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AAT REGIONAL THAILAND ACTIONS

Alliance Anti Trafic protects Southeast Asian women and children from sexual exploitation and trafficking. Alliance Anti-Trafic (AAT) is an international organization that combats sexual abuse, sexual exploitation and trafficking of Southeast Asian women and children. We carry out direct field actions covering the full implementation process for the rescue and recovery of trafficked women and girls following a regional approach. We also work on suppression of trafficking and on the demand side of the issue. Alliance Anti Trafic Regional Thailand (AAT Reg. Thai, or AAT throughout this report) is a part of wider AAT regional actions divided into two regional projects managed by two regional offices: AAT Regional Thailand and AAT Regional Vietnam. Actions are different but fully complementary to each other in order to respond to the current trafficking situation existing in Southeast Asia. Our program, Regional Thailand, orients its actions following the situation influenced by the Thai context. Our regional office is also based in Thailand. Our primarily role is to protect and repatriate Southeast Asian victims , as AAT Regional Vietnam works for the prevention of trafficking, and reintegration of Vietnamese women and minors in their communities. AAT Reg. Thai has extended its actions on prevention and reintegration in victims’ origin countries. * The word “victim” includes women and children who have been the victims of sexual exploitation or sexual abuse or human trafficking or other forms of exploitation throughout the present report.

A


AAT Reg. Thai works mainly in Thailand and Laos and has extended actions in Cambodia, Malaysia and Singapore. Locations: • One regional office in Bangkok • Three coordination centers: in Bangkok, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla • One coordination center in Champassak, Lao PDR • One learning center in Champassak, Lao PDR Our working method integrates the multi-disciplinary team approach, the referral system method and the direct participation of our beneficiaries in prevention and protection actions. Through experience learnt at the grassroots level, we participate in the development of regional mechanisms. AAT assists target women and children by covering a full process: From trafficking prevention for groups at-risk, our teams protect victims found in places of exploitation. We prepare and repatriate them back into their communities. We then reintegrate women and girls based on their choices and in a way to be economically and socially beneficial for their communities. Our teams finally empower target girls to develop alternatives and to prevent and protect other vulnerable women and children. Our actions can be summarized through the following graph:

All our actions are oriented on one hand to prevent the trafficking of women and on the other hand to detect, localize, and identify the ones who are victims in order to protect them. (as in the graph below). B


In the “prevention action,” we protect vulnerable groups from the risks of falling victim to trafficking. We also start the victims’ protection process by finding information on missing persons and potential locations of victims. Both target groups/ families and organization networks from origin countries send us case notifications. In the “watchdog action,” at risk groups, former victims and community volunteers are prepared to screen communities to notify potential cases and assist groups in difficulties. In the “immigration action,” our team interviews detainees to identify and protect the ones who were in fact victims of trafficking. We then collect information from identified victims to localize other victims remaining in trafficking places. In the “investigation action,” with the information received from the 3 previous steps, AAT localizes and surveys suspected places to find the notified victims. In the “protection action,” when victims are found, AAT organizes rescue operations jointly with local authorities. Rescued victims and the ones identified in immigration detention places are transferred to protection shelters. In the “assistance action,” the transferred victims are provided with medical care and legal assistance. AAT starts the process of empowerment building and alternative choices orientation and prepares target groups for their return home. The “repatriation action,” includes the organization of repatriation and implementation by ensuring a safe return. Target groups are sent back to their communities and integrated into the prevention action. In the “regional development action,” AAT contributes to improving mechanisms through the experiences learned during grassroots actions to facilitate further implementation. AAT also develops regional collaboration for protection and reintegration through referrals. AAT has divided its actions in the following programs: The “Prevention Program” includes prevention and watchdog actions as both are oriented on prevention and detection. They take place in communities in places of origin and at cross-border areas. They target community volunteers, at risk groups and former repatriated victims. The “Protection Program” comprises the immigration, investigation and protection actions as they concern direct protection. They are mainly implemented in receiving places with victims.

C


DESCRIPTION OF THE 2010 FINANCIAL SUPPORT During 2010 AAT (Reg. Thai) received support from the following organizations.

Among them, some contributed to the regional process as others supported specific projects included in the regional one:

Repartition of AAT funds per program D

Repartition of AAT supporters


CONTENTS AAT REGIONAL THAILAND ACTIONS

A

DESCRIPTION OF THE 2010 FINANCIAL SUPPORT

D

CONTENTS E ACRONYMS F NEW PROJECTS REALIZED IN 2010 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE REPORTING PROCESS

3

2010 DESCRIPTION OF ACTIONS

A. PREVENTION

4

1. Prevention through economic development 2. Watchdog systems (victim detection 1/3)

6 10

B. PROTECTION

17

1. Identification inside immigration places (victim detection 2/3) 2. Investigations (victim detection 3/3) 3. Protection

18 20 21

C. ASSISTANCE

24

D. REPATRIATION

26

E. DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL MECHANISMS

28

LESSONS LEARNED (situations & obstacles met)

29

RECOMMENDATIONS (plans)

31

ANNEXES 33

1. Case summary table 2. Case narration

E

34 36


ACRONYMS AAT: Alliance Anti Trafic (Regional Thailand) Baan Suksan: the National Catholic Commission for Seafarers BATWC: Bureau of Anti Trafficking in Women and Children under the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security BG: Betty Group BKK: Bangkok BTLG: Baan Tung Lover Group CC: Coordination Center Dvt: Development FELM: Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Mission FFW: Foundation For Women FOW: Friends Of Women GMS: Greater Mekong Sub region IDC: Immigration Detention Center JDC: Juvenile Delinquency Center KNH: Kinder Not Hilfe KTC: Kredtrakarn Protection and Occupational Development Center. The government center for victims of trafficking. LC: Learning Center LFTU: Lao Federation of Trade Union LPN: Labour rights Protection Network LWU: Lao Women’s Union MC: Mobile Clinic MDT: Multi-Disciplinary Team MF: Mirror Foundation MoU: Memorandum of Understanding MPPG: Mak Pi Phuan Group Phiboon: Phiboon Mangsahan Raks Thai: Care Thailand Save UK: Save The Children UK SDHS: Social Development and Human Security SGG: Safe Girl Group SKM: Stop Kinder Misbruik Songkhla, Pattani, Nongkhai shelter: Children and Family Shelter of the province: The government shelter for the protection of women and children. SPWC: Social Problem Watchdog Center T-Cas: Transnational Crime Affairs Section of the Embassy of the United States of America in Bangkok. The Grant to combat Trafficking in Persons (G-TIP) allocated by the Government of America to partners in Thailand Ubon: Ubon Ratchathani province VFI: Village Focus International, Lao PDR Victim: The word “victim” includes women and children who have been the victims of sexual exploitation or sexual abuse or human trafficking or other forms of exploitation throughout the present report WPG: Women Protection Group WVG: Watchdog Volunteers Group

F


NEW PROJECTS REALIZED IN 2010 Several new projects were operational in 2010. They were initiated either several years ago or during this year. The cross-border protection system is to protect deported Laotian women and children and to repatriate them safely at home. A Coordination Center (CC) with a Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) located in Vangtao, Laos right at the border receives Laotians deported from Thailand. The team provides them with food, health care, prevention training, and job orientation. The ones identified as vulnerable or in an emergency situation are sent back home or transferred to appropriate places with a van supported to the Lao Federation of Trade Union (LFTU) of Champassak province or the AAT car. This project wraps up the connexions with AAT actions in several immigration detention centers. Indeed, AAT can follow Laotian women and children in difficulties from the immigration centers of the Thai-Malaysian border, until their home. The project is under the LFTU and the Department of Public Health and is supported by: FELM The Mobile Clinic (MC) provides delivery health services to women and children as the most vulnerable ones have no access to health care. We provide regular visits to migrant girls working in entertainment places at the Thai-Lao border and for stateless families. Then we provide them with health examinations and care, self protection trainings and encourage them to other alternatives than prostitution. Through the cover of the MC project, we find information on the location of victims of trafficking by creating watchdog groups among girls in entertainment places. The project is supported by: KNH The women empowerment project: The project has been running for several years now and is fully operational. It consists in building target groups’ (both groups at risk and former victims) empowerment to, on one hand prepare them for adapted tailored occupation alternatives based on their choices, and on the other hand, involve them in social projects to prevent and protect themselves and others from exploitation and trafficking. The project is developed as a bilateral collaboration involving the Thai government and the Lao WomLaotian girls during a visit to a factory in en’s Union: rescued girls participate to camps for Bangkok empowerment trainings and job orientation in Thailand. By this time, the team in Laos studies existing alternatives and the needs of their communities. After repatriation, girls continue their empowerment building in Laos 1


and are provided with career trainings and employment alternatives/income generating projects based on their own choice. AAT then prepares them and supports their protection actions in their communities. The project is mainly supported by FELM and MANOS UNIDAS with the participation of SAVE THE CHILDREN UK and T-CAS. Women’s Groups (WG) are composed of AAT target groups (both former victims and at risk groups) who have followed the empowerment process. WGs prevent and protect women from exploitation and trafficking, inform AAT on disappearing persons, develop new working alternatives and participate in following up new repatriated cases. The project is supported by: FELM The Learning Center (LC) provides professional occupational trainings to women. The centre, located in Champassak province receives women (especially the ones who have no or few alternatives, or the former victims) who wish to learn a career. The center provides them with accommodation. Then throughout a professional network composed of enterprises, businesses, and occupational training organizations, the trainees complete their professional skills directly inside the enterprise that meet with their choices and the needs of the field. The project is supported by: MANOS UNIDAS

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DESCRIPTION OF THE REPORTING PROCESS The difficulty in the narration of our activities is that each case follows several actions. Therefore in order to report both the development of each action and the following process of each case, the present report was done in two ways: Actions were firstly written in the “2010 actions description” following each action in underlining the obtained results of each action. The second way found in the annex is the case narration. There, descriptions of all found cases in 2010 from notification until the last action we have completed for the case during the year. It enables to follow each case in its global nature. At the beginning of the annex a table summarizes the actions of each case found in 2010 and enables following the continuity of each case. The table is the summary of the case narration. All methods are inter-connected and it is possible to link the results found in the first method with the case table and the case narration. But cases written as results in “2010 action description” or that figure in the summary table or cases narration section are the same. One case can include one or several target groups. More details concerning the first method: Actions were written starting by the “prevention action” until the “repatriation” one, following the graph below:

It permits reading the report following the progression of each case: For example with prevention, watchdogs and immigration actions are being developed to have case notifications and detections. Then naturally with the information collected from notification we will proceed to investigations to find the cases, then to protection to rescue the cases and bring them to government centers. We will then continue by providing assistance to the cases in order to prepare them for repatriation to finally repatriate them back home. Afterwards we work with the cases to involve them in the prevention action. Therefore the cases written in the results in the prevention action can be the same as the ones written in the protection or assistance actions. To follow the exact progression of each case it is necessary to refer to the table or the case narration in the annex. It should be noted that the prevention actions and the repatriation ones are a little bit out of step compared to the other actions because of the time they take: When it is possible to follow the progress of watchdogs until assistance in one year, in many cases the repatriation of the cases protected in 2010 may happen only in 2011 or even later. In the same way the reintegration and preparation of former victims to be involved in prevention actions and case notification actions take several years before being operational.

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2010 DESCRIPTION OF ACTIONS A. PREVENTION

Alliance Anti Trafic has implemented prevention actions in three main areas. We respond to the regional routes of exploitation and trafficking tendencies affected by the situation linked to Thailand. Indeed, the economic, political, and social situations of the region make Thailand one of the main transit and receiving countries for the exploitation and trafficking of women and children from its neighbouring countries. Unscrupulous traffickers organize themselves in to very lucrative and organized networks. They persuade vulnerable Laotian women and children (the highest number of AAT target groups) among other nationalities, and traffic them through the Ubon Ratchathani or Mukdahan border to Thailand or across Thailand to Malaysia or Singapore. Then, women from the Greater Mekong Sub region (GMS) found by Malaysian authorities are arrested as illegal migrants and expulsed out of Malaysia, at the Thai border. To go back home, they have no other choice than to cross Thailand again trying to reach their home communities. Prevention actions were consequently set up following this route. They take place in Lao PDR, the Thai-Lao border as well as in southern Thailand at the Thai-Malaysian border. 4


Actions can be divided into two main complementary operations that consist of the development of the economic possibilities of target communities as well as the detection, protection and awareness raising of the local population potentially at risk. Alliance Anti Trafic develops with its target groups education and career alternatives oriented on the choice of women and the needs of communities. AAT has also set up watchdog groups of volunteers who detect missing persons, groups in difficulties and victims. Our groups also provide awareness campaigns and tools to protect oneself. Information on case notifications are reported to AAT or local authorities for further protection operations. At each step of each action AAT works with its target groups in order to develop activities to prevent women and children from risks of exploitation and trafficking and to detect eventual potential victims. Actions aim to develop community based groups to be able to take their own actions. In 2010 group establishment results can be summarised in the following map:

Target groups include former victims repatriated home, women and children at risk in a particularly disadvantaged situation such as: stateless, Laotians in Thailand, women and children without any alternatives, from very poor families or in a problematic situation, and women and children potentially at risk. The house of a stateless family at the border.

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Throughout the prevention actions, target groups are involved as main actors for the development of their communities and the protection of themselves or others.

1. Prevention through economic development Alliance Anti Trafic community based economic development is divided into three actions: First, we provide scholarship support to stateless, Laotian and Thai children in a vulnerable situation at the Thai – Lao border. Then, we provide working alternatives and income generation support to women at risk and former victims mainly in Lao PDR (but we also follow girls in Cambodia and Thailand) and to stateless families at the Thai-Lao border. Finally, AAT builds women’s groups with target groups. Women’s groups participate to assist target groups on employment access, are engaged in community based prevention and protection actions and participate in following up newly returned former victims (through the action research program).

1.1. Education support for the most vulnerable children

Many disadvantaged children live in the communities of Ubon Ratchathani province at the Thai-Lao border. They are either stateless, Laotians or without parents or siblings. They are easy prey for traffickers as they are deprived of basic rights. To prevent them from risks of trafficking, our team provides them with tools like scholarship support. The complement of income enables them to purchase food and materials that are not available through government support. So children can pursue their studies without being a burden for their family. They are prevented from trafficking as our team strengthens their knowledge on how to protect themselves, in being in class instead of the street and in developing their skills and knowledge for a better future. During 2010 AAT provided scholarship support to a total of 138 children (one child can receive support several times) from 8 schools. Children were both Thai in a crisis situation and stateless. They were from kindergarten until high school. We also assisted children and their families with legal registration documentation (see the case 33 in the case narration of the annex) and support to develop income generating projects (see A.1.2). Finally, we undertook a survey jointly with one youth group called Betty Group (see A.2) in 13 communities of Chong Mek sub district of Ubon Ratchathani province to compile information on stateless children. We surveyed 333 persons from 173 families for information regarding people without registration status 6


1.2. Women empowerment & economic alternatives development

Most of AAT target group communities lack working alternatives. Combined with the burden on women to support all of the family (as often men don’t share this burden) to find the needed income, women have no other choice than to migrate to places with more opportunities. Many of them end up as victims. When they reach home, most of them find themselves in the same situation than when they leave home. Added to the fact that they are rejected by their communities and they are in the line of sight of local traffickers, most of them will be forced to come back or will be re-trafficked to the destination country. Seeing this phenomenon in countries like Lao PDR, to reintegrate former victims, AAT has set up a project that both empowers women economically in their community and supports them to be able to protect themselves and assist others. AAT develops working alternative choices in target group communities and enables target women to study and undertake careers according to their own choice. AAT also builds the capacity of target women and helps them form groups (See A.1.3.) in order to be able to implement prevention and protection actions in their communities. Foremost, AAT studies the needs and existing possibilities in target group communities. Furthermore we create a network with local enterprises and businesses. Then we provide job orientation and study visits of possible careers to target groups. At the same time, our team establishes training sessions for empowerment building. Those activities build self esteem and self confidence to target groups and prepare them to conduct prevention and protection actions. AAT then provides occupational trainings on careers target women have chosen either directly in target women communities, or through other organizations and field visits or by using the services of the AAT/Lao Women’s Union (LWU) Learning Center. But trainings are effectuated directly in the enterprise network. Finally target women are supported to start their jobs either in existing enterprises or through income generating projects supported by AAT. Then we follow up regularly with target women. Target women include both women at risk who are in their communities as well as Organic fertilizer making training former victims. It has to be noted that for former victims, this project has been undertaken in a bilateral way. The job orientation, empowerment building and occupational trainings start in Thailand government centers before victim repatriation. This action has been summarized below into two main actions which consist of empowerment and economic development building as well as follow up of target groups. 7


Those actions concern at risk groups or former victims that have been already repatriated. The empowerment preparation in Thai government centers has been reported in section C, Assistance. In 2010 throughout the empowerment and career building program (without counting actions of preparation in Thailand) 153 distinguished target groups and families benefited from the project including 119 Laotians, 32 stateless, 1 Cambodian and 1 Shan woman from Thailand.

1.2.1. Women’s empowerment and career building

Before or after women return home, AAT and its networks visit them to evaluate the needs of families and communities as well as existing opportunities. Then we provide capacity building to target women including empowerment building, occupational career trainings and preparation for prevention and protection actions. At the same time, we build up an employment network with enterprises, businesses and occupation trainings organizations. So that former victims follow occupational trainings directly with professionals either in their communities or via the Learning Center. Then target groups and families integrate into occupations either directly within existing possibilities or through AAT support to develop income generating projects. One woman can participate in several stages. Furthermore one woman can practice several careers. Communities’ evaluation: During 2010, 115 distinguished target women and families were involved in the process. We evaluated 109 families of former victims in Laos (including Vientiane, Sawannakhet and Champassak) and 6 stateless families in Ubon province. 8


Empowerment and occupational trainings During the year 2010, 107 target groups and families participated in the trainings. They included 75 Laotians and 32 stateless people. 71 of them followed trainings via the LC project and 36 directly into their communities. Trainings took place in Laos and Thailand

The trainees during a practice session in the LC for a class on domestic work

Employment and generating income development:

Development of income generating projects

We provided income generating support to 59 target groups and their families including: 15 families of stateless children in Ubon and 44 Lao former victims’ families. Development of existing alternatives Furthermore, one other target woman who had been trained at the learning center in hotel management and services was employed in a restaurant in Pakse district, Champassak province. She works as a chef’s assistant and general helper in a barbeque pork restaurant.

One girl running her grocery store

Finally we developed an employment network to enlarge working alternative choices with existing trainings and employment opportunities with 14 agencies including training centers, businesses, and enterprises 1.2.2. Follow up Throughout 2010 we conducted follow up procedures several times for 113 persons including 96 Laotian, 15 stateless, 1 Cambodian and 1 Shan living in Thailand. Among them, five work in Thailand in a safe environment and two returned to prostitution in Thailand or are at risk to return to prostitution.

1.3. Establishment of women’s groups

Alliance Anti Trafic works to establish women’s groups with its target groups. This process is the final stage of the empowerment project. Women’s groups are set up with at risk groups and former victims in communities within origin countries as well as with migrant women in origin countries. Our team builds the capacity of women and 9


then supports women’s projects in their communities. Women’s groups in origin countries are engaged in actions of economic development and women’s protection in their communities. In addition migrant women’s groups participate to protect themselves and other migrants in volunteering to collect and send information to AAT on women and girls who need protection. Throughout this year we enabled the formation of a total of seven women’s groups. They include five groups of Laotian women (both former victims and at risk groups): Two in Champassak composed of 11 and 23 women, one in Vientiane composed of 11 women, and two groups in Thailand (see more details in A.2.2.) Furthermore, we initiated one group in Poipet, Cambodia with 12 women and one group of 12 Vietnamese women working in entertainment places in Sawannakhet, Lao PDR. This women’s group is composed of Vietnamese migrants. Three women groups became operational: Through our support they conducted their own activities. Two women’s groups from Champassak developed occupation activities. They joined together to make their own product. The Vientiane group takes actions to follow up the newly repatriated victims (through AAT action research). They visited 11 women and participate in evaluating their needs and providing advice on alternatives for development. The Vietnamese women’s group was trained to detect women in difficulties and to send us information on women who need assistance. We also developed a support group with Laotian women in Thailand. We consulted them about their plans and provided information about the women’s group concept. Throughout such activities we could gather information regarding women living in destination countries. (see more details in A.2.2.)

2. Watchdog systems (victim detection 1/3) Community watchdog actions enable to act both in detecting information on trafficked victims and in preventing and protecting locals and travellers from the risks of being trafficked. This action is responding to the situation created through seeing Thailand as a transit country. Its objective is to find and protect victims on their way, before they reach their final destinations. Therefore actions take place at the Thai – Lao as well as at the Thai – Malaysian cross borders. Operations can be separated into three groups: Firstly, watchdog group development that consists of developing community based groups with locals to undertake actions in order to detect and report human trafficking activities for further protection actions. Secondly, the delivery health services which consist of creating informers such as volunteer girls in entertainment places and encourage them to other alternatives than prostitution. The 10


last operation is prevention and awareness raising campaigns to inform locals and migrants on risks of trafficking and how to protect oneself. This last operation is mostly undertaken by or with watchdog groups.

2.1. Watchdog group development

AAT has set up two kinds of watchdog groups. The “youth groups” and the “watchdog volunteers group” (WVG). Those groups are located in strategic areas along the ThaiLao border. Our team works with them and strengthens their capacity. Now they are able to undertake their own project through AAT’s financial support. Groups’ actions enable the detection of missing persons, persons in difficulties or suspected trafficking activities for further protection actions; provide direct assistance to persons in difficulties and conduct awareness campaigns in disseminating information to protect oneself from risks of exploitation and trafficking. 2.1.1. Youth groups Youth groups are composed of vulnerable children and youth such as stateless, Laotian, or Thai in a crisis situation who have participated in leadership trainings. Youth groups undertake protection actions in their communities. In 2010, five youth groups are operational: • The Betty Group (BG) composed of 10 youths in Sirinthon district, Ubon province. • The Safe Girl Group (SGG) composed of 10 youths in Kongjiem district, Ubon province. • The Mak Pi Phuan Group (MPPG) composed of 19 youths in Wan Yai district, Mukdahan province. • The Youth Group of Sawannakhet province, Lao PDR, composed of 20 youth. • The Children’s Cultural Center Group composed of 32 youths in Champassak province, Lao PDR. Youth groups in Lao PDR were under the program of the Youth Union. Furthermore, AAT participated to train youth leaders in Pattani province, in southern Thailand. Throughout the year 2010, youth groups took action in 2 districts of Ubon, 1 district of Mukdahan, Sawannakhet, Champassak and Sarawane.

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They have implemented several regular community based prevention and protection actions including: Radio program diffusion, creating short movies, awareness raising programs through loudspeakers, theater show and games at public places or during events (such as festivals or meetings), prevention and protection workshops in communities.

They also undertook building children’s capacity in remote areas with 35 pupils, one children’s rights campaign in a school in Champassak with 316 participants, one theater campaign in Sarawane and one in Champassak, one exchange meeting and campaign in Sawannakhet, one survey on migrants with Save The Children UK in Ubon, one survey on stateless children in Ubon, one exhibition in a school, one forum with local government and NGOs, and several short movies where groups develop the script, acted, and completed filming on their own. Finally, they participated in our regular actions such as: Prevention trainings and interview of detainees in the immigration of Phiboon, field visits with community leaders, follow up of stateless families, and actions with the mobile clinic. Throughout the year AAT built their capacity through: Trainings on techniques on prevention, being a watchdog and protection, Trainings on conducting prevention campaigns in the immigration of Ubon. Trainings on techniques to make short movies (with one film director from Spain who volunteered with us) The capacity building we provided enabled one youth group to apply and get financial support from Save the Children UK to realize their own project. AAT also assisted the Social Development and Human Security office of Pattani to train 183 youths from 12 districts of Pattani to be youth leaders. Youth were capable of conducting activities to combat human trafficking in their own area. Case notification: AAT received information on 6 target groups from the actions of the youth leader groups including 2 children beggars (7 and 12 years old), and 4 stateless children in an at risk situation. (See case 36 and 27 in the case narration of the annex.)

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2.1.2. Watchdog volunteer groups The WVGs are composed of local adult volunteers including community leaders, public health officers and community members. During 2010, three are operational at the Thai – Lao border: • The Women Protection Group (WPG) of Hin Sung village in Ubon • The Baan Tung Lover Group (BTLG) of Tung village in Ubon • The Social Problem Watchdog Center (SPWC) which involve two communities of Wan Yai district in Mukdahan Case assistance and notification: Throughout 2010 WVGs detected and provided assistance to 37 persons including: 30 stateless families without documents, 3 disappeared persons, 2 women in at risk situations and 2 vulnerable children with various problems. (See the cases 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35 in the case narration of the annex.) They also participated in providing livelihood income to 15 families of stateless children. See the income generating development projects of the A.1.2. Watchdog volunteer groups undertake regular actions to prevent and protect the most vulnerable peoples of their communities. Groups report on the situation of human trafficking and case notifications for further protection interventions. The groups find neglected persons and provide them with direct assistance in case of social problems such as families without legal registration or with health problems. They also participate to identify and to evaluate families with difficulties. They inform us on their situation and we provide them support for livelihood income development. Then the groups undertake their follow up. The group of Mukdahan disseminates information on human trafficking through broadcasting radio programs. Beside their regular actions the groups have also conducted trainings and disseminated information on how to detect human trafficking, how to protect oneself in such situations, and how to detect and report doubtful situations to leaders and assist others in case of any dangers. They conducted the project with 132 participants in one temple and with 90 participants in one school. They also started the process of expanding the areas of watchdog actions in Chong Mek district.

2.2. Delivery of health services used for communities watch

In 2010 AAT has set up a health delivery project composed notably of a mobile clinic with a team of medical professionals from the hospital of Kongjiem, Ubon province. The team provided regular visits to girls in entertainment places in Ubon and Mukdahan province. Through the health checks, the team could provide various services to girls for their protection and to encourage them to other alternatives than prostitution. Visits were implemented with the mobile clinic in Ubon, and as in Mukdahan it was undertaken under the cover of aerobic lessons in a public place. The youth groups also participated to undertake this action. 342 girls could benefit from this action including 244 in Ubon and 98 in Mukdahan. Most of them are Laotian. (one girl can benefit from several services). We also established 2 women’s groups (one in Ubon and one in Mukdahan).

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Case assistance and notification: We received notification of 3 girls who have disappeared (see case 37 in the cases narration of the annex). Provided services in detail: Aside from Health examination and care, the team could develop volunteers and establish a women’s group: We organized activities to raise participation of girls in entertainment places. Girls who have knowledge about looking after one’s health and using condoms were volunteers to be resource persons and train others in this field. Girls who received mobile clinic services encouraged 10 friends from their own shop or other shops to come to receive mobile clinic services. We finally successfully created a group of 16 girls coming from several establishments of Ubon Ratchatani. The activities of the group concern alternative livelihood trainings and practices. We also encouraged girls to new working alternatives by implementing daily life management and handicrafts trainings such as stringing, bracelets, necklaces, curtains with beads and stones.

2.3. Prevention campaigns

AAT Reg. Thai undertakes prevention and protection activities in strategic areas along several country borders. Activities consist of information and awareness raising campaigns as well as trainings to create awareness among local populations, migrants and travelers on the risks of human trafficking and how to protect oneself or others. Campaigns are mainly implemented at customs, immigration check points or traveling places such as bus terminals, ports or train stations. They are also implemented in places with high passage such as markets at the Thai – Lao border. The campaigns also permit detection of vulnerable groups or victims at border crossings for further protection actions.

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2.3.1. Along the Thai-Lao border We were involved in 9 campaigns held in Ubon and Mukdahan provinces in Thailand and Champassak and Sawannakhet provinces in Lao PDR. We participated in exhibition organized by the Mukdahan Labour Protection Bureau. We organized one prevention campaign in Mukdahan and one in Ubon with the Watchdog Volunteer Groups and youth leaders groups. They took place in community markets to promote Thai-Lao trade: at Mukdahan and Ubon Ratchathani province. These places are where there are traditional border crossings with a high volume of passage among Thai and Lao people. The campaigns included theater performances of youth leaders in both places as well as a march passing entertainment places and karaoke bars in disseminating information about human trafficking. We also organized 5 campaigns in 5 districts of Champassak together with the Lao Federation of Trade Unions and the youth group from the children’s cultural center. A total of 1434 villagers participated. During the campaigns there were theater performances from the Save Girls Group of Kongjiem and the Lao youth group. The campaigns included knowledge on human trafficking, how to protect oneself and how to migrate safely. Participants also received documents with safe suggestions for going to work abroad in the Lao language. We finally undertook a campaign with 90 leaders and villagers in Savannakhet province with the Provincial Women Union. The campaign was to disseminate information on trafficking and how to protect oneself. In order to undertake those campaigns jointly with local communities we conducted capacity building activities: We firstly set up a training concerning media for campaigns against trafficking for the women group of Champassak. The training involved 15 persons. We also trained leaders from 5 villages in Champassak province in order to make anti trafficking campaigns to disseminate information regarding this scourge. Case notification: From the work of the Coordination Center of Northeast Thailand, AAT received information of 3 target groups including 2 victims and 1 stateless girl in an at risk situation (See case 26 and 28 in the cases narration of the annex).

2.3.2. At Sadao, Thai-Malaysian customs

The Sadao Thai-Malaysian customs area is a strategic place as it is the main route which links Malaysia and Singapore with the all Greater Mekong Sub-region. Furthermore, foreign women and children found by Malaysian authorities are mostly considered as illegal migrants and expulsed at this Thai border. They have no other choice than to cross Thailand to go back to their home country. 15


Operations consist on providing relevant information to travelers going to Malaysia and Singapore on human trafficking risks and how to detect them, self protection actions and information contacts of various organizations who can assist in case of needs. We provide advice to the ones found and potentially at risk with complementary information and trainings. We provide to the ones in need with services and protection. For this action, AAT set up a team composed of government agencies and NGOs.

In 2010, we undertook 25 prevention campaigns. They were implemented at the Sadao Thai-Malaysian customs, at the train and terminal bus stations of Had Yai. We provided prevention information to at least 4700 persons who live in the area or travel to Malaysia. We distributed a total of 3400 tissue boxes, 2900 key rings, 2870 hand held fans, 3720 documents and 1900 post cards. We have also coordinated with the immigration of Pedang Besar and the newly opened immigration called Prakorb to participate in the campaigns. Case assistance and notification: From the campaign actions we could detect 11 target women and children (See Case 21, Case 22, Case 23 and 24 in the case narration of the annex). From the work of the Coordination Center of South Thailand, AAT received information of 29 target groups, all victims (See cases 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 25 in the case narration of the annex).

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B. PROTECTION Victim protection consists on finding women and children who are in the most vulnerable conditions or in places of exploitation and to transfer them to a place were they

are safe from risks of exploitation. The action is composed of two main steps, victim detection and protection operations. Victim detection can be done using different methods: AAT conducts actions inside immigration detention places to identify among detainees the ones who in fact were victims of trafficking. Those victims then help our team in providing crucial information of the place they were trafficked to as well as on the other remaining victims. Secondly, after receiving information from victim detainees or case notification either from the prevention or watchdog actions or from other ways (information from organizations, direct call), our teams localize the places. We then conduct investigation interventions to verify that victims are still in the said place. We then coordinate with authorities, generally the Anti Human Trafficking Division, the Immigration police or the Department of Special Investigations to undertake jointly the rescue operation. For the victims found in detention places, AAT coordinates with the immigration 17


police to transfer the victims to appropriate shelters. Rescued cases will be identified as victims through MDT actions and transferred also to government shelters to follow legal procedures and repatriation preparation. The watchdog systems (in the A.2) as well as identification inside immigration centers and investigation’s main role being victim detection, they were entitled as such in the present report. After fact finding comes the protection itself and referral to government shelters. Finally, AAT can protect its target groups through other means such as referring them to other organizations, of providing them with tools such as legal documents.

1. Identification inside immigration places (victim detection 2/3) AAT conducts regular visits to several detention centers at borders areas in addition to the main center in Bangkok. We interview women and children detainees to identify the ones who were arrested as illegal migrants but are in fact victims of trafficking. When victims are met, our team protects them by transferring them to appropriate centers. In certain cases, due to emergency, our team can also refer victims to our protection system in Champassak. We also provide regular trainings to detainees. Aside from victims’ identification, the trainings provide target groups with necessary information for self protection and to provide assistance to the potential victims. Finally AAT provides various services to detainees in need. Protected victims will then be interviewed to provide information on locations and potential remaining victims. Our teams have operated inside 4 different places including the immigration of Bangkok, Sadao, Ranong, and Phiboon Mangsahan.

Target groups identification: Throughout our actions in the immigration detention centers we could identify 81 target women and children victims or at risk. We also identified 25 male victims of trafficking for labour exploitation. (See all cases in the immigration part of the annex). 18


Among them, 33 were identified in the immigration of Bangkok, 24 (as well as 25 men not counted) were identified in the immigration of Sadao, and 24 in the immigration of Phiboon. They include: 64 Laotians and 17 Cambodians. Among them, 61 were victims of labour exploitation or trafficked for labour exploitation, 8 were at risk of being victims of trafficking and 12 were victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation or sexual abuse. Victim protection: We protected 62 women and children victims of trafficking. The men were referred to other organizations. Implemented actions for victim identification: To find these victims we undertook the following actions: We interviewed 1085 women and children detainees including 597 Laotians, 406 Cambodians, 33 Vietnamese and 49 Burmese. We also interviewed 59 men including 36 Cambodians and 23 Burmese. We conducted trainings to 1428 women and children detainees including 740 Laotians, 205 Cambodians, 4 Vietnamese, 470 Burmese and 9 with unknown nationality. We also conducted trainings to 1501 men including 1074 Laotians, 115 Cambodians, 310 Burmese and 2 with unknown nationality. Services provided to target groups: We also provided services to more than 2281 detainees. Services consisted of: Providing food for 1206 persons, clothes to 170 persons, necessary daily items to 2259 persons, suitcases to 13 persons, health assistance to 170 persons, and documentations to 3 persons. One person can receive more than one service.

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2. Investigations (victim detection 3/3) Investigations of AAT can take two forms: Our team visits entertainment places in areas where we have information of possible potential victims. These operations are to confirm the localization of the notified victims, and to study the area and environment to prepare rescue operations. Another form of surveys can also be implemented in order to study a particular situation of an area. We have undertaken investigations of 16 trafficking places/establishment in 10 areas in eight districts. The two first areas were to study the current situation and changes from the past. We have then investigated eight areas (one area can be in the same district) to fact find victims when we receive notification. We could find a total of 64 target groups and confirm the information for 7 cases. We have investigated: Sadao district, the Narathiwat area, one orchard in Nongkhai (see case 1 in the cases narration of the annex.), one factory in Kanchanaburi (see case 2), one industrial site in Ayutthaya (see cases 66, 67, and 68), one depot in Songkhla province, (see case 28), one karaoke shop and one hotel in Lopburi (see cases 48 and 49), one karaoke shop and one hotel in Songkhla (see case 17), one massage parlour in Bangkok (see case 14) and one hotel in Sadao (see case 89)

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3. Protection

AAT women and children protection work puts women and children found in hazardous conditions in a safe situation that protect them from risks of exploitation and trafficking. Hazardous conditions can include at risk groups or victims in exploitation places, in entertainment places, in detention, or deprived of basic rights (such as legal documentation). AAT will take actions to transfer them to protection shelters, refer them to appropriate government or non government agencies, take them home, ensure safe reception while deported at the border or provide them with registration documents.

During 2010, 114 target women and children could be protected under the actions of AAT including 76 Laotians, 3 Cambodians, 18 Burmese, 1 Chinese, 4 Thai, 11 stateless and 1 with unknown nationality.

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Protection interventions employed From the identification work in immigration detention centers we could protect 62 victims (61 Laotians, and 1 Cambodian). (See cases 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44. 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62 63 64 66 67 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76 and 77 of the case narration in the annex.) Throughout our 7 rescue operations or protection from hazardous places we could protect 24 victims including 14 Laotians, 6 Burmese and 4 Thai. (See cases 1, 14, 17, 24, 28, 49, and 89). From other ways we could protect 28 victims including 1 Laotian, 2 Cambodians, 1 Chinese boy, 1 girl with unknown nationality, 11 stateless persons, and 12 Burmese. • As the continuity of our identification work in immigration centers we could find the sister of one detainee in the JDC of Ubon. (See case 58) • From our campaigns at the Thai-Malaysian customs we could protect 1 Cambodian girl. (See case 23) • From information of our volunteer watchdogs we could pick up and protect 1 girl of unknown nationality and proceed to the legal registration of 11 stateless persons. (See case 34) • From a referral from network NGOs (general watchdogs) we could protect one Cambodian and one Burmese girl. (Case 19 and 20) • As a result of the collaboration built in south Thailand and the MDT we have set up we could protect 12 cases: • 11 Burmese persons informed by the police (See case 18) • 1 Chinese boy referred by the immigration police of Sadao. (See case 15) Protection places • 37 victims were protected through transfer to Kredtrakarn center including: 32 Laotians, 1 Cambodian and 4 Shan (Burmese). • 11 (boy) victims were protected when transferred to the Songkhla center for men: (1 Chinese and 10 Burmese boys). • 18 victims were protected through transfer to the Songkhla children and family shelter including: 9 Laotians, 3 Burmese, 1 Cambodian, 4 Thai, 1 Shan (Burmese) • 1 Cambodian woman was protected by being transferred to the Pattani shelter for children and family • 1 Laotian boy was protected by being transferred to the Nongkhai shelter for children and family • 1 girl (nationality unknown) was protected in being transferred to the shelter for children and family of Ubon • 29 Laotians were protected through the AAT Vangtao protection system 22


• 5 Laotians were assisted to be sent back home • 11 stateless children and families were protected by being legally registered Cases not protected • We couldn’t find the 3 Lao children in the factory in Kanchanaburi. See case 2. • We excepted to rescue at least 30 girls in the raid of Lopburi. 18 girls couldn’t be protected and are so far unfound. The main reason was information leaked during the operation because of connections between some local authorities and the network of traffickers (See case 49). • Two Thai girls were not rescued during the raid in Songkhla, because local authorities considered them as non victims (See case 17). • We failed in rescuing 12 girls in Sadao who we learned about through information by 2 Thai girls who escaped their trafficking situation. The main reason is that local authorities didn’t want to collaborate and be implicated in the rescue of the said entertainment place because the owner was a person with a lot of influence in the region (See case 25). • Only 4 of the 23 girls of Snow White massage parlour were protected because the others were not identified as victims of trafficking by authorities and were left to the police under illegal migrant charges. However, the remaining girls phoned to us later on with a request for protection. They were in fact re-sent to prostitution in another district and were really victims of trafficking. While we were preparing to rescue them again, they disappeared and we couldn’t locate with them anymore (See case 14). • Under the 30 stateless children and families that have been notified, 11 received legal documents with the other 19 in the process of receiving them. Cases found in immigration detention centers who could not be protected: • Two Laotian girls found in the immigration of Bangkok. The immigration deported them while we were not present and we couldn’t coordinate with our cross border protection system (See case 61). • One Laotian woman found in the immigration of Phiboon as well as 15 Cambodian women (and 21 men) and 1 Cambodian boy found in the immigration of Sadao. They were adults and didn’t want any assistance (See cases 65, 78 and 80).

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C. ASSISTANCE When cases are transferred to government protection shelters, AAT continues to work with them until their repatriation to their origin country. Most of the time, our team works directly inside government shelters as according to the policy of the Thai government, foreign victims must stay inside government centers. However, it happens that AAT needs to provide assistance to individual cases directly at their living or working places. Our team visits cases regularly in any government center and provides them with full assistance. Aside from rehabilitation and medical care, we provide them with legal assistance and prepare them for repatriation. It is also the time that we start the empowerment program. As the Thai government sees the importance of this program we were granted a special authorization to bring trainees outside shelters to organize those activities in an appropriate environment.

Our team provided direct assistance to 73 victims who are our cases. We provided legal assistance to 14 cases involving 63 victims. We also conducted empowerment building to 116 women (both AAT cases and the Thai government ones). We finally provided various services as age verification, health care, food, clothes and suitcases. General assistance to victims while waiting for repatriation: AAT regularly visits its cases in government centers. Our team works with them to enable them to adapt themselves during their journey. We also prepare them for legal procedures and their return to their home communities. We finally provide them with various trainings to be able to protect themselves from further risk of exploitation and trafficking. 24


During 2010 we worked with 73 victims (39 Laotians, 19 Burmese, 4 Vietnamese, 9 Thai and 2 Cambodians) in 4 government shelters including: Kredtrakarn Protection and Occupational Development Center: • 4 Vietnamese girls rescued from Betong, Yala province (Case from 2009), • 7 Thai girls repatriated from Malaysia (Case from 2009), • 5 Laotians found in 2009 • 17 Laotians found in the immigration of BKK (See cases 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 50, and 52) • 1 Cambodian found in the immigration of BKK (See case 51) • 14 Laotians (Case of Lopburi see cases narration, cases 48 and 49)), • 4 Burmese girls (Shan) (Case Snow White, see case 14), Srisurat Protection and Occupational Development Center: • 9 Burmese (Shan) girls found at the Thai-Malaysian border (Case from 2009), Songkhla children and family shelter: • 3 Burmese (Shan) (Case from 2009), • 1 Cambodian (Case 23), • 2 Burmese (Case 17), • 1 Burmese (Case 20), • 2 Thai (Case 24) and • 1 Laotian (Case 89). Pattani children and family shelter: • 1 Cambodian girl (case 19). Legal assistance During 2010, we worked on 14 cases involving a total of 63 victims. Through legal procedures one owner was sentenced, 9 suspects are in the judicial process. Empowerment building: AAT starts to develop empowerment with its target groups while they are in Thailand waiting for repatriation. We implement trainings in centers or set camps outside centers. Trainings include women and migrants rights, self esteem and self confidence building, techniques on life skills, accounting, future planning, and techniques to conduct prevention and protection actions. We also conduct field visits to occupational training centers or enterprises to develop choices of target groups. Empowerment building is then continued in the origin country after repatriation (See A.1.2). Throughout 2010, we organized empowerment building for a total of 116 persons. • We organized 2 camps with a total of 53 Laotian victims from KTC. They were at sea in Rayong. The main objectives were to build up self esteem, self confidence and leadership. The contents included, 25


trainings concerning rights, dealing with unwanted pregnancy, health and hygiene, HIV AIDS, vocational trainings, budget management and economy • Furthermore, we organized a journey for job orientation and occupational trainings with 15 Laotian from Kredtrakan center in Buriram province. • We also did job orientation and repatriation preparation to 4 Laotians girls before their return in KTC. • We organized empowerment trainings several times in Srisurat center with 44 women including 3 Laotians, 2 Burmese, 1 Cambodian and 38 Thai. Remark: The Thai government requested us to organize some of our programs such as empowerment building, preparation for repatriation or rehabilitation for their own cases aside from the cases of AAT. Remark: Empowerment programs contributed to developing the Thai government’s vocational training programs as after our sessions they added new trainings in the shelter such as agriculture and processing herbs. Other services: 322 persons were provided with the following services: We provided health care to 41 victims. We also provided age examinations for the 14 Laotian girls rescued from a Lopburi karaoke. We provided clothes to 322 persons and suitcases to 40. (We provided those stuffs due to flooding in KTC). We also provided technical support to the Thai government in a form of: (Cambodian, Burmese and Vietnamese) translators to interview victims, social workers to help interview and the identification process.

D. REPATRIATION AAT supports target groups throughout the repatriation process. The purpose is to repatriate women and children in the safest, most convenient and in an adaptable way. In 2010 we had 3 types of repatriation: • The “government to government” official repatriation of victims of trafficking: AAT complements the process by preparing victims, tracing and evaluating their family, organizing their reception in the country of origin and providing various services such as legal documents, pocket money, photos or even bags or clothes. • The repatriation of emergency cases through the AAT Vangtao protection system: When vulnerable cases are detected in immigration detention centers, AAT refers them to our team of the Vangtao coordination center who picks them up and transfers them 26


home or to appropriate places. • Safe return of deported Laotian illegal migrants through the AAT Vangtao protection system: Deported Laotians from Thailand are received at the Vangtao coordination center. The team sends them back home or to appropriate places for cases in needs. Throughout the actions of AAT Reg. Thai 114 target groups members could be repatriated back home safely along with 33 other men in difficulties. Repatriation through the Government to Government process: • 20 AAT cases could be repatriated from KTC including 16 Laotians and 4 Vietnamese. • 17 Thai victims could be repatriated from Malaysia under the collaboration of AAT, the BATWC and the Malaysian authorities. Repatriation of emergency cases through the protection system 29 Laotian women and children were received and sent home or to appropriate centers. Cases were previously identified either by the team in BKK and referred to the team in Phiboon, or directly identified in Phiboon. The LWU of Champassak and VFI participated in operations by picking up target groups at the border and driving them either back home or to their shelters. Actions of protection and repatriation of deported Laotians with the protection system AAT has established a system to protect deported Laotian women and children from an acute risk of being trafficked when they reach the border. Indeed, all Laotians arrested in Thailand are deported at the Thai-Lao border of Vangtao. There, an organized network profits from this situation of vulnerable people. They have opened a van transportation service and persuade deported people to drive them back home. In fact it is just a way to put them into debt to further exploit them or to directly traffic them back to Thailand. The protection system under the LFTU and the Health Department was created, just right after the border, before the network. It permits to send deported Laotians back home or to appropriate places safely. The system is constituted of a coordination center made with containers and a tent, and 2 vehicles (one van supported to the LFTU and an AAT vehicle). A MDT was established involving medical doctors, AAT social workers and members of the LFTU. Deported people are dropped at the center by the Lao immigration and receive full care including, food, health care and job orientation. Then the identified vulnerable cases can be taken home or choose to go to the Learning Center of LWU/AAT or other centers from networking agencies.

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In 2010, we could provide services to the 1,215 persons (547 women and 668 men) who were received in the coordination center. They received food and soft drinks. From this number, 698 persons (378 women and 320 men) could access knowledge concerning human trafficking, health and labor laws. Furthermore they could get health check ups. Some of them could get medicine and were diagnosed with sexual transmitted diseases. We interviewed 384 persons (287 women and 97 men) to identify the ones who are victims of trafficking. We provide safe return to 81 cases (48 women, children and 33 men) who were found to be at risk of falling victim of re-trafficking or exploitation.

E. DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL MECHANISMS Strengthening protection mechanisms actions: AAT has been working to promote and encourage multi-disciplinary work throughout its actions in the region: • We established a MDT in Sadao and Ranong immigration detention rooms for victim identification and detainee care • We have also started a MDT for prevention campaign at the Thai – Malaysian border • We set up MDTs in Lao communities to provide income generating alternatives to our target groups • We have placed a MDT at the coordination center in Vangtao, Champassak. The MDT works as a referral system for deported Laotians. • We have begun a MDT and a referral system for the management of the learning center. • We were also invited by the Commission of Human Rights of Malaysia to undertake community based trainings in Kelantan, regarding community watchdogs and referral system • We convene the MDT in each action with our cases such as, victim identification and legal assistance AAT has conducted a training to build up the multi-disciplinary team concept and to strengthen the capacity of practitioners on techniques of the referral system, victim identification and protection. Training was held in Had Yai with 70 participants from government and non government organizations. The MDT we have created inside the immigration room of Sadao was approved by the provincial committee of prevention and suppression of human trafficking. It became an official model. Based on this model the government of Thailand has adopted a new policy that consists on placing a social worker from the Bureau of Anti Trafficking in Women and Children inside each immigration room country wide, to identify victims of trafficking among detainees. We have created a network called the ASEAN Anti-Human Trafficking Actions network (under the action of Friends of Women). Its purpose is to advocate to Thai government agencies and to encourage a more adaptable response to combat human trafficking. It examines the situation and reports to the Prime Minister. We participated in the Thai National Action plan meeting, to draft the future national action plan of the Thai government towards human trafficking.

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Development of regional collaboration: As a sub committee member, we participated in meetings with the Thai government in order to develop collaboration with Malaysia concerning human trafficking actions. Our team participated in work with the government to draft a Memorandum of Understanding between the two countries. We also participated in a meeting between Vietnam and Thailand to develop further actions after the signature of the MoU between the two countries. We participated in two meetings on bilateral collaboration between Laos and Thailand regarding protection assistance and repatriation and reintegration matters.

LESSONS LEARNED

(situation & obstacles met)

Human trafficking is handled by organized regional networks. Through various cases that we found in 2010 it is obvious that human trafficking is undertaken by an organized network involving several countries: In most of the cases child labor and trafficking for labor exploitation found in the immigration detention centers, recruiters, brokers, local traffickers are usually Laotian locals who find victims and hand them over to their Thai networks as a system. The victims are afraid to return home because they will have to face the trafficker in their village. For case 85, the Laotian girls had been already rescued by AAT in 2007. They told us that they met with the same traffickers near their house who re-trafficked them back. They told us that some Lao government officials were involved as well. The case of Lopburi shows obviously that girls were trafficked by a very organized bilateral network involving many traffickers in both Laos and Thailand. Finally case 89 highlighted the involvement of traffickers and offenders from three countries: Laos, Thailand and Malaysia and the implication of government officers from both Thailand and Laos. The decrease of victim protection inside immigration centers Identification of victims of trafficking inside immigration rooms and victim protection is no longer efficient because of a lack of collaboration from immigration officers: Immigration officers try to take a more important role and push for reduced actions from NGOs. They undertake victim identification and investigations by themselves without calling the MDT and without coordinating with a more adapted agency such as the AHTD. They discourage victims to go to protection centers. When they rescue victims, they identify them by themselves (without MDT) which leads to victim deportation instead of protection (because they are not recognized as victims). The MDT set in the immigration of Sadao is efficient only when NGOs are present otherwise the identification process lacks quality and efficiency. We can attribute the reasons of those working difficulties with immigrations to several factors: • The pressure of the American government concerning the high number of victims found in Thai immigrations: The immigration is now trying to show that 29


there are less victims who were not properly identified. • The Anti Trafficking Act of Thailand that gives the power to immigration to undertake investigations of cases of human trafficking by themselves. • The fact that some immigration officers benefit from human trafficking rings. Victim identification can’t be undertaken with government officers only and especially when it’s the police: The actions in this report show that the victim identification process can’t be undertaken by police officers only. It needs the intervention of a MDT involving NGOs and organizations (government and/or NGOs) from the country of origin of the potential victims. This is due to several reasons: victims feel more comfortable to discuss their situation with NGOs. The NGO is often the one who was initially informed and so are the most aware of the case’s situation and the potential traffickers. NGOs will provide the most appropriate persons for interviews such as female social workers and psychologists. In general the presence of people from the origin country of the victims can be mostly beneficial for the morale and participation of the victim (depending on the case), language facilitation and to wrap up the investigation process by providing information concerning the recruitment and transportation of the departure of the victims. Furthermore it is easy to understand the difficulties of collaboration for foreign women victims of trafficking if they have to answer questions to local police who are men. This is especially the case because of some local police benefit from the trafficking ring and the victims probably meet some of them at their trafficking places. Repatriated Laotian victims don’t reach the reintegration system We learned throughout our actions with our cases that most of the Laotian victims who are repatriated through the government to government process will not receive any follow up when back home. All victims are sent to the transit center of Vientiane for seven days. Then, they are sent home. However most of our cases shared with us that while they were at home they haven’t received any visit or any call either from government or NGO agencies aside from us. Many of the ones we repatriated in 2009 came back to Thailand after a period from 12 days and more and had not received any visit while they were at home. Although the Laotian government has developed measures to combat human trafficking in developing a national committee including a number of government organizations, mass organizations and International NGOs that have a role towards human trafficking actions, the system is under the responsibility and the management of the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare only. Annual national plans of actions, more flexibility of actions and action implementation through a real referral system would enable the reach of a larger number of target groups in providing more qualitative and efficient services. Furthermore the support of local field and policy NGOs and their direct involvement in the referral system would be mostly beneficial. The experience of Laotian mass organizations at local or provincial levels would be mostly beneficial for women and children protection actions: Throughout our actions we learned that the Women’s Union, Public Health and Federation of Trade Union at village, district or provincial levels are professionals. They have a deep understanding of the situation of their area. They also have high experience and skills on management and action implementation towards women and child protection. Finally, they are strongly committed people dedicated to take social actions in 30


their communities. Delegation of work to provincial levels, and more flexibility for them to be able to take actions and manage them directly following an annual national action plan would be fully adapted to respond to the situation of the protection of women and children in the field especially concerning human trafficking. Case notifications unable to find victims of trafficking AAT has developed a system throughout years of work to get information on missing persons and victims of trafficking places. However the information provided to find a case may lack important elements to locate victims. AAT received many case notifications during the year 2010. However they could conduct to few protection operations. AAT plans to further develop those actions (see the recommendations). Thai women who returned from Singapore refuse to engage any sharing discussion of their journeys: We have contacted several Thai organizations who work with Thai women who returned back from Singapore in order to discuss their situation with them. All the women we have approached strongly refused any discussion concerning the subject of Singapore. Such systematical unwillingness encourages our determination to explore this subject more.

RECOMMENDATIONS

(plans)

Develop a regional collaboration on protection and suppression matters Human trafficking is undertaken by a regional network. Therefore suppression needs to be undertaken following the whole network until the areas of origin. Collaboration between law enforcement officers at sites of origin, transit and receiving countries are necessary for quick actions. Raids in the receiving countries should be undertaken jointly by a MDT involving law enforcement officers, social welfare and NGOs from both the origin and receiving country. With the rescue operation undertaken, its information should be used to drive and undertake actions to arrest offenders in the origin country. Develop the victim identification system by integrating appropriate organizations into the multi-disciplinary team The victims’ identification should not remain on law enforcement officers only. The intervention of a MDT composed of social workers, lawyers, psychologists, and locally engaged populations as well as NGOs from both the origin and receiving country is necessary. Only such MDT intervention can produce the most adequate conditions for victim identification. For any decision whether women and children and especially when they are foreigners, are victims of exploitation or trafficking or themselves offenders, a decision coming from the police only should be prohibited. Similarly, although the policy has changed and BATWC plans to set a social worker in each immigration detention room, the intervention of NGOs is still necessary to assist and complement the work of the government. 31


Participate in the development of an efficient referral system in Lao PDR at the regional, national and provincial level AAT plans to work jointly with the Government of Lao PDR as well as international NGOs and the business sector to develop a referral system at national but also at regional and provincial levels. The referral system will follow the existing mechanisms of Lao PDR and its national committee. The Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare will be the coordinating body. However all organizations having a role in the protection of women and children or to combat human trafficking will be proposed to share their plans to complement actions with each others. All organizations will be invited to work jointly for the best interest of target groups. Furthermore, the business sector will be integrated in the system to develop occupational trainings and working alternatives in the country. Similarly, MDTs will be set at provincial level and involved in the national plan. They will undertake specific actions according to the situation of their area. The regional referral system plan is to develop collaboration between the destination country and Laos for repatriation, preparation for reintegration, preparation for safe migration and joint protection/suppression. Strengthen actions of the local populations and community based organizations to find easily missing persons and victims of trafficking. AAT jointly with the Provincial Lao Women’s Union and Federation of Trade Union are looking to develop community based actions to work with future migrants to prepare their migration. The main purpose of the project consists in setting the local WU and LFTU as focal organization in their community to prepare the potential migrants. Considering the fact that they are the ones who reintegrate former victims and develop alternatives (with our project) it encourages to develop trust from the local population. Local partners will go to communities and share with the population the basic information that they should know and communicate before traveling and the steps they should undertake for their own safety while they are in the destination country. Which kind of information they should communicate to make their search easily in case they face any problems. Local partners will be responsible for follow up and to find the necessary information to trace them if needed.

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ANNEXES 1. Case summary table

Explanations of the use of the table

Net: Watch: Case: CC.S: CC.N: WVG: MC: Border: BKK: PM: SADAO: JDC:

Network Watchdogs From case From the results of the Coordination Center of Southern Thailand From the results of the Coordination Center of Northeast Thailand Watchdogs Volunteers Groups Mobil Clinic From the border campaigns Immigration of Bangkok Immigration of Phiboon Mangsahan Immigration of Sadao Juvenile Delinquency Center Government protection shelters Communities of origin From other organizations (aside from direct network) From individuals Cases referred to other organizations.

• Case X was discovered in the immigration of Bangkok. The case was then protected through transfer to a government shelter. The case was then provided with an assistance program. • Case X provided information on the case Y. We investigated the place. We then proceeded to a rescue operation. We then transferred the case to a government protection shelter. We provided assistance to the case. We have then repatriated the case to its community of origin. • Our closed network informed us of the case Z. We are working to find enough information to find this case.

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Table of cases of year 2010

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Here are the year 2010 results of the incoming cases following the different steps they pass through. (These are not the complete results of all actions during 2010): We received information of 254 target groups (57 from prevention, 89 from watchdogs, 81 from identification in immigrations, 27 from other ways). Furthermore, we found information on 28 more target groups from actions through the results of our work in the immigrations. 35


114 target women and children could be protected and 34 of them were sent home. Prevention: We received information on 57 target groups. We could protect 5 of them. Watchdogs: We received information on 89 target groups including 6 from youth groups, 37 from Watchdogs Volunteers Groups, 3 from the Mobile Clinic, 3 from the Coord Center of Northeast, 11 from the campaigns, and 29 from the Coord Center of Southern Thailand. We could protect 33 of them. Immigration: We could identify 81 target groups and protect 62 of them. Investigations: We conducted 8 investigations and confirmed 7 cases under 8. We found 64 target groups. From other ways: We received information of 27 target groups including 3 from network watchdogs, 11 from other networking organizations and 13 from individuals. We could protect 1 woman. Protection: We protected a total of 114 victims. From the 7 rescue operations conducted we could protect 24 of them. Assistance: Under the 114 protected target groups, we transferred 69 of them inside government shelters, 11 were provided with legal registration and 34 were sent home. Repatriation: 34 target groups were sent home including 29 through the crossborder protection system and 5 by accompanying them to the bus station and supporting them the all transportation.

2. Case narration 2.1 Prevention Case 1: Village Focus International (VFI) contacted us for the protection of 6 Laotian children forced to work in an orchard in Nongkhai. After having investigated the place we could find only one of them. The 5 others were deported at the border before our intervention. We organized the rescue and could protect the remaining child. He was transferred to the government shelter of Nongkhai. Case 2: The Lao Women’s Union (LWU) of Savannakhet informed us of 3 girls (ages 13, 16, and 18) who disappeared from their communities. One has been missing for 4 years already. They were sent to a factory in Kanchanaburi. We sent our investigation team and could find the factory. We conducted an investigation inside but couldn’t find the 3 girls. Case 3: The LWU of Champassak informed us of 1 girl who has been missing for more than 3 years. She was arrested by the police in Nakorn Ratchasima. But since then, there is no more information. We are in the process of gathering information from her friends. Case 4: VFI requested that we provide assistance to 6 Laotian persons who survived an accident in Saraburi province. One had a child with her. We contacted the police station in charge of the matter. The police told us that the 6 survivors are involved in legal procedures and the police will keep us informed when it will be finished. Case 5: We were informed by the Lao Women’s Union of Champassak province concerning 2 Laotian women. The Lao Women’s Union went to follow up 2 of our victims 36


in Sarawane province. There, she was requested by the villagers to provide assistance to 2 cases who left for Thailand. They were brought by a Laotian agent to the border. There, they were sent to work in a bean field in Saraburi. Some of them managed to escape and provided information that their employer had them eat only once a day. They had to work everyday and were beaten regularly. This case is currently under the protection process while we currently gather further information. Case 6: We received notification from the Lao Women’s Union of Champassak concerning 8 girls who had disappeared from their communities. They were deceived to work as laborers in Thailand but have never contacted their families. They are of ages 17, two aged 13, 16 and 11. We don’t know the age of 3 of them. From our investigations we could find 2 of the girls who are currently in the Kredtrakarn center. As for the others, we request further information from the Women’s Union to find them. We are currently working to find these girls. Case 7: We received information from VFI concerning 2 Laotian children who were working in a sewing factory in Ayutthaya. They have worked for 2 months there without any payment. They receive only 2 meals per day and are regularly scolded and beaten. We are currently in the process of protecting those cases. Case 8: The Lao Federation of Trade Union of Champassak notified us regarding a Laotian woman victim of domestic violence. The woman is married with a Thai man and lives in Chiang Rai. She is often beaten and wants to leave her husband and come back to Laos. The case is under progress. Case 9: AAT was notified by an official of the Anti-Human Trafficking Department, Ministry of Public Security, Lao PDR, who requested us to assist a woman forced to sell sexual services in Chachoengsao Province. She had called home to ask for help, so her family had contacted the Ministry of Public Security to request assistance. However, detailed information is still lacking. At present, they are in the process of finding additional information. This case is under progress. Case 10: AAT was informed by the Lao Women’s Union of Champassak concerning one case of a 20 year old woman who disappeared 7 years ago. The person went to work in Chonburi in a paper factory. We are in the process of gathering more information to find the case. Case 11: AAT was informed by the No Mai foundation in Laos concerning 1 person (age 20) living in Vientiane who went to Pattaya and has been missing for 4 years. We are in the process of gathering more information to find the case. Case 12: AAT was informed by the No Mai foundation in Laos of one person (age 17) living in Sawannakhet who came to work in Thailand and has disappeared. We are in the process of gathering more information to find the case. Case 13: We received information from our Lao Volunteer Network to search for an older sister and an older brother (not recorded). The older brother disappeared 5 years ago as for the older sister, the person travelled to Pattaya to work in a bar since May 2010. She has never called her family and the informer is afraid that her sister is in danger. We have asked for more information from the informer concerning the case. We are currently under protection for this case.

37


Case 14: A former case called the Coordination Center of the South regarding one Shan victim trafficked for sexual exploitation in an establishment in Bangkok. The girl hadn’t received any salary for more than one year although she had already paid back her debt. We also learned that many other girls were lured and kept in the same situation. The girl wants to leave the place but an agent would call to threaten people close to her. We could get the information of the apartment where the girls stay and sent our investigation team who found 21 Shan girls and 2 Thai. (see the above information). We coordinated with local authorities and so could rescue 4 Burmese girls. Later, the Kredtrakarn center coordinated with AAT to interview them at the center. Among the 4 Burmese girls, three are aged of 17 and one is aged of 16. All of them were brought by an agent until the Tachilek border. They were sent to Bangkok by bus and brought to a room in Bangkok. All of them had to provide sexual services in a Massage Club in Bangkok named Snow White. All of them were sold for their virginity in the Massage club. They currently receive assistance in the Kredtrakarn centre.

2.2 Watchdogs 2.2.1. From the Coordination Center of Southern Thailand (CC.S) Case 15: One Chinese boy was found by the immigration. He was working in a restaurant in Had Yai without documents. We identified him as at risk of being trafficked and transferred him to the shelter in Songkhla. Case 16: The immigration of Songkhla contacted us concerning a Chinese woman as a potential beggar in Chacheangsao. We provided necessary information to the immigration for her protection and found a translator. Case 17: An outsider contacted the coordination center of the South saying that two Burmese girls were forced involved in prostitution in a karaoke and hotel in Songkhla province. We sent our investigation team and found the two Burmese with two Thai girls. We coordinated with the police of region 9 who rescued only the two Burmese girls. We interviewed the girls and identified them as victims of trafficking. They were transferred to the shelter of Songkhla for further assistance. We provided them with regular visits, trainings and legal assistance. Case 18: AAT was called by the multi-disciplinary team of the bureau of Social Development and Human Security of Songkhla to interview 11 Burmese (10 boys and 1 woman) at the Sadao police station. AAT went to the police station and participated in the interviews there. They traveled in a six-wheeled truck transporting vegetables. When they arrived in Sadao, they were detained by an agent in a house in Sadao for three days without any food. After that, an outsider notified the Songkhla Provincial Office of Social Development and Human Security, which went to provide them assistance. All 11 people were being sent to be sold in Malaysia. The 10 boy victims were sent to receive protection at the Songkhla center for males, and the female victim was sent to the Songkhla shelter. Case 19: MF referred a case of a Cambodian girl who was trafficked for sexual exploitation in Malaysia. She managed to escape and came to Thailand. We protected her by transferring her to the shelter in Pattani. Case 20: Ban Suksan informed us of a Shan girl who was raped during her working time in south Thailand. We protected her and sent her to the Songkhla shelter. We 38


brought her to the hospital. We then, undertook legal procedures. Her family went to pick her up. We have then referred the case to Friends of Women to rehabilitate and follow her up. Case 21: We interviewed one Thai woman (age 25) at the Thai-Malaysian customs. The woman was at risk of being trafficked. However she was willing to continue her trip. Therefore, we provided her with trainings and all necessary information in case she needs help. Case 22: During our prevention campaigns at the Thai-Malaysian customs we found seven Thai women travelling to Malaysia potentially at risk. After informing them of the situation they might be confronted, they decided to continue their travel. We therefore, provided them with trainings and all necessary information in case they need help. Case 23: We protected a Cambodian girl who was initially trafficked to Malaysia during our prevention campaigns at the Thai-Malaysia customs. The girl was trafficked to Malaysia through a Cambodian recruitment agency. She was regularly beaten. So she escaped from her employed and tried to reach Thailand. The immigration found her and referred her to us. We sent her to the Songkhla shelter for protection. Case 24: Two Thai girls (ages 15 and 20) phoned us and requested assistance to be protected. They had our phone number from the media we distributed during our campaigns at the customs. They were in an entertainment place in Sadao and had to do a dance show and sexual services. They escaped and contacted us because they were afraid and they didn’t know what to do. We set an appointment at their hotel. We interviewed them and picked them up. Then we brought them to the Songkhla shelter for protection and to undertake legal procedures. Case 25: The 2 Thai girls rescued from dance show in Sadao informed us of 12 remaining girls of unknown nationalities still in the establishment. We coordinated with relevant authorities for their rescue but the operation is difficult because of influent people involved. AAT along with concerned agencies are examining the best way to undertake the operation. This case is currently in process of protection.

2.2.2. From the coordination Center of Northeast Thailand (CC.N)

Case 26: 1 stateless child (whom receives scholarship from AAT) was found at risk of being a victim of sexual abuse. AAT is currently working on this case. Case 27: From the work with youth leaders and scholarship support we found 4 stateless children at risk of being victims of trafficking. AAT is currently working on these cases. Among them, 2 children work in entertainment places as a cashier and washing dishes. Furthermore among them, one child lives near the border with family problems. Her family has moved. One child was abandoned by her family and lives only with her grand mother. The last girl’s mother has a new husband who is chauvinist. Case 28: A journalist contacted the Coordination Center of Northeast Thailand regarding a Thai mother forced to sell drugs in Songkhla province while the gang was keeping her 6 year old boy as hostage. We referred the case to our team in Songkhla who worked with the provincial Social Development and Human Security (SDHS) and could protect both the mother and boy. We transferred them to the shelter of Songkhla. 39


Case 29: The watchdog volunteer group of Mukdahan informed us of 3 stateless children and family members without documents. We are jointly undertaking the process to register them. Case 30: The watchdog volunteer group of Mukdahan informed us of 3 girls (ages 13, 13, and 25) who have disappeared from their communities. We are in the process of searching for them. Case 31: The watchdog volunteers group of Ubon informed us of 1 Thai girl potentially at risk of sexual abuse. We referred the case to her teacher who will have a look after her. Case 32: The watchdog volunteers group of Ubon is working on a case of 1 minor who refuses to go to school. Case 33: The watchdog volunteers groups of Ubon found 27 children and family members without documents. We are jointly undertaking the process of their registration. So far 11 persons already get registered. Case 34: The WPG of Ubon Ratchathani has notified us on a case of one mute girl considered to be at high risk of falling victim to trafficking. The 18 year old girl of unknown nationality was hired to help selling things at the market near the border. Our team visited her and transferred her to the government shelter of Ubon Ratchathani. She is now under the care of the government. Case 35: The WPG informed us of a stateless girl who became very sick. We brought her to local hospital for urgent treatment. We then transferred her to the hospital of Khon Kean. Case 36: We were informed by the youth leader group of Ubon of 2 Laotian children (ages 7 and 12) who are beggars. So far, we haven’t been able to find them. Case 37: From our mobile clinic actions, we were informed of 3 Laotian cases (ages 13, 13 and 25) of disappearance. We are in the process of finding them.

2.3 Immigration 2.3.1. From the immigration of Bangkok Case 38: We identified 1 Laotian girl (age 21) trafficked for labour exploitation. She worked in an orange orchard before escaping to work in a house as a domestic worker. She didn’t get payment and was closed inside the home. The owner has then called the police and she was arrested as an illegal migrant. We provided her with necessary services and transferred her to the Kredtrakarn Protection and Occupational Development Center (KTC). We provided regular visits for her. Case 39: We identified 2 Laotian girls (age 14) who were lured by a Laotian agent and in labour exploitation. They worked as domestic workers 19 hours per day and were physically abused. The escaped and were arrested by the police. We transferred them to the KTC. We provided regular visits for them. Case 40: We identified 2 Laotian girls (ages 14 and 15) who had to work as domestic 40


workers and to prepare snacks. They were regularly beaten and had to eat spoiled food. The escaped and were arrested by the police. We transferred them to KTC. We provided regular visits to them. Case 41: We found 1 Laotian girl (age 13) sent to Thailand and forced to work as a domestic worker. She was physically abused and with an iron used on her hands. She was then sold to a noodle seller. She escaped and was arrested. We transferred her to KTC. We provided regular visits for her. Case 42: A Cambodian mother detained in the immigration of Bangkok informed us of her missing son. She was arrested without her 6 year old son. We explained her how to search for him by herself. We also engaged in a search procedures. This case is under process of protection. Case 43: We found 2 Laotian girls (ages 12 and 13) who were lured by a Laotian agent for domestic work and sent to Thailand. They were locked in a room and forced to do domestic work. They were heavily beaten and scolded. They had only 1 meal per day and didn’t receive any payment. They managed to escape and were then arrested by the police and sent to immigration. We transferred them to Kredtrakarn center. We provided regular visits to them. Case 44: We identified 3 Laotian girls (ages 15, 17, and17) who were lured by a Laotian friend to work in an orange orchard in Thailand. They were sent to a garment factory in Pathumthani province. They were controlled by their supervisor and not allowed to leave the factory area. They were threatened with a gun by the owner. They escaped and asked assistance from a person. They were brought to the police and were arrested and sent to the immigration detention center. AAT transferred them to Kredtrakarn center. We provided regular visits to them. Case 45: We identified 1 Laotian (age 13) at risk of sexual exploitation. She contacted a Laotian broker to work in Thailand. She was sold to her employer for domestic work. The employer tried to sexually harass her and have sex with her. As she refused each time, the employer contacted a taxi driver to return her to the broker. The man tried to rape her but she screamed for help and was sent to the police. AAT transferred her to Kredtrakarn center. We provided regular visits to her. Case 46: 1 Laotian (age 19) identified as trafficked for labor exploitation. She was brought by a broker to Thailand by crossing the mountains. She worked as a domestic worker for 2 years without payment. She was closed up inside the house and never allowed outside. She was beaten and had to eat rotten food. She escaped with her 2 friends and was arrested by the police. AAT transferred her to Kredtrakarn center. We provided regular visits to her. Case 47: We found two Laotians (age 15) who watched people from their village leave for work in Thailand and earn a lot of money. So they escaped from their home to come to work in Thailand. They crossed the Mekong by boat with the help of a Laotian broker and were left to a Thai broker. They were sent for domestic work and found Case 43. They escaped together. AAT transferred them to Kredtrakarn center. We provided regular visits to them. Case 48: We identified 2 Laotian girls (ages 16 and 14) in the IDC of Bangkok. They were trafficked for sexual exploitation. They were lured by a Laotian agent to work in 41


Thailand. They were sent to a karaoke in Lopburi. One of the girls was raped by the owner. They were then forced to prostitution and to receive at least 5 costumers per day. They were regularly beaten by the owner. One girl became addicted to drugs. They escaped and were arrested as illegal migrants. We transferred them to Kredtrakarn center for further protection on July 2010. We provided regular visits as well as health examinations and legal assistance. Case 49: Case 48 informed us of other victims still in the karaoke in Lopburi. We organized investigations and through fact finding found that at least 25 girls were still forced into prostitution in the karaoke or in the hotel nearby. We then organized a rescue operation and could protect only 12 of the girls. They were sent to Kredtrakarn center. We provided them regular visits as well as health examinations and legal assistance. Case 50: We found 1 Laotian victim of labor trafficking in the immigration detention center of Bangkok. Her older sister worked tapping rubber and contacted an agent to pick up her younger sister (the victim) and brother to come to work together. However the agent didn’t do as agreed and brought the victim and her brother to Nakorn Pathom to work in a shop called KT Plastic. She worked for 4 months without receiving any payment. Furthermore she was kept inside the shop. So she escaped and was then arrested by the police and sent to the immigration detention center. We transferred her to Kredtrakarn center. We provided regular visits to her. Case 51: We identified 1 Cambodian girl who escaped from home because she was regularly beaten by the daughter of her uncle. She was exploited in construction work and was arrested by the police. The girl requested assistance from AAT as she doesn’t want to go back home and wants to continue her studies until graduation. AAT has transferred her to the Kredtrakarn center to await coordination with an appropriate agency in Cambodia. Case 52: We identified 1 Laotian girl (age 14) at risk of trafficking for sexual exploitation. She came to the border market of Mukdahan with 4 of her friends. The victim went to look for her older sister and asked a man if he knew her. The man said yes and sent her by bus to Bangkok. There, another man came to pick her up by car. She was staying in the back with clothes covering her during travel. Then the man stopped and gave a phone call. During that time, the girl asked a taxi driver where she was. The taxi driver told her, this is a brothel, didn’t you know? The victim then asked the taxi to help her to be taken to the police. She was then arrested and sent to the immigration of Bangkok. We transferred her to Kredtrakarn center. Case 53: Case 52 asked us to look for her older sister who had been raped. We found out that the victim was in the government shelter in Nonthaburi. She had already made a complaint to the police and started legal procedures. We coordinated the information to the sister and explained the legal procedure process. Case 54: We identified 2 Laotian girls (ages 14) who were victims of labour exploitation. They were lured by a Lao agent and sent to a restaurant in Chonburi for domestic work. They worked all day with only 4 hours to rest. They escaped and were arrested by the police. The immigration hadn’t recorded them for protection and they were deported to Laos. So we coordinated with our team in the immigration of Ubon. Our team could coordinate to protect them at the border through our protection system in Vangtao. So they were safely repatriated. 42


Case 55: Case 54 informed us of 10 other girls detained in a restaurant in Chonburi for forced labour. We referred the case to Foundation for Women (FFW) an NGO network member for further protection. Case 56: 1 Laotian girl (age 15) was trafficked for labour exploitation. She was sent to a Chinese noodle factory. She was locked up and forced to work for one year without any payment. She was often beaten. She escaped and was arrested. The immigration didn’t consider her a victim so she was deported. We coordinated with our team in Ubon and organized her safe repatriation through our protection system. Case 57: We found 1 Laotian woman (age 25) at risk of becoming a victim of trafficking for sexual exploitation. She was sent to BKK and stripped naked for a virginity check. She was sent with another girl for domestic work in Klong Toey. Her friend had to have sex with the employer. The case escaped and was arrested. We transferred her to our team at the immigration of PM and then repatriated her through the protection system. Under the action of the case, the immigration rescued the other girl who was sent in the Juvenile Delinquency Center (JDC). Case 58: From the information of Case 57 we could find her sister (age 16), a Laotian girl at risk of sexual exploitation. During an interview Case 57 informed us that her sister was sent to the JDC. Our team traced her and found her in the JDC of Ubon. The sister had to work alone with the employer and was sexually harassed. She was asked to have sex with the employer but she refused. Her sister helped her to escape but she was instead arrested and sent to the JDC. AAT found her and arranged her safe repatriation by using the cross border protection system. She was referred to VFI. Case 59: We found 3 Laotian children. They were at risk of being trafficked and unable to go back home by themselves. We coordinated with our team in the immigration of Phiboon Mangsahan and repatriate them safely through our cross-border system. We referred them to VFI. Case 60: We identified 1 Laotian victim of trafficking for labor exploitation in the immigration of Bangkok. The girl along with 2 other friends persuaded each other to travel to Thailand without telling their parents. An agent encouraged them to come to work. The victim was sent to do house work as well as cooking and caring for 30 people living in the house. She worked from 6 AM until 11 PM. She then escaped and was brought to the police. We repatriated her safely through our protection system at the border. VFI came to pick her up. Case 61: We identified 2 Laotian as victims of labor exploitation in the immigration of Bangkok. They are siblings. They were sent to a place for domestic work. However they couldn’t bear the work. They escaped from the house and were arrested by the police. They were not able to go back home by themselves because they live in Sawannakhet and they will be deported to Champassak. Unfortunately the immigration detention center of Bangkok deported them while we were not there so that we couldn’t coordinate with VFI. Case 62: We identified 2 Laotian girls (ages 22 and 19) who traveled to come to work in a noodle shop in Nonthaburi. They were raped and went to report the incident and press charges against the perpetrator. When they arrived at the police station, they were arrested as illegal migrants and were sent to the immigration detention center. When they met AAT, they requested assistance to travel back to their country. We then organized their safe return through our cross border system. We coordinated 43


with VFI who went to pick up the two victims. 2.3.2. From the immigration of Phiboon Mangsahan Case 63: We found 2 Laotian victims of trafficking for labor exploitation. A Lao agent lured them and sent them to Thailand. They were then sent to a plastic bottle factory in Nakorn Ratchasima. They worked for 3 months without payment and escaped. They were then arrested. We organized their safe repatriation through the protection system. Case 64: We found 2 Laotian victims (ages 16 and 23) of trafficking for labor exploitation. They were lured by a Lao agent from their village. In Thailand, they were sent to Chonburi for domestic work. They escaped and were arrested by the police. We organized their safe repatriation through the protection system. Case 65: We found 1 Laotian (age 25) at risk of sexual exploitation in the immigration of PM. She was lured by a trafficker and sent to a karaoke in Chachoensao province. Later, a Thai man paid her off and they lived as a married couple. Once her husband beat her severely. So she escaped and brought herself to be arrested by the police for deportation. We provided the woman with counseling, daily services and a travel bag. But she didn’t want to complain against her husband and had money to go home. She just wanted to go home. Case 66: We found 4 Laotian children trafficked for labor exploitation in the immigration of Phiboon. Two girls the ages of 15 and 17 and 1 couple (1 pregnant girl of 16 years old and her husband). They were trafficked to a steamed rice store in Ayutthaya province. They faced physical abuse. We provided them with assistance in the immigration center and sent them to Laos safely by using our cross border protection system. The 2 girls were sent to the Women Union of Champassak and the couple was sent to the center of VFI. Case 67: On the information of Case 66, we found 4 more Laotian boys trafficked for labor in the same factory in Ayutthaya in the immigration of PM. We provided them assistance at the immigration center and assisted them for repatriation by referring them to the Women Union of Champassak and repatriating them safely though our protection system. Case 68: From the information we get from Case 66 found in the immigration of PM, we investigated the industrial site of Ayutthaya and found 8 Laotian child workers. We are in the process of collecting necessary information for further actions. Case 69: We found 1 Laotian girl (age 19) from Sarawane at risk of trafficking for sexual exploitation. She was lured to work as a domestic worker with a good salary. She was in fact sent to Suphanburi province to be waitress. After 6 days she escaped and was arrested by the police and sent to the immigration of Phiboon Mangsahan. AAT provided her with basic services and transferred her safely to VFI by using the protection system. Case 70: 1 Laotian girl (age 14) from Sarawane who was victim of trafficking for labor exploitation was found in the immigration of Phiboon Mangsahan. She was promised work in a restaurant with a high salary. She was in fact sent for domestic work. There, she met with case 71 and a Burmese girl. They manage to escape and were sent to the 44


police with the help of motor taxis. They were finally arrested and sent to the immigration of Phiboon Mangahan. AAT provided her with basic services and transferred her safely to VFI by using the protection system. Case 71: We found a 1 Laotian girl victim of trafficking for labor. She was convinced to come to work during the Thai New Year festival. She was sent to the same house as the above case. They escaped together. AAT provided her with basic services and transferred her safely to VFI by using the protection system. Case 72: We identified 1 Laotian girl (age 18) from Champassak trafficked for labor exploitation. She was lured to work in sewing with a high salary. She was in fact sent to a pineapple field in Prachuap Kirikarn. She finally escaped and was arrested. AAT provided her with basic services and transferred her safely to VFI by using the protection system. Case 73: We identified 1 Laotian victim (age 18) of trafficking for labor exploitation. She was lured by a Laotian trafficker to go to work in Thailand with a good salary. She was driven to Kampheng Phet province. She worked for more than one month as a domestic worker without any payment. She was beaten by the owner with a stick or by his hands. Some days she was given nothing to eat. She was not allowed to go outside. She escaped and went to the police. She was arrested and sent to the immigration of Bangkok. She was then transferred to the immigration of Phiboon Mangsahan for deportation. AAT found her and provided her with basic services and presented livelihood alternatives. We then coordinated with our team at Champassak for safe repatriation. Case 74: We found 1 Laotian victim (age 19) of trafficking for labor exploitation. She decided to come to Thailand by herself. She contacted a Laotian agent who arranged her travel to Thailand and to find her an employer. She worked as a domestic worker for 7 months without any payment. She escaped and went to the police. Our team found her and provided her with basic services and presented livelihood alternatives. We then coordinated with our team at Champassak for safe repatriation. She could return safely home. Case 75: We identified 4 Lao girls coming from Sarawane (ages 14, 13, 25, and 15). They crossed the border at Kongjiem district. There, they were sent by a Lao agent to work in a row house doing sewing in Bang Kae. They spent 1 year without receiving any payment. They escaped together and were arrested by the police. We brought them to the bus terminal station of Vangtao and supported them the transportation fee until their home. Case 76: We identified 1 Lao boy (age 13) coming from Champassak. One of his friends persuaded him to come to work in Thailand. He was smuggled through the border with several persons inside a truck. He was sent to an orange orchard. He worked 1 month and didn’t receive any payment. He escaped from the plantation and was arrested. We brought him until the bus terminal station of Vangtao and supported the transportation fee to his home. 2.3.3. From the immigration of Sadao Case 77: We identified 8 Laotian girls, victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation. They were trafficked to a karaoke in Narathiwat province. They were transferred to the Songkhla shelter for protection. We provided them with regular visits and assistance. 45


Case 78: We found 15 Cambodian victims of labor exploitation (as well as 21 men who were together). They worked in a factory in Sadao district for 2 months without receiving any payment. Furthermore, employers took their passports. AAT coordinated with the provincial department of labor and protection welfare to engage in a procedure for demanding wages to the employers. However victims expressed that they want to go back home and didn’t want to receive any services. So they were sent to the immigration of Bangkok for further deportation. Case 79: We identified 2 Cambodian and 2 Burmese men victims of trafficking for labor exploitation on a fishing boat (not counted). We referred them to the government center of Songkhla for men. Case 80: We found one Cambodian man (age 19) persuaded by an agent to come to Thailand to work without mentioning where. The boy traveled with 7 other Cambodians. When he arrived in Samut Sakorn, the agent put drugs in his food which made him sleep. When he woke up, he was already in a fishing boat. He was forced to work in the fishing boat during 3 years without receiving any wage. When he arrived to the shore, he went to the police of Had Yai to be arrested in order to be sent back home. The victim didn’t want to be protected and to undertake any legal procedures. We provided him with necessary consumer goods and prevention and protection trainings.

2.4 Network (general watchdogs) Case 81: We were contacted by MF for advice concerning the rescue and reintegration possibilities of 1 Laotian girl forced to work in a restaurant. We provided MF with the necessary information. Case 82: We were contacted by Raks Thai regarding a Burmese woman who was raped by her broker. The woman asked information concerning HIV AIDS check up. She refused to engage in legal procedures, therefore we provided the said information. Case 83: We were informed by our NGO network member Labour rights Protection Network (LPN) regarding 1 Laotian victim of trafficking for labour exploitation. LPN requested advice concerning agencies in Laos. We provided the necessary information.

2.5 Other organizations Case 84: The immigration of Chacheansao informed us of a Cambodian girl (age 6) who was working in the fishing industry. She was then sent to the immigration of Bangkok. However she was deported before our intervention. Case 85: KTC referred us 9 Laotian girls to prepare them for repatriation. The girls were rescued from a karaoke in Phetchaburi where they were trafficked for sexual exploitation. Case 86: We were informed by a Burmese agency network of 7 Burmese women forced to work on a rubber plantation in Nakhorn Sri Thammarat. They were also raped by their employer. We are in the process of finding the women. Case 87: We were contacted by the Bureau of Anti Trafficking in Women and Children (BATWC) regarding 1 Burmese woman in Malaysia. The woman needed proof that the she resides in Thailand for her repatriation. However we found out that the woman 46


received authorization from the UNHCR to stay in Malaysia. Case 88: The consular authority of Thailand contacted us to help protect a Thai woman who was traveling to Malaysia. This case was previously raped by a policeman in Singapore. AAT coordinated with the case who request AAT’s protection. She had escaped from her house in Thailand because she had been threatened. She told us she will call us back as soon as she is back to Thailand. This case is under process. Case 89: GAATW informed AAT that a Malaysian costumer requested assistance for a Laotian woman victim of trafficking for sexual exploitation in a karaoke bar in Sadao at the Malaysian border. She had been detained and was in debt and forced into prostitution. She stayed 4 months without any payment. She was often beaten. We have identified the place. We went together with the immigration investigator and rescued the victim from a hotel located near the karaoke bar. We identified her as a victim of trafficking with our multi-disciplinary team and sent her to Songkhla shelter for protection. We visited her regularly.

2.6 From individuals Case 90: We were informed by email by an American woman of a Cambodian boy forced to sell flower necklaces in Koh Samui. AAT coordinated with the bureau of Social Development and Human Security of Surat Thani province who will send a team for fact finding. The bureau will notify us on the progress when assistance has been provided to the child. The case is under progress. Case 91: 1 Laotian trafficked for labor exploitation phoned to us to inform that 10 other Laotian victims remain in a preserved pork store in Mukdahan. They work very hard without the possibility to leave the place. We referred the case to Mirror Foundation (MF) an NGO network member for further protection. Case 92: A Thai woman called us to have the rights to raise her child in undergoing separation from her husband. We provided her with legal information and referred the case to Friends of Women (FOW). Case 93: We were contacted by the friend of one Thai woman for legal advice concerning divorce. We provided her with advice and referred her to Friends of Women.

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AAT REGIONAL THAILAND ACTIONS