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Graduation Project report

Submitted by: Aayushi Sachdeva


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Graduation Project 2011-12 Sponsors

Project

Occupational Health Hazards of Professional Women Artists and Painters

Student Aayushi Sachdeva

Research Location Mumbai, Pune (Maharashtra)

Guides At MIT Institute of Design, Pune Prof. Prashant Desai At Industrial Design Centre, Mumbai Prof. G. G. Ray Prof. Mandar Rane Special thanks to National Council for Science & Technology Communication (NCSTC) Dr. Shashi Ahuja Scientist’F’/ Director Department of Science and Technology Government of India Dr. S.K. Dave Ex - Director NIOH - Ahmedabad, NIMH - Nagpur Chairman - DST/NCSTC (Govt. of India New Delhi) Committee on “Occupational Health Problems of Working Women”


Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to acknowledge my gratitude to my Guide Prof. Prashant Desai who has always been there to support my ideas and not letting me give up during my project and also, through out the whole time at the Institute. You’ve been a perfect mentor . My mentors at IDC, Prof. G. G. Ray and Prof.. Mandar Rane for giving me this wonderful opportunity to showcase my talent and giving a finishing touch to my ideas. My regards to my parents for being so awesome and supportive to me. I always admire the positive energy you bring to my work. My gratitude to Prof. Ranjana Dani, for giving me the right direction through out the research process. Special Thanks to my friends at MIT ID: Amita, Divya, Vahi, Prajakta, Aastha, Kanishka, Devika, Ankita, Riya, Sanjana for being a true critique towards my work. Also to Gaurav, Mudra, Bansari, Debojyoti, Trishna, Lopa Mudra, Madhuwanti and all others for their constant co-operation and enthusiasm for my work and ideas.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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CONTENTS Jury Certificate

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Acknowledgement

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1. About Sponsor/Client -- Industrial Design Center (IDC), IIT-Mumbai -- Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India -- About Mentors -- Prof. G.G. Ray, Prof. Mandar Rane

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2. Project Brief

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3. Project Summary Brainstorming

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4. Process and Strategy

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4. Research

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Toxic substances How do they enter the body Reproduction risks Field study Toxic art materials; hazards and precautions Influence of painting positions on the body

5. Analysis, Visual Development - Target Group -- Demographics -- Literacy Levels -- Communication Material -- Target Audience Connectivity

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Concepts and Scripts Look and feel of the animations Feedback from mentors Snapshots

6. Conclusion

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7. Bibliography

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8. Retrospection

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Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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ABOUT SPONSOR/CLIENT

Industrial Design Centre, IIT Mumbai Industrial Design Centre was set up in 1969 by the Government of India under the auspices of Indian institute of technology, Mumbai. Design shapes our objects, environments, communication and many of our interactions. Design at IDC is all encompassing, coexists in an active triadic relationship with design education, design research and design practice. Design education - to train and propagate; design research - to seek, analyse, experiment, integrate; and design practice to apply, implement and realize. IDC strives towards creating an excellent environment with foundations in these areas to prepare professionals and visionaries of tomorrow.

Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi Department of Science & Technology (DST) was established in May 1971, with the objective of promoting new areas of Science & Technology. The DST is the nodal department of Government in India for the co-ordination of overall R&D programmes of the Government. The Department is responsible for conceptualization and implementation of S&T programmes. It formulates S&T policy and advices Government on matters related to S&T.

A large numbers of interdisciplinary project of multisectoral nature are supported leading to technological empowerment and capacity building for sustainable livelihood. DST also has programmes to help S&T personnel towards self-employment and entrepreneurship. One of the major responsibilities for which DST undertakes projects and programmes is: Application of Science and Technology for weaker sections, women and other disadvantaged sections of Society.

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Mentors Prof. G. G. Ray Honorary Professor, School of Biomedical Engineering, IIT Mumbai He has done his post graduation in Physiology with specialization in Ergonomics and work physiology from University of Calcutta. Also, from the same university he completed his Ph.D. in Physiology in the area of Ergonomics One of his major recognition at IDC includes setting up the ergonomics laboratory of the IDC, IITB which has been recognized as the nodal distribution centre in India by the International Ergonomics Association with effect from January, 1999. Apart from this, there is a long list of major sponsored and consultancy projects credited to him which includes DST, AICTE, Indian Railways, Indian Diamond Institute, Mahindra & Mahindra, Eureka Forbes to name a few. He is also the president of Indian Society of Ergonomics.

Prof. Mandar Rane He has done his post Graduation in Visual Communication from IDC, IITB and graduation in Fine arts (Applied) from Sir. J. J. Institute of Applied Arts specialising in Illustration. As an educator he has mentored a number of projects at IDC, IITB which include Visual Identity Design of NIT, Patna, www.skedular.com which is an interactive timetable scheduler designed for IDC, Design of a Multipurpose Devanagari Typeface to name a few.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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PROJECT BRIEF

Project Title: Conversion of text based information on occupational health hazards to Visual Narratives (specially focused on women) 1) The very poor quality of highly text based information should be converted to visual (Image/Graphics) based Narrative for the illiterate women workforce. 2) Creating awareness among the young designers on the occupational Health issues. 3) Developing appropriate mass communication media for creating awareness on Occupational Health to the women workforce. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Create awareness, resolve misconceptions Inform People Give personalised Information Educates the user about a particular situation Identifies loop holes in current communication Creates or strengthens the current mental model (change in scheme) vii. Clarifies misconceptions viii. Gives authentic information and proposes solutions ix. Creating protocols of work for the chosen occupation. x. Communicating about tools already available.

Occupational Health Hazards of Professional Artists and Painters Occupational hazard refers to a risk or danger as a consequence of the nature of working conditions of a particular job. This can happen suddenly or may take years. Every occupation is associated with certain risks because of which the person can get 1.Certain diseases 2. Injuries, etc.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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PROJECT SUMMARY

Occupational Health Hazards of Professional Artists and Painters (Women) Initial Brief and Expectations The solution should address problems faced by women artists because of their postures and their exposure to chemicals used. Also, being women means added responsibilities of marriage and childbirth which only aggravates the situation if health is ignored. So eradicating wrong postures of work to avoid pains in back, knees and shoulders is necessary. Also, suggesting measures like following the proper posture and maintaining a routine of taking breaks while working, muscle pains and other major hazards can be prevented. Pregnancy further complicates the postures as the back bends further more due to the weight forward so there should be extra care taken. I started with chalking out all the major categories and the possible hazards. Then, I researched about the toxic substances used in painting and other materials used like metals, wood etc. Also how do these enter the body and what do they cause. Since it was a broad area to cover, IDC told me to zoom in further into professional artists using Oil/Acrylic as medium. Also the project given by Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India was Occupational Health Hazards of Women so I tried to concentrate on Reproduction hazards in order to make the project more women oriented. It was a remote project with research area being Pune. Every 15th of the month, IDC conducted meeting to check the progress of the project and give feedback. So following are the goals kept for every meeting. June 15, 2011: Project Started, Initial research and brainstorming July 15, 2011: Decide the structure for communication August 15, 2011: Final storyboard and scripts September, October: Shoot and structure November 15, 2011: Final film for review December 15, 2011: Show changes which were discussed in the earlier film February 18, 2012: Submit final deliverable along with project documentation.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Brainstorming

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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4 PROCESS AND STRATEGY The process Group Interactions with mentors, Personal insights, observations & Experiences

Talking to Doctors, medical experts, ergonomics experts for a detailed insights on findings so far.

Footage dump, rough cuts, intermediate cuts, final edit

Internet Research, going through artists handbooks, relevant medical terms, existing communication material

Conceptualization, Scripting, getting approved, sample shoots

Feedback from the mentors, changes suggested and implemented

Final shoot with all the changes in the script, locations and actors/people to be interviewed finalized

Verification of the project with art students

Field research Observing artists, talking to them about their medical history and general practices

Relevance of the project This film is aimed at informing artists and painters how they should take care of their postures and deal with chemical toxicity in painting substances. However, further this can be taken to another level where this can be included in the course curriculum of the art students.

My Role as a designer I have taken up this project because it gives me the opportunity to explore areas that I am skilled with [Research, organisation, direction, editing etc] as well as those that are new to me. Since, I have limited knowledge of artist hazards and science that goes into it and this is my first experience at instructional documentary. I thought this would be a good platform to explore and understand these areas more.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Constraints Some of the artists didn’t want to speak in front of the camera where as many wanted to speak for as much time they could. I had to literally stop some and give them bullet points so as to speak on them only so that the interview gets more crisp. Because in the film the duration of each interview does not exceed 1.30 minutes so it was important to cover important aspects in that short duration. Location was a major one. Since the surroundings needed to be like an artists place or a studio but some of them were in a really bad shape or very poorly lit. So, I shot 2 of the interviews in a Fine Arts College so as to get the authentic feel. Same with the doctors, everyone agreed with all the hazards, had many valid points to state but never on camera with a fear of being objected if they make a wrong statement. Dr. Pimpalkhare agreed as he was an acquaintance of one of the artist. Also, he had to see everything what I was putting in the film. The project brief was limited to women problems so to make it more women centric I took up reproduction hazards. Although many of them overlap with ones faced by male artists too but making the pregnancy as the main topic makes it pivoted around women which was required according to the brief.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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4 RESEARCH Toxic Substances •

Vapours from art materials such as turpentine, toluene, or other solvents in paint removers, lacquer thinners, silk screen inks, etc., which evaporate from open containers

Mists accumulated in the air from spraying paints or fixatives, airbrushing, using spray guns, etc.

Gases from etching metals, working with photographic baths, welding, or firing kilns

Metallic fumes from welding, soldering, or foundry casting

Dusts from pottery making, mixing dry pigments or dyes, grinding, and woodworking

Lead content in Oil paints

How Toxic Substances Enter the Body Toxic substances enter the body in three principal ways. •

Absorption through the skin Example: you can absorb a lacquer thinner or turpentine if it splashes on your skin

Inhalation through nose and mouth Example: you can inhale dusts while you mix dyes or pottery glazes

Ingestion through eating, drinking, or smoking in your work area Example: dusts can mingle with food left in an open container while you mix a glaze.

Reproduction Risks • Toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde may cause menstrual disorders. • Other toxins, such as lead or benzene, are called mutagens because they change the genetic structure of men and women’s chromosomes and cause mutations in the first and future generations of offspring.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Also, due to prolonged standing, a fixed posture and odd lifestyle -a women is exposed to the risk of menstrual cramps, excessive bleeding, fatigue during menstruation

A pregnant woman is more vulnerable as compared to other times due to physiological changes which body goes through during pregnancy.

Higher concentrations of solvents can circulate through the bloodstream during pregnancy because a pregnant woman’s blood volume increases by 30 to 40 percent. This increase means that the amount of iron in the blood decreases, so a pregnant artist may become more vulnerable to chemicals (such as lead, benzene, and carbon monoxide) that can cause anaemia.

Chemicals such as pentachlorophenol, lithium, mercury and ethyl alcohol can interfere with normal organ development, causing birth defects.

There are also higher concentrations of inhaled substances in the lungs of a pregnant artist because she needs more oxygen and breathes more deeply, thus becoming more susceptible to respiratory problems.

Mercury poisoning in infants which has been caused by mercury that was present in breast milk. Solvents have also been found in breast milk.

Source: Pubmed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)

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Field Study Interviews with Artists Nalini Malani Age: 66 years Have you faced any hazard while using art products? - Benzene, burns with even a drop if it is touched. - Nails became lifeless. - Worked without mask for 3 days, had breathing problems. Did you consult a doctor? - Doctor had advised her to minimize her working with benzene. During Pregnancy did you used benzene? - No Any special precautions you took during pregnancy? - Doctor advised not to use toxic substances before five months of conceiving, during pregnancy and after birth for five months.

Shilpa Joglekar - Fine Artist and Landscape artist

What type of chemicals or toxic substances do you use while working? - Oil, acrylic, bamboo, wood in garden art Have you faced any hazard while doing your work? - Backache - Respiratory allergies to turpentine

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Anupama Patil: Fine Artist and Professor Age: 45 years (Does not have children) What type of chemicals or toxic substances do you use while working? - Dry Pastels, Acrylic, Has stopped working with oil now, Rubber Solution Have you faced any hazard while doing your work? - Allergic to turpentine; sneezes, watery eyes, running nose, rough hands - Major are backache, cartilage damage in knees Have you consulted a doctor for these hazards? - Yes she has but not for the turpentine allergy as she thought it was not so serious. - She consulted a doctor for her knee problem after 2 months of persistent pain and found out about her knee cartilage damage. Do you work during Menstruation; What change do you feel while working during that time? - No she does not feel like working during menstruation.

Ranjana Dani - Fine Artist and Graphic Designer Age: 50 years (One child: age 25 years) What type of chemicals or toxic substances do you use while working? - Oil and acrylic Have you faced any hazard while doing your work? - Shoulder dislocation due to prolonged working hours in one position - Respiratory allergies to turpentine

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Ketaki Pimpalkhare - Commercial Artist Age: 35 years (One child; age - 7 years) What type of chemicals or toxic substances do you use while working? - Oil, acrylic, sometimes sculptures, wood, metal Have you faced any hazard while doing your work? - Backache due to prolonged working hours - Respiratory allergies to turpentine - Irritation on hands During pregnancy did you face any hazards? Also, did you take any precautions regarding the work or doctor told you take any? -- She had a show during her 9th month so while her 7th month was on she was painting full swing which is when she started having respiratory problems. She became cautious that these problems could harm the baby too. -- So she consulted a doctor, who told her to stop working with turpentine for a while which is when she switched to water based and acrylics. -- Swollen feet Did you suffer with any hazards during post-pregnancy? -- She painted on life size canvases during her pregnancy during which her position of work was compromised which led to severe back pain post-pregnancy. That lasted almost an year which left her workless for almost an year and a half. -- She had very low immunity after her delivery during which she suffered from jaundice followed by herpes (second phase of chicken pox) -- For all these she blames her negligent behaviour for her health issues. Do you work during Menstruation; What change do you feel while working during that time? Working helps her relax further more during those days.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Mala Treon - Textile Artist Age: 45 years (Has two children of ages 18 and 21) What type of chemicals or toxic substances do you use while working? - Dyes, chemical binders, hard water Have you faced any hazard while doing your work? - Hard water causes itches - Prolonged standing; causes swelling - Respiratory problems - Dry powder is so fine that while weighing it enters the nasal passage and causes irritation - Heavy eyes - Running nose; uses a muslin cloth mask for this - Roughness of hands During pregnancy did you take any precautions regarding the work or doctor told you take any? - She had cut down her working hours onset of third trimester of her pregnancy Did you suffer from any hazards during pregnancy? - Back pain, swollen legs, fatigue Do you work during Menstruation; What change do you feel while working during that time? She works completely fine, follows the same routine, feels no change

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Shilpa Nikam - Fine Artist Age: 38 years (One child; age - 14 years) What type of chemicals or toxic substances do you use while working? - Oil, mix media, pigments, inks Have you faced any hazard while doing your work? - Rough hands; tried using gloves for this but does not feel the personal touch. - Lifeless nails - Burning sensation in eyes while working with turpentine and kerosene - Breathing problems - Cramps in stomach and back pain due to prolonged sitting During pregnancy did you take any precautions regarding the work or doctor told you take any? - Used to work 12 -13 hours earlier without breaks now has minimized it to 3-4 hours per day. Did this during pregnancy and now carrying it on Did you suffer with any hazards during pregnancy? - Back pain, a little bit of varicose veins, fatigue Do you work during Menstruation; What change do you feel while working during that time? No she does not because of mood swings.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Gayatri Deshpande - Fine Artist Age: 30 years (One child; age - 12 years) What type of chemicals or toxic substances do you use while working? - Oil, mix media, pigments Have you faced any hazard while doing your work? - Rough hands - Burning sensation in eyes while working with turpentine and kerosene - Breathing problems During pregnancy did you take any precautions regarding the work or doctor told you take any? - Stopped working after the beginning of the second trimester. Did you suffer with any hazards during pregnancy? - None Do you work during Menstruation; What change do you feel while working during that time? No she does not work during her menses.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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What do Doctors have to say? Dr. Sanat Pimpalkhare Some of the chemicals used in painting field can be a little volatile or may give rise to some fumes which can be reactive or allergic to some. So if a person specifically develops this situation he/she should work around with ventilation of the ventilation of the studio and wear masks. They should take frequent breaks from the work and should stay away from the studio during that time.

Dr. Vani Thapar Prolonged standing can cause aches in different parts of the body especially feet and back. Nasal infections Breathing problems During pregnancy it can cause: Birth defects Mutations among body organs They do advise people not to do work with hazardous and toxic substances during pregnancy First 3 months are crucial for cell formation Premature menopause Menstrual disorders Dr. Shalini Rajaram She has seen a few cases like this where chemicals lead to low sex drive and menstrual disorders She thinks that if there is prolonged exposure so a retrospective study should be done on these effects. This can interfere with normal organ development and can also cause miscarriages and even spontaneous abortions.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Different types of mediums of paint Painters use pigments in oil paints, acrylics, water color paints etc. Here, a few mediums have been descirbed along with their hazards and precautions which are commonly used among artists.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Hazards and precautions for different types of paints used by artists. Paints are pigments mixed with a vehicle or binder. Both inorganic and organic pigments are used as colorants. Dry pigments are especially hazardous because they are easily inhaled and ingested. They are used in encaustic, paper - marbleizing and in the fabrication of paint products. Most paints used in Visual Arts do not contain metal pigments and are considered non-toxic. These are most easily identified by the product name. If the paint is described as hue, such as “chromium yellow hue�, there is no (or too little to be concerned about) toxic metal contained in the product. Hazards -- Poisoning can occur if toxic pigments are inhaled or ingested. -- The main hazard in standard painting techniques is accidental ingestion of pigments due to eating, drinking or smoking while working, inadvertent hand to mouth contact, or pointing the paint brush with the lips. -- If methods such as spraying, heating, or sanding are employed then there is an opportunity for inhalation of toxic pigments. -- The classic example of a toxic inorganic pigment in painting is white lead, or flake white (basic lead carbonate). Lead pigments can cause anaemia, gastrointestinal problems, peripheral nerve damage (and brain damage in children), kidney damage and reproductive system damage. Other inorganic pigments may be hazardous, including pigments based on cobalt, cadmium, and manganese. -- Some of the inorganic pigments, in particular cadmium pigments, chrome yellow and zinc yellow may cause lung cancer. In addition lamp black and carbon black may contain impurities that can cause skin cancer. -- Chromate pigments (chrome yellow and zinc yellow) may cause skin ulceration and allergic skin reactions (such as rashes). Precautions -- Obtain information on your paints to find out what pigments you are using. This is especially important because the name that appears on the tube of color may or may not truly represent the pigments present. -- Manufacturers may keep the name of a color while reformulating the ingredients. -- Use the least toxic pigments possible. -- Do not use lead or carcinogenic pigments. -- Avoid mixing dry pigments whenever possible. If dry pigments are mixed, do it inside a glove box (a box with a glass or Plexiglas top and holes in the sides for arms) -- Wet mop and wipe all surfaces when using dry pigments. -- Avoid using dishes, containers or utensils from the kitchen to mix and store paints and pigments. Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Water-Based Paints Water-based paints include water color, acrylic, gouache, tempera and casein. Water is used for thinning and cleanup.

Hazards -- Acrylic paints contain a small amount of ammonia and formaldehyde. Some sensitive people may experience eye, nose and throat irritation from these. The amounts can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. -- All water-based paints contain a preservative to prevent mold or bacterial growth. -- Sometimes artists add preservatives when they make their own paints. Although present in small amounts, certain preservatives may cause allergic reactions in some people. -- As compared to all other mediums, water based is the safest way to paint with. Precautions -- If you experience eye, nose or throat irritation while using acrylics, opening a window is usually sufficient; if not try a window exhaust fan. -- Wear gloves, goggles and protective apron when handling ammonia. An eyewash fountain should be available when handling ammonia.

Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Non Water-Based Paints Oil paints use linseed oil, wax and egg respectively as vehicles, although solvents are often used as a thinner and for cleanup. Turpentine and mineral spirits (paint thinner), for example, are used in oil painting mediums, for thinning, and for cleaning brushes. In addition many commercial paints used by artists also contain solvents. Hazards -- All solvents can cause defatting of the skin and dermatitis from prolonged or repeated exposure. -- Turpentine can also cause skin allergies and be absorbed through the skin. -- Acute inhalation of high concentrations of mineral spirits, turpentine vapors, and other solvents can cause narcosis, which can include symptoms of dizziness, headaches, drowsiness, nausea, fatigue, loss of coordination, coma, as well as respiratory irritation. -- Chronic inhalation of turpentine can cause kidney damage and respiratory irritation and allergies. -- Ingestion of either turpentine or mineral spirits can be fatal. Precautions -- Odorless mineral spirits and turpenoid, in which the aromatic hydrocarbons have been removed, are less hazardous. -- If possible, artists should set up their easel about 3 feet from a window that has a fan exhausting at work level and pulling the solvent vapors away from your face. -- Techniques such as turpentine washes will require a lot of ventilation because they result in the evaporation of large amounts of solvents in a short period of time. -- Acrylic paint can be substituted for underpainting. -- Wear neoprene gloves while cleaning brushes with mineral spirits or turpentine. -- Paint can be removed from your hands with baby oil, and then soap and water. -- During pregnancy and nursing, switch to water-based paints to avoid exposure to solvents.

Airbrush, Spray Cans, and Spray Guns Artists use many products in spray form, including fixatives, retouching sprays, paint sprays, varnishes, and adhesive sprays. Airbrush, aerosol spray can and spray guns are used. Hazards -- Spray mists are particularly hazardous because they are easily inhaled. -- If the paint being sprayed contains solvents, then you can be inhaling liquid droplets of the solvents. -- In addition the pigments are also easily inhaled, creating a much more dangerous situation than applying paint by brush. -- Aerosol spray paints have an additional hazard besides pigments and solvents. They contain propellants, which are extremely flammable and have been the cause of many fires. -- Other aerosol spray products such as retouching sprays, spray varnishes, etc. Also contain solvents, propellants and particulates being sprayed. Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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Precautions -----

Use water-based airbrushing paints and inks rather than solvent-based paints. Use spray cans or an airbrush in a spray booth if possible. If ventilation is not adequate, then respiratory protection is necessary while air brushing or spraying. Never try to spray paint by blowing air from your mouth through a tube. This can lead to accidental ingestion of the paint.

Dry Drawing Media This includes dust-creating media such as charcoal and pastels which are often fixed with aerosol spray fixatives, and media such as crayons and oil pastels which do not create dust. Hazards -- Pastels can contain toxic pigments such as chrome yellow (lead chromate) which can cause lung cancer, and cadmium pigments (which can cause kidney and lung damage and are suspect human carcinogens). Blowing excess pastel dust off the drawing is one major source of inhalation of pastel pigments. -- Pastel artists have often complained of blowing their nose different colors for days after using pastels, a clear indication of inhalation. -- Both permanent and workable spray fixatives used to fix drawings contain toxic solvents. -- There is high exposure by inhalation to these solvents because the products are sprayed in the air, often right on a desk or easel. -- Never try to spray fixative by blowing air from your mouth through a tube. This can lead to accidental ingestion of the fixative. Precautions Use the least dusty types of pastels, chalks, etc. Asthmatics in particular might want to switch to oil pastels or similar non-dusty media. Spray fixatives should be used with a spray booth that exhausts to the outside. An exhaust fan is also needed to remove organic vapours and particulates. Don’t blow off excess pastel or charcoal dust with your mouth. Instead tap off the built up dust so it falls to the floor (or paper on floor). Wet-mop and wet-wipe all surfaces clean of dusts. If inhalation of dusts is a problem, a respirator may be appropriate. Source: www.princeton.edu Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS PAINTING POSITIONS ON THE BODY Its seen that artists commonly develop musculoskeletal disorders. Females experience greater muscular loading for a given task. However it is advised that one should take breaks of 10 minutes in between after every 30 minutes of working. Three common positions to work are as follows:

A) Sitting down and holding the canvas on the lap.

b) Putting the canvas on the floor and bending over it horizontally.

c) Putting it on the easel at an angel which is slightly acute than the right angle while the person is standing and painting.

Analysis -- In position (a) the person sits down with legs spread out (sprawl) and holds the canvas on the lap. -- This is a rest position supported by the buttocks or thighs where the torso is more or less upright. -- It is important that the person doesn’t slouch or slump. -- The tailbone should be kept snug to the back of the seat, with back either against the back of the chair or in a forward position. -- However, if leaning forward one should make sure that pelvis, chest and head are relatively parallel with each other. -- It is common to become intense and uptight while working. -- The result can be overworked and tightened back, neck and shoulder muscles. -- Continually, shifting the pelvis may help reduce muscle tension. -- Also, sprawling for a long time can cause Deep vein thrombosis which is a blood clot which forms in a deep vein, often in the lower leg or thigh. -- Prolonged sprawling should be avoided during pregnancy to avoid backaches and further complications as the weight is on the pelvic area.

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-- In position (b) the person bends over the canvas while it is kept on the floor horizontally. -- This position poses a problem of over stressing of the back, shoulders, ankles, knees, elbows and wrists. -- This position disturbs the neutral spine. -- This position should be avoided especially during pregnancy as it bends the back further more giving more weight on the foetus.

-- Position (c) is better amongst all three as the back remains straight. -- But one should take regular breaks in between to avoid aches in knees, shoulders and ankles

Pregnancy and Low back pain Back pain is a common complaint of pregnant women. This is generally characterized as axial or para-sagittal discomfort in the lower lumbar region and is musculoskeletal in nature. This can be due to a combination of mechanical, hormonal, circulatory, and psychosocial factors. During pregnancy alone, the incidence of back pain is reported by 50–80% of women. One-third of pregnant women claim that low back pain is a significant problem. This discomfort most commonly starts between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy

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ANALYSIS 5 VISUAL DEVELOPMENT Target Group Women;Professional Artists/Painters/Craftsmen dealing with Metals, Wood, Oils, Acrylic, Textile Dyes, inks etc on a regular basis who are in turn vulnerable to the risks mentioned earlier.

Demographics Age: More than 25 [Who have had children while in their profession] Gender: Female Social Class: Urban; Middle and Upper Class Employment Class: Self employed, Employed as artist or craftsmen [Top or average middle level] Income: More than 10 lacs per annum

Literacy Levels Generally High; Some have done PhDs and Masters too

Communication Material • • • • • •

Internet Shops where they procure material Art books/Reference books/ How to do books Directions printed on the labels of the materials (Sometimes or sometimes not) Individual level Doctors

Awareness level: Basic Language: English primarily; Also available in widely spoken languages like French, Spanish for specific countries

Target Audience Connectivity There are a variety of Communication materials available to inform the artists about the safety measures. I felt that a film as a audio visual medium will be more effective to connect with the target audience since there is no comprehensive material available which tells both about chemical and physical hazards. The film just has to outline the problems without going into much detail so that it does not become monotonous and keeping the length short.

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Concepts and Scripts 1. Outline -----

Start with passion, ignited minds, madness Needs and demands of long hour working, non stop Introduction How do they spend their typical working day and how does it affects their health in any way.

Suggestive Visual Flow 1. Starting with visuals different art forms -- Painting acrylic, oil -- Ceramics -- Sculpture -- Wood etc 2. Then in between we can interrupt with visuals of hazards like person painting in Scene 1 started to have a backache or sat down to rub legs, knees, ankles, heels etc Sight problems: a person with specs takes out the specs and starts to rub his eyes. Stress/chronic depression: a person rubbing the temples etc Skin problems: a person getting burnt by benzene lifeless nails etc Sneezing running nose, irritation in nasal passage. Suggestive Narration: There are some symptoms that one should not take lightly because these are the signs of a symptom turning into a hazard. This lifestyle may give you great results or work but not for long. After all, good health equals to great work. 3. Hazards like Reproduction risks, menstrual risks, pregnancy risks Suggestive visuals: Use of different hazards causing materials like turpentine, toluene, thinners, spray guns, etching metals, photographic baths, welding dusts from pottery, mixing dry pigments and dyes. Related case studies. 4. Precautions Dramatisation of the precautions which can be followed at the workplace. - Keeping the work area clean - Proper and adequate ventilation and storage facility - Wearing overalls, gloves, goggles, mask. - Washing work clothes separately from family clothes - Don’t eat, drink and smoke in the work area. 5. A doctor’s interview testifying the facts Suggestive precautions to the material manufacturing companies - Promoting more ecological substitutes. - Proper labelling of the materials - Warning labels - Safety manuals with the products - Preventive measures such as barrier cream, gloves, respiratory masks etc can be distributed with the Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)


products as CSR. Feedback from the mentors - To concentrate on few mediums of hazard such as oil and acrylic. - Keeping a fix ratio between chemical hazard and physical hazard. - Eliminate the material manufacturing companies part and address the film purely to the artists to make it more compact and simple to understand.

2. The narration along is suggestive. • Montage of artists working passionately Narration: They say.. A sincere artist is not one who makes a faithful attempt to put on to canvas what is in front of him, but one who tries to create something which is, in itself, a living thing. This takes passion, hard work, creativity and a little bit of madness. When a artist starts there is nothing like long hours, hunger, pain, aches etc. Such crazy-crazy lifestyle can take a toll on your health especially if you are a woman. Visuals of artists working and indicating such problems and animation of the human body, highlighting the problem areas due to postural problems Narration: Problems like backaches, swollen feet, prolonged cold, running nose can be symptoms to major hazards. • The clip plays with a 9-10 people answering the question which is as follows. Narration: We asked a few woman artists how would they priortise – work, husband, children, home chores and health. • The sequence where she sees herself in the mirror as pregnant and then with a baby and then she has a blank canvas on her face. Narration: Like when you get pregnant, then give birth. These symptoms are not to be ignored. • Interview of Ketaki Pimpalkhare: You know in your young age, you can conquer the world yet feeling no pain and paying no attention to your health. When I was pregnant I had this huge show which I didn’t want miss. So I worked throughout my pregnancy. I had swollen feet, slight backaches but nothing as major. I kept working. I had the show and eventually the baby. After that, I couldn’t work for an year because all that work was coming back in the form of backache. I had severe back pain after a year of my delivery. I had difficulties in changing postures. It was bad. Then I had jaundice and lever damage. My immunity had gone so low. That as soon as I recovered from jaundice I got herpes (second phase of chicken pox). They were the worst 2 and a half years of my life during which I learnt health is the top priority, then only other things can happen. • Montage of various artists working There are many people like Ketaki who didn’t take care or took any action when they had the symptoms which changed into a major hazard. (Random shots of artists working) (Shots of chemicals being used and small animation of how they can cause internal problems)The chemicals that are used in making of the beautiful painting like turpentine, kerosene can have a hazardous effect on you and the baby. Some of these toxic substances are known to cause birth defects, interference with normal organ development, miscarriages, menstrual disorders and also mercury poisoning among infants. • Interview of Anupama Patil: I used to stand and paint. I used to have back pain but didn’t care as I thought everyone has. I was too engrossed in my work. But eventually my knees started aching. I didn’t pay any attention. But after 2 months of ever growing and consistent pain, I saw a doctor who told me that I had a knee cartilage damage. I had a minor surgery and reduced my hours of work. Artist Alert - Graduation Project by Aayushi Sachdeva - UG (Film and Video Design)

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So stop before you develop a major situation. • A doctor’s interview with supportive visuals as inserts. If you have persistent pains anywhere whether its back, legs or whatever, you should immediately see a doctor. This can be an onset of a major hazard. And if you are planning a baby, don’t use the chemicals like turpentine, benzene, kerosene etc without a mask and try minimizing their usage also. Minimise your working hours as you start gaining belly and try it shunning it completely in the last trimester. • In worst cases, problems like birth defects to the child can also happen which can range from minor and curable defects to major and incurable defects. In such cases, spinia bifida, fetal lung maturity and down syndrome is more likely to happen Pictures of birth defects • Other than this there can be miscarriages and spontaneous abortions. Following a regular and healthy diet can be one of the major solutions. Daily exercise regime should be included in the routine. One should low down the working hours during pregnancy and consult the doctor at regular intervals of time. Remember, health comes first! Related Visuals -Ends with a 15 sec montage of artists painting Reference storyboard for the introduction

Close-ups of the canvases being painted then followed by the mid shots of the artists to establish the passion part.

Suggested Narration: “They say.. A sincere artist is not one who makes a faithful....”

Suggested Narration: “This takes passion, hard work, creativity and a bit of madness”

Close-ups of the artists and the expressions

Suggested Narration: “When an artist starts there is nothing like....”

Artists working and showing symptoms like back pain, cough, sight problems etc.

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We asked a few woman artists how will they priortise-work, husband, children, home chores and health. (9-10 women answering the question)

Briefly explaining the pains happening and the reason of their persistence due to postural problems.

Animation explaining the back bending during pregnancy

Dramatisation: an artist is working (Mid shot)

The camera rotates and there is a mirror to her side. She sees herself in the mirror as pregnant.

Camera rotates again 180 degrees and she sees herself with a baby this time.

Camera rotates again (90 degrees) and she has a blank canvas on his face. Narration: These symptoms should not be ignored. Feedback from the mentors -- Priortise the physical hazards; starting from particular postures to the artists. These done over a long period of time and overlooking the pain increases the problem. -- Elaborate the toxic chemicals part.

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Execution

Feedback from the mentors -------

Eradicating the introduction part as it is not sending a message across. Show a take away slide in the end with all the essential precautions. Highlight the problems by using case studies Make doctor testify the facts along with the case-studies Add animations to show the physical problems Make the aspect ratio 16:9, frame size: 1280 x 720

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Animation Reference board

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Following were the options for animation. I had choosen one with bones and mesh [a mix of (a) and (b)] because it will give a better understanding of the problem areas in the body.

a)

b)

d)

e)

c)

To highlight the problem areas, red spots were added.

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3. TITLE ---------All three artists introduce themselves ---------------------------------------------------Doctor: The substance or materials used to paint are hazardous Ketaki tells that she was allergic from turpentine Anupama tells that she was allergic too -----------------------------------Doctor: telling precautions how to avoid this -------------------Fact slide: Out of all the artists we talked to for research purposes. Every 4 out of 5 women suffered from allergies namely running noses, prolonged cold etc ------------------------Physical hazard: Ketaki telling about her back pain post pregnancy, Anupama telling about her knee and Ranjana telling about shoulder dislocation Doctor detailing the case studies with the help of animations How prolonged use of a particular posture is hazardous Doctor explaining all the poses with the help of animations -----------------------------Conclusion slide ----------------------------Conclusion: All three artists conclude, Doctor also concludes with “Prevention is better than cure�

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Snapshots

Title

Ketaki Pimpalkhare

Ranjana Dani

Anupama Patil

Dr. Sanat Pimpalkhare

Fact Slide

Physical hazards

Animation of the hazardous postures

Artists explaining their physical hazards

Conclusion slide

Doctor concluding

Last slide

Feedback from the mentors ------

Add more precautions in the take away slide with narration. Add subtitles Fact slide should be in percentage form Highlight elbows and wrists in the bending and painting animation Add exercises which can be done to relax the body with narration explaining the actions.

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Exercises Prof. G. G. Ray told me the exercises to be included, so I took his video and got the animation of the exercises made according to that. Animation style had to be opaque (d) as there was no requirement of the bone structure or wire frame to be seen. Different styles: A

D

B

C

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Final film snapshots Final film is of 11:40 mins duration which comprises of Physical and as well as chemical hazards. It includes case studies of three women artists: Ketaki Pimpalkhare, Ranjana Dani and Anupama Patil. Fonts

Subtitles were added with a black bar behind with 60% opacity to make the text more visible. Font is Myriad Pro with size 12. The names of the people comes in white without the black bar but strategically placed for proper visibility. Serif font is been used for this to give it a formal look. For the conclusion slide, I added the video of paints behind with Gaussian blur to make the text outstanding and also, it helped in breaking the monotony of this part of the film. Font is Myriad Pro Bold,

Title slide: Font: Times, Size: 22 Fact slide in the percentage form Font: Myriad Pro, size: 16 Credits: Font: Myriad Pro, size: 14

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Other snapshots

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6 CONCLUSION It was constantly felt that the real challenge was to bring objectivity from such a vast topic but my mentors at IDC and here in MITID helped me to limit the information and make the film relevant to the topic. Since, there was no other existing film I could find on this topic so the language was open for me to experiment with. Overall it was an exhilarating experience. The reading of books and watching videos and other versions for the project was a very different kind of experience. The outcome was process driven yet intuitive. The real success also lied in finishing and delivering the results on time. I believe that this was not the ending as my attempt was to align a belief and after that possibilities are endless with a series of hazards which can shown through this medium.

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7

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Web http://libguides.usask.ca/ http://www.tucsonaz.gov/arthazards/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ http://www.drugswell.com http://www.princeton.edu http://www.trueart.info/hazards.htm http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro/arthazards.html http://www.artscraftstheatersafety.org/ Books Health Hazard Manual for Artists by Michael McCann The Artists Complete Health and Safety Guide by Monona Rossol Ventilation, A Practical Guide for Artists, Craftspeople, and Others in the Arts, by Nancy Clarke, Thomas \ Cutter, and Jean-Anne McGrane Non-Toxic Intaglio Printmaking, by Keith Howard. Saskatchewan Visual Artists Handbook by CARFAC SASK

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8

RETROSPECTION

Doing my Diploma project with IDC and DST was a great experience. It taught me to deliver work on time with precision. Over last five years at MIT Institute of design, it has become a very integral part of my education. At MIT I learned to think in systematic process. I was taught to think both aesthetically and analytically. Valuable feedbacks on my work was constantly given which made me curious and motivated to learn and work. My experience at MIT had been a very valuable one and I am hoping this guides me further professionally as well as personally.

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Graduation Project Documentation