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MARIELA NEVAREZ HERNANDEZ 1-MB

AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY CHIHUAHUA Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science

Subject: Technology and Information Management. [MU101] Teacher: Jesus Saenz Olivas. Semester: 1 Group: MB Information Technology Topic: Chemistry and Life

Student: Mariela Nevarez Hernandez Serial Number: 275705

Date: Thursday, October 4 of 2012


MARIELA NEVAREZ HERNANDEZ 1-MB


MARIELA NEVAREZ HERNANDEZ 1-MB

Why is chemistry important? Chemistry has a great influence on human life since ancient times. The very word "chemistry" tells of ancient origin, it comes as a "khumos" (juice), referring to the production of metals from their ores, there is also a belief that comes from "khemeia" that was the name given to the black soils of Egypt and also the black of the pupil of the eye-symbol of darkness and hidden-so "chemistry" originally meant "Egyptian secret science." In ancient times was used to isolate useful natural products in daily life and find new applications such as pigments, elixirs, ointments, preservatives, perfumes or household utensils. Then in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when the chemical reached the rank of a true science and understood what was really the atom and developed the concept of the molecule, the chemical is no longer an empirical science. Quantitative methods were introduced in the reactions and discovered laws regulating the direction and speed of the same. With this new knowledge is developed techniques to synthesize new substances that were better than natural, or they could completely replace them with great savings. Thus began a synthesized natural products efficiently and economically obtained and new materials, increasingly complex, it became possible old man's dreams. It created new plastics and fabrics, and drugs for all kinds of diseases. In parallel, due to scientific developments in other sciences such as physics, biology or geology, you got other great scientific and technological advances, but it soon became apparent that each science, in its way, was based on the study of matter and its changes. The chemistry was the basis of all of them and appeared well made bridge disciplines of chemistry, leveraging its advances, such as biochemistry, geochemistry and physical chemistry. Chemistry is all around us Our bodily processes are mostly chemicals. As we breathe, we digestion, grow, age and even think, we are traveling chemical reactors. Chemical processes in factories are different in scale, but conceptually, since processed therein are separated and recombined materials into new and useful ways.


MARIELA NEVAREZ HERNANDEZ 1-MB

Chemistry operates on a human scale The chemistry between all the sciences, which can be applied with greater poise to solve problems on a human scale, such as food, clothing, or health and hygiene. You need to address the physical if you want split atoms, astronomy if you want to discover black holes. but if the child needs new shoes, then chemistry is what you need (whether leather, rubber or plastic to manufacture chemical process dependent).

Chemistry and Health Medicines, vaccines and medical devices. Chemistry key contributors to improving nutrition and hygiene, together with other sciences and technologies, and is the leading player by pharmaceuticals, in fighting disease and improving quality of life through very old ages. Klaus Heilman, director of the Institute of Munich Health, established the correlation between the discovery and widespread use of drugs, and improving the quality of life and its extension, calculating that 15 years of our lives (20%), is we owe to medicines. This revolution in improving human health have contributed, among others, two groups of drugs: antibiotics, which have revolutionized the care of infections caused by microorganisms, and vaccines, which have been first line of defense against epidemics, contagious diseases and pathologies predictable. The French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur proved the germ theory of diseasecausing (pathogenic), providing scientific basis experiences of English physician Edward Jenner, inventor of the first vaccine. The German chemist Gerhard Domagk won the Nobel Prize in 1939 for his discovery of the first active chemotherapeutic molecule against germs: the sulfonamide. This


MARIELA NEVAREZ HERNANDEZ 1-MB

product and its successors, saved countless lives in the decades that followed. Later, the British Alexander Fleming, also a Nobel Prize in 1945, discovered the antiinfective action of the secretion of a fungus, which was called Penicillin, giving rise to antibiotics.

Medicines and vaccines have virtually eliminated diseases such large polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. Meanwhile, antiseptics and antibiotics help - among other thing s - to save the lives of mothers in childbirth, having descended mortality in industrialized countries, 300 mothers per 100,000 live births, less than 20 today . Also cholera has been eradicated in much of the world by water treatment, which Pasteur said: "We drink 80% of the diseases." Currently, the chemical industry produces chlorine that purifies 98% of the water consumed by humans. But modern chemistry not only helps to save millions of lives due to drugs, but also with other products that break the transmission chain of terrible diseases such as insecticides, disinfectants and other protectors of various kinds. For example, the fight against malaria and the mosquito that transmits it is absolutely essential when you consider that over 100 million people (the population of Spain and France combined), are infected annually.

Almost always, the diseases are accompanied by very different kinds of suffering, pain and disability. The drugs relieve pain and improve quality of life, only in Europe, in: • 30 million people with arthritis or rheumatism • 5 million heart patients • 0.5 million suffering from Parkinson's disease • 20 to 30 million with nervous disorders • Countless sufferers of diabetes, epilepsy and asthma In addition, new chemical molecules make possible the transplant of organs and pharmacy are introduced in the gene therapy field.


MARIELA NEVAREZ HERNANDEZ 1-MB

Man repaired No products made by chemical companies, hundreds of thousands of Europeans would now disabled. Replacement parts for the joints and members are made of ultra light new materials with special properties such as biocompatibility. Heart valves, pacemakers, artificial kidneys and sewing thread of the operating rooms are made of hightech chemicals and many devices made them work through chemistry. The deaf can hear through tiny plastic devices fitted with batteries, the blind can see with artificial corneas of synthetics and the lame can walk through chemical materials biocompatible prostheses. And repairs - surgical operations - can only be made by countless contest chemicals as antiseptics, disinfectants, industrial gases, thin plastic tubing, blood bags and for the IV, adhesives, materials and endurentes ... anesthesia, which is one of the inventions to which virtually everyone is grateful for personal experience, and that has done more sympathetic to dentists. Moreover, countless hospitals resort to chemicals such as PVC, allow ensure hygienic and aseptic conditions of the materials. Protective Materials. Chemistry provides a harder head To prevent accidents or mitigate damage, man also uses what could be called external prostheses, such as helmets, gloves, safety shoes, goggles, fire suits, body armor, and even space suits, made all with light chemical materials and high performance.


MARIELA NEVAREZ HERNANDEZ 1-MB

Chemistry and Food

If you ask a child "where food comes from?" Probably answer: "the fridge", or perhaps "the store". And if you ask an adult the answer may be "field and factory", thinking that "the field" gives little for himself. That which we call a certain lightness "the" are "arable land", which is a scarce resource whose extension is continually threatened by desertification and urban growth. And speaking of the field: one acrylonitrile plant - which occupies the length of a football field - to produce the same amount of fiber that a "herd" of 12 million sheep, which graze needed for an area the size of Belgium. The manufacture of synthetic fibers, acrylic, polyester, nylon, and other ... in hundreds of factories located throughout the world, bring more arable land that would otherwise be devoted to raising sheep or vegetable planting to obtain cotton, flax or sisal, and would not have enough space on Earth to supply textile needs. Fertilizers The area devoted to agriculture in the world today (1.400 million hectares, which is an area the size of South America) is the same as in 1950 due to intensive agriculture and sustainable facilitated by the help of fertilizers and agrochemicals , although at that time humanity has gone from 2.5 to 6 billion people. This has prevented the use of 26 million square kilometers over land - equivalent to the combined area of the two largest countries on Earth: Russia and Canada - to feed the current population.

The World Health Organization estimates that by 2050 the world population will reach eleven billion inhabitants. Undoubtedly, without major changes in productivity, agriculture will not be able to produce enough food, so the application of advanced chemical techniques is essential to meet the needs of humanity. Without these techniques, not only would not be possible to meet the


MARIELA NEVAREZ HERNANDEZ 1-MB

needs generated by purely vegetative growth of the population, but also to nutritional changes that are expected. Income is expected to reach a per capita annual growth rate of 2.7% until 2020, still double the growth rate in developing countries than in developed countries. This income growth, as well as urban areas, will result in a short time, a change in eating habits, increasing consumption of meat, especially red meat, and consequently increasing the demand for grain to feed livestock. This demand will double in the developing countries. Given the scarcity of arable land, you can only deal with this situation by increasing the agricultural yields by using fertilizers and pesticides for plant protection.

The Phytosanitary In some third world countries, the work of a third of the farmers is consumed by insects, rodents, bacteria and fungi. Indeed so, p ince third of crops are destroyed by pests and disease, by not sufficiently protect crops and products obtained through the use of plant protection products. If not for these products to control weeds, pests, pests and diseases, the third of the food produced in the world (a loaf of bread out of three) would be lost. Modern chemistry is protecting and improving crops, using various pesticides fungicides, herbicides and insecticides are not selective nor harmful to the environment or to the birds and the bees, important pollinators. Due to its higher efficiency and selectivity, farmers today need only apply minimal doses of chemicals per hectare instead of large doses used in the past. This not only get bigger and better crops, but that the products reach the markets in most hygienic conditions. Not long ago, the "bugs" in the peas were common, now a single larva in a package of frozen peas causes a health inspector's visit. The development of products to protect crops require much expertise, including chemists, biochemists and agronomists, and a great deal of research and by financial companies. Only one of every 10,000 substances synthesized in the laboratory is capable of application, and to develop and test each product can take up to ten years and require investments of over 15,000 million pesetas.


MARIELA NEVAREZ HERNANDEZ 1-MB

Animal Health Human nutrition requires not only abundant harvests and healthy, but also the health protection and animal feed. In Europe alone there are about 280 million animals for food, counting only beef cattle, pigs and sheep. The chemistry protects against diseases and parasites and contributes to its power. If it were not for animals with drugs, they lose 47% of cattle, 35% of pork, 22% of sheep and 20% of the bird.


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