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I introduction

“We are surrounded by type from labels on soup cans to grocery bags to newspapers and magazines. Everything with a printed word uses typography. No matter how fashionable or clever, if a copy that is meant to be read is dif�icult to read, it is badly designed. Typography communicates on several levels like content, visual impact and context. It can be used to convey a mood or get a message across just visually by using the form of the type. It is a very powerfull tool for any aspiring graphic designer. The word ‘typography’ often makes the subject sound dull and scienti�ic. If you dig deeper you qill feel the adrenaline rush it gives you evertime you explore a new layout or method of using typography.”


CONTENTS


1. History.................................2 2. Serif......................................4 3. Sans serif............................6 4. Anatomy...........................10 5. Cambria...........................14 6. Liberation.......................18 7. Future...............................24 8. Bibliography..................26


H

“Typography exists to honour content.” -Robert Bringhunt


Typography is the study of type and type faces, the evolution of printed letters. Since man did not begin to write with type, but rather the chisel, brush, and pen, it is the study of handwriting, that provides us with the basis for creating type designs. The �irst thing to keep in mind when thinking about the history and development of typography is that many early printers were not just printers, but typographers as well. The �irst independent typefounder was a French gentleman by the name of Claude Garamond.

H

Although not the inventor of movable type, Garamond was the �irst to make type available to printers at an affordable price. Garamond based his type on the roman font of Griffo . Before Garamond's independent practice, men such as Jenson, Griffo, and Caxton played speci�ic roles in the development of type. Jenson perfected the roman type, Caxton conceived a bastard gothic font, and Griffo developed italic. Several of the fonts we see on our computers's have evolved from the work of typefounders of the �ifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The weakest period the history of type rests in the sixteenth and seventeenth century printing presses. Many presses mixed many sizes and styles of type into single pages, �liers, and playbills.

ISTORY

2


Ser i f

The explanation proposed by Father Edward Catich in his 1968 book ‘The Origin of the Serif’ is now broadly but not universally accepted. Serifed fonts are widely used for body text because they are Serifs are semiconsidered easier to read structural details than sans-serif fonts. on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. A typeface with serifs is called a serif typeface. Serifs are thought to have originated in the Roman alphabet with inscriptional lettering words carved into stone in Roman antiquity.


CLASSIFICATION

Old Style - Humanist typefaces date back to 1465, and are characterized by a diagonal stress , subtle differences between thick and thin lines , and excellent readability. Examples include Adobe Jenson, Arno, Centaur etc.

Transitional - Baroque serif typefaces �irst appeared in the mid-18th century.They are in between modern and old style, thus the name "transitional." Differences between thick and thin lines are more pronounced than they are in old style, but they are still less dramatic than they are in modern serif fonts. Examples include Times New Roman, Baskirville etc. Modern - Didone serif typefaces, which �irst emerged in the late 18th century, are characterized by extreme contrast between thick and thin lines. Modern typefaces have a vertical stress, long and �ine serifs, with minimal brackets. Serifs tend to be very thin and vertical lines are very heavy. Most modern fonts are less readable than transitional or old style serif typefaces. Examples include Bodoni, Didot etc.

Slab Serif - Egyptian typefaces usually have little if any contrast between thick and thin lines. Slab serif fonts have a bold, rectangular appearance and sometimes have �ixed widths. Examples include Rockwell Courier etc.

4


CLASSIFICATION

Geometric - Lineale typefaces constructed on simple geometric shapes, circle or rectangle. Usually monoline. Examples include Futura, Erbar, Eurostile etc. Humanist - Lineale typefaces based on the proportions of inscriptional Roman capitals Grotesque - Lineale typefaces with 19th century origins. There is some contrast in thickness of strokes. They have squ areness of curve, and curling close-set jaws. Examples include Stephenson Blake Grotesque No. 6 etc. Neo-grotesque - Lineale typefaces are derived from the grotesque. They have less contrast in stroke and are more regular in design. Examples include Edel, Univers etc

SA


Sans serif or san serif typeface is one that does not have the small projecting features called "serifs" at the end of strokes. The term comes from the French word sans, meaning "without". In print, sans-serif fonts are more typically used for headlines than for body text. Before the term “sans-serif� became popular other names like Gothic, Doric Heiti, Simplices ect. were used.

NS SERIF

6


Aa

Bb Cc

Baskerville

Bodoni MT

Platino linotype

Georgia

Rockwell

Gg

Hh Ii

Garamond

Times New Roman

Book Antiqua

Dd Ee

Centuar

Ff

Jj

Kk Ll

Sylfaen

Bookman Old

Trajan Pro


Mm Nn Franklin Gothic

Berlin Sans

Oo Impact

Pp

Qq

Rr

Calibri

Tahoma

Myriad

Ss Futura Mid BT

Vv Raavi

Tt

Uu

Ww

Xx

Segoe Print

Agency FB

Arial

Bell Gothic

8


Typeface anatomy or letter anatomy refers to the individual segments and features of a particular character. Certain pieces are common to most characters and some are unique to only one or two characters in a typeface.


ANATOMY 10

OF TYPEFACE


H

1

o

2

3

1 - SHOULDER 2 - BRACKET 3 - BOWL

4 - ASCENDER 5 - TERMINAL

4

d

5


10

9

EAR - 6

FINIAL - 7

11

EAR - 8

NECK - 9

SERIF - 10

8 7

6


CAM


BRIA Prof Jelle Bosama

14

Cambria is part of the suite of fonts that comes with Microsoft Windows Vista, Windows 7, Microsoft Of�ice 2007, Microsoft Of�ice 2008 for Mac and Microsoft Of�ice 2011 for Mac, speci�ically designed for on-screen reading and to be aesthetically pleasing when printed at small sizes. It is a transitional serif font. It has very even spaci!ng and proportions. Diagonal and vertical hairlines and serifs are relatively strong, while horizontal serifs are small and intend to emphasize stroke endings rather than stand out themselves. This principle is most noticeable in the italics where the lowercase characters are subdued in style.


g g g g

Regular

Italic

Bold

Bold Italic

When Cambria is used for captions at sizes over 20 point, the inter-character spacing should be slightly reduced for best results. The design isn't just intended for business documents. The regular weight has been extended with a large set of math and science symbols. The Greek and Cyrillic has been designed under close supervision who aimed to set a historical new standard


in multi-script type design. Cambria font is slowly taking over the traditional Times New Roman font. When compared with Cambria it is fond that the legibility, as measured by the number of correct identi�ications of brie�ly presented characters, was highest for the font Cambria. Old digits such as 0, 1 and 2 were confused with both letters and symbols in Times New Roman.

16


LIBER

Liberation is the collective name of four TrueType font families: Liberation Sans, Liberation Sans Narrow, Liberation Serif and Liberation Mono.

These fonts are metric-compatible with Monotype Corporation's Arial, Arial Narrow, Times New Roman, and Courier New (respectively), the most commonly used fonts on Microsoft's Windows operating system and Of�ice suite. Liberation Sans and Liberation Serif were derived from Ascender Sans and Ascender Serif respectively; Liberation Mono uses base designs from Ascender Sans and Ascender Uni Duo The fonts were developed by Steve Matteson of Ascender Corp.


ATION

as Ascender Sans and Ascender Serif.

A variant of this font family, with the addition of a monospaced spaced font and open-source license, was licensed by Red Hat, Inc. as the Liberation font family.

Liberation Sans, Liberation Sans Narrow and Liberation Serif closely match the metrics of Monotype Corporation fonts Arial, Arial Narrow and Times New Roman, respectively. Liberation Mono is styled closer to Liberation Sans than Monotype's Courier New, though its metrics match with Courier New. The Liberation fonts are intended as free, open-source replacements of the aforementioned encumbered fonts.

18


SANS SERIF LIBER ATION MONO NARROW


bcdef

a

a

LIBERATION SANS

c f d b e

LIBERATION SERIF BOLD

20


g i j lmn p k

o p j ln h g ik m o h

LIBERATION MONO

ITALIC

REGULAR

LIBERATION SANS


r tu wxy qs v z B.ITALIC

BOLD

LIBERATION SANS

w t

z p s u q x v y r LIBERATION MONO

22


F The future of typography will be an extension of need of today. One can see advances in screen quality and technology to deliver better online reading experience. There are more small portable devices like phones and pocket devices coming, So imagine

bringing the level of typography print to these devices. This will be a major expectation. In type design large versatile families and superfamilies will become more popular as multinational entities flex their identity muscles on a global


UTU RE 24

scale. One can also expect a greater demand for fonts that support every possible Latern language like Cyrillic, Chinese and Arabic. There will be progress as long as a produck is used. The only way typography will die is if reading dies, which is unlikely

till someone invents a mental telepathy system. (who knows that might require typography too.)


http://inspireme.lasoeur karamazov.net/post/200 8/10/18/Favourite-typo graphy-quotes https://www.redhat.com/promo/font s/ http://typophile.com/node/42112 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambria _(typeface) https://fedorahosted.org/liberationfonts/ http://www.pointlessart.com/educati on/loyalist/typetalk/garamond/histor y.html

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I

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G

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STOP AND HOW TYP “Faces of type are like men’s faces. They have their own expression; their complexion and peculiar twists and turns of line identify them immediately to friends, to whom each is full of identity.” — J.L. Frazier The art of printing with types, the use of types to produce impressions on paper, vellum, etc. The design and use of typefaces as a means of visual communication from calligraphy to the ever-developing use of digital type is the broad use of the term typography. However, the art and practice of typography began with the invention of moveable type and the printing press. Typography is sometimes seen as encompassing many separate fields from the type designer who creates letterforms to the graphic designer who selects typefaces and arranges them on the page.

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