ANALYSIS RACTIT IONER STEFAN SAGMEISTER
D AV I
D D I K CH I P
D CA R S ON
AU L A
P ET E
R E H C S
R SA V I L LE by v. goss
& a. tahir
1 - 2 STEFAN SAGMEISTER a. oâ€™donnell
3 - 4 PETER SAVILLE A. TAHIR
5 - 6 CHIP KIDD v. goss
7 - 8 DAVID CARSON L. HAMILTON
9 - 10 PAULA SCHER i. busby
Stefan Sagmeister is an Austrian-born graphic designer, visual storyteller and conceptual typographer - based in New York City. He has also co-directed his own documentary film, designed interactive installations and exhibitions, and is the author and co-author of a number of books. Stefan Sagmeister has said that by the age of 15, he already knew that he wanted to study graphic design after working for an Austrian youth magazine Alphorn. It was there that he came to the realization that he preferred designing layouts more than writing for the magazine. He went on to study graphic design at the University of Applied Arts in Vienna, and later received a Fulbright scholarship to study at the Pratt Institute, New York. One of Sagmeister’s biggest inspirations is Tibor Kalman, past editor of Colors magazine. Often referred to as the ‘bad boy’ of design, Kalman consistently challenged mundane design. Stefan Sagmeister has also adopted a provocative and unconventional approach to his own design. In 1993, Sagmeister established his own design firm Sagmeister Inc. In 2012, Sagmeister collaborated with multidisciplinary designer Jessica Walsh to cofound the design firm Sagmeister & Walsh Inc.
Sagmeister is particularly well known for his design work in the music industry. His album cover designs are a significant part of his inspiring legacy. Some of Sagmeister’s clients include The Rolling Stones, Aerosmith, Lou Reed, The Talking Heads, Okay Go, Bryan Eno, David Byrne, Live and Pat Metheney Group. Sagmeister has also designed for big brands, such as Levi’s, HBO, Time Warner and the Guggenheim Museum. His work reflects a desire to form an emotional connection with his audiences, often in an unconventional or unique way. I have consistently found inspiration in his aim to emotionally connect with viewers, maintain his own unique identity, and take risks. Sagmeister always includes an element of his own unique craft, whether its through using his own handlettered typeface or adding in an element of shock or tactility. His designs often go beyond static visual representations - including elements of surprise, movement and interaction. His designs go beyond an initial interpretation at first glance. Perhaps this is why he is recognized for his visual storytelling.
FIG.8: The Happy Show [touring exhibition]
In 2016, Stefan Sagmeister wrote and co-directed an experimental graphic design documentary film, which is centred around Sagmeister’s attempts to re-design his personality, and try to figure out the causes of happiness - through self-experimentation. He has also launched a touring exhibition called ‘The Happy Show’, based on his decade-long exploration into happiness. The exhibition includes interactive installations and artworks, and bold and inventive typographical displays. FIG.9: Sagmeister, S (2016). The Happy Film [film still]
FIG.1: Sagmeister, S (2003). Once in a Lifetime [album packaging design]
Throughout many years working in the design industry, Sagmeister has actively maintained a strong awareness of his own happiness and passions for design, even taking sabbaticals to regain that self-awareness. He has kept a diary throughout his life, which he has reflected on throughout his career as a designer. In 2007, Sagmeister published a book, ‘Things I have Learnt in my Life so far’. The book includes words drawn from his diaries accompanied by his art and graphic design works.
FIG.2-7: Sagmeister, S (2007). Things I have Learnt in my Life so Far
“IT IS VERY important to embrace failure and to do a lot of stuff, as much stuff as possible, with as little fear as possible.” - STEFAN SAGMEISTER (THE ATLANTIC 2011)
As well as a number of commendable design awards, Sagmeister is especially well-known for being the recipient of two Grammy awards. His first award was the 2005 Best Boxed or Special Limited Edition Package, which he received for his design and art direction of The Talking Heads ‘Once in a Lifetime’ special collection box set. He also received a second Grammy award in 2010, for the Best Recording Package, which he was awarded for his album design of David Byrne and Brian Eno’s album ‘Everything That Happens Will Happen Today’
Copyright can be applied to any kind of artwork and this includes, but is not limited to, graphic design, original typography, photography and illustration. Copyright “gives the creators of literary, dramatic, musical, artistic works, sound recordings, broadcasts, films and typographical arrangement of published editions, rights to control the ways in which their material may be used.” (UK Copyright Service 2019) Copyright law is a type of intellectual property. It is important for designers to know which type of intellectual property is necessary to use, as it helps those creators ensure that their work cannot legally be copied, stolen or reproduced without their consent. It also means that it is possible to take legal action when copyright infringement, which is the reproduction of any work protected by copyright, does happen. Intellectual property is automatically granted through both copyright which includes art, photography, films, TV, music, web content, sound recordings - and design right, which is the shape of objects. Intellectual property that needs to be applied for are trade marks [product names, logos, jingles], registered designs [appearance of products including shape, packaging, patterns, colours, decoration] and patents [invention of new products] In the interest of a designer’s own protection, any of these should be kept a secret until they are registered. In some cases, more than one type of protection is essential. An example of this is when both a logo and name is registered as a trademark.
The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 means that a creator is granted an extent of legal ownership over their own work, and the rights to have a legal say as to how and where their work is used and reproduced by other people. As explained by the UK Copyright Service, “The rights cover: broadcast and public performance, copying, adapting, issuing, renting and lending copies to the public. In many cases, the creator will also have the right to be identified as the author and to object to distortions of his work.” (UK Copyright Service 2019) This means that designers are granted an exclusive right to control the way in which their designs may be reproduced, often allowing for the designer to have restrictions over any distortion or editing of their work. There are exceptions to Copyright Law. These exceptions are known as “Fair Dealing” As explained by DACS, “UK’s fair dealing copyright exceptions outline specific purposes for which a reproduction of a work is permitted, without requiring the copyright owner’s permission. UK legislation states that a person is not liable for copyright infringement if the use amounts to fair dealing for the purposes of: noncommercial research or private study, criticism or review, reporting current events and illustration for instruction, quotation, or parody, caricature or pastiche.” Copyright law is not only an essential right for graphic designers, but also gives designers a positive sense of ownership. This creates a safe environment for any creative people to share their finished work, and own it without the concern of copying and stealing. 2
Peter Saville P
eter Saville was born in Manchester, 9 October 1955. He attended St Ambrose College. He studied graphic design at Manchester Polytechnic from 1975 to 1978. Peter Saville is an English art director and graphic designer. Peter Saville is deemed one of the most popular British graphic designers and art directors of the generation. He came to prominence for the many record sleeves he designed for Factory Records, which he co-founded in 1978 alongside Tony Wilson and Alan Erasmus. Saville became involved in the music scene after meeting Tony Wilson, the journalist and broadcaster. He gained popularity by designing several record sleeves for Factory Record while serving as art director of the studios. Before joining Factory Record, Saville moved from Manchester to London and took up the position of art director at the Virgin oﬀshoot. He created a body of work that explored his sophisticated take on Modernism. Some of his major clients included Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, King Crimson and Ultravox. He received twenty thousand sterling pounds, the highest amount he ever made by designing record sleeves, from Gabriel for designing his album So (1986). Subsequently, he established the design agency Peter Saville Associates in partnership with Brett Wickens and was also invited by Pentagram to join their ﬁrm. Peter Saville designed many record sleeves for factory artists, most notably for Joy Division and New Order. A fellow student inﬂuenced him to develop an interest in Herbert Spencer. He was highly inspired by a chief propagandist for the New Typography, Jan Tschichold, about whom he read in Herbert Spencer’s Pioneers of Modern Typography. According to Saville, the subtlety of the chapter “New Typography” penned by Tschichold, appealed to him. He drew parallels between the work and the New Wave that emerged out of Punk.
In 1980, Saville designed a cover for Joy Division’s last album, Closer. The album was released shortly after the punk-band member Ian Curtis’ suicide, featuring a controversial image of entombed Christ’s body. However, the cover was designed before the tragic loss of the band which was later proved by the rock magazine New Musical Express working on the feature based on the album, several months earlier. During 1980s Saville’s work took a turn from conventional graphic designing to unorthodox. A well-known design critic Alice Twemlow described Saville’s designing practice as that he would irreverently pick an image from some historical art and then de-contextualize and recontextualize it in another art. For instance, he combined the colour-coded alphabet with Fantin-Latour “Roses” painting, showcased on New Order’s Power, Corruption and Lies (1983) album cover.
In 1993, Saville moved from his homeland and relocated to Los Angeles, United States. His relocation was largely due to the fact that he was oﬀered partnership at the ad agency, Frankfurt Balkind. However, he returned to London and reopened the designing studio with Howard Wakeﬁeld. They earned the title ‘The Apartment’, for Saville’s modernist apartment that was featured in popular covers like in the album This Is Hardcore by Pulp. In the following years, Peter Saville produced some brilliant artwork, achieving creative and commercial success. He reached a creative and a commercial peak with design consultancy clients such as Selfridges, EMI and Pringle. Other signiﬁcant commissions came from the ﬁeld of fashion. Saville’s fashion clients have included Jil Sander, John Galliano, Yohji Yamamoto, Christian Dior, Stella McCartney and Calvin Klein  Saville often worked in collaboration with longtime friend, fashion photographer Nick Knight. The two launched the art and fashion website SHOW studio in November 2000. Belgian fashion designer Raf Simons was granted full access to the archives of Saville’s vintage Factory projects and made a personal selection of Saville-designed works to integrate them into Raf Simons “Closer” Autumn/Winter 2003-04 collection. Raf Simons Spring/Summer 2018 collection also features a selection of archival works by Saville.
Copyright, trademark and patents:-
Copyright Law General deﬁnition of copyright:Copyright is a law that is in place by almost all the developed countries, in order to provide protection to those who have worked hard to bring into existence any piece of work, which could be in the form of a book, music, ﬁlms, paintings and drawings, software, the list is never-ending. The law allows the maker to dictate his own terms on how the material he has created can be used. He has the right to sell it, transfer it or allow temporary use. Furthermore, this law is a means to bringing individuals and co-operations under legal scrutiny if they infringe it. Hence, providing the maker protection that his work shall not be illegally used or no one else could claim that its their.
The music artwork design of Peter Saville
Suede – Coming Up (1996) The images that Peter Saville created for Joy Division, New Order and, later, Suede and Pulp were so compelling that they struck the same emotional resonance with the people who bought those albums and singles as the music. Just as the musicians in those bands wrote and produced their songs as catalogues of their thoughts and feelings, so Saville has conceived his images – for fashion and art projects as well as music – as visual narratives of his life.
A- United Kingdom
During this period, Saville was invited to work in other areas by people who had admired his music projects
All three are meant to provide intellectual property protection to an individual who has worked on creating a unique piece of work, but they all cater on providing protection to diﬀerent forms of work; an example of for copyright is literary and artistic work, such as books and videos. A trademark protect items that help deﬁne a company brand, such as its logo. Copyright and trademarks can be used at the same time, such as a company can trademark its name and logo and copyright the books and videos that it created. Whereas a patent protects inventions such as new processes, machines or chemicals. At the core of patents is the concept that protects ideas, not just expressions of them. Copyright, trademarks and patents; all three exclude a third party give the holders legal protection to challenge a third party who would illegally use any invention of the individual.
The second half of this essay would analyze how the copyright law is being implemented in two major European countries; United Kingdom and the Netherlands. B-Netherlands
In UK the legislation that covers copyright is the ‘Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1998’. The law of copyright comes into picture when an individual creates an original piece of work, and is recorded as an original piece of work that involves some form of labor, skill or judgment. Since, the main focus of this essay is application of copyright law in relation to artistic work, hence would like to lay out that the duration of right that the law covers for artistic work is 70 years from the end of the calendar year in which the last remaining author of the work dies, or the work is made available to the public, by authorized performance, broadcast, exhibition, etc. The type of work covered by the law is; literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, typographical arrangement of published editions, sound recordings and ﬁlms.
Under the Dutch Copyright Act protection is granted to literary, artistic or scientiﬁc work. But the act does not protect an idea as such, however original it may be. The duration of protection runs during the life of the author and for 70 years after his death.
Inspiration The reason why I picked Peter as my inspiration designer is because his work is something and unique. Majority of his work his full patterns and designs, one more thing that had inspired me the most is the colors selection he has made in record sleeve designs. His Burberry works the pattern which he by using B as a geometric element that was something out of the box and color palette is eye-catching as well. The pattern has really inspired me that I would like to apply his skills to my work. This was his work for Burberry but if I look into more depth about his record sleeve designs they are simple but with really interesting illustrations and geometric shapes, with the brilliant color palette. Peter Saville work relates to my creative work because these patterns and geometrical style always have attracted me, seeing that his work is based these elements, helps his way working link with my style.
As a graphic student we always try to ﬁnd those designers whose work we ﬁnd interesting or links with something is our interest. Looking at his work grabbed my eye and this is one of the elements that I would in my work, that it should grab the viewer’s attention in one go.
Burberry rebrand: Peter Saville
“My advice for anybody in any kind of creative endeavor is to simply do the best job you can...” - Chip Kidd
CHIP KIDD C
hip Kidd is an American graphic designer, author and editor, and is best known for designing book covers. His most notable works are his book covers for Michael Crichton’s Jurassic Park books, Jurassic Park and The Lost World, and his DC Batman graphic novel covers.
Kidd traced the picture, and created a graphic image, which paired with some typography was used for the book cover.
One of the most notable things about Chip Kidd’s style is that he has no style at all. He does not have what you would call a ‘signature look’. Each one of Kidd’s designs are different from one to the next.
urassic Park (1993)
One of Kidd’s most well known designs is his book cover for Michael Crichton’s 1990 novel Jurassic Park. Kidd said in order to gain inspiration for this design he visited The Natural History Museum in New York history, and had a look at the dinosaur bones. He then visited the gift shop, and bought a book on dinosaurs. It was here that Kidd stumbled across a picture of a dinosaur skeleton that would later become the inspiration for the cover design.
After gaining success with his design, Kidd was approached by Universal who asked to buy the rights to the image, and later used the image for the 1993 film’s poster.
atman (1996 - Present)
Aside from his work on the Jurassic Park novels, Kidd is arguably most known for his work on Batman. Kidd began his Batman journey in 1996 with a book called Batman Collected, which was created to showcase all things batman from unseen Japanese comic strips, and weird and wonderful collectables. Kidd has since gone go write his own Batman graphic novels, putting his own stamp on the 75 years that is Batman.
ow I identify with Chip
Chip Kidd always pushes others to think outside the box, and to not go for the obvious solution. This is one of the reasons each of his designs is different to the next. I myself always try to think conceptually, and push through a range of ideas.
“A signature look is crippling...because the simplest and most effective solutions aren’t dictated by style.” - Chip Kidd
This is something I was not able to do at the beginning of my design journey, and something I saw as a failure, rather than finding the right solution. I felt that if I didn’t stick to my original idea that it reflected badly on me, however, I know feel it is important to test a range of ideas, as you will find what works, and might even use aspects from all different ideas. Kidd often uses the ananolgy “Show an apple, or say apple, but never show an apple AND say apple”. I think it is important to remember to not always go for the obvious solution, and also the viewer does not need the visual answer handed to them on a plate. Sometimes taking the time to figure out why a designer has created something in a certain way can leave a lasting impression.
C opyright Law Copyright A copyright is a right given to recorded work, such as; art, literature, film, and music. This gives the creator the right to take legal action against any kind of plagiarism and illegal engagements.
Trademark A trademark is used to identify an organisation or product, and can be as simple as a name, slogan, design, or symbol.
Patents Patents are used to protect against any illegal or unauthorised engagement of an invention or industrial process.
Design and Design Rights When it comes to designs there are three types of protection: copyright, unregistered design rights and nationally registered designs. Design rights can vary depending on national law.
What is a design? A design is the overall appearance of a product. This includes the colour, shape, material, texture, contours and ornamentation. In order to qualify as a new design, the overall look must be completely different to any other design already in existence.
Who owns the design right? If the design has not been commissioned the design rights belong to the creator, however, if the design has been commissioned or was created during employment then the design rights belong to the employer or the person who commissioned the design.
Unregistered design rights Unregistered design rights protect the shape of a marketable product, and prevents any illegal copying of the design. Where copyright can protect documents which detail and discuss the design, design rights focus on the shape and production of a product. Proof must be obtained in the case of a dispute or legal battle. Unregistered design rights have been around in the UK since 1989.
Registered designs Registered designs can be applied for in order to gain additional cover. Registered designs are higher than any other design right or copyright. In the UK a design can be protected for up to 25 years from any plagiarism, or illegal action. A registered design must be renewed every 5 years. Once a design is registered the creator may display their registration number on their design. It costs between £50-£60 to register one design. It is important to remember that a design can only be registered if it is new, not offensive or distasteful, your own intellectual property, and not making use of protected emblems. The functionality of a design cannot be protected.
Copyright in designs Copyright can be used within designs, and will protect any documents discussing the design, and also any other literature that is connected to the design.
It is important to remember you cannot simply stylise or distort an existing photograph or illustration as this could be an infringement of copyright. To avoid this a designer must use an uncopyrighted image, an image that is older than 70 years and out of copyright, use an image 6 available under Creative Commons licence, or ask the copyright holder for permission.
Davi d Carson Fig 3. Carson, D (unknown) Ray Gun magazine. Design Boom. Available at https://www.designboom.com/design/interview-with-graphic-designer-david-carson-09-22-2013/ [Accessed 7 July 2019]
Carson explains during his interview for Design Boom (2013) that his aim is to create an emotional connection with the reader, his designs are often more about linking feelings the design creates in the viewer rather than what the images he uses are of (Carson,2003). His creative technique appears seemingly disorganized, with a notorious lack of layout structure and no application of design theory, he overlaps images and alters typefaces in combination to his highly experimental and low-tech approach. With no formal training he feels he has the freedom to do what he wants not what he’s be told he should be doing. He calls his work “intuitive and personal”. (design boom, 2013).
“Intuitive and Personal” Harvard graduate school hired Carson to create two posters for a series of lectures, one per semester to advertise a series of lectures, Carson replied “No, I’ll do a separate poster for each speaker and event.” (Lages, 2016). I feel this shows how each design is connected closely to the subject matter and his confidence in his creative process (Lages, 2016). Ray Gun didn’t have a grid or formatted layout, Carson designed each page differently and even the covers didn’t follow a format, this Keith Richards cover didn’t contain any other text apart from issue number and title, the only information on price and issue is in the barcode (design boom, 2013).
Carson also didn’t just stick with one typeface when designing a page, he changed typeface within the same page, paragraph, sentence and even the same word (Carson, 2003). These changes could potentially make the text harder to read, however Carson has seemingly catered for this by using simple sans serif typefaces that have high legibility. In fig 3 we see a similar balance, Carson has removed the margins between text columns and has used different typefaces, it adds to the condensed, full on raw aesthetic to complement the image and content, without detracting from the text. Carson credits his background in Sociology
Highly experimental and low-tech approach
initial interest in editorial design and embraces his life experiences that inform his design work (Blackwell & Carson, 2000) This is something I can connect with as I have also started my career in other areas and come to design later. Although as a student I am learning the rules and design theory Carson is omitting, it’s important to see how someone is able to break the rules so successfully, it allows me to see which are important to keep and which I can experiment with breaking.
break the rules so successfully His low-tech approach feels honest and communicates his passion through his work with force. In my own practice I have used hand created textures then altered these digitally to create something new, this is something I feel that it has worked well, and I’d like to experiment combining this with my interest in editorial design.
UK Copyright Law: Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 is the main legislation that intellectual property rights in the United Kingdom. Copyright is one of the four areas that are covered by the umbrella turn Intellectual property. The copyright law gives right to creators of literary, dramatic, musical, artistic works, sound recordings, broadcasts, films and typographical arrangement of published editions over how their work is used. According to The UK Copy Right Services (2019) this covers “broadcast and public performance, copying, adapting, issuing, renting and lending copies to the public.” Which means in a lot of situations the creator can object to their work being changed in anyway (The UK Copy Right Services, 2019). These rights are granted automatically as soon as the work is created, however there are restrictions on what is considered your work, for example the idea for a design isn’t protected however the actual design is i.e. if I create a work that centres around Brexit, other people are allowed to also create works around the same theme but they aren’t allowed to use my design without my permission (The UK Copy Right Services, 2019). These are known as economic rights. The owner also has moral rights which mean they have the right to be acknowledged as the creator, these rights are protected by crediting the author whenever the work is used (The Copyright Hub, 2019).
There are differences in what is owned by you depending on whether you are freelance designer or have created work on behalf of an employer. If you are the sole creator, or work in a team, the work is owned by you, however if you work for an employer, for example a studio, the work belongs to them (The UK Copy Right Services, 2019). There are also some exempt circumstances where the copying, adapting, issuing and renting for example are permitted, for example: • Private and research study purposes. • Performance, copies or lending for educational purposes. • Criticism and news reporting. • Incidental inclusion. • Copies and lending by librarians. • Caricature, parody or pastiche. • Acts for the purposes of royal commissions, statutory enquiries, judicial proceedings and parliamentary purposes. • Recording of broadcasts for the purposes of listening to or viewing at a more convenient time, this is known as time shifting. • Producing a backup copy for personal use of a computer program (The UK Copy Right Services, 2019). If work is being used for any other reason other than above there are penalties that are applied to the offender, for example if a design is copied in order to make money the offender can receive from 6 months to 10 years depending on where they are (England, Wales and Northern Ireland or Scotland) (Gov.uk, 2017). There is a limit to how long you have this copyright, for artistic works such as graphic design this will last for 70 years after you or the last author in your creative team dies (The UK Copy Right Services, 2019).
Fig 2. Carson, D (1995) Ray Gun magazine, January 1995. Design Boom. Available at https://www.designboom.com/design/interview-with-graphic-designer-david-carson-09-22-2013/ [Accessed July 2019]
Fig 1. Carson, D (1995) Ray Gun magazine, January 1995. Design Boom. Available at https://www.designboom.com/design/interview-with-graphic-designer-david-carson-09-22-2013/ [Accessed 7 July 2019]
Blackwell, L. & Carson, D. (1997) David Carson: 2nd sight : grafik design after the end of print. Laurence King, London. Blackwell, L. & Carson, D. (2000) The end of print: the grafik design of David Carson, Rev. edn, Chronicle Books, San Francisco. Carson, D. (2003) Trek: David Carson, recent work, Gingko, Corte Madera, Calif. David Carson Design, Bio (2019) David Carson Design [Online] Available at http://www.davidcarsondesign.com/t/about/ [Accessed 27 June 2019] Design Boom, Interview with David Carson (2013) Design Boom [Online] Available at https://www. designboom.com/design/interview-with-graphic-designer-david-carson-09-22-2013/ [Accessed 27 June 2019] Gov.uk, Intellectual property offences (2017) Gov.uk. [Online] Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/intellectual-property-offences/intellectual-property-offences [Accessed 27 June 2019] Lages, M (2016) David Carson on surf, magazines, graphic design and inspiration. Medium.com [Online] Available at https://medium.com/@underpressure/a-conversation-with-surfer-and-legendary-graphic-designer-david-carson-326c5f08042f [Accessed 27 June 2019] The Copyright Hub, What the law says (2019) The Copyright Hub [Online] Available at http://www.copyrighthub.org/copyright-resources/what-the-law-says/ [Accessed 27 June 2019] The UK Copy Right Services, Fact sheet P-01: UK Copyright Law (2019) The UK Copy Right Services [Online] Available at https://www.copyrightservice.co.uk/copyright/p01_uk_copyright_law [Accessed 27 June 2019]
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order for all parties to protect themselves and agree on the most suitable options moving forward. You are being hired for your services, and identifying your rights is crucial to your contract. Design copyright laws will differ from country to country, so it is important to research your rights in the national law where you are located (Copyright Witness Ltd, 2019). Generally, if you are a full-time employee for an organization, your employer owns the copyright, therefore, they are the author, not you, as the designer. As an independent contractor, this would apply if you signed a contract stating this (Kattwinkel, 2007). It is important to know that if your work is not made for hire, you do not have to give all rights to your client. As the copyright owner, you can decide to separately provide rights to “(1) reproduce, (2) display, and (3) make adaptations based on your work” (Kattwinkel, 2007),
Your work does not need to be identical to another designer’s work to be a copyright infringement; it needs only to be substantially similar (Kattwinkel, 2007). Designer’s can get inspiration from others work but their piece should not be similar in regards to things such as, colours and composition, therefore, giving off the same artistic look. Infrindgements are surprisingly common such as copying a photograph to produce a painting (Kattwinkel, 2007).
As advised by Paula Scher, communication is extremely important in producing appropriate design outcomes but also in establishing your rights. Taking the time to learn about the copyright laws in your location will not only benefit you immediately and help to initiate those conversations with future clients, it will likely allow you to get respect from your client and stop you from unknowingly infringing on someone else’s design. Not taking the time to sit down and communicate clearly with your client on the design rights could also hinder your career by not allowing you to produce anything similar for future clients.
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“all design matters and all design deserves to be intelligent”
or if appropriate, such as in cases of branding and identity, you may decide that your client should have all rights. When giving full copyright permissions to your client, be sure that you obtain permission to use the work you have created in your portfolio (Kattwinkel, 2007). As a designer, it is important to not only understand your rights with others using your work unlawfully but how you may be unlawfully using others work, unknowingly.
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Like music, toys, books and films, graphic design is protected by copyright laws (U.S. Copyright Office, n/a). A copyright provides the designer with the reassurance that what they have created, is protected from reproduction or taken advantage of commercially. In most cases, the designer will be the automatic copyright owner though this is not always the case (Kattwinkel, 2007). It is important for any designer, whether as advanced in their career as Paula Scher or a student of design beginning their journey, to have an understanding of their rights and their clients or employers rights in
A. O’DONNELL Sagmeister & Walsh. (2019). Answers. [online] Available at: https://sagmeisterwalsh.com/answers/ [Accessed 25 Jun. 2019]. Heller, S. (2013). Stefan Sagmeister. [online] AIGA | The Professional Association for Design. Available at: https://www.aiga.org/medalist-stefan-sagmeister [Accessed 22 Jun. 2019]. Sagmeister, S. (n.d.). Stefan Sagmeister on Tibor Kalman. [online] AIGA | The Professional Association for Design. Available at: https://www. aiga.org/stefan-sagmeister-on-tibor-kalman [Accessed 29 Jun. 2019]. The Happy Film. (2017). About the Film. [online] Available at: https://www.thehappyfilm.org/about [Accessed 1 Jul. 2019]. Jordan, P. (2014). Stefan Sagmeister. [online] Inkbot Design. Available at: https://inkbotdesign.com/stefan-sagmeister/ [Accessed 1 Jul. 2019]. Graphis. (2019). Graphis Portfolios | Stefan Sagmeister. [online] Available at: http://www.graphis.com/bio/3/stefan-sagmeister-1/ [Accessed 27 Jun. 2019]. Creative Bloq Staff (2012). Sagmeister & Walsh on their new partnership. [online] Creative Bloq. Available at: https://www.creativebloq.com/ sagmeister-walsh-their-new-partnership-7124204 [Accessed 2 Jul. 2019].
Design Week (2019) 6 things designers should know about copyright [Online] Available at: https://www.designweek.co.uk/issues/25-february-3-march-2019/6-things-designersshould-know-about-copyright/ [Accessed 1/07/2019] LIST OF IMAGES: ISFBD (2014) Jurassic Park book cover [Online] Available at: http://www.isfdb.org/cgi-bin/pl.cgi?389570 [Accessed 25/06/2019] Reifen Hauser (2014) Importance of Chip Kidd’s Work [Online] Available at: https://riefenhauser.wordpress.com/2014/10/06/importance-of-chip-kidds-work/ [Accessed 25/06/2019] Design Art Practice (2015) Word & Image: Chip Kidd [Online] Available at: http://www.designartpractice.com/blog/15 [Accessed 25/06/2019] Penguin Random House (2019) 1Q84 [Online] Available at: https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/118711/1q84-by-haruki-murakami/9780307476463/ [Accessed 25/06/2019] Amazon (2019) Bat-Manga [Online] Available at: https://www.amazon.com/Bat-Manga-History-Pantheon-Graphic-Library/dp/0375714847 [Accessed 25/06/2019] Goodreads (2019) Batman: Death by Design [Online] Available at: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/13153242-batman [Accessed 25/06/2019] 13th Dimension (2016) Batman: The Dark Knight Returns [Online] Availabe at: https://13thdimension.com/the-chip-kidd-interviews-dark-knight-and-the-perfection-of-year-one/ [Accessed 25/06/2019]
The Happy Film. (2016). Film. Directed by Stefan Sagmeister and Ben Nabors. So So Productions. [Sky TV]
Penguin Random House (2019) City on Fire [Online] Available at: https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/240305/city-on-fire-by-garth-risk-hallberg/9780804172950/ [Accessed 25/06/2019]
LIST OF IMAGES
How Design (2019) Possible Side Effects [Online] Available at: https://www.howdesign.com/design-creativity/designer-spotlight/book-design-tips-chip-kidd/ [Accessed 25/06/2019]
FIG.1: Sagmeister, S (2003). Once in a Lifetime [album packaging design] Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum. Available at: http://archive. cooperhewitt.org/design-usa/exhibitions.cooperhewitt.org/Design-USA/designer/24.html [Accessed 7 Jul. 2019].
How Design (2019) Gulp [Online] Available at: https://www.howdesign.com/design-creativity/designer-spotlight/book-design-tips-chip-kidd/ [Accessed 25/06/2019]
FIG.2-7: Sagmeister, S (2007). Things I have Learnt in my Life so Far [covers from boxed book set] Design Indaba. Available at: https://www. designindaba.com/articles/point-view/design-advice-new-york [Accessed 3 Jul. 2019]. FIG.8: Sagmeister & Walsh (2019). The Happy Show. [touring exhibition] Sagmeister & Walsh. Available at: https://sagmeisterwalsh.com/work/ all/the-happy-show/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2019]. FIG.9: Sagmeister, S (2016) The Happy Film [film still] Kickstarter. Available at: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/thehappyfilm/the-happyfilm [Accessed 25 Jun. 2019]
Harper Collins (2019) The Learners [Online] Available at: https://www.harpercollins.com/9780061673245/the-learners/ [Accessed 25/06/2019] Amazon (2019) The Learners [Online] Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Learners-Chip-Kidd/dp/0743255240 [Accessed 25/06/2019] Amazon (2019) The Cheese Monkeys [Online] Availabe at: https://www.amazon.com/Cheese-Monkeys-Novel-Two-Semesters-ebook/dp/B000FBJGY0 [Accessed 25/06/2019] Bat-Blog with Robin the Wonder Boy (2011) Chip Kidd talks about his future Batman graphic novel, Death by Design [Online] Available at: http://tomztoyz.blogspot.com/2011/12/ chip-kidd-talks-about-his-future-batman.html [Accessed 25/06/2019] Hammer (2012) Chip Kidd [Online] Available at: https://hammer.ucla.edu/programs-events/2012/11/chip-kidd/ [Accessed 25/06/2019]
LIST OF QUOTES
Amazon (2019) GO [Online] Available at: https://www.amazon.com/Go-Chip-Kidd/dp/076117219X [Accessed 25/06/2019]
Popova, M. (2011). Famous Creators Discuss the Fear of Failure. [online] The Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/ archive/2011/05/famous-creators-discuss-the-fear-of-failure/238799/ [Accessed 7 Jul. 2019].
The Guardian (2011) Chip Kidd Book Jacket Designs [Online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/books/pictures/image/0,,-1100329435583,00.html [Accessed 25/06/2019]
UK Copyright Service. (2019). UK Copyright Service - UK and International Copyright Registration Centre. [online] Available at: https://www. copyrightservice.co.uk/ [Accessed 5 Jul. 2019].
Amazon (2019) Fraud [Online] Available at: https://www.amazon.com/Fraud-Essays-David-Rakoff-ebook/dp/B000FBFMXE/ref=sr_1_1?crid=R1YXUX3JE1CQ&keywords=fraud+david+rakoff&qid=1562774774&s=digital-text&sprefix=fraud+david+%2Cdigital-text%2C199&sr=1-1 [Accessed 25/06/2019]
Bancroft, J. (2015). Fair use: copyright differences in the UK and US. [online] DACS. Available at: https://www.dacs.org.uk/latest-news/ us-fair-use-uk-fair-dealing-differences-law?category=For%20Artists|For%20Art%20Market%20Professionals|For%20Licensing%20Customers|Latest%20News&title=N [Accessed 10 Jul. 2019]. TYPEFACE Meyer, M. (2016) TRAWLL - a free all-caps handwriting font. Available at: https://www.behance.net/gallery/35756485/TRAWLL-a-free-all-capshandwriting-font [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]
Insider (2018) Then and Now: The cast of ‘Jurassic Park’ 25 year later [Online] Available at: https://www.insider.com/jurassic-park-cast-then-and-now-2018-6 [Accessed 25/06/2019]
L. HAMILTON Blackwell, L. & Carson, D. (1997) David Carson: 2nd sight : grafik design after the end of print. Laurence King, London. Blackwell, L. & Carson, D. (2000) The end of print: the grafik design of David Carson, Rev. edn, Chronicle Books, San Francisco. Carson, D. (2003) Trek: David Carson, recent work, Gingko, Corte Madera, Calif. David Carson Design, Bio (2019) David Carson Design [Online] Available at http://www.davidcarsondesign.com/t/about/ [Accessed 27 June 2019]
Design Boom, Interview with David Carson (2013) Design Boom [Online] Available at https://www.designboom.com/design/interview-with-graphic-designer-david-carson-09-22-2013/ [Accessed 27 June 2019]
Gov.uk, Intellectual property offences (2017) Gov.uk. [Online] Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/intellectual-property-offences/intellectual-property-offences [Accessed 27 June 2019]
Lages, M (2016) David Carson on surf, magazines, graphic design and inspiration. Medium.com [Online] Available at https://medium.com/@underpressure/a-conversation-with-surfer-and-legendary-graphic-designer-david-carson-326c5f08042f [Accessed 27 June 2019]
The Copyright Hub, What the law says (2019) The Copyright Hub [Online] Available at http://www.copyrighthub.org/copyright-resources/what-the-law-says/ [Accessed 27 June 2019]
The UK Copy Right Services, Fact sheet P-01: UK Copyright Law (2019) The UK Copy Right Services [Online] Available at https://www.copyrightservice.co.uk/copyright/p01_uk_copyright_law [Accessed 27 June 2019]
https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2019/feb/14/graphic-artistpeter-saville-on-creating-burberrys-new-logo https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/sep/08/peter-saville-uks-famous-graphic-designer https://www.creativebloq.com/graphic-design/names-designersshould-know-6133211 https://www.famousgraphicdesigners.org/peter-saville
Chip Kidd (2016) Chip Kidd [Online] Available at: http://chipkidd.com/home/ [Accessed 23/06/2019] Chip Kidd (2016) Portfolio [Online] Available at: http://chipkidd.com/home/portfolio-3/ [Accessed 23/06/2019] Famous Graphic Designer (2018) Chip Kidd [Online] Available at: https://www.famousgraphicdesigners.org/chip-kidd [Accessed 23/06/2019] Design History (2019) Chip Kidd [Online] Available at: http://www.designishistory.com/1980/chip-kidd/ [Accessed 23/06/2019] Sessions (2014) Who Designed It? The Iconic Covers of Chip Kidd [Online] Available at: https://www.sessions.edu/notes-on-design/who-designed-it-the-iconic-covers-of-chip-kidd/ [Accessed 23/06/2019] YouTube. (2019). The hilarious art of book design | Chip Kidd. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cC0KxNeLp1E [Accessed 1 Jul. 2019]. YouTube. (2019). Chip Kidd Pays Homage in Book Cover Design. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTFmAreFh9Y [Accessed 1 Jul. 2019].
I. BUSBY Black, I (2019) 5 lessons from influential designer Paula Scher: Navigating a career in the design industry [online] available at https://medium.muz.li/5-lessons-from-influential-designer-paula-scher-1bbfa142f96e [accessed on 27 June 2019] Bigman, A (2015) Get to know Paula Scher, titan of postmodern design [online] available at https://en.99designs.de/blog/famous-design/paula-scher-titan-of-postmodern-design/ [accessed on 24 June 2019] Bourton, L (2017) One Step Ahead: we meet Paula Scher, the trailblazing Pentagram Partner [online] available at https://www.itsnicethat.com/features/paula-scher-graphic-design-151117 [accessed on 23 June 2019] Copyright Witness Ltd. (2019) The UK Copyright Service [online] available at https://www.copyrightservice.co.uk/protect/p15_design_rights [accessed on 2 July 2019] History Graphic Design (2018) Paula Scher [online] available at http://www.historygraphicdesign.com/the-age-of-information/postmodern-design/207-paula-scher [accessed on 23 June 2019] Kattwinkel, L (2007) Copyright Basics for Graphic Designers [online] available at https://www.aiga.org/copyright-basics-for-graphic-designers [accessed on 2 July 2019] Pentagram (2018) Colin Forbes on the Structure of Pentagrm [online] available at https://www.pentagram.com/news/colin-forbes-on-the-structure-of-pentagram [accessed on 21 June 2019] Pentagram (2019) Paula Scher: New York [online] available at https://www.pentagram.com/about/paula-scher [accessed on 21 June 2019] Typeroom (2019) War, lust, type! How Paula Scher’s typographic affair with The Public Theater redefined our culture [online] available at http://www.typeroom.eu/article/war-lust-type-how-paula-schers-typographic-affair-public-theater-redefined-our-culture [accessed on 24 June 2019] U.S. Copyright Office (n/a) What does Copyright Protect [online] availalble at https://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/faq-protect.html [accessed on 3 July 2019] Image Figures Figure 1. Scher, P (1994) The Diva is Dismissed [online] available at: https://www.moma.org/collection/works/8837 [accessed on 1 July 2019]
YouTube. (2019). Chip Kidd: I’m obsessed with Batman. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05l8bLRLdPU [Accessed 1 Jul. 2019].
Figure 2. Scher, P (1994) Blade to the Heat [online] available at: https://paulmcglade.github.io/paulascher/index.html [accessed on 1 July 2019]
Copyright Service (2019) Designs and Design Rights [Online] Available at: https://www.copyrightservice.co.uk/protect/p15_design_rights [Accessed 1/07/2019]
Figure 3. Scher, P (1994) Him [online] available at: https://www.moma.org/collection/works/8836 [accessed on 2 July 2019]
By Abaigh-Clare O'Donnell, Ayesha Tahir, Victoria Goss, Liz Hamilton and Ingrid Busby [IDI Student Brief]