinnai match day experiences”. This is targeted at enabling young kids to play rugby tournaments before Super League matches are played or televised. “Getting kids into sport is what we want to achieve together with Widnes Vikings,” says Rinnai Operations chief Chris Goggin. “The first of these took place recently and had more than 100 kids playing, and 250 people involved in all – the program is advertised not only in our local area but within the areas of the opposition team. This means that the Rinnai match-day experience is promoted across the country. “The second element of Rinnai’s commitment to the community through Widnes Vikings is to help people within our local area that are having a hard time at present – we give them a trip to meet their favourite players, a behind-thescenes look at the facilities, meet the Sky Sports team and have match-day passes with hospitality. Just recently it was the turn of local lad Robert, who was recently diagnosed with motor neurone disease. The sponsorship also takes the form of the Rinnai logo and brand name on the back of the playing shorts. This will be the second season both parties have taken this unconventional but innovative style of sports sponsorship. Comments Chris Goggin, “We are absolutely delighted to take a very active sponsorship with Widnes Vikings. We share a common belief in approach and values of excellence, innovation and responsibility to the wider community. “Rinnai is a worldwide brand name in its field and has taken some major global sponsorships – including the Queensland Reds, The World Club World Cup event held January this year in Tokyo, the World Ice Skating Championships and the US Nascar competition held in Daytona, Las Vegas and other major American venues. “The Widnes Vikings are also local to our own UK headquarters so it is all an excellent fit.
Installers, specifiers and end users’ installers have the most practical and economically viable solution for all domestic and commercial hot water heating and delivery needs in Rinnai’s comprehensive range of energy efficient A rated, electronically controlled continuous flow gas fired units and systems. The natural gas or LPG water heaters guarantee a limitless supply of accurately temperature controlled safe and useable hot water, time after time after time to any type or size of site or application. The Rinnai range delivers energy saving performance and low greenhouse emissions through new low NOx burner technology. All units and systems can be installed as stand-alone or manifolded to provide unlimited hot water for the largest of all commercial sites such as hotels, busy gyms, high rise offices etc. Water temperature is and can be pre-set through easy-to-use built in digital controls, eliminating the risk of scalding and potentially eradicating the need for thermostatic mixing valves. Water can be used simultaneously at several points of delivery with no loss of heat. The newly updated Rinnai Infinity range is designed for use directly off the mains, with no need for large, ungainly and energy inefficient storage vessels. For example, Rinnai’s Infinity 16i continuous flow water heater is designed to meet the hot water needs of domestic and light commercial applications. The Infinity 16i, weighing just 18kg and measuring less than 675mm (H) x 139mm (W), has a delivery capacity of 15.2 litres per minute, at a temperature rise of 25°. The larger Rinnai 26i continuous flow water heater is one of the company’s best-selling internal water heaters worldwide and has a flow rate of 19.6 litres/min, raised at 33°C. Rinnai Heavy Duty water heaters are high efficiency gas continuous flow water heaters with outputs up to 69kW. The Rinnai Heavy Duty HD50i Internal water heater is a wall hung, gas fired, continuous flow water heater capable of producing hot water at 756 litres per hour at a 50°C rise. The HD50i has a 125mm concentric flue which can be extended
up to 15m, less 1m per 45° bend. Compact and reliable, the HD50i operates between 1-10 bar pressure, which is suitable for mains and systems with boost pumps. Incoming water temperatures of up to 60°C are accepted, making the HD50i suitable for secondary return systems. Water can be delivered at high volume with minimum gas consumption. All models have full electronic ignition with no pilot light and operate on demand only, consuming no gas when not in use. All Rinnai internal HDC condensing continuous flow water heaters, are room-sealed, power flue appliances while the external weatherproof models have forced exhaust which enables them to be compact, saving both floor and wall space. www.rinnaiuk.com
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
SEVEN TRAPS TO AVOID WITH YOUR STEAM SYSTEM Steam systems may not be the most complex, but that doesn’t mean they don’t need regular care and attention. Marc Hough, Product Manager for Flow Control at ERIKS UK and Ireland, says there are seven traps to avoid. 1. If it’s working it doesn’t mean it’s efficient
Steam systems that may have gone without a formal survey for as long as five years can have blockages or leaks in up to 30 per cent of their steam traps. This reduced system efficiency can have a massive effect on energy costs and CO2 emissions.
2. Check for leaks
As many as 10 per cent of steam traps may be leaking in as little as one year after system start-up. That number is likely to increase by seven per cent for every year that the system remains unchecked.
3. Count the cost
The effects of leaks on both processes and costs is striking. A malfunctioning steam trap will lose steam at an average rate of 11kg/h which equates to a total steam loss
for the year of 66 tonnes, with a cost per tonne of £25-30. Overall, that’s an annual loss of £1650 to £1980.
4. Regular audits are a must
A steam system’s relative simplicity does not mean that it is maintenance-free and can be forgotten. Regular system audits are a must and can reveal a variety of costly and damaging problems in addition to leaks, including water build-up which creates water hammer, along with damage to pipes and valves.
5. Audits are more than visual
An audit is more than just a visual inspection, however. It should also involve ultrasonic and infrared thermographic measurements, which identify blockages and leaks, and assess the functionality of every system component.
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6. Steam is a health and safety risk
Steam is dangerous because it is hot and unpredictable. High pressure leaks can prove extremely hazardous to workers, with an increased risk of scalding. The impact this can have on people and on corporate reputation can be long-lasting in the event of an industrial accident.
7. Don’t think audits can’t offer real ROI With increasing pressure to reduce energy costs, wastage and CO2 emissions, an expert steam system audit can often be a quick and easy win, with the possibility of achieving a return on investment in as little as two to four months.
For more information on ERIKS UK & Ireland’s Flow Control products and services, please visit www.eriks.co.uk/Flow-Control/4543 or call 0121 508 6000.
7 STEPS TOWARDS ESOS PHASE 2 ACCREDITATION The deadline for ESOS Phase 2 compliance is 5th December 2019, however, companies are urged to start putting their plans into place now.
member of an ‘Approved Professional Body’. Approved professional bodies are available on the BEIS website. https:// www.gov.uk/guidance/energysavings-opportunity-scheme-esos
be achieved by changes to outputs such as heating, ventilation and lighting.
Organisations must identify where energy is being used, for example refrigeration or machinery. In addition, fleet records may also offer indications on driver fuel performance, route planning and maintenance.
MEASUREMENT & DATA ANALYSIS By performing a measurement and data analysis exercise, your organisation will be able to account for its energy impacts in either energy kWh or in monetary terms.
n 2012 the UK Government incorporated ESOS, the ’Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme’, as its approach to the EU Energy Efficiency Directive. The mandatory scheme requires large organisations to record energy usage against any energy audits that have taken place to identify improvement. ESOS regulations apply to any large UK business that employs 250 or more people and has a turnover of greater than £38.9million. While ESOS goes some way to ensuring that the larger users audit their energy, there is little in the way of statutory enforcement when it comes to doing anything about the results – it’s up to businesses and their energy partners to turn recommendations into energy-saving actions. The Environment Agency is urging businesses to start taking the necessary steps to compliance sooner rather than later to avoid hefty fines ranging from £500 per day for late submissions up to £50,000:
The audit needs to consider building energy in terms of base and peak load to identify areas or times of potential waste. From this, common savings opportunities in buildings are likely to
APPOINT A LEAD ASSESSOR This can be an employee or external party, provided they are listed as a
RECORD KEEPING It is vital to keep a record of building energy information for electricity and gas. This can either be done through automated metering, or if you are part of the Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme (CRCEES), you may already have data gathering activities in place.
ASSESS SIGNIFICANT ENERGY CONSUMPTION Once data collection is completed, the ESOS audit assessment should focus on those activities or assets that consume 90% of the energy consumption; often referred to as ‘significant energy’.
CONSIDER BASE & PEAK ENERGY LOAD
PLAN WIDER AUDITS
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS The audit report needs to record the opportunity benefit for energy savings in terms of ‘Life Cycle Cost Analysis’ – rather than simply payback period. In energy terms, organisations know opportunities to save energy exist in all buildings and in many processes. The challenge for each participant is to identify, understand and promote the benefits of energy and emission reduction over time, within the boundaries of their business activity and budget. IMServ has long been central to UK electricity measurement and management activity. The company helps organisations make intelligent use of their energy via Half Hourly and Non Half Hourly data collection technology and specialist AMR meter, sub-meter and data logger installations. Peter Leggett explains: “IMServ is already involved in various measurement and process activities, which actively place data at the heart of management. Our meter and data services collect 25% of all UK electricity consumption every day, providing web access via EDV for energy managers. “Against a recent backdrop of rising utility prices, large organisations should, by default, be investing in metering, utility management analysis and solutions. One can argue that it should not need intervention of legislation to enhance existing business processes, but ESOS will endorse historic projects that may otherwise not have been started and will open the door to new reduction opportunities. We expect businesses to look beyond simple percentage savings or 24 month payback, to the longer term advantages and sustainability benefits that exists.” http://www.imserv.com/
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
SMART CITY LIGHTING STRATEGY LAUNCHED FOR THE SQUARE MILE
he City of London Corporation has announced it will bring innovative lighting proposals to the Square Mile, including remotely operated lighting that will complement the look of historic buildings, improve energy usage and help tackle light pollution. The first of its kind in London, the strategy will use state of the art technology and see urban spaces coated in various lighting types, levels and colours at different times during the night. This will complement the work that is already underway to upgrade the City’s street lighting to high quality, energy-saving and cost-efficient LED. The strategy will assess the balance between darkness and street and commercial lighting. Surveys show that currently some streets may be excessively lit compared to how many people actually use them, or that the current street lighting adds little because of the impact that nearby commercial lighting may already have.
The strategy will also consider the important role that lighting has on crime prevention and reinforcing road safety. Studies have found that artificial lighting at night is contributing to an alarming increase in the amount and brightness of light pollution across the world. This leads to less starlight in the night sky, disrupted ecosystems, a reduction in biodiverse populations and can impact on human health and sleep rhythms. The strategy also seeks to address the needs of nocturnal animals in gardens and areas along the riverside. The City Corporation is working with lighting designer Speirs and Major on the strategy which will be implemented in phases throughout the City. Chris Hayward, Chairman of the City of London Corporation Planning and Transportation Committee said: “The City Lighting Strategy will improve the quality of life for the Square Mile’s workers, residents and visitors, and tackle the problems of light pollution. “We want our streets to be safer,
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more sustainable and more inviting. Poor street lighting is a constant issue for London and it is time to change that. “It is vital that the City of London continues to invest in smart technology and infrastructure to maintain its position as a leading financial and business centre, as well as a leading cultural destination. Light will be used to celebrate and safeguard our streets while enhancing the experience for the Square Mile’s growing night time economy.” A series of drop-in consultation sessions are held at locations across the Square Mile where City Corporation officers will be available to provide information on the strategy and answer any questions. Evening sessions will be followed by walking tours which explore current challenges and opportunities of the City of London lighting. For more information please see the City of London Corporation’s website. See www.cityoflondon.gov.uk for more details.
GREEN LIGHT FOR GÖPPINGEN LED luminaires from Thorn benefit both the people and the planet.
Design played an important role when defining the lighting concept for the multifunctional “Ort der Vielfalt” leisure complex.
he local authorities in the German town of Göppingen have already used several road-lighting projects to make the switch to LED – with more set to follow. The R2L2 range, designed by Thorn for exactly this kind of urban function, is making a real impression in Göppingen with its economic benefits and attractive look. At the same time, Thorn has called on products from the Urba portfolio to provide the perfect lighting solution for the varied requirements of the “Ort der Vielfalt”, a multifunctional leisure complex in the town. Efficient and effective LED fittings from Thorn have put Göppingen in a new environmentally-friendly light. The local authorities made the call to start gradually converting urban street lighting to LED technology a few years ago. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Natural Protection and Reactor Safety (BNUB) in Germany is now supporting this shift with a grant to cover 20 per cent of the investment costs. A combination of the powerful R2L2 family and CiviTEQ street luminaires from Thorn has proven to be an appropriate and cost-effective solution. Along with optimum lighting performance and low maintenance costs, energy efficiency is one of the key advantages of LED street lighting. In addition, the integration of a lighting management system into the Göppingen installation has also enabled conventional half-night switching that cuts energy consumption even further. Helmut Renftle, Senior Planning Officer in Göppingen, is delighted with the results: “Thorn LED lighting has provided the best solution for our particular needs. Even with just 700 replacement LED luminaires in the Ministry for the Environment’s LED grant programme, we have already achieved an annual energy saving of 450,000 kWh and lowered CO2 emissions by 266 tons. The lighting system will pay for itself in about three and a half years.” Helmut Renftle is also impressed by the aesthetics of the new solution: “The new LED luminaires bathe our town in
The decorative Urba Deco was installed for the area and path lighting.
environmentally-friendly light and fit in perfectly with the urban landscape here.” Design was also an important consideration when it came to defining the lighting concept for the multifunctional “Ort der Vielfalt” leisure complex (a name literally meaning ‘place of diversity’) in the heart of Göppingen. The lighting is particularly important in this place of meeting and movement, so LED luminaires from Thorn were carefully chosen to meet all the different urban lighting requirements. Various sizes of post-mounted and surface-mounted fittings from the Urba lighting range use glare-free technology to provide impressive lighting quality. As a versatile lighting system for decorative area and path lighting, the extensive Urba Deco portfolio includes post, catenary wire, pendant lighting and bollard luminaires.
In addition, the Urba S was selected to illuminate the half-pipe and the adjacent lanes. The unique architectural form and defined lit effect enable the Urba fittings to nicely blend in with the stylish concept of the sports complex, while the specific light distributions and flexible mounting options help highlight points of interest. “The lighting is extremely important for visitor safety,” explained Mr Schuller, a street lighting specialist involved with the “Ort der Vielfalt” project. “The lighting conditions are now ideal for a wide range of users – from BMX riders and skateboarders through to joggers and runners. All the tracks, steps and edges can easily be seen, without people having to cope with visual discomfort caused by factors such as glare.” Further information can be found at www.thornlighting.com
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
HOW THE WORLD’S CITIES ARE TRANSITIONING TO RENEWABLE ENERGY
he world is in the process of transitioning to a lowcarbon economy based on clean energy, to address the risks of climate change and create economic value in the new green industries of the future. It’s clear that cities are key to this transition. As cities house over 50% of the world’s population and are responsible for 70% of the world’s energy-related CO2 emissions – their impact and influence is undeniable. Especially as the urban population is set to grow to 70% of the global total by 2050. No surprise that the role of cities and other subnational governments has been highlighted in the Paris Agreement. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) conference in Edmonton, Canada on 5th March 2018, specifically highlighted the vital role of cities in climate action. As Kyra Appleby, Director of Cities at CDP says: “There is immense potential for them to lead on building a sustainable economy”. At the same time, cities are vulnerable to climate change, and are already feeling the effects of related environmental problems such as air pollution and water scarcity. As energy costs rise, energy security is an increasing priority as well. The rapid uptake of renewables has been accelerated by their dramatic drop in cost. According to the World Economic Forum, unsubsidized renewables were the cheapest source of electricity in 30 countries in 2017, and IRENA predicts renewables will be consistently more cost effective than fossil fuels globally by 2020. In this context, investing in renewable energy makes clear economic sense. There is a growing momentum of the renewable energy cities movement, with cities around the world now aiming to switch from fossil fuels to 100% renewable energy by 2050. Here in the UK, the UK100 network of local government leaders recently announced that over 80 UK towns and cities have committed to 100% clean energy by 2050, including Manchester, Birmingham, Newcastle, Glasgow and 16 London boroughs. As this momentum builds, new data released by global environmental
impact non-profit CDP shows that over 100 cities around the world now source the majority of their electricity from renewables, and that over 40 cities have already ramped that up to 100%.
THE GLOBAL PICTURE: OVER 100 CITIES SOURCE THE MAJORITY OF THEIR ELECTRICITY FROM RENEWABLES Cities are increasingly reporting that they are powered by renewable electricity. According to data released by CDP in the form of a digital map, over 100 cities now source at least 70% of their electricity from renewable sources such as hydro, geothermal, solar and wind. The list includes large cities such as Auckland (New Zealand); Nairobi (Kenya); Oslo (Norway); Seattle (USA) and Vancouver (Canada), and is more than double the 40 cities who reported that they were powered by at least 70% clean energy in 2015. CDP holds data from over 570 of the world’s cities, 100 states and regions and 6,300 companies. They disclose their environmental impacts and actions at the request of investors with $87 trillion in assets. CDP drives companies and governments to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, safeguard water resources and protect forests. CDP’s 2017 data highlights how cities are stepping up action on climate change with a sharp rise in environmental reporting, emissions reduction targets and climate action plans since 2015, following the groundbreaking Paris Agreement to limit global warming to below 2 degrees. Much of the drive behind city climate action and reporting comes from the 7,000+ mayors signed up to The Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy who have pledged to act on climate change. In the United States, 58 cities and towns have now committed to transition to 100% clean, renewable energy, including big cities like Atlanta (Georgia) and San Diego (California). Despite the lack of support from the federal government, US cities are stepping up.
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DEEP DIVE: TWO CITIES LEADING THE WAY ON CLEAN ENERGY Across the world, over 40 cities disclose they are sourcing 100% of their electricity from renewable sources. As others follow their lead, it’s useful to take a deep dive and examine two of them in more detail. Burlington in the US and Basel in Switzerland are showing what’s possible.
BURLINGTON, USA The largest city in the north-eastern state of Vermont, Burlington’s region is known for its stunning forests, maple syrup and mountainous skiing slopes. Though this city of 42,000 citizens is not large by US standards, it has garnered international attention for its world-leading achievements in urban sustainability. Their biggest success: 100% of the city grid’s electricity comes from renewable sources. Not only is their electricity clean, but it’s affordable too. They haven’t raised energy rates in eight years. As the first city in the US to make such a leap, there’s much we can learn from their experience as other cities follow their lead. Where Burlington gets its electricity: • Biomass: sustainable local wood is used to power the McNeil Generating Station • Hydro: hydroelectric power plant on the Winooski River at the city’s edge • Wind: four large wind turbines on the nearby Georgia Mountain • Solar: rooftop solar PV arrays on the airport, high school and Burlington Electric Department This pioneering city kicked off their clean energy journey back in 1978 when they replaced an aging coal plant with the 50-megawatt McNeil Generating Station. Half of the electricity goes to Burlington’s own citywide grid, with the remaining half used elsewhere. The 10-megawatt wind farm and various solar arrays boost the proportion of renewables in the city’s energy mix. Then came the big milestone: In
2014, city voters approved a $12 million bond for the city’s energy department to purchase the 7.4-megawatt Winooski One Hydro Plant. And with that, Burlington became the first city in the US to power its electricity grid entirely from renewables. The city is proud of its accomplishment, but it’s not stopping there. Burlington faces significant risks from climate change. Their two key industries – tourism and agriculture – are vulnerable to extreme weather, and the river that helps generate clean power is at risk of flooding. The impact of Hurricane Irene in 2011 shows what’s at stake. Heavy rain storms damaged infrastructure, several key businesses and over 60 residential homes – resulting in high costs and loss of economic activity, not to mention severe disruption for citizens. To make Burlington as resilient as possible, the city is now exploring what it would take to become totally zerocarbon. They’re investing in charging stations for electric vehicles, planting hundreds of urban trees, and developing plans to pipe steam from the biomass plant to heat downtown homes.
BASEL, SWITZERLAND Basel, located on the banks of the river Rhine in north Switzerland, is the country’s third largest city. It’s renowned for its museums and home to the country’s oldest
university, founded in 1460. It’s also a world leader in clean energy. The city of Basel and its surrounding region of Basel-Stadt sources 100% of its electricity from renewables. The majority of its electricity is generated from hydropower, with 10% from wind and smaller contributions from biomass and solar. Basel’s publicowned energy company IWB only offers electricity from renewable sources, and it also has a district heating system run on geothermal and biomass. Basel-Stadt uses financial tools such as tax levies and incentives to boost clean energy production and energy efficiency projects across the region. Together with the environmental and health benefits of clean energy, its progress has seen Basel race ahead of national policy. With its national energy plan ‘Energy Strategy 2050’, Switzerland is facing major changes ahead – Basel is very much showing the way for the rest of the country. The city highlights the importance of having a clear vision and strong political leadership to enable citizen buy-in for the transition to clean energy. While Basel’s 100% renewable electricity is a huge achievement, they’re not stopping there. The city authority aims to get its own municipal emissions down to net zero by 2030. Going even further, the city authority passed a law in November 2016, which came into force in August 2017, with the headline target
to reduce CO2 emissions per person from 4 tonnes today to 1 tonne by 2050.
MOVING FORWARD It’s clear that, for both environmental and economic reasons, all cities need to ultimately transition to low-carbon clean energy systems. So where do they start? The primary action for cities is to first understand their energy mix and overall environmental impact; which is why over 570 cities already disclose to CDP. Disclosure leads to transparency, knowledge and understanding. Then, once cities have this insight, they can make informed decisions about how to reach their goal. The second action for cities is to set ambitious targets. Basel cites ‘political will and vision’ as vital. True vision is key, which is why it’s so positive to see the commitments to 100% renewables growing so fast. “Reassuringly, our data shows much commitment and ambition”, says Kyra Appleby, Director of Cities, CDP: “Cities not only want to shift to renewable energy but, most importantly - they can. We urge all cities to disclose to us, work together to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement and prioritize the development of ambitious renewable energy procurement strategies. The time to act is now.” As the world transitions to a lowcarbon economy, these 100 cities are leading the way. www.cdp.net
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DRIVING THE FUTURE
Choosing the correct heating and cooling technology, and selecting the right heat exchanger for your project, is vital to the success of the biogas upgrading process
FUELLING THE UK’S GREEN GAS REVOLUTION Matt Hale, International Sales and Marketing Director, HRS Heat Exchangers
he use of biomethane as a transport fuel is at once both the most exciting prospect for the further development of biogas in the United Kingdom, and also the part of the industry that has been most disappointing in terms of its development to date. A report published last year1 showed that using biomethane could reduce the well-to-wheel (WTW) CO2e emissions for road transport by between 35% and 88% depending on the vehicles and lifecycle analysis used. The European Biogas Association also points out that, ‘In addition to using pure biomethane in vehicles, a smart cost-efficient way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet national targets is by blending it with natural gas. For example, using a blend with 20% biomethane can yield GHG emission savings of 39% when compared to gasoline on the well-to-wheel basis.’
IMPROVING AIR QUALITY
This is welcome news, particularly as the need to find a green alternative to diesel vehicles has never been greater. Nitrogen dioxide pollution, mostly produced by diesel vehicles, has been illegally high in most urban parts of Britain since 2010, and UK air pollution is linked to 40,000 early deaths each year. Aside from the air quality benefits, substituting diesel for UK-produced biomethane improves energy security and reduces our reliance on imports of natural gas and other petroleum products from volatile parts of the world such as Qatar.
OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO SUCCESS In the past, barriers to greater uptake of biomethane as a transport fuel have included a lack of available vehicles and constrained biomethane production, but these arguments no longer hold true. Over the past few years, biomethane has seen the biggest growth of any sub-sector of the UK’s booming AD industry and 87 biomethane plants have now come on stream, generating almost 64,000m3/hour of home-grown green gas2. In addition, most vehicle manufacturers now have a dedicated right-hand drive gas engine in their range, and more fleet operators and bus companies than ever before
1 Report by Ricardo Energy & Environment for Transport & Environment (T&E), February 2016 2 Anaerobic Digestion Market & Policy Report (ADBA), November 2017
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
are making the switch from diesel to gas. But if the vehicles and production network exist, and the benefits of using biomethane are so clear cut, why do we not have a network of filling stations across the country (rather than less than 20) and tens of thousands of vehicles on the road, instead of a few hundred? The remaining barriers to greater uptake revolve around the logistics of fuel supply, the relative costs of upgrading biogas to biomethane, and a lack of clear government policy. These last two factors are clearly related, and although various organisations and schemes have been charged with moving the situation forward over the last eight years, there has been little real action. Past support via the Renewables Obligation (RO), the Feed-in Tariff (FIT) and the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) has provided greater incentive for turning biogas into electricity or injecting biomethane into the gas grid, than the Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RTFO) has provided for turning biogas into a transport fuel. The ‘double counting’ of Renewable Transport Fuel Certificates for biogas from waste sources also skews demand and effectively makes it uneconomic for crop-fed plants to take advantage of the transport market. If green gas is to fulfil its potential, it needs clear policy indicators from government which give investors sufficient confidence
DRIVING THE FUTURE and make using biomethane as a transport fuel at least as financially attractive as other potential uses.
OPPORTUNITY KNOCKS However, there could finally be some light at the end of the tunnel ¬– the Department for Transport’s recent reforms to the RTFO now require 12.4 per cent of all fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2032. This provides a great opportunity for the AD industry and could be just the impetus required to see biomethane finally take centre stage. Indeed, the Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Association (ADBA) states: ‘The reforms to the RTFO should help stimulate uptake of biomethane as a transport fuel and create a positive investment environment beyond 2020.’
MAXIMISING HEAT The reforms to the RTFO are expected to generate a further increase in the number of biomethane projects coming on stream in the next few years – in fact, 45 projects currently have planning permission, while a further 10 have submitted a planning application2. However, in order to maximise both profits and plant efficiency, any prospective biomethane developer should ensure they are taking full advantage of the heat generated within the AD process, and that it is being put to best use. Heat plays a key role in various biogas upgrading methods – cooling and condensation may be used to remove water or siloxanes from biogas, while refrigeration may be used in CO2 washing systems. Cryogenic upgrading technologies, meanwhile, use the different boiling and sublimation points of different components of biogas to freeze CO2 and evaporate nitrogen. All of these processes can be made more efficient if existing sources of heating and cooling in a plant are utilised through heat exchangers. Choosing the correct heating and cooling technology, and selecting the right heat exchanger for your project, is therefore vital to the success of the biogas upgrading process. When investigating any biogas-tobiomethane upgrading project, you should ask potential technology suppliers how their heating and cooling systems work. If any heat is being wasted in the system, an experienced heat exchanger supplier would be happy to come on board to investigate the potential to improve system efficiencies, helping to fuel the next generation of gas vehicles. www.hrs-heatexchangers.com
SOLAR CARPORTS OFFER A CLEAR SOLUTION FOR EV CHARGE-POINT INFRASTRUCTURE & THE MEANS TO GENERATE THE ENERGY REQUIRED
o improve the air quality in our towns and cities and to meet our carbon emission reduction targets, the UK’s transition to cleaner electric vehicles is essential. One of the current barriers to this transition in this country is the lack of EV charge-point infrastructure. We meet FlexiSolar, whose large-scale solar carports offer both a clear solution to this infrastructure need, and the means to generate the energy required to power it. Backed by Innovate UK, the UK’s innovation agency, FlexiSolar formally entered the market last year as a design, manufacturing, installation and operations company specialising in the integration of solar panels, electric vehicle charging points and carports. The support from Innovate UK, as part of the department’s focus on driving forward innovations that will grow the UK economy, has enabled FlexiSolar to fully commercialise its concept and rollout this integrated energy solution across the country. In the Autumn 2017 budget, Chancellor Phillip Hammond announced £540m earmarked to support the growth of electric vehicles, including more charge-points. With global car manufacturers scaling up their production of electric only cars, ownership of electric vehicles is set to increase significantly in the next few years. Powering these cars on a large scale must not break the grid and focus is turning to how to achieve this with a clean, renewable energy source.
THE BENEFITS OF LARGE SCALE SOLAR CARPORTS FlexiSolar’s solar carport concept allows businesses and destinations to utilise existing parking areas to generate power without sacrificing valuable land resources. From a bespoke carport design, steel frames are installed in the right shape, size and position to best harness the sun’s energy from the solar panels on top, with the ability to add EV chargepoint infrastructure underneath. Often seen as an upgrading to existing parking, interest also comes from decision makers that want car park weatherproofing, improved security
and advertising space, on top of EV charging. Internationally, airports, theme parks, manufacturing sites and large parking lots have been early adopters of the approach; clearly seeing the benefits the integrated solution can offer. 2018 is the year that FlexiSolar predict the UK will commit on a large scale too.
GETTING THE UK READY FOR THE ELECTRIC VEHICLES REVOLUTION FlexiSolar knew right from the beginning that an expert renewables team was vital in its work with organisations across the country. The FlexiSolar team boasts a combined over 100 years renewable energy experience between them, led by longstanding renewables champion Chief Executive Tim Evans. At the beginning of this year, FlexiSolar introduced its sales team. It is clear the future of transport is electric, and this evolution is a key focus for both public and private sector organisations across the country. It is also clear that the popularity of renewable energy in general, and solar PV in particular, has not diminished. FlexiSolar predicts 2018 will see further price reductions in energy storage (seen as the final piece of the puzzle) and the integration of solar carports EV charging infrastructure and battery energy storage is exactly what FlexiSolar is on a mission to deliver. The FlexiSolar team are working with organisations and local authorities across the country to discuss their large scale solar carport requirements. The business is set to break ground on a yet unannounced large scale national project this spring. Find out more at www.flexi-solar.com
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
DRIVING THE FUTURE
HOW LOCAL GOVERNMENT CAN DRIVE THE EV AGENDA Lee Feihn, UK Business Developer at NewMotion, analyses the perpetual movement of the Electric Vehicle (EV) landscape in the UK and the role local government can play in shaping a lasting strategy for its continued development.
recent report by Transport & Environment showed that by the end of 2017, there will be more than half a million battery, electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles on Europe’s roads. Although the figure may seem low, it represents a massive shift in a traditional industry not seen since the introduction of the Ford Model T back in 1914. It’s a shift that in the past year alone has seen government investment of £30 million in the installation of charge points for EVs, the start of production of Tesla’s first massmarket EV and even the Queen mentioning EV in her 2017 speech to parliament. There’s no denying that the EV revolution is gathering pace, with the worlds of science, politics and technology now aligning to support the growth of the industry. From the recent Bonn climate talks, that have once again seen the reduction of car CO2 and the accelerated roll-out of EVs put firmly on the agenda, to the dramatic reduction in the cost of battery production, the time is now for EVs. All of this paired with innovative manufacturing from leading EV players such as Tesla is driving rapid development in the technology at work under the bonnet of EVs. In the centre of this, the consumer is being given a choice they’ve never had before – the ability to buy
an EV on par with conventional vehicles with a range over the psychologically important 300 kilometre range. This change in consumer behaviour internationally, in particular the rapid growth in EV sales in China which is now the world’s biggest market, has forced the large car manufacturers to access their EV options and take the market seriously. With governments in the UK and France pledging to ban the sale of petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2040 and the Netherlands seeking to implement a similar ban as soon as 2025, Chinese EV competitors like BYD will soon be exporting to Europe forcing non-Chinese carmakers to sit up and take notice. What fundamental changes can local councils adopt to prepare for the growth in the number of EVs on Britain’s roads? Change can start internally within local councils taking a lead and upgrading their own fleet to ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEV) plus ensuring there is a local infrastructure to support such a fleet. This sends out a message to residents and locals businesses
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
to consider going electric while also educating the public of its benefits. With government incentive schemes expanding and EV sales on the rise, we will see the provision of more public infrastructure and sustainable fleets in the coming years. The OnStreet Residential Charge Scheme is a good starting point. This scheme provides funding to Local Councils of up to £7500 per charge point and will cover 75% of the capital costs of installing and procuring the charge point on a dedicated parking bay. Low emission zones and lower parking costs for electric vehicles will also incentivise drivers to consider making the change to EV. London is already leading the way by introducing an ‘Ultra Low Emissions Zone’ from 2019 with 10 additional sites around the UK set to follow. North Somerset Council and Oxford City and County Council are already beginning to pave a path for EV by investing in public charging spaces in response to growing demand. Local councils can shape the future of EVs by incorporating plans to change public parking spots into electric charging stations. In order to do this, before pulling tenders together, local councils should consider consulting with OLEV on charge point implementation or start appointing an OLEV accredited installer who can offer smart charge points and a portal to monitor kWh usage throughout the network. Local governments have a fantastic opportunity to be a leading light to shape the future of commuter transport and build a robust EV network for generations to come. https://newmotion.com
WATER MARKET DEREGULATION – TO SWITCH OR NOT TO SWITCH, THAT IS THE QUESTION? Graham Mann, Water Industry Expert
pril 1st 2007 was a key date in the UK water industry as the water market opened its doors allowing nonresidential customers to negotiate a better price on their water and waste water bills. The expectation was high as this was an opportunity to strike deals which had potential for reducing business and public sector water and waste water costs, so where are we now nearly one year on? Some water companies such as Severn Trent and United Utilities have merged their water retail business creating Water Plus. A Scottish based water company has acquired Thames Water’s nonresidential customers and Portsmouth Water’s non-residential customers. Anglian Water and Northumbrian Water have merged their retail companies creating Wave, and numerous other water retail businesses have been popping up all over the place with many more in the pipeline. So in theory customers should be enjoying attractive competitive discounting as the various water retailers fight for your water supply business right? Wrong, the margins are simply not available to entice anything like customer expectations, low single digits.
SO WHAT ARE THE WATER RETAILERS DOING TO ENTICE CUSTOMERS THROUGH THE DOORS? All water retailers are promising better service but so far all we have seen are a substantial increase in water billing errors, some simple, some more complex. Whereas water companies overcharging has been prolific in both the Scottish and English water market for decades, now the bill errors are quite frankly off the scale, with many not just by a few pounds either. With refunds ranging from £1,000 to a more recent £150,000 with more and more incorrect bills being sent out as a direct result of water market deregulation and Water Company mergers.
Service levels are rock bottom with the larger water retail companies taking months to resolve simple billing issues. Others are not replying to billing issues or complaints. It seems since water deregulation some water retailers are putting all their resources into grabbing a larger market share and existing customers are suffering the pain of deregulation and mergers. We never thought in 30 years in the water industry we would hear customers say “Get me away from these cowboys.”
SO WHAT ARE WE LEFT WITH – DISCOUNT? Very low single digit discounts are the norm and not worth the time, effort or costs of going down the road of switching from your existing supplier. As for any value that can be derived from receiving one bill for all sites, there are other more cost effective ways of reducing your water charges.
SO WHERE DOES THAT LEAVE THE PUBLIC SECTOR? We estimate 25% - 30% can be wiped off the public sector water and waste water bills. That’s not including the refunds due to historical billing errors and that is a big number! Large sites within public sector such as prisons, hospitals, universities and sites using large volumes of water should carry out feasibility studies with a view to going “off grid” for their water supplies. Boreholes, your own private water supply will give you increased security of supply. You could slash your water costs by 15% to 90% depending on which project funding option works for you. Some prisons, hospitals and MOD sites already have an alternative water supply. Those sites that do, why not take one giant innovative step and see if you could sell any of your excess water supply volumes to other potential customers. Giving you an income from the water resale and offsetting operations costs – now there’s a thought. Please be aware your existing water retailer may not be so keen to help you
install an alternative water supply as they stand to lose your water supply revenue. Another consideration is “water selfsupply.” This is where your organisation makes an application for a licence to deal directly with the water wholesaler, cutting out the retail margin or middle man. In the media recently, Blackpool Council made an application for a water self-supply licence, apparently a saving of £50,000 in the first year. Taking into consideration the application and ongoing regulatory costs, we think the savings figure of £50,000 is unlikely. We recently completed a water self-supply feasibility study for a hospital with a spend of £450,000 per year and after costs a saving of £5,000 over 2 years would be achieved. The water retail market in England has some years yet to fully mature, the discounts needed to “kick start” the market will not be achieved for many years yet. Innovation takes time to shine through, but be assured it is on its way, I am confident of that.
SO WHAT ARE WE LEFT WITH? Take the water management sustainability approach, draw up a water strategy. Centralise your billing data, compile a 1 year data set and commission a historical desktop water audit. The overall specification and opportunities will vary but generally the report should contain areas of savings opportunities together with savings figures and also contain details of historical billing errors. In the main, such items as incorrect tariff applications, high water consumption through leakage and inefficient use should give you a feel for the potential returns. Take your total spend and apply a 20% to 30% target saving as an average that gives you a flavour as to the start point. Site surveys may well be needed in order to identify the savings, quantify the action required to achieve the savings in terms of costs and payment which on average is less than 1 year. Funding options will vary according to your individual requirements with some payback of 3 – 9 months. www.h2obuildingservices.co.uk
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
WATER, WATER EVERYWHERE… BUT ONLY IF YOU HAVE A LICENCE
t’s hard to remember a time when water was splashed across the headlines as frequently as it has been recently. Floods, droughts, plastics, day zero, nationalisation, privatisation, open market, selfsupply… Water is one hot topic. But there’s one subject that hasn’t been making waves – and it needs to. Abstraction licences. It doesn’t sound particularly exciting. Indeed, it’s not particularly exciting - at least not in the context of front page news – but businesses across the UK could find themselves on the receiving end of the wrong kind of headline if they don’t sit up and take notice. In January this year, the government launched an overhaul of its approach to allowing businesses to abstract water directly from groundwater, rivers or tidal flows. Under new regulations, the Environment Agency will make full use of its existing powers to review and amend abstraction licences. The goal is to better protect the environment, adapt to the pressures of increasing water demand and climate change in the long term, to raise standards and to modernise the current (paper-based) service. The Environment Agency and Natural Resources Wales plan to take a catchment focused approach, bringing together the abstractors and catchment groups to develop locally appropriate solutions to ease existing pressures and to prepare for the future by reducing the impacts of abstraction and improving access to water. It should pave the way for the introduction of more flexible conditions that support the efficient use, storage and trading of water in line with regional needs. Barry Millar, Operations Director at independent consultancy Waterscan thinks this is a step in the right direction. “Lawful abstractions are only likely to be significantly curtailed or refused if serious damage to the environment is at stake so, in my opinion, implementing this initiative can’t come soon enough. We expect that the approach will be risk-based, prioritising the licences that are likely to
have the greatest impact on the environment: good news for those of us concerned with reducing water consumption.” Until now, many businesses have been regarded as licence-exempt. But this will not be the case moving forward: any operation taking more than 20,000 litres of water a day directly from surface or groundwater sources now requires an abstraction licence to remain on the right side of the law. Lifting exemptions relating to purpose and geography, government officials say, will ‘bring all significant abstraction under regulation and create a fairer system where no group of abstractors will be able to expand at the cost of another group, or the environment’. For water-intensive industries and those operating in water-scarce catchments, it’s time to get involved and the sooner the better: licence applications must be made within the two year window between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2019. There will be no restrictions on abstractions (provided they are in line with previous quantities extracted until December 2017) while applications are reviewed and new licences issued. However, enforcement action may be taken in the event of non-compliance with the requirements and timescales of this initiative. If the prospect of a potential fine isn’t incentive enough, consider the associated opportunities. Barry Millar continued: “Taking a proactive approach to abstraction while embracing water conservation technologies could enable organisations to take a leading role in water sustainability. Indeed, this may be the legislation to finally overturn many of the perceived obstacles relating to water re-use. Many southern European countries, no strangers to water shortages, have an established regulatory framework to stimulate the implementation of water re-use schemes but that has yet to be seen
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here in the UK. Recent media attention around Cape Town’s ‘day zero’ has helped to bring the topic to the fore. Although it’s unfortunate that it has taken an impending crisis on this scale to draw attention to the world’s water supplies, I’m hopeful that the research, education and innovation arising will have long term positive impacts.” That is not to say that there aren’t already excellent innovations available for commercial organisations looking to capitalise on the opportunity to prioritise water as part of their sustainability strategies. Consider, for example, rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling systems which treat water through ultra-filtration membranes before feeding it back into the property for non-potable purposes like vehicle washing, toilet flushing, laundry, cooling systems and irrigation. Taking the concept one step further, Intellistorm®, will not only reduce water consumption but create flood resilience. The latest water re-use technology to come to market, it works by combining rainwater harvesting and attenuation systems with intelligent data gathering using live weather forecast data. Intellistorm® captures and releases storm water for reuse in full compliance with stringent local planning and discharge requirements. Its manufacturers expect it to reduce site water consumption and discharge to drain by as much as 40%. Furthermore, its deployment eliminates as much as £100,000 from the cost of integrating water re-use to a new build facility and it requires no additional equipment footprint or civil excavation. For large scale operations with significant water usage, considerable water cost and consumption savings are there for the taking. www.waterscan.com
SOCOTEC’S ENHANCED OASIS WATER RECYCLING UNIT DELIVERS COST SAVINGS TO COOLING TOWERS
OCOTEC, the UK’s leading provider of testing, inspection and compliance services, has recently launched the upgraded and improved version of their OASIS Water Recycling unit. Having recognised the need to reduce running costs and make cooling tower systems more environmentally efficient, the updated OASIS units can support the reduction of water consumption and costly effluent discharges. Designed originally to recycle waste water from evaporative cooling towers, the advanced model can also be used to recycle waste water from Reverse Osmosis (RO) water purification units used in a wide variety of applications including pharmaceutical process water, renal dialysis and beverage production. Cooling towers serving air conditioning systems are usually the largest water user in a building. A typical cooling system in a moderately sized modern building with a heat rejection capacity of 10MWt will evaporate approximately 14,000 litres per hour on
full load whilst also discharging 5,000 litres/hour waste water to drain. A typical Renal Dialysis RO unit producing 10 m3/hr of purified water will discharge 4m3/hr to waste. Using a SOCOTEC OASIS unit approximately 60m3/day could be recycled, equal to or better quality than the mains water supply. Nick Harper, operations director, Environment & Safety, SOCOTEC, commented: “Our OASIS units continue to prove a powerful option for reducing water consumption and effluent discharge, improving environmental sustainability in commercial and industrial applications. As well as being economically and environmentally beneficial, clients using OASIS units within larger cooling tower systems tend to see the greatest return on investment, as there is a shorter payback time. Such
savings also contribute significantly to any new buildings environmental IPPC assessment rating as well as the overall company’s worthwhile commitment to reduce water consumption and waste.” For more information about SOCOTEC’s OASIS water recycling unit, please visit https://www.socotec. co.uk/our-services/environmentsafety/water-treatment-equipment/ or contact email@example.com.
THESE SEVEN CITIES WILL LIKELY RUN OUT OF WATER IN TEN YEARS
ccording to the United Nations, over one billion people lack access to fresh, drinkable water, and nearly 3 billion people have no access to water at least one month per year. However, the problem is spreading. The UN estimates that global demand for water will exceed supply by 2030. This means more cities will be in the same boat as Cape Town, South Africa, which has essentially run out of water. The UN says the following six cities are also, like Cape Town, likely to run out of water by 2030: 2. Sao Paulo. Home to 21.5 million people, a 2015 drought sent water reservoirs below 4 percent of capacity. Many doubt the city can survive another severe drought.
Beijing. China has 20 percent of the world’s population, but only 7 percent of the world’s fresh water. Water reserves are declining, and in 2015, it was determined that about half of the city’s water is so polluted, it can no longer be used for drinking, agricultural, even industrial use. Moscow. While it has ample access to water, pollution problems make as much as 60 per-cent of this water unfit for drinking. Cairo. The Nile provides nearly all of Egypt’s water, but is increasingly polluted and more fresh water is used for agriculture. The UN
believes Cairo may run out of water in seven years. 6. Mexico City. Today, most of the city’s 21 million people only have access to water a few hours per week. Water is imported, but as much as 40 percent of that water is lost due to Mexico City’s leaking water infrastructure. 7. London. London has ample rainfall, but most of its drinking water comes from rivers that can’t keep up with demand. It is expected that London will have supply problems by 2025 and severe supply problems by 2040. For more information, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
NEW CONNECTIONS – A WATERSHED MOMENT
John Marsh, GTC’s Water Director
he deregulation of the water retail market for non-domestic customers has received considerable attention. There has been less fanfare, however, about another important opening up of the water market in England and Wales, that of the market for new water and wastewater connections. Measures to introduce genuine competition into this market come into force this April and represent a significant opportunity for any public-sector organisation involved in development, especially local authorities and housing associations building new communities of social housing. Following what Ofwat and industry experts are describing as a major change, independent water network providers, such as GTC, will be able to offer developments of all sizes a real choice of provider. The water market will be liberalised in the same way that the electricity and gas markets have been. Indeed, the majority of new electricity and gas connections are now carried out by independent network providers. Until now, there have been very limited opportunities for developers to source their water networks from anyone other than their local water
The New Appointment and Variation (NAV) network connects to the incumbent water company’s network at the boundary of the development.
company. This was because the old rules did not anticipate competition. As a result, the tariff and charging structures operated by the water companies hindered competition. Following an investigation into how the market was operating, Ofwat has now introduced a number of measures which will sweep away the barriers to competition, with the anticipated result that newly robust market competition will bring lower prices, a wider choice of providers, better customer service and innovative supply solutions.
WHAT CHOICES DOES A DEVELOPER HAVE? In England and Wales, water companies supply domestic water and wastewater services on a
One network provider can co-ordinate and schedule all the utilities including water and wastewater.
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monopoly basis within their specific geographical areas. They provide services to the majority of households in their regions and are referred to as the ‘incumbent’ water company. For new connections, however, developers do have a choice: 1. To use the existing ‘statutory’ offer from the incumbent water company to deliver the new connections. 2. To choose a competing water company, referred to as a NAV – a ‘New Appointment and Variation. NAVs are licensed by Ofwat and own the site network. NAVs can install the site network or adopt networks that are installed by Self-Lay Providers (SLPs). To date, NAVs have been restricted to large sites, but the opening of the market means full competition with NAVs operating on all sizes of development. 3. To employ SLPs to install the site water network. The network can then be adopted and owned by a NAV or the incumbent water company. In a similar way, NAVs can own the site wastewater networks installed by the developer. Although the option to appoint an independent water company has been available since 1997, developers and housebuilders have been wary of the process and it has only made financial sense for independent providers to supply water and wastewater networks on larger developments. The new rules change this, with hundreds of new NAV licences expected to be processed in the
WATER MANAGEMENT next few years and developments of as few as 50 houses being able to benefit.
THE CHANGES AND WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT The first difference that a developer considering appointing a NAV will notice is that it will be easier to establish exactly what the incumbent water company will charge to connect the new development to their existing network. The charges will also be fairer, with new connections not paying for pre-existing network issues. In addition, developers will benefit from a speedier licensing process. Ofwat has undertaken to streamline the NAV licence application process and significantly reduce the amount of time it takes for a licence to be granted. The greater degree of certainty over timescales will mean that choice of supplier will not be determined by concerns that delays in the licensing process will impact the delivery of the overall project. Independent providers are also expected to bring fresh thinking and a more flexible approach to network implementation. They also bring experience. GTC, for example, is already responsible for more than 8,000 live water and wastewater new connections with an order book of 40,000 more homes. Finally, the opportunity for adopting a multi-utility approach will bring significant benefits to housing developments. All of a development’s utilities – water, wastewater, electricity, gas, and superfast fibre broadband - could be handled by a single network provider. Utility procurement is simplified with only one company to deal with and a single project manager to co-ordinate the installation of all the utilities, making scheduling more reliable and delivering valuable cost savings.
MAKING THE MOST OF THE NEW ENVIRONMENT Everyone involved in commissioning or specifying utilities for new developments needs to consider how these changes can work for them. Even where a quotation has already been received, options can be reviewed under transitional arrangements designed to protect existing business cases. Genuine competition is about to arrive in the new water connections market. Expect change, innovation, and new ways of working. It is a watershed moment for the water industry. www.gtc-uk.co.uk
ORGANISATIONS WILL BENEFIT FROM ENGAGING IN THE WATER MARKET For public sector organisations, switching any kind of supplier can be a lengthy and complex process – so before a contract goes out to tender, the procurement team needs to know that there’s a good reason to do so. When it comes to water and wastewater, they might question – is switching their supplier really worth it? Max Langford, commercial director at SES Business Water, provides some advice.
ngland’s non-domestic water market has been open since April 2017, which means that an extra 1.2 million businesses and organisations now have the opportunity to choose their water and wastewater supplier, just like they can choose their energy supplier. In less than a year, around 100,000 supply points have switched, and so organisations are already seeing the benefits of an open market. However, many organisations are yet to make the switch, which could be due to a general lack of awareness among businesses that the water market is now open to them. Even those that are aware they can switch their water supplier may be unsure why they should consider it – and if the benefits aren’t clear, then they’re unlikely to engage with the market.
MAKING THE SWITCH Public sector organisations aren’t alone in facing decreasing budgets – businesses across all industries are looking for ways to reduce their costs, and switching their water supplier could be a good way to do so. While cost will vary by region, there are savings to be made by switching, so it should pay for organisations to compare suppliers. Before choosing a supplier, organisations should also think about the services that they really need from a supplier. Whether their main priority is cost saving or a simpler way to manage their water, they should be able to find a supplier that can meet all of their needs. Many suppliers offer services that can help organisations to become more water efficient, for example, and by taking advantage of these services, they could reduce their water bills even further. Multi-site organisations could particularly benefit from bringing all of their sites under one supplier. They could cut their administration costs significantly by choosing a supplier that
offers a consolidated billing service, which should give them a single bill for all of their sites. A single bill should also provide multi-site organisations with a simpler way to manage their water account, as they should only need to make a single payment for all of their sites and they may find that it’s easier to monitor their consumption. Each supplier will offer a different range of services, and it’s ultimately down to the individual organisation to decide which blend of services will best meet their needs. As competition increases between suppliers, we can expect to see innovative products entering the market, so organisations should look out for those suppliers that are offering their customers new ways to save or manage their accounts.
GETTING A BETTER DEAL WITHOUT SWITCHING While switching suppliers is likely to be the most straightforward way for organisations to improve their water services, it’s not the only option. Organisations that are generally happy with the services their water supplier provides may want to stay with their existing supplier, but this doesn’t mean that they have to miss out on getting a better deal. Many have successfully negotiated with their existing supplier, gaining lower prices or additional services as a result.
ENGAGEMENT IS KEY For the open water market to be as beneficial as possible for non-domestic customers, organisations of all sizes and all sectors need to engage with the market. Whether they choose to switch or renegotiate with their existing supplier, it’s important that organisations make the most of their power to choose, as this will prompt retailers to enhance the services they provide to their customers. www.sesbusinesswater.co.uk
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
RINNAI HOT WATER – INSTANT, CONTINUOUS, LIMITLESS AND SENSIBLY ECONOMIC FOR EVERY TYPE OF COMMERCIAL SITE
nstallers, specifiers and end users’ installers have the most practical and economically viable solution for all domestic and commercial hot water heating and delivery needs in Rinnai’s comprehensive range of energy efficient A rated, electronically controlled continuous flow gas fired units and systems. The natural gas or LPG water heaters guarantee a limitless supply of accurately temperature controlled safe and useable hot water, time after time after time to any type or size of site or application. The Rinnai range delivers energy saving performance and low greenhouse emissions through new low NOx burner technology. All units and systems can be installed as stand-alone or manifolded to provide unlimited hot water for the largest of all commercial sites such as big hotels, busy gyms, high rise offices etc. Water temperature is and can be pre-set through easy-to-use built in digital controls, eliminating the risk of scalding and potentially eradicating the need for thermostatic mixing valves. Water can be used simultaneously at several points of delivery with no fluctuation of temperature. The newly updated Rinnai Infinity range is designed for use directly off the mains, with no need for large, ungainly and energy inefficient storage vessels. For example, Rinnai’s Infinity 16i continuous flow water heater is designed to meet the hot water needs of domestic and light commercial applications. The Infinity 16i, weighing just 18kg and measuring less than 675mm (H) x 139mm (W), has a delivery capacity of 15.2 litres per minute, at a temperature rise of 25°. Rinnai Heavy Duty water heaters are high efficiency gas continuous flow water heaters with outputs up to 69kW. The Rinnai Heavy Duty HD50i Internal water heater is a wall hung, gas fired, continuous flow water heater capable of producing hot water at 770 litres per hour at a 50°C rise. The HD50i has a 125mm concentric flue which can be extended up to 15m, less 1m per 45° bend. Compact and reliable, the HD50i operates between 1-10 bar pressure, which is suitable for mains and systems with boost pumps. Incoming water temperatures in excess of 60°C are accepted, making the HD50i suitable for secondary return systems. Water can be delivered at high volume with minimum gas consumption. All models have full electronic ignition with no pilot light and operate on demand
only, consuming no gas when not in use. All Rinnai internal HDC condensing continuous flow water heaters, are roomsealed, power flue appliances while the external weatherproof models have forced exhaust which enables them to be compact, saving both floor and wall space. Rinnai’s unique condensing technology incorporates two heat exchangers to achieve optimum water heating generated from every cubic metre of Natural Gas or LPG. The condensing process delivers up to 95% thermal efficiency, which translates to significant energy savings when compared to standard on-demand water heaters or conventional stored systems. For applications where the use of stored hot water cannot be avoided, i.e. in refurbishments where there may be a constraint on the amount of gas available, usually through the gas main size, Rinnai’s ‘pack’ system covers this shortfall by fitting a small amount of storage capacity. Rinnai Gas Hot Water Storage Pack represents the best value-formoney solution on the market today with everything delivered direct to site in one complete package The pack consists of up to five heavy duty water heaters with an equal number of flue kits (for internal heaters) or an equal number of pipe cover boxes (for external models) and sufficient valve packs. Also included is one hot water storage vessel (stainless steel 300L, 500L or 800L glass lined steel) along with necessary valves and one primary pump with valves and one unvented kit. Add to this an expansion vessel of either 50L or 80L capacity, and all
ENERGY MANAGER MAGAZINE • MARCH 2018
relevant valves. Common header flue systems are also available to further stream line the installation. Typical applications for the commercial ranges include cafés, nurseries, factories and offices, laundries, hotels and restaurants, sports clubs, shower blocks in caravan parks – and many more. Rinnai has also embraced renewables in the form of the Rinnai Booster, which, it claims, is the most energy efficient boosting solution on the market today. The water heater maximises solar gain, as it only functions and consumes energy when more hot water is needed to boost the solar gain, meaning that the true impact of solar is being achieved. The rest of the time the unit is inactive. Rinnai continuous flow hot water systems deliver on all levels in a cost effective and practical manner. Easy to install and operate the units provide a flexible and energy efficient solution for domestic applications and for all sectors of business and industry. For more information on the RINNAI product range visit www.rinnaiuk.com
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