Issuu on Google+

A SMARTER SCIENCE OF SLIM QUICK START GUIDE

MORE FOR LESS A PROVEN PROGRAM FOR EXERCISING LESS AND BURNING MORE BODY FAT BY JONATHAN BAILOR PODCAST FACEBOOK

TWITTER


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Smarter Exercise 101 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Why Smarter Exercise Works .......................................................................................................................................................... 5 Exercise Smarter By Lowering (vs. Lifting) Weights .............................................................................................................. 9 Smarter Exercise Summary ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 The Smarter Exercise Program .................................................................................................................................................... 13 Ten Minutes of Smarter Resistance Training ......................................................................................................................... 13 Home Exercises................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Gym Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Ten Minutes of Smarter “Cardio” ................................................................................................................................................ 20 Weekly Smarter Exercise Log ....................................................................................................................................................... 22

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

2

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

INTRODUCTION Just as we get more results in less time by working more muscles within our body, we get even more results in even less time by working more of the muscle fibers that make up our muscles. The research underlying The Smarter Science of Slim shows that by working more muscle fibers though safe and forceful exercise we trigger a fat-burning hormonal response which is impossible via any quantity of conventional exercise. Think about the movements necessary to move more muscle fibers and release fat-burning hormones like the movements necessary to move a heavy sofa. You can gently poke at the sofa for one, ten, or even 100 hours, but no quantity of these low-force movements will achieve the result you want. The body works similarly. No quantity of low-force movements done during traditional exercise (e.g. lifting two pound weights) will move the muscle fibers responsible for triggering fat burning hormones. Less, but higher-force movements, are how we move sofas, as well as the muscle fibers that enable our body to burn body fat in the long term.

Focused on Exercising More

Focused Exercising Less—But Smarter

We Pick An Exercise Requiring Little Force So We Can Exercise As Much As Possible

We Pick An Exercise Requiring Lots of Force So We Move As Many Muscle Fibers As Possible

We Exercise A Few Muscle Fibers And Use Up Our Energy Over Many Hours

We Exercise A Lot of Muscle Fibers And Use Up Our Energy In A Few Minutes

We Do A Lot And Get A Little

We Do A Little And Get A Lot

“My gym has two-pound weights. If you are using two-pound weights, how did you even open the door to the gym? What’s your dream? To pump up and open your mail?” – Dave Attell, Comic

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

3

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

SMARTER EXERCISE 101 Conventional fat-loss programs require about ten hours of exercise per week. This requirement alone accounts for much of their 95% failure rate. Who has that much spare time? Fortunately, researchers have discovered a smarter alternative: a form of high quality exercise that heals us hormonally (the key to long-term fat loss) in just ten to twenty minutes per week. “The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal [calories] of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action [unclog] in young sedentary subjects is remarkable.” – Dr. J.A. Babraj, Heriot-Watt University

Let’s quickly compare conventional exercise with this smarter alternative. Conventional exercise is rooted in the false Calories In - Calories Out theory of fat loss. It aims to burn calories and is done frequently, for a long time, and uses a little resistance. On the other hand, smarter exercise is rooted in the science of the setpoint. It aims to heal our hormones and is done infrequently, for a short period of time, and uses a lot of resistance. This unique approach to exercise has been proven not only to cause lasting hormonal change, but also to give us all the benefits of traditional exercise—and then some—320% more efficiently.

Conventional Exercise Smarter Exercise Done Frequently

Done Infrequently

Done For A Long Period Of Time

Done For A Short Period Of Time

Done With A Little Resistance

Done With A Lot Of Resistance

“Vigorous [smarter] activities are associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, whereas moderate or light activities have no clear association with the risk of coronary heart disease.” – Dr. H.D. Sesso, Harvard University

“We thought the findings [regarding exercising less—smarter] were startling because it suggests the overall volume of exercise people need to do is lower than what’s recommended.” – Dr. M. Gibala, McMaster University

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

4

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

WHY SMARTER EXERCISE WORKS WOMEN WON’T LOOK LIKE MEN AND MEN WON ’T LOOK LIKE BULLDOGS Before digging into the details, it is important to address a common fear that exercising with more resistance makes women look like men, and men look like bulldogs. The best way to address this fear is to understand our biology. Everyone has a gene called GDF-8, and that controls a substance called myostatin, which controls the amount of muscle we have and how much muscles develop naturally. The base levels of myostatin and muscle in basically all women and most men make it impossible for them to naturally build bulky muscles. It does not matter how much resistance we use. The majority of us—especially women—do not have the genes to build bulky muscles via any form of exercise.

I find it useful to think about muscle size like muscle speed. Few people are fast because few people have “fast genes.” No matter how much most people run, they will never get faster than their genes allow. However, if people do have the genetics for speed, they will naturally be faster than most people without ever training. Similarly, few people can become bulky because few people—particularly women—have “bulky genes.” No matter how much most people resistance train, they will never develop more muscle than their genes allow. With our minds at ease let’s move on to…

WHY CONVENTIONAL EXERCISE FAILS, WHILE SMARTER EXERCISE WORKS Why does conventional wisdom tell us to exercise via jogging, riding a bike, etc. for an hour per day? Because these activities involve our large leg muscles. The thinking is that the more muscle exercised, the better our results. At least conventional wisdom got that much right.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

5

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

But here’s where conventional wisdom comes up short: It is physiologically impossible for any amount of conventional “cardio” to actually exercise as much muscle as possible. In fact, the conventional approach only activates one of the four types of muscle fibers we have. Doing more of it simply works that one type of muscle fiber over and over. And sadly, the singular type of muscle fiber it exercises is the least effective at triggering the hormonal reaction required to most efficiently burn body fat while preserving lean tissue…aka the hormonal reaction that enables us to look lean and fit rather than like a near-death bag of bones. To dig a bit deeper into why conventional exercise fails, and smarter exercise succeeds, we need to understand four simple principles of how our muscles function: 1. We have different types of muscle fibers which do different things. 2. The more force a muscle fiber generates, the less endurance it has. 3. We cannot work more forceful muscle fibers without also working less forceful fibers. 4. The more forceful a muscle fiber, the more metabolic benefit we get from exercising it.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBERS, DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FORCE AND ENDURANCE Little Force for a Long Time

Like we have different muscles to do different things, we have different muscle fibers to do different things.

Slow Twitch

This is critical to understand because just as we select specific exercises to work specific muscles, we can

Type 1 Fibers Type 2a Fibers

select specific exercises to work specific muscle fibers.

Type 2x Fibers

For example, type 1 muscle fibers allow us to do lowforce work for a long period of time. We work them

Fast Twitch

Type 2b Fibers

when we do an hour of conventional “cardio.” In Lots of Force for Little Time

contrast, our type 2b muscle fibers allow us to do a high-force work for a short period of time. We work them when we lift heavy things for a few seconds. Well, that’s not exactly true…

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

6

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

WORKING MORE FORCEFUL FIBERS WORKS ALL FIBERS AND IS UNIQUELY BENEFICIAL When we do high-force and short-duration smarter exercise we don’t exclusively work our type 2b fibers. We work all of our less forceful fibers and our type 2b fibers. We try to lift something heavy, and our muscles first try to generate enough force with our weakest type 1 fibers. Those do not generate enough force, so our muscles also activate our more forceful type 2a fibers to help. Still not enough? Keep the type 1 and type 2a fibers going and add the stronger type 2x fibers. More? Don’t stop working the other three and bring in our most powerful type 2b fibers. Thanks to this cumulative activation of all of our muscle fibers (known as orderly recruitment in physiology circles), smarter exercise actually enables us to do what conventional exercise attempts to do: exercise the most muscle possible.

Muscle Muscle Fibers

Conventional Exercise

Smarter Exercise

(Shaded Circles Represent Muscle Fibers Worked)

Even better, recent research reveals that exercising our most forceful type 2b muscle fibers is uniquely hormonally beneficial. For instance, Dr. Y. Izumiya of Boston University studied mice in a clinical setting and learned that the development of type 2b muscle fibers:

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

7

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

“…lead to a reduction in accumulated white adipose [fat] tissue and improvements in metabolic parameters independent of physical activity or changes in the level of food intake [regardless of calories in and calories out]…The results from the current study indicate that modest increases in type 2b skeletal muscle mass can have a profound systemic effect on whole-body metabolism and adipose mass [drop our set-point and lead to long-term fat loss].” Dr. Izumiya also states that these muscle fibers improved “insulin sensitivity and [caused] reductions in blood glucose, insulin, and leptin levels [healed hormones],” and that, “these effects occurred despite a reduction in physical activity.” Sign me up!

“First, high-intensity [smarter] exercise training induces secretion of lipolytic [fatburning] hormones including growth hormone and epinephrine, which may facilitate greater post-exercise energy expenditure and fat oxidation [burning]. Second, it has been reported that under equivalent levels of energy expenditure high-intensity [smarter] exercise training favors a greater negative energy balance compared to low-intensity exercise training.” – Dr. B.A. Irving, University of Virginia

When it comes to long-term fat loss and lean tissue preservation, conventional wisdom, common sense, and science all agree that the more muscle we exercise the better. The issue is how we actually do that. It’s literally impossible via low-force conventional exercise. Our muscles just don’t work that way. We need to work with more force. We need to exercise smarter. We need to…

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

8

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

EXERCISE SMARTER BY LOWERING (VS. LIFTING) WEIGHTS Every exercise has two parts: lifting the resistance (ex. standing up) and lowering the resistance (ex. sitting down). Lifting the resistance is called the concentric portion of the exercise. Concentric is when the muscle contracts. Lowering the resistance is called the eccentric portion of the exercise. Eccentric is when the muscle extends. Lifting weights—the concentric action—gets the most attention, but research shows that lowering weights—the eccentric action—can get us more results since safely and slowly lowering heavy things enables us to generate more force. Dr. M. Roig at the University of British Columbia found that “Eccentric training performed at high intensities was shown to be more effective in promoting increases in muscle.” Why? Dr. E.J. Higbie at University of Georgia tells us, “Greater maximum force can be developed during maximal eccentric muscle actions than during concentric.” And Dr. N.D. Reeves at Manchester Metropolitan University echoes with “Muscles are capable of developing much higher forces when they contract eccentrically compared with when they contract concentrically.” If you’d like to see how much stronger you are “on the way down,” hop on a seated row or chest press machine (or any exercise that moves horizontally—to eliminate the influence of gravity) and select a weight that you cannot lift with one arm but can lift easily with two arms. Lift it with two arms and cautiously relax one arm and observe as you are able to lower the resistance with one arm. You couldn’t lift the weight with one arm, but you could lower it with one arm because your muscles are literally stronger on the way down. Your muscles can generate more force eccentrically—when lowering heavy things—than they can concentrically—when lifting things.

“Over the past several decades, numerous studies have established that eccentric contractions can maximize the force exerted and the work performed by muscle…that they can attenuate the mechanical effects of impact forces [they are safer]; and that they enhance the [good] tissue damage associated with exercise.” – Dr. R.M. Enoka, Cleveland Clinic Foundation

The takeaway here is not that lifting weights is bad. It’s to note that our muscles generate more force eccentrically, so lowering heavier weights enables us to activate even more of our uniquely helpful type 2b fibers. It’s another great exercise option for us. Here’s how to give eccentric exercise a whirl.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

9

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

HOW TO EXERCISE E CCENTRICALLY -

Get warmed up by walking briskly or riding a bike for a few minutes.

-

Pick a resistance you cannot lift with one arm or leg—depending on the exercise—but can easily lift with both arms or legs. Let’s say 20 pounds.

-

Lift the resistance with both arms or legs. Each arm or leg is lifting about half the weight—10 pounds in this example.

-

Lower the resistance with only one arm or leg for ten seconds. Each arm or leg slowly lowers all the weight—20 pounds in our example.

-

Repeat until it is impossible to lower the resistance with only one arm or leg for ten seconds. If this takes more than six repetitions, gradually add resistance until it only takes six repetitions.

-

Smile because previously you would have stopped doing this exercise when you could no longer lift 10 pounds per limb, and now you are stopping when you can no longer lower 20 pounds per limb. You are generating more force, working more muscle, and will get better results in less time.

“Eccentric training resulted in greater hypertrophy [muscle development] than concentric training. We conclude that eccentric fast training is the most effective for muscle hypertrophy and strength gain.” – Dr. J.P. Farthing, University of Saskatchewan

With this technique we can lower heavy things in the comfort of our own home or at the gym. But before we go get eccentric, there are two important rules to keep in mind.

THE TWO RULES OF E CCENTRIC EXERCISE First, if we choose to exercise eccentrically on machines at our local gym, then we should only use machines that work both of our arms or both of our legs together. This is the only way to have less resistance on the way up and more on the way down. If we pick machines working our arms and legs independently, we will lift and lower the same amount of resistance. That defeats the whole purpose. Think about it this way. Say you grab a gallon of milk in each hand, lift them above your head, and then drop the one in your right hand to increase the resistance for your left hand. That does not work because lifting milk jugs works your arms independently. However, if you lifted one milk jug with each arm, but then lowered both jugs with only your left arm, you would lower more resistance with your left arm than you lifted with your left arm. Resistance training machines which work both of our arms or both of our legs together do the same thing.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

10

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

“Exercise with a maximal-eccentric component can induce increases in muscle…with shorter durations of work than other modes.” – Dr. M. Wernbom, Göteborg University

Second, exercise eccentrically only when little if any balance is needed. Just as you would not pick up a giant flat-screen TV with two hands and then let go with one, you should only exercise eccentrically when no balance is needed. Putting these two rules together, we could: -

Do a push-up with our knees on the floor (to reduce the resistance), and then lift our knees and lower ourselves (to increase the resistance). Our arms work together to lift a shared source of resistance (our body), and little if any balance is needed.

-

Stand up and then do a bodyweight squat down—while hanging on to something for balance— with one leg. Stand back up with two legs.

-

Stand on something to assist ourselves into getting to the top position of a pull-up, and then lower our full bodyweight down. Lift ourselves back up with the help of our legs.

You can imagine all sorts of ways to adapt these principles to any sort of workout. Just apply these three simple points: 1. Lift resistance with both arms/legs. Lower resistance slowly with one arm/leg. 2. Pick a shared source of resistance. 3. Exercise eccentrically only when little if any balance is required. As you start experimenting with lowering heavy things, keep in mind that…

MORE MUSCLE WORKED MEANS MORE RECOVERY TIME NEEDED If we cut grass lower, we can mow our lawn less often. That is not some too-good-to-be-true gimmick. That is common sense. The more grass we cut off, the more time is needed to grow it back. Similarly, if we’re working more muscle fibers by exercising smarter, we can exercise less often. The more muscle fibers we exercise, the more time we need to recover. How long your muscles take to recover is a great way to tell if you are exercising your type 2b muscle fibers. If you are able to exercise eccentrically on Monday and then lower the same amount of weight a day or two later, then your first workout didn’t work your type 2b fibers. If it did, those fibers will not be

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

11

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

ready to go again one, two, three, four, or even five days later. Research reveals that type 2b muscle fibers need at least six days to recover. Add more resistance, not more workouts.

“[Helpful muscular] damage produced by eccentric exercise was more persistent than previously reported, indicating that more than 10 days may be necessary for recovery of muscle ultrastructure and carbohydrate reserves.” – Dr. K.P. O’Reilly, in the Journal of Applied Physiology

This is not to say that we should sit around all day when we’re done exercising smarter. We should always stay active. The point here is that if we’re exercising eccentrically effectively, we’ll be too sore to do much more than walk around for at least a few days afterward.

SMARTER EXERCISE SUMMARY Conventional “cardio” doesn’t work well because it requires little force and therefore works relatively little muscle. Exercising smarter works because it requires a lot of force and therefore works a lot of muscle and our uniquely metabolically beneficial type 2b muscle fibers. Eccentric exercise enables us to generate even more force and is an excellent addition to any exercise routine—or—can be your entire exercise routine. Of course, do what works for you. My hope is that this research provides you with another option to assist with your long-term health and fitness goals.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

12

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

THE SMARTER EXERCISE PROGRAM Applying this science gives us a short, simple, and effective exercise program which can be summarized in seven words: Exercise Forcefully. Not Too Often. Mostly Eccentric. The program is simple because staying healthy and fit is simple once we know the science. -

Day 1: 10 minutes of eccentric training

-

Day 2 & 3: Relax and recover

-

Day 4: 10 minutes of smarter “cardio”

-

Day 5—7: Relax and recover

TEN MINUTES OF SMARTER RESISTANCE TRAINING When it comes to long-term fat loss, we must focus on making as many of our muscle fibers generate as much force as possible using whichever set of the following exercises we would like.

Home Exercises

Gym Exercises

Eccentric Squats

Eccentric Leg Presses

Eccentric Pull-Ups

Eccentric Rows

Eccentric Push-Ups

Eccentric Chest Presses

Eccentric Shoulder Press

Eccentric Shoulder Presses

We should only do these exercises once per week. If we can do them more frequently, then we are not using enough resistance. Studies show that when we use enough resistance to work all of our muscle fibers, we will require three to six days to recover. Keep in mind that while smarter workouts are brief and infrequent, they work our muscles more deeply than any other form of exercise. We are trading quantity for quality, and that is hard. At the end of each exercise you will be exhausted. Smarter exercise is not fun, but getting better results while having ten extra hours each week to spend with your family and friends is incredible. For each exercise, raise the resistance at a controlled speed with two legs or arms, and then lower the resistance with one leg or arm for ten seconds. Repeat that six times per leg or arm. If you can do it a seventh time, increase the resistance the next time you do the exercise. Each exercise takes about two and a

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

13

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

half minutes—a little over a minute per arm or leg. After each exercise, move immediately to the next one. Ten minutes later, get on with your day. If you are not sore for at least three to six days afterwards, use more resistance.

Note: “How-to” eccentric exercise videos are available for free to Smarter Science of Slim readers at: http://bit.ly/SSoSReaders

HOME EXERCISES ASSISTED ECCENTRIC SQUATS Muscle groups worked: legs and butt

-

Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart in front of something sturdy that you can hold on to with both hands. I use a railing or a doorknob. Put a chair behind you.

-

Grab the sturdy thing in front of you and lean back until your arms are fully extended. Stand with all of your weight on one of your heels. Make sure to keep your head and shoulders back while sticking your chest and butt out.

-

Keeping all of your weight on one of your heels, and keeping yourself balanced by holding onto that sturdy thing in front of you, sit down using only the one leg you put all of your weight on. Use your non-weightbearing leg to keep your balance and to ensure that you can lower yourself slowly and safely for ten seconds. If you can lower yourself for longer than ten seconds, then you are using your other leg too much. If you cannot lower yourself for ten seconds, then you are not using your other leg enough.

-

Make sure that your knees never stick out farther than your toes while you are lowering yourself.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

14

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

-

Stop lowering yourself with one leg once your butt touches the chair. Keep holding on to the sturdy thing in front of you. Stand back up using both legs. Repeat this five more times and then do the same thing with your other leg.

-

As you get stronger, remove the chair and try to squat down as far as you comfortably can without your heel lifting off the ground or your knees sticking out farther than your toes.

ASSISTED ECCENTRIC PULL-UPS Muscle groups worked: back and arms

-

Find something sturdy to hang from. It should be no lower than your chin if you are standing on the ground, and no higher than your chin if you are standing on a chair. Common options include: jungle gyms/swing-sets, construction scaffolding, tree branches, and I-beams in your basement or attic. Stand on the ground or on a chair so that your chin is slightly above the thing you are going to hang from.

-

With your arms slightly wider than shoulder-width apart, put your hands on top of the thing you are going to hang from. Grip it as tightly as you can. Stick your chest out and squeeze your shoulder blades together.

-

With a firm grip, start to bend your legs so that you begin to hang from whatever it is you are holding on to. The more you bend your legs, the more challenging it will be to hang on.

-

Bend your legs enough that you cannot hang on for longer than ten seconds. If you can hang on for longer than ten seconds, bend your legs more. If you cannot hang on for ten seconds, bend your legs less. Depending on your strength level, you may not need to use your legs at all.

-

While you are hanging on, your back and arms will get tired and you will slowly lower yourself down until your arms are fully extended. If your arms fully extend in less than ten seconds, you are using your legs too little. If your arms fully extend in more than ten seconds, you are using your legs too much.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

15

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

-

While your arms are extending and you are lowering yourself down, keep your shoulders back, chest out, look up, and keep your arms as even with your torso as possible—do not let your arms creep out in front of you.

-

After your arms have fully extended, keep hanging on, and stand-up to get your chin back above the bar. Repeat five more times without resting.

ASSISTED ECCENTRIC PUSH-UPS Muscle groups worked: chest, shoulders, and arms

-

Lie face down on a clean floor and put your arms out to your sides so that your hands are even with your upper chest and slightly wider than shoulder-width apart.

-

Keeping your knees on the floor, push yourself up through the palms of your hands until just before your elbows lock. You will now have only your knees and your hands touching the floor.

-

Lift your knees off the floor and shift your weight to your toes. You will now have only your toes and hands touching the floor.

-

With your shoulders back and chest out, slowly lower yourself until just before any other part of your body touches the ground. Hold that position for ten seconds. Make sure you keep your body in a straight line throughout the movement. Do not let your chest or hips bow down.

-

After ten seconds, put your knees back on the floor and push yourself back up like you did originally. Once you have lowered yourself six times—for ten seconds each time…without resting—you are done.

-

If you cannot lower yourself six times—for ten seconds each time—put your knees on the floor.

-

If you can lower yourself more than six times—for ten seconds each time—do not ever let your knees touch the floor. Always have just your hands and toes touching the floor. If that is still too easy, put your toes on something six to twelve inches off the ground. If that is still too easy, put your toes on something six to twelve inches off the ground and put something heavy on your back.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

16

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

ASSISTED ECCENTRIC SHOULDER PRESS Muscle groups worked: shoulders and arms -

Find something that you can safely lift above your head using both arms. You should also be able to safely hold it above your head with one arm. This means it should be small. Ideally you would use a dumbbell. Hold it in both hands and bend at the knees.

-

Lift it above your head using both hands and momentum created by straightening out your legs. You should now be standing with your shoulders back and chest out, holding something above your head with both arms extended as much as they can without locking at the elbows.

-

Very carefully release one hand but keep it close to whatever you are holding above your head to help lower it if needed. Keep the arm supporting the resistance to your side—aka do not let it creep in front of you—and slowly lower the resistance for ten seconds, always keeping your other hand close by.

-

If you can lower the resistance for more than ten seconds, you need something heavier. If you cannot lower the resistance for ten seconds, you need something lighter. Repeat this five more times—without resting—and then do the same thing with your other arm.

Note: Additional free tips on getting the most out of your smarter exercise are available in The Smarter Science of Slim Support Group

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

17

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

GYM EXERCISES Note: If you are already quite strong, I highly recommend exercising eccentrically at a gym. Otherwise it will be difficult to use enough resistance to work your type 2b muscle fibers.

ECCENTRIC LEG PRESSES Muscle groups worked: legs and butt -

Sit on the machine with your back against the pad. Make sure to keep your head and shoulders back while sticking your chest out. Think about how military personnel stand at attention. Do that with your head, shoulders, and back while sitting on the machine. This protects your back from injury. Never, ever round your back forward during any exercise.

-

Put your feet on the platform. Space your feet between hip and slightly wider than shoulder width apart— whatever is most comfortable for you. Make sure your feet are high enough on the platform that your toes stay higher than your knees when you lower the resistance.

-

When you lower and push/raise the resistance, make sure your knees stay lined-up with your feet. Do not bow your legs in or out. Make sure your knees never stick out farther than your toes.

-

Always push on the platform through your heels while keeping your abs tight and back against the pad with your shoulders back and chest out.

-

Lower the resistance for ten seconds with one leg as low as you comfortably can without your back coming off the pad or your heels lifting off the platform.

-

When you lift the resistance—with both legs—avoid locking your knees at the top of the movement. Right before you would lock your knees, start lowering the resistance with one leg again.

-

Repeat this five more times—without resting—and then do the same thing with your other leg.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

18

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

ECCENTRIC ROWS Muscle groups worked: back and arms -

Sit on the machine and put your chest against the pad if there is one. Either way, make sure to keep your back perpendicular with the floor with your head and shoulders back while sticking your chest out. Imagine trying to pinch a playing card between your shoulder blades. Do that with your back and shoulders while you lift/pull and lower the resistance.

-

Put your feet flat on the floor or flat on the machine’s platform. Keep them there.

-

When you lift/pull and lower the resistance, keep your torso still. Use only your back and arm muscles to lift the resistance. Do not move your torso to help your back and arms.

-

Lower the resistance for ten seconds with one arm until your arm extends as far as it can without causing you to round your back or to lock your elbow. Repeat “shoulders back, chest out” in your mind during this and all other exercises.

-

Just before your elbow would lock, start pulling the resistance back towards you again.

-

Repeat this five more times—without resting—and then do the same thing with your other arm.

ECCENTRIC CHEST PRESS Muscle groups worked: chest, shoulders, and arms -

Sit on the machine with your back against the pad like you did with leg press. Make sure to keep your head and shoulders back while sticking your chest out.

-

Put your feet flat on the floor or flat on the machine’s platform. Keep them there.

-

When you lower and lift/push and lower the resistance, make sure you keep your shoulders and head back, abs tight, and chest out. Do not lift your lower back off the pad.

-

When you lift/push the resistance with both arms, extend your arms as far as they will go without locking your elbows or moving your shoulders forward. Just before your elbows lock, slowly lower the resistance.

-

Lower the resistance for ten seconds with one arm until your hand is about even with your ribcage.

-

Repeat this five more times—without resting—and then do the same thing with your other arm.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

19

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

ECCENTRIC SHOULDER PRESS Muscle groups worked: shoulders and arms -

Sit on the machine with your back against the pad like you did with chest press. Make sure to keep your head and shoulders back while sticking your chest out.

-

Put your feet flat on the floor or flat on the machine’s platform. Keep them there.

-

When you lower and lift/push and lower the resistance, make sure you keep your shoulders and head back, abs tight, and chest out. Do not lift your lower back off the pad.

-

When you lift/push the resistance with both arms, extend your arms as far as they will go without locking your elbows or moving your shoulders up. Just before your elbows would lock, start slowly lowering the resistance.

-

Lower the resistance for ten seconds with one arm until your hand is about even with your shoulders.

-

Repeat this five more times—without resting—and then do the same thing with your other arm.

TEN MINUTES OF SMARTER “CARDIO” Smarter cardiovascular exercise is not focused on moving faster. You’re trying to move more resistance. To get started: 1. Hop on an upright stationary bike. 2. Pedal at a moderate pace with moderate resistance for five minutes to warm up. 3. Increase the bike’s resistance so you can pedal only by standing up on the pedals and pushing down on them as hard as you can. 4. Pedal like that for thirty seconds. If you can pedal for longer than thirty seconds, increase the resistance until you cannot. 5. Rest for two minutes. 6. Repeat the previous two steps three times.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

20

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

Then smile because: -

“Vigorous [smarter] activities are associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, whereas moderate or light [conventional] activities have no clear association with the risk of coronary heart disease.” – Dr. H.D. Sesso, Harvard University

-

“The intensity of effort was more important than the quantity of energy output in deterring hypertension and preventing premature mortality.” – Dr. R.S. Paffenbarger Jr., Stanford University

-

“There is an inverse association between relative intensity of physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease.” – Dr. I.M. Lee, Harvard University

-

“Vigorous-intensity [smarter] activities may have greater benefit for reducing cardiovascular disease and premature mortality than moderate-intensity [conventional] physical activities.” - The American Heart Association

Even day-to-day cardiovascular benefits, like not being out of breath after walking up a few flights of stairs, are achieved faster with high-quality exercise. Dr. Edward Coyle’s research at the University of Texas found: “Interval [smarter] training in untrained people can markedly increase aerobic endurance…. This serves as a dramatic reminder of the potency of exercise intensity…. Interval [smarter] training is very time efficient with much ‘bang for the buck.’” Old Dominion University researcher Dr. D.P. Swain adds: “Vigorous intensity [smarter] exercise has been shown to increase aerobic fitness more effectively than moderate intensity exercise, suggesting that the former may confer greater cardioprotective benefits.”

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

21

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

WEEKLY SMARTER EXERCISE LOG While exercising smarter record how much resistance you use and if you can add more resistance the next time you exercise. For eccentric exercise, add resistance once you can lower the resistance for ten seconds more than six times. For smarter “cardio,” add resistance once you can pedal against the resistance level for thirty seconds more than six times.

HOME OPTION

Add resistance?

Assisted Eccentric Squats

Resistance: _______

Y/N

Assisted Eccentric Pull-Ups

Resistance: _______

Y/N

Assisted Eccentric Push-Ups

Resistance: _______

Y/N

Assisted Eccentric Shoulder Press

Resistance: _______

Y/N

GYM OPTION Add resistance? Eccentric Squats

Resistance: _______

Y/N

Eccentric Pull-Ups

Resistance: _______

Y/N

Eccentric Push-Ups

Resistance: _______

Y/N

Eccentric Shoulder Press

Resistance: _______

Y/N

Add resistance? 10 Minutes of Smarter “Cardio”

Resistance: _______

Y/N

Be sure to enjoy the free The Smarter Science of Slim Podcast on iTunes at: http://bit.ly/iTunesSSoS

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

22

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

VISIT SMARTER SCIENCEOFSLIM.COM FOR MORE FREE RESOURCES

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

23

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

REFERENCES [|de Meijer J] (1998-05-01). Hormone sensitive lipase: structure, function and regulation. demeijer.com. http://demeijer.com/biology/scriptie.pdf. Retrieved 02-09-2010. A thesis written at the Biochemical Physiology Research Group, Department of Experimental Zoology, University of Utrecht, under supervision of dr. W. J. A. van Marrewijk Ades PA, Savage PD, Brochu M, Tischler MD, Lee NM, Poehlman ET. Resistance training increases total daily energy expenditure in disabled older women with coronary heart disease. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Apr;98(4):1280-5. PubMed PMID:15772059. Ballor, D.L., Becque, M.D., & Katch, V.L. (1987). Metabolic responses during hydraulic resistance training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 19, 363-367. Bj枚rntorp P. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996 Apr;20(4):291-302. Review. PubMed PMID: 8680455. Blackburn GL, Wilson GT, Kanders BS, Stein LJ, Lavin PT, Adler J, Brownell KD. Weight cycling: The experience of human dieters. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 May;49(5 Suppl):1105-9. PubMed PMID: 2718940. Calles-Escand贸n J, Arciero PJ, Gardner AW, Bauman C, Poehlman ET. Basal fat oxidation decreases with aging in women. J Appl Physiol. 1995 Jan;78(1):266-71. PubMed PMID: 7713822 Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Abeysekara S, Zello GA. Short-term Heavy Resistance Training Eliminates AgeRelated Deficits in Muscle Mass and Strength in Healthy Clarkson PM, Nosaka K, Braun B. Muscle function after exercise-induced muscle damage and rapid adaptation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992 May;24(5):512-20. Review. PubMed PMID: 1569847. Cleak MJ, Eston RG. Muscle soreness, swelling, stiffness and strength loss after intense eccentric exercise. Br J Sports Med. 1992 Dec;26(4):267-72. PubMed PMID: 1490222; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1479005. Colliander EB, Tesch PA. Effects of eccentric and concentric muscle actions in resistance training. Acta Physiol Scand. 1990 Sep;140(1):31-9. PubMed PMID:2275403. Cope TC, Sokoloff AJ. Orderly recruitment among motoneurons supplying different muscles. J Physiol Paris. 1999 Jan-Apr;93(1-2):81-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 10084711. Costanzo, Linda S.. Physiology (Saunders Text and Review Series). 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 2002. Print. SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

24

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

Dudley GA, Tesch PA, Miller BJ, Buchanan P. Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1991 Jun;62(6):543-50. PubMed PMID: 1859341. Duncan PW, Chandler JM, Cavanaugh DK, Johnson KR, Buehler AG. Mode and speed specificity of eccentric and concentric exercise training. J Orthop Sports Phys ther. 1989;11(2):70-5. PubMed PMID: 18796927. Elkasrawy MN, Hamrick MW. Myostatin (GDF-8) as a key factor linking muscle mass and bone structure. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2010 Mar;10(1):56-63. Review. PubMed PMID: 20190380. Enoka RM. Eccentric contractions require unique activation strategies by the nervous system. J Appl Physiol. 1996 Dec;81(6):2339-46. Review. PubMed PMID: 9018476 Farthing JP, Chilibeck PD. The effects of eccentric and concentric training at different velocities on muscle hypertrophy. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003 Aug;89(6):578-86. Epub 2003 May 17. PubMed PMID: 12756571. Fridén J; Sjöström M; Ekblom B. Myofibrillar damage following intense eccentric exercise in man. Int J Sports Med. 1983; 4(3):170-6 (ISSN: 0172-4622) Fry AC. The Role of Training Intensity in Resistance training Overtraining and Overreaching. In: Kreider RB. Fry AC, O’Toole ML, editors. Overtraining in sport. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1998: 107-27. Gilliat-Wimberly M, Manore MM, Woolf K, Swan PD, Carroll SS. Effects of habitual physical activity on the resting metabolic rates and body compositions of women aged 35 to 50 years. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Oct;101(10):1181-8. PubMed PMID: 11678489. Golden CL, Dudley GA. Strength after bouts of eccentric or concentric actions. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992 Aug;24(8):926-33. PubMed PMID: 1406179. Golden CL, Graves JE, Buchanan P, Dudly G. Eccentric and Concentric Strength After Repeated Bouts of Intense Exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23 (Suppl): 655A. Goto K, Ishii N, Kizuka T, Takamatsu K. The impact of metabolic stress on hormonal responses and muscular adaptations. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Jun;37(6):955-63. PubMed PMID: 15947720. Gotshalk, L.A., et.al. (1996). Pituitary-gonadal hormonal responses of multi-set vs. single -set resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 10(4):286. Harman SM, Metter EJ, Tobin JD, Pearson J, Blackman MR; Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Feb;86(2):724-31. PubMed PMID: 11158037.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

25

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

Harrison BC, Leinwand LA. Fighting fat with muscle: bulking up to slim down. Cell Metab. 2008 Feb;7(2):97-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 18249167. Hather BM, Tesch PA, Buchanan P, Dudley GA. Influence of eccentric actions on skeletal muscle adaptations to resistance training. Acta Physiol Scand. 1991 Oct;143(2):177-85. PubMed PMID: 1835816. Henneman E, Olson Cb. Relations Between Structure And Function In the Design of Skeletal Muscles. J Neurophysiol. 1965 May;28:581-98. Pubmed Pmid: 14328455. Henneman E, Somjen G, Carpenter DO. Excitability and inhibitability of motoneurons of different sizes. J Neurophysiol. 1965 May;28(3):599-620. PubMed PMID: 5835487. Henneman E, Somjen G, Carpenter Do. Functional Significance of Cell Size In Spinal Motoneurons. J Neurophysiol. 1965 May;28:560-80. Pubmed Pmid: 14328454. Higbie EJ, Cureton KJ, Warren GL 3rd, Prior BM. Effects of concentric and eccentric training on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and neural activation. J Appl Physiol. 1996 Nov;81(5):2173-81. PubMed PMID: 8941543. Hortobรกgyi T, Barrier J, Beard D, Braspennincx J, Koens P, Devita P, Dempsey L, Lambert J. Greater initial adaptations to submaximal muscle lengthening than maximal shortening. J Appl Physiol. 1996 Oct;81(4):1677-82. PubMed PMID: 8904586. Hortobรกgyi T, Dempsey L, Fraser D, Zheng D, Hamilton G, Lambert J, Dohm L. Changes in muscle strength, muscle fibre size and myofibrillar gene expression after immobilization and retraining in humans. J Physiol. 2000 Apr 1;524 Pt 1:293-304. PubMed PMID: 10747199; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2269843. Hunter GR, Wetzstein CJ, Fields DA, Brown A, Bamman MM. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults. J Appl Physiol. 2000 Sep;89(3):977-84. PubMed PMID: 10956341. Irving BA, Davis CK, Brock DW, Weltman JY, Swift D, Barrett EJ, Gaesser GA, Weltman A. Effect of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Nov;40(11):1863-72. PubMed PMID:18845966; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2730190 Ivy JL, Zderic TW, Fogt DL. Prevention and treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1999;27:1-35. Review. PubMed PMID: 10791012.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

26

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

Izumiya Y, Hopkins T, Morris C, Sato K, Zeng L, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Ouchi N, LeBrasseur NK, Walsh K. Fast/Glycolytic muscle fiber growth reduces fat mass and improves metabolic parameters in obese mice. Cell Metab. 2008 Feb;7(2):159-72. PubMed PMID: 18249175. Katz B. The relation between force and speed in muscular contraction. J Physiol. 1939 Jun 14;96(1):45-64. PubMed PMID: 16995114; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC1393840. Keogh, J. W. L., G. J. Wilson, And R. P. Weatherby. A Crosssectional Comparison of Different Resistance Training Techniques In the Bench Press. J. Strength Cond. Res. 13:247–258, 1999. Komi PV, Buskirk ER. Effect of eccentric and concentric muscle conditioning on tension and electrical activity of human muscle. Ergonomics. 1972 Jul;15(4):417-34. PubMed PMID: 4634421. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Apr;36(4):674-88. Review. PubMed PMID: 15064596. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance training and training. Sports Med. 2005;35(4):339-61. Review. PubMed PMID:15831061. Kraemer WJ. Endocrine responses to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988 Oct;20(5 Suppl):S152-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 3057315. Kraemer,W.J. & Ratamess, N.A. (2004). Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 36, 674-688. Kraemer,W.J. & Ratamess, N.A. (2005). Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance training and training. Sports Medicine 35, 339-361. Lee SJ. Regulation of muscle mass by myostatin. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2004;20:61-86. Review. PubMed PMID: 15473835. Leibel RL, Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J. Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 9;332(10):621-8. Erratum in: N Engl J Med 1995 Aug 10;333(6):399. PubMed PMID: 7632212. Little, John, and Doug Mcguff. Body by Science: A Research Based Program to Get the Results You Want in 12 Minutes a Week. 1 ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Mendell LM. The size principle: a rule describing the recruitment of motoneurons. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jun;93(6):3024-6. PubMed PMID: 15914463.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

27

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

Milner-Brown HS, Stein RB, Yemm R. The orderly recruitment of human motor units during voluntary isometric contractions. J Physiol. 1973 Apr;230(2):359-70. PubMed PMID: 4350770; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1350367. Nardone A, Romanò C, Schieppati M. Selective recruitment of high-threshold human motor units during voluntary isotonic lengthening of active muscles. J Physiol. 1989 Feb;409:451-71. PubMed PMID: 2585297; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1190454. Newham DJ, McPhail G, Mills KR, Edwards RH. Ultrastructural changes after concentric and eccentric contractions of human muscle. J Neurol Sci. 1983 Sep;61(1):109-22. PubMed PMID: 6631446. Obesity and leanness. Basic aspects. Stock, M., Rothwell, N., Author Affiliation: Dep. Physiology, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London Univ., London, UK. O'Reilly KP, Warhol MJ, Fielding RA, Frontera WR, Meredith CN, Evans WJ. Eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage impairs muscle glycogen repletion. J Appl Physiol. 1987 Jul;63(1):252-6. PubMed PMID: 3624128. Parr JJ, Yarrow JF, Garbo CM, Borsa PA. Symptomatic and functional responses to concentric-eccentric isokinetic versus eccentric-only isotonic exercise. J Athl Train. 2009 Sep-Oct;44(5):462-8. PubMed PMID: 19771283; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2742454. Piers LS, Soares MJ, McCormack LM, O'Dea K. Is there evidence for an age-related reduction in metabolic rate? J Appl Physiol. 1998 Dec;85(6):2196-204. PubMed PMID: 9843543. Poehlman ET, Mepoundy C. Resistance training and energy balance. Int J Sport Nutr. 1998 Jun;8(2):14359. Review. PubMed PMID: 9637193. Pritzlaff CJ, Wideman L, Blumer J, Jensen M, Abbott RD, Gaesser GA, Veldhuis JD, Weltman A. Catecholamine release, growth hormone secretion, and energy expenditure during exercise vs. recovery in men. J Appl Physiol. 2000 Sep;89(3):937-46. PubMed PMID: 10956336. Pritzlaff CJ, Wideman L, Weltman JY, Abbott RD, Gutgesell ME, Hartman ML, Veldhuis JD, Weltman A. Impact of acute exercise intensity on pulsatile growth hormone release in men. J Appl Physiol. 1999 Aug;87(2):498-504. PubMed PMID: 10444604 Pruves, Dale. Neuroscience, Fourth Edition. Fourth Edition ed. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2007. Print.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

28

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

Rasmussen BB, Wolfe RR. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:463-84. Review. PubMed PMID: 10448533. Reeves ND, Maganaris CN, Longo S, Narici MV. Differential adaptations to eccentric versus conventional resistance training in older humans. Exp Physiol. 2009 Jul;94(7):825-33. Epub 2009 Apr 24. PubMed PMID: 19395657. Roig M, O'Brien K, Kirk G, Murray R, McKinnon P, Shadgan B, Reid WD. The effects of eccentric versus concentric resistance training on muscle strength and mass in healthy adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2009 Saladin, Kenneth. Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. 5 ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 2009. Print. Schutz Y, Jequier E. Resting Energy Expenditure, thermic Effect of Food, and Total Energy Expenditure In: Bray GA, Couchard d, James WP, eds. Handbook of Obesity. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997: 443-456. Seger, JY, Arvidson B, and Thorstensson A. Specific effects of eccentric and concentric training on muscle strength and morphology in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 79: 49-57, 1998. Simoneau JA. Kelly D. Skeletal Muscle and Obesity In: Bray GA, Couchard d, James WP, eds. Handbook of Obesity. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997: 539-553. Snyder PJ. Decreasing testosterone with increasing age: more factors, more questions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;93(7):2477-8. PubMed PMID: 18617703. Staley, Charles. Muscle Logic : Escalating Density Training. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Books, 2005. Print. Poehlman ET, Mepoundy C. Resistance training and energy balance. Int J Sport Nutr. 1998 Jun;8(2):14359. Review. PubMed PMID: 9637193. Stárka L, Pospísilová H, Hill M. Free testosterone and free dihydrotestosterone throughout the life span of men. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009 Aug;116(1-2):118-20. Epub 2009 May 22. PubMed PMID: 19465126. Tomberlin JP, Basford JR, Schwen EE, Orte PA, Scott SC, Laughman RK, Ilstrup DM. Comparative study of isokinetic eccentric and concentric quadriceps training. J Orthop Sports Phys ther. 1991;14(1):31-6. PubMed PMID: 18796832.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

29

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

van Pelt RE, Dinneno FA, Seals DR, Jones PP. Age-related decline in RMR in physically active men: relation to exercise volume and energy intake. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Sep;281(3):E633-9. PubMed PMID: 11500320. van Pelt RE, Jones PP, Davy KP, Desouza CA, Tanaka H, Davy BM, Seals DR. Regular exercise and the agerelated decline in resting metabolic rate in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct;82(10):3208-12. PubMed PMID: 9329340. Vikne H, Refsnes PE, Ekmark M, Medbø JI, Gundersen V, Gundersen K. Muscular performance after concentric and eccentric exercise in trained men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Oct;38(10):1770-81. PubMed PMID: 17019299. Watkins, P.H (2010) Augmented Eccentric Loading: Theoretical and Practical Applications for the Strength and Conditioning Professional. Professional Strength and Conditioning, UKSCA Issue 17, pp4-12 Weigle DS, Sande KJ, Iverius PH, Monsen ER, Brunzell JD. Weight loss leads to a marked decrease in nonresting energy expenditure in ambulatory human subjects. Metabolism. 1988 Oct;37(10):930-6. PubMed PMID: 3173112. Wernbom M, Augustsson J, ThomeÊ R. The influence of frequency, intensity, volume and mode of strength training on whole muscle cross-sectional area in humans. Sports Med. 2007;37(3):225-64. Review. PubMed PMID: 17326698. Wilcox G. Insulin and insulin resistance. Clin Biochem Rev. 2005 May;26(2):19-39. PubMed PMID: 16278749; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1204764. Yeaman SJ. Hormone-sensitive lipase--new roles for an old enzyme. Biochem J. 2004 Apr 1;379(Pt 1):1122. Review. PubMed PMID: 14725507; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1224062.

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

30

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Smarter Science of Slim Quick Start Guide

SmarterScienceOfSlim.com

31

JonathanBailor.com


More For Less - A Proven Program For Exercising Less And Burning More Body Fat