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Stick Ball A new era in urban ballpark development Written by:

Aaron Asis


Stick Ball: A new era in urban ballpark development in the United States

Aaron Asis

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Urban Planning

University of Washington 2008

Program Authorized to Offer Degree: Department of Urban Design and Planning


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

List of Figures…………………………………………………………………….....………...............iii List of Tables…………………….………………………………....……………………..................xvii Preface…………………………………………………………………………...............................xix Thesis Introduction.....................................................................................................................1 Case Studies I..........................................................................................................................10

Introduction to an Era......................................................................................11

The Jewel Boxes……………………………………………………....................13

Fenway Park - Boston, MA…………………………………………….................15

Wrigley Field - Chicago, IL…………………………………………...................29

Case Studies II.........................................................................................................................42

Introduction to an Era................................……………....……….....................43

First from the Postwar…………………………………………………................45

Dodger Stadium - Los Angeles, CA…………………………………..................47

Shea Stadium - Flushing, NY………………………………………..................57

Case Studies III.........................................................................................................................66

Introduction to an Era....................................................…………..................67

Modern-Retro Ballparks……………………………………………….................69

Camden Yards - Baltimore, MD……………………………………….................71

AT&T Park - San Francisco, CA……………………………………....................83

i


Existing Conditions Anlaysis....................................................................................................92

Introduction to a New Era...............................................…...........................93

The Hudson Yards.............................……….................................................95

Hudson Yards Redevelopment Proposal.………………................................107

Ballpark Model Proposal........................................................................................................112

A Mixed-Use Ballpark Model….……………………..…...................................113

Urban Goals & Guidelines.……………………………...................................117

Ballpark Model Objectives….…………………………....................................126

Conclusions...............................................................................................................138 Thesis Conclusions......................………………………………………………..........................139 Endnotes...............................................................................................................................151 Bibliography…………..……………………………………………...............................153 Figure Credits…....……………………………………………….................................................159 Table Credits...........................................................................................................................181 Appendices........................................................................................................185

Appendix A-1…...............................................................….…………………….........186

Appendix A-2……….......................……….…...……..................................................190

Appendix B-1….............................……………….……...............................................196

Appendix B-2….............................…………………....................................................200

Appendix C-1...........................………………………….…..........................................204

Appendix C-2.................................……………..….....................................................208 ii


LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number

Page

1.

Shea Stadium and Citi Field - Queens, N.Y…..……………………………………...................1

2.

Wrigley Field - Chicago, IL…………………..………………………………………..................2

3.

Fenway Park - Boston, MA…………………..…………………………………….....................2

4.

Shea Stadium - Queens, NY………………..……………..................…………………………3

5.

Camden Yards - Baltimore, MD……………..……………..................……………………….. 3

6.

Camden Yards - Baltimore, MD……………..……………..................……………………...…4

7.

Camden Yards - Baltimore, MD……………..……………..................……………………...…4

8.

AT&T Park - San Francisco, CA.…………….…………...................………………………….5

9.

AT&T Park - San Francisco, CA.…………….…………...................………………………….5

10. Invoice Dome - Seibu, Japan………………..……………..................………………………...6 11. Miyagi Stadium - Sendai, Japan……………..……………..................………………………..6 12. Tokyo Dome - Tokyo, Japan…………………..……………...................……………………....7 13. Petco Park - San Diego, CA…………………..……………..................……………………….8 14. Petco Park - San Diego, CA…………………..……………..................……………………….8 15. Petco Park - San Diego, CA…………………..……………..................…………………….…9 16. Petco Park - San Diego, CA…………………..……………..................…………………….…9 17. Case Study Ballparks.........................................................................................................10 18. Original Seat Ebbets Field (1913-57)…….………………..................………..……………..11 19. Ebbets Field (1913-57)…………………….…………….....................……………………….12 20. Fenway Park - Green Monster…………….……………….................……………………....13 21. Wrigley Field - Rooftop Seating………….……………….................………………………..13 22. Fenway Park - Aerial Photo..............................................................................................14 23. Fenway Park: Main Façade……………….……………….................…………………….…15 24. Fenway Park dimensions (1922-25)…….…………………................……………………...16 iii


25. Fenway Park dimensions (1992-05)…….…………………................…………………..….16 26. Fenway Park…...……………………………………................……………….………………...17 27. Fenway-Kenmore land use……………………….................………………………………...17 28. Back Bay / Fenway / Kenmore / South End Neighborhoods Satellite view.......................18 29. Transportation Network…………………………………………………………..................…19 30. Ballpark Road & Rail Network……………………………………………………...................19 31. Figure Ground Analysis…………………………………………………………..................…19 32. Fenway Park; Immediate Area Satellite view………………………………….....................20 33. Single / Multi-Family Residential………………………………………………....................…21 34. Commercial / Mixed Use……………………………………………………….…...................21 35. Vacant / Parking…………………………………………………………...………...................21 36. Fenway Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street……………………...................22 37. Lansdowne St and Fenway Park (North)……………………...……………...…..................22 38. Ipswich St and Fenway Park (Southeast)…………………………………..….....................22 39. Van Ness St and Fenway Park (South)……………………………………..….....................22 40. Yawkey Way and Fenway Park (West).………………………..................……………..…..22 41. Section aa………………………………………………………...................…………………..23 42. Section bb………………………………………………………...................………..…………23 43. Section cc….……………………………………………………...................………...………..23 44. Section dd………………………………………………………...................……………..……23 45. Green Monster…………………………………………………...................……………..……24 46. Monster Seat Construction……………………………………...................……………….....24 47. 406 club transformation………………………………………....................…………………..25 48. Fenway Park - Monster Seats………………………………....................…………...……....25 49. Typical Building Type………………………,……………….......................……………..……26 50. Typical Building Type…………………………………………......................……………...….26 51. Fenway Park - Main Entrance……………..…………………......................………....………27 52. Fenway Park Area ……………………………......................………………………...………27 iv


53. Wrigley Field - Aerial Photo................................................................................................28 54. Wrigley Field: Main Entrance…………………......................………………………..……….29 55. Wrigley Field dimensions (1922-25)…………......................………………………………...30 56. Wrigley Field dimensions (1992-05)…………......................……………………………...…30 57. Wrigley Field (2010)………………………..........................………………………………....31 58. Wrigley Field (Current)………………………......................…………………………………31 59. Wrigley Field (1942)…………………………......................…………………...…………….31 60. Lakeview Neighborhood Satellite view…….......................…………………………….……32 61. Transportation Network……………………….......................…………………………..…….33 62. Ballpark Road & Rail Network……………..........................…………………………………33 63. Figure Ground Analysis………………………......................………………………………...33 64. Wrigley Field; Immediate Area Satellite view……......................………………………...…34 65. Single / Multi-Family Residential………………………………………….........................….35 66. Commercial / Mixed Use………………………………………….………….......................…35 67. Vacant / Parking / Lt Industry……………………………………….……….......................…35 68. Wrigley Field Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street………….........................36 69. W Waveland Ave and Wrigley Field (North)……………………………….......................…36 70. N Sheffield Ave and Wrigley Field (East)………………………………….......................….36 71. W Addison St and Wrigley Field (South)……………………………….…........................…36 72. N Clark St and Wrigley Field (West)………………………………………........................…36 73. Section aa…………………………………………………………………….......................….37 74. Section bb…………………………………………………………………….......................….37 75. Section cc………………..……………………………………………………..........................37 76. Section dd……………..………………………………………………..…….......................….37 77. Rooftop Seating Clubs……………………………………………………..........................…..38 78. Ballpark relationship to the street……………………………………..…….......................….38 79. Rooftop Club names and addresses……………………………………….......................….39 80. Rooftop Clubs - N. Sheffield Avenue……………………………….…….......................……39 v


81. Rooftop Clubs - W. Waveland Ave………………………………………........................…..39 82. Wrigleyville - Addison & Clark…………………………………………….........................….40 83. Wrigley Field - Sheffield Ave…………………………………………….….......................….40 84. New Rooftop Seating Club…………………………....…………………….......................…..41 85. New Rooftop Seating Bleacher……………………....……………………….....................….41 86. Case Study Ballparks.........................................................................................................42 87. Original Seat Shea Stadium (1964-09)…………………....……………............................…43 88. Veteran Stadium Implosion (2004).....................................................................................44 89. Dodger Stadium - Bleachers..............................................................................................45 90. Shea Stadium - View from 7-train......................................................................................45 91. Dodger Stadium - Aerial Photo..........................................................................................46 92. Dodger Stadium: Outfield Entrance....................................................................................47 93. Chavez Ravine / Elysian Park Neighborhood Satellite view.............................................48 94. Transportation Network......................................................................................................49 95. Ballpark Road & Rail Network............................................................................................49 96. Figure Ground Analysis......................................................................................................49 97. Dodger Stadium; Immediate Area Satellite view..............................................................50 98. Single / Multi-Family Residential.......................................................................................51 99. Commercial / Mixed Use..................................................................................................51 100. Vacant / Parking................................................................................................................51 101. Dodger Stadium Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street..............................52 102. Dodger Stadium (North)...................................................................................................52 103. Dodger Stadium (East)......................................................................................................52 104. Dodger Stadium (South)..................................................................................................52 105. Dodger Stadium (West).....................................................................................................52 106. Section aa.........................................................................................................................53 107. Section bb.........................................................................................................................53 108 Section cc.........................................................................................................................53 vi


109. Section dd.........................................................................................................................53 110. Echo Park Residences......................................................................................................54 111. Chinatown Streetscape....................................................................................................54 112. Dodger Stadium: 76 Gas Station......................................................................................55 113. Dodger Stadium Parking Lots...........................................................................................55 114. Shea Stadium - Aerial Photo..............................................................................................56 115. Shea Stadium: Central Gate............................................................................................57 116. Flushing Meadow Park Area Satellite view......................................................................58 117. Transportation Network....................................................................................................59 118. Ballpark Road & Rail Network.........................................................................................59 119. Figure Ground Analysis...................................................................................................59 120. Shea Stadium; Immediate Area Satellite view.................................................................60 121. Residential.......................................................................................................................61 122. Commercial / Lt Industry................................................................................................. 61 123. Vacant / Parking..............................................................................................................61 124. Shea Stadium Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street....................................62 125. Shea Stadium (Northeast)...............................................................................................62 126. Shea Stadium (Southeast) .............................................................................................62 127. Shea Stadium (South) ...................................................................................................62 128. Shea Stadium (Northwest)..............................................................................................62 129. Section aa.......................................................................................................................63 130. Section bb.......................................................................................................................63 131. Section cc........................................................................................................................63 132. Section dd.......................................................................................................................63 133. Typical Corona streetscape.............................................................................................64 134. Typical Shea Stadium area land-use...............................................................................64 135. 7-Train above Roosevelt Avenue....................................................................................65 136. New Mets Ballpark construction......................................................................................65 vii


137. Case Study Ballparks......................................................................................................66 138. Original Seat Camden Yards (1992-TBD).......................................................................67 139: Petco Park Construction (2003)......................................................................................68 140. Camden Yards - B&O Warehouse...................................................................................69 141. AT&T Park - Right Field Porch........................................................................................69 142. Camden Yards - Aerial Photo..........................................................................................70 143. Camden Yards: Main Entrance........................................................................................71 144. Carrol-Camden / Inner Harbor Neighborhood Satellite view...........................................72 145. Transportation Network....................................................................................................73 146. Ballpark Road & Rail Network.........................................................................................73 147. Figure Ground Analysis....................................................................................................73 148. Camden Yards; Immediate Area Satellite view.................................................................74 149. Single / Multi-Family Residential......................................................................................75 150. Commercial / Mixed Use..................................................................................................75 151. Industriall Service / Parking.............................................................................................75 152. Camden Yards Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street...................................76 153. Russell Street & Camden Yards (Northeast)...................................................................76 154. Camden Street & Camden Yards (North).....................................................................76 155. Eutaw Street & Camden Yards (East)............................................................................76 156. Russell Street & Camden Yards (South).....................................................................76 157. Section aa........................................................................................................................77 158. Section bb........................................................................................................................77 159. Section cc........................................................................................................................77 160. Section dd........................................................................................................................77 161. Camden Yards Plan.........................................................................................................78 162. Oriole Baseball Ticket Window.........................................................................................78 163. Gameday activity on Eutaw Street...................................................................................79 164. B&O Warehouse..............................................................................................................79 viii


165. View north along Howard Street......................................................................................80 166. View northeast along Russell Street................................................................................80 167. View South along Eutaw Street........................................................................................81 168. View North along Eutaw Street........................................................................................81 169. AT&T Park - Aerial Photo................................................................................................82 170. AT&T Park: Main Facade..............................................................................................83 171. Mission Bay / SoMa Neighborhood Satellite view...........................................................84 172. Transportation Network....................................................................................................85 173. Ballpark Road & Rail Network..........................................................................................85 174. Figure Ground Analysis..................................................................................................85 175. AT&T Park; Immediate Area Satellite view....................................................................86 176. Residential & Mixed-Use.................................................................................................87 177. Commercial - Office/Retail..............................................................................................87 178. Industrial / Parking...........................................................................................................87 179. AT&T Park Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.........................................88 180. King Street & AT&T Park (Northwest)............................................................................88 181. 2nd Street & AT&T Park (Northeast).........................................................................88 182. McCovey Cove & AT&T Park (Southeast) .....................................................................88 183. 3rd Street & AT&T Park (Southwest)..............................................................................88 184. Section aa........................................................................................................................89 185. Section bb........................................................................................................................89 186. Section cc.........................................................................................................................89 187. Section dd........................................................................................................................89 188. View west along King Street.............................................................................................90 189. View east along King Street.............................................................................................90 190. McCovey Cove Promenade.............................................................................................91 191. Game Day - McCovey Cove.............................................................................................91 192. Hells Kitchen - Aerial Photo............................................................................................92 ix


193. Retractable Seat..............................................................................................................93 194. Hell’s Kitchen, NYC - 1879..............................................................................................94 195. Aerial Photo - Hudson Yards...........................................................................................95 196. Local Market - 9th Ave (1890-1937)................................................................................96 197. West Side Rail Yards (1934)...........................................................................................96 198. Lincoln Tunnel Construction (1937).................................................................................97 199. Lincoln Tunnel Construction (1937) ................................................................................97 200. Hell’s Kitchen / Midtown Manhattan Neighborhood Satellite view...................................98 201. Transportation Network...................................................................................................99 202. Neighborhood Road & Rail Network...............................................................................99 203. Figure Ground Analysis...................................................................................................99 204. Westide Rail Yards; Immediate Area Satellite view.. ....................................................100 205. Multi-Family/Mxd Use Residential.................................................................................101 206. Commercial / Institutional..............................................................................................101 207. Industrial / Transportation..............................................................................................101 208. Existing Conditions / Neighborhood Character.............................................................102 209. Rail Yards and Tunnel Ramps.......................................................................................103 210. Landmarks & Notable Sturctures..................................................................................103 211. Open / Park Space........................................................................................................103 212. Westside Railyards Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street..........................104 213. Westside Rail Yards (33rd Street)................................................................................104 214. Westside Rail Yards (11th Avenue)................................................................................104 215. The Highline (30th Street).............................................................................................104 216. Hudson River Park (12th Avenue).................................................................................104 217. Section aa......................................................................................................................105 218. Section bb......................................................................................................................105 219. Section cc.......................................................................................................................105 220. Section dd......................................................................................................................105 x


221. Perimeter Wall - 11th Avenue........................................................................................106 222. Hudson Yards Neighborhood Plan................................................................................107 223. Current Hudson Yards Redevelopmemt Plans..............................................................108 224. Hudson Yards - Current Zoning.....................................................................................109 225. Hudson Yards - Zoning Changes.................................................................................109 226. Subway Expansion........................................................................................................110 227. Hudson Yards Vision - 2025..........................................................................................110 228. Hudson Yards Open Space Boulevard...........................................................................111 229. Hudson Yards Open Space Boulevard...........................................................................111 230. Conceptual New Urban Ballpark..................................................................................112 231. Concept Sketch..............................................................................................................113 232. Original Hudson Yards Rezoning Plan............................................................................114 233. Hudson Yards Stadium Proposal (2003)........................................................................114 234. Segment - Open Space Boulevard.................................................................................115 235. Current / Existing Conditions..........................................................................................115 236. Initial Open Space Vision (2003)....................................................................................116 237. Initial 11th Avenue Vision (2003)...................................................................................116 238: Ballpark Model - Concept Sketch...................................................................................117 239. Early Concept Plans/Diagrams......................................................................................117 240. Urban Guideline #1........................................................................................................118 241. Neighbohood Center......................................................................................................119 242. Urban Guideline #2........................................................................................................120 243. 30th Street (11th & 12th Avenue)....................................................................................121 244. 33rd Street and 11th Avenue..........................................................................................121 245. Urban Guideline #3.........................................................................................................122 246. Ballpark Open Space Connections...............................................................................123 247. Urban Guideline #6.......................................................................................................124 248. Urban Guideline #4...............,,......................................................................................124 xi


249. Urban Guideline #5.......................................................................................................124 250. Mass Transit Hub (42nd & 11th Ave).............................................................................125 251. Parking Coverage / Service...........................................................................................125 252. Conceptual Circulation Section.................................................................................126 253. Early Land-Use Sketch...............................................................................................126 254. Retractable Seating Sketch.........................................................................................127 255. Ballpark Model Guideline #1 - Seating Chart................................................................128 256. Ballpark Model Guideline #1 - Entry Diagram...............................................................128 257. Main Public Entry - 11th Avenue...................................................................................129 258. Seating Section Relationship........................................................................................129 259. Ballpark Model Guideline #2 - Physical Street Contact...............................................130 260. Ballpark Model Guideline #2 - Pedestrian Circulation..................................................130 261. Circulation Detail........................................................................................................131 262. Ballpark Model Guideline #3 - Land Use Diagram.....................................................132 263. Ballpark Model Guideline #3 - Land Use Plan...........................................................132 264. Diversity in Land Use.................................................................................................133 265. Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Plan..................................................................................134 266. Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Perspective (Northeast)....................................................135 267. Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Perspective (Southwest)...................................................135 268. Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Perspective (Southeast)...................................................135 269. Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Perspective (Northwest)...................................................135 270. Stadium Proposal Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.........................136 271. 33rd Street & the West Side Ballpark........................................................................136 272. 11th Avenue & the West Side Ballpark........................................................................136 273. 30th Street & the West Side Ballpark.........................................................................136 274. 12th Avenue & the West Side Ballpark......................................................................136 275. Section aa (33rd Street)............................................................................................137 276. Section bb (11th Avenue)...........................................................................................137 xii


277. Section cc (30th Street).............................................................................................137 278. Section dd (12th Avenue) ..........................................................................................137 279. A New Ballpark Model..................................................................................................138 280. West Yards Ballpark Proposal......................................................................................139 281. Ballpark Proposal - Perspective Montage (33rd Street) - Non Gameday..................140 282. Gameday Conditions - 33rd St...................................................................................141 283. 33rd Street “Before” Photo..........................................................................................141 284. Ballpark Proposal - Perspective Montage (11th Avenue)..........................................142 285. West Yards - from the Highline..................................................................................143 286. 11th Avenue “Before” Photo.........................................................................................143 287. Ballpark Proposal - Perspective Montage (30th Street).............................................144 288. View South from the Highline.......................................................................................145 289. Covered Retail - Kobe, Japan.........................................................................................145 290. Ballpark Proposal - Perspective Montage (12th Aveune).............................................146 291. 12th Avenue River Trail................................................................................................147 292. 12th Avenue “Before” Photo.........................................................................................147 293. Parcel Data Area (Ipswich Street & Van Ness Street)...................................................187 294. 176 Ipswich Street.........................................................................................................187 295. 1175-1179 Boylston Street............................................................................................187 296. 1249-1295 Boylston Street............................................................................................187 297. Parcel Data Area (Commonwealth Aveune & Lansdowne Street)................................188 298. 490-472 Commonwealth Avenue..................................................................................188 299. Parcel Data Area (Brookline Street, Beacon Street & Yawkey Way).............................189 300. 104 Brookline Avenue.....................................................................................................189 301. Parcel Data Area: (W Waveland Avenue, N Kenmore Street & N Sheffield Ave).......191 302. 3769 - 3713 N Sheffield Avenue.................................................................................191 303. 1040 Waveland Avenue.................................................................................................191 304. 1052 - 1040 W Waveland Avenue..................................................................................191 xiii


305. Parcel Data Area (N Sheffield Avenue & W Addison Avenue)....................................192 306. 3643 & 3639 N Sheffield Avenue.................................................................................192 307. Parcel Data Area (W Addison Ave, N Clark Street & W Eddy Street)...........................193 308. 1063 - 1111 W Addison Street............................................................................................193 309. Parcel Data Area ( W Addison Avenue & W Patterson Street)....................................194 310. 1117-1130 W Patterson Street.......................................................................................194 311. Parcel Data Area (N Clark Street & N Clifton Street)..................................................195 312. 3701-3709 N Clifton Street............................................................................................196 313. Parcel Data Area (W Academy Road, W Solano Avenue & W Amador Street).........197 314. 644 - 636 W Academy Road.........................................................................................197 315. Parcel Data Area (Bishops Road, E Savoy Street & N Broadway)................................198 316. 429 - 425 E Savoy Street.................................................................................................198 317. Parcel Data Area (W White Knoll Drive, N Marview Avenue & Boylston Street).........199 318. 1027 - 1009 Marview Ave..............................................................................................199 319. Parcel Data Area (126th Street, 38th, 37th, 36th, 35th, & 34th Avenues)......................201 320. 126th Street and 34th Avenue........................................................................................201 321. 126th Street and Roosevelt Avenue..............................................................................201 322. 127th Street and 36th Avenue......................................................................................201 323. Parcel Data Area (Roosevelt Avenue, 41st Avenue & 39th Avenue)..........................202 324. 112-34 - 112-18 39th Avenue........................................................................................202 325. 112-40 - 112-44 Roosevelt Avenue..............................................................................202 326. Roosevelt Ave & 114th St..........................................................................................202 327. Parcel Data Area (114th Street, 39th Avenue & 38th Avenue).......................................203 328. 112-07 39th Avenue......................................................................................................203 329. Parcel Data Area (Eutaw Street, Howard Street, Lombard Street & Pratt Stree......204 330. 36 S Eutaw Street .........................................................................................................204 331. Parcel Data Area (Conway Street, Howard Street, Pratt Street & W Barre Street)....205 332. 200-250 W Pratt Street.................................................................................................205 xiv


333. 1 W Pratt Street.............................................................................................................206 334. 112 W Conway Street.....................................................................................................206 335. Parcel Data Area (Portland Street, Pratt Street & Washington Boulevard)...............207 336. 656-646 Dover Street.....................................................................................................207 337. Parcel Data Area (Berry Street, King Street & Townsend Street)..................................209 338. 330 Ritch Street............................................................................................................209 339. 200-210 Townsend Street.............................................................................................209 340. 250 Townsend Street....................................................................................................209 341. Parcel Data Area (King Street, Townsend Street, Second & Third Street).......................210 342. 128 King Street...............................................................................................................210 343. Parcel Data Area (Brannan Street, King Street & Townsend Street)..............................211 344. 88 King Street...............................................................................................................211 345. 625 Second Street........................................................................................................211 346. 301-329 Townsend Street.............................................................................................211

xv


LIST OF TABLES

Table Number

Page

1.

Classic Era - Completion Dates….....................................................................................12

2.

Fenway Venue Statistics…………………………………………………………..................15

3.

Wrigley Venue Stats…......................................................................................................29

4.

Postwar Era - Completion Dates……………………………..................……………………44

5.

Dodger Stadium Statistics…………………………..................………………………......... 47

6.

Shea Stadium Statistics…………………………..................…………………….............…57

7.

Modern-Retro - Completion Dates…………………………..................………………....…68

8.

Camden Yards Statistics.………………………...................…………………………..........71

9.

AT&T Park Statistics.………………………...................…………………………...............83

10. West Side Rail Yards Statistics……………………………..................………………….....95 11. West Side Ballpark Statistics…………………………..................………………………....113 12. Parcel Data (Boylston Street & Ipswich Street)……...................……….……………....185 13. Parcel Type Totals………………………………............…………………..........................185 14. Parcel Data (Commonwealth Avenue, Newbury Street, & Lansdowne Street)……..….186 15. Parcel Type Totals………………………………..................……………………............…186 16. Parcel Data (Yawkey Way, Boylston Street & Brookline Avenue)…………………...…187 17. Parcel Type Totals……………………..................………..……………............................187 18. Parcel Data (W Waveland Ave, N Kenmore St. & N Sheffield St.)..………………..….189 19.

Parcel Type Totals…………………………….................……………………....................189

20. Parcel Data (N Sheffield Avenue & W Addision Avenue).........…………………….…..190 21. Parcel Type Totals……………………………….................…………………….…............190 22.

Parcel Data (W Addison Avenue, N Clark Street & W Eddy Street)……...……...…...191

23.

Parcel Type Totals……............…………………................………………........….......….191 xvii


24.

Parcel data ( W Addison Avenue & W Patterson Street)…….………..........……..…...192

25.

Parcel Type Totals…......................................................................................................192

26.

Parcel Data (N Clark Street & N Clifton Street)…………………………………..............193

27.

Parcel Type Totals…......................................................................................................193

28.

Parcel Data (W Academy Road, W Solano Avenue & W Amador Street)……..........…195

29.

Parcel Type Totals…………………………..................………………………...................195

30.

Parcel data (Bishops Road, E Savoy Street & N Broadway)…………….................…..196

31.

Parcel Type Totals…………………………..................…….......................……....….......196

32.

Parcel Data (W White Knoll Drive, N Marview Avenue & Boylston Street).………........197

33.

Parcel Type Totals.………………………...................………………………….................197

34.

Parcel Data (126th Street, 38th, 37th, 36th, 35th, & 34th Avenues)………………….199

35.

Parcel Type Totals…………………………..................………………………...................199

36. Parcel data (Roosevelt Avenue, 41st Avenue & 39th Avenue)........…………………....200 37.

Parcel Type Totals………………………………............………………….........................200

38. Parcel Data (114th Street, 39th Avenue & 38th Avenue).............................................201 39. Parcel Type Totals………………………………..................……………………............…201 40. Parcel Data (Eutaw Street, Howard Street, Lombard Street & Pratt Street)…….…...203 41. Parcel Type Totals……………………..................………..……………............................203 42. Parcel data (Conway Street, Howard Street, Pratt Street & W Barre Street)..…….….204 43.

Parcel Type Totals…………………………….................……………………....................204

44.

Parcel Data (Portland Street, Pratt Street & Washington Boulevard ).........……….….205

45.

Parcel Type Totals……………………………….................…………………….…...........205

46.

Parcel Data (Berry Street, King Street & Townsend Street)……...………....................207

47.

Parcel Type Totals……............…………………................………………........….......….207

48.

Parcel data (King Street, Townsend Street, Second Street & Third Street)……........208

49.

Parcel Type Totals.........................................................................................................208

50.

Parcel Data (Brannan Street, King Street & Townsend Street).................................209

51.

Parcel Type Totals.........................................................................................................209 xviii


xvi


PREFACE I was 6 years old when I went to my first baseball game with my mother and my two brothers. The New York Mets played the Montreal Expos at Shea Stadium, and even now, more than twenty years later, I still remember many of details. I remember the walk up the escalators to our seats in the upper deck. I remember that my mother brought my grandfather’s binoculars with us, because we were all concerned that our seats would be too far from the game, but we didn’t use them once; our view was amazing. I remember how the field was spectacular; my first stadium experience was perfect. I don’t remember who won that game, but it doesn’t really matter. Over the next few decades a lot has changed in baseball. Baseball is a game that has evolved incrementally over the course of the past century, and the past three decades have not shown the most active changes in the history of professional baseball in this country. However, I believe it is necessary to acknowledge any changing reality in the world of sports. It is my goal is to present a different way of thinking about urban ballpark development.

xix


1

Thesis Introduction

were reflective of developmental ideologies

General Introduction & Project Framework

of the time. Beginning in the early 1920s, both national urban development and ballpark construction slowed, until after

“Attempts to re-shape the city to a static

World War II. In the late 1950s, American

pattern failed even during the Renaissance,

urban development resumed, as the

as economic and social change were too

phenomenon of sprawl suburbanized

rapid and too complicated to be contained.

the landscape of the American city. The

How much more difficult would it be to

1960s, 1970s, and 1980s witnessed

accomplish the same task today. What is

the explosion of the American suburb

needed now is not a new all-purpose city

and the suburbanization of the urban

design concept, but new ways of integrating

ballpark. The American ballpark was no

city design with [urban] change. Then, and

longer surrounded by mixed-use urban

only then, will the design of our cities live up

development, but rather parking lots along

to the promise to be found in a few special

expanding highway corridors. This outward

neighborhoods, and in the best individual

expansion of the city resulted in consequent

buildings.�1

neglect of the American downtown. However, in the early 1990s, fundamental

Since the start of the 20th century,

urban outlooks shifted once again. Major

Major League Baseball parks have been

League ballparks pioneered a return to the

associated with expanding American cities.

inner-urban landscape as both residential

In the early 1900s, the growth of many of

and municipal forces began to reinvest in

those cities was reflected in the growth

downtown urban America.

of the game. The physical relationships between ballparks and their home cities

Figure 1: Shea Stadium and Citi Field - Queens, N.Y. Construction of Citi Field (2008)


2 Today, as urban populations continue

case studies serve as the framework for

to grow, accommodating that growth

understanding the evolution of ballpark

has become a major urban challenge.

development in the United States.

Massive single use, single function urban ballparks are no longer plausible. Thus, the

Each case study section focuses on a

conceptual effort needs to extend beyond

specific era of American urban history and

the mere placement of urban ballparks

describes a pair of ballparks that are still in

within urban locations. Ballpark ideologies

use today. Each section is introduced with

will need to expand into the realm of

a brief, era-specific literature review, which

integrated design, ultimately to serve

is designed to encompass the nature of

the greater city fabric in a more dynamic

each individual ballpark design, associated

capacity than the current urban model.

urban ideologies and the analytical context that describes the relationship between

Figure 2: Wrigley Field - Chicago, IL Street Character & Rooftop Seating

each ballpark and its surrounding urban Thesis Overview

place.

This thesis addresses a range of issues

The case study section also includes an in-

from the evolution of urban ballparks, to

depth analysis of the proposed site for this

current ballpark development ideologies, to

thesis, Hell’s Kitchen in Midtown Manhattan,

the potential of the downtown urban ballpark

New York City. This analysis is designed to

in an integrated design proposal.

introduce the history of the site, the existing conditions in Hell’s Kitchen (2007), and

Figure 3: Fenway Park - Boston, MA Gameday activity along Lansdowne Street

This thesis presents a series of ballpark

current plans for the future redevelopment

case studies that demonstrate era-

of the neighborhood.

specific ballpark-to-city relationships. The


3 The thesis concludes with a site-specific

- To gain an understanding of various urban

ballpark proposal, which was derived from

ballpark settings and associated urban

a synthesis of the case study data and the

priorities.

information acquired in the analysis of the site’s existing and future conditions. The

- To develop a proficient understanding of

goal of this proposal is to produce a ballpark

the physical objectives of modern ballpark

model that functions as a ballpark, as well

design.

as a dynamic mixed-use component of a larger neighborhood, extending into the

- To analyze current urban ballpark

urban realm.

developments in terms of their priorities as well as in terms of how they have changed over time.

Research Objectives

Figure 4: Shea Stadium - Queens, NY New Ballpark / Citi-Field construction

- To contribute to a physically, socially The first stage of investigating this thesis

and spatially dynamic urban environment

consisted of research addressing the

through integrated ballpark design.

historic use and future potential of urban ballparks in the United States. Research Questions The research objectives were as follows: In order to organize this research, the case - To gain an understanding of the

studies were divided into era-specific pairs.

evolutionary patterns associated with

Inherent in each pair was a significant urban

ballpark design, placement, physical use

question to be answered. The pairs and

and socio-urban implications.

associated questions are as follows:

Figure 5: Camden Yards - Baltimore, MD Eutaw Street Entrance


4 Classic Era Ballpark Case Studies:

Are modern downtown ballparks

Fenway Park (Boston) and Wrigley Field

successfully (or more successfully, relative

(Chicago)

to ballparks of the past) integrating themselves into downtown urban fabrics?

What can we learn about American urban

Figure 6: Camden Yards - Baltimore, MD New and Old along Russell Street

history and the evolution of ballpark

The thesis project proposal, while drawing

development by looking at the frameworks

on information gained in the search for

and development patterns of urban

answers to the above questions, also poses

ballparks from the classic era at the turn of

a question of its own that looks forward to

the 19th century?

the next era of ballpark design.

Postwar Era Ballpark Case Studies:

Thesis Proposal: West Side Rail Yards

Dodger Stadium (Los Angeles) and Shea

(Manhattan)

Stadium (Queens) How can design aid in the further integration What can we learn about American urban

of ballpark and urban fabric?

history and the evolution of ballpark development by looking at the frameworks

What (if anything) can we forecast

and development patterns of urban

about the future benefits associated with

ballparks from the post-war period in the

downtown ballparks?

middle of the 20th century? What (if anything) can we forecast about

Figure 7: Camden Yards - Baltimore, MD Camden Street hotel construction

Modern-Retro Era Ballpark Case Studies:

evolution in design, integration and social

Camden Yards (Baltimore) and AT&T Park

use of downtown ballparks?

(San Francisco)


5 Preliminary Assumptions

Can the development of a new model, based on the analysis of ballparks past

The final stage of this thesis consists of

and present, a detailed understanding of

a ballpark proposal for Manhattan’s West

the current ballpark model, and the critical

Side Rail Yards. To establish a baseline

integration of physical and place-specific

for the design process, and to frame the

socio-urban characteristics, create a

specific objectives of this particular stage

better ballpark presence in modern urban

of this thesis, the following list preliminary

America? Can substantial support for

assumptions was generated:

redesigning the current ballpark model be found and/or justified?

The most recent manifestation of urban ballpark ideals, the Modern-Retro stadium

Physically integrated characteristics

model, is flawed.

and urban perception can serve as the

Figure 8: AT&T Park - San Francisco, CA Mission Bay redevelopments

foundation for a new urban ballpark model The presumption is that the current

in the United States.

Modern-Retro stadium model does not perform in its varied urban settings as

Are the physical characteristics and/

advertised by municipal decision makers

or urban attributes involved in ballpark

and project designers in terms of socio-

development significant enough to serve

urban performance or physical integration

as the foundation for the revision of the

into downtown areas. What can be done to

current Modern-Retro model and/or the

improve urban ballpark performance?

development of a new truly integrated ballpark model?

A new ballpark model can create more functionally dynamic urban spaces.

Figure 9: AT&T Park - San Francisco, CA King Street condominium development


6 Presentation & Content

The Introduction and Conceptual Framework introduces the structure of

This thesis document is subdivided into five

the project. This section precedes all

main sections:

other information to serve as the base of the document as well as the basis for the

- Introduction and Conceptual Framework

project research and gathering of supportive information. This section photographically

- Case Studies

introduces various urban conditions surrounding several ballparks in the United

Figure 10: Invoice Dome - Seibu, Japan Pedestrian link between train station and ballpark

- Proposal Background and Presentation

States and Japan.

- Conclusions and Reflections

The Case Studies focuses on ballpark development chronology, development

- Appendices

costs and funding for ballparks, ballpark land use characteristics, socio-economic

The first two sections address a specific

conditions surrounding existing ballparks,

set of issues relative to the evolution of

and neighborhood demographics of existing

American urban ballparks and ultimately

ballparks. This section consists of three

lead to the proposal of a new American

comparative and era-specific case study

urban ballpark model. The presentation

analysis sections:

of this model is followed by a series of

Figure 11: Miyagi Stadium - Sendai, Japan Structural integration in surounding landscape

reflections and conclusions on the proposal

The Classic Era Ballpark case study section

at its relative success in achieving the

is a visual and textual summary of the early

stated project goals.

chronological history of American ballparks (1890s - 1920s). Historic information about


7 the ballpark is supported by photographs,

between broader-scale suburban ideologies

analytical maps, aerial photographs and

that emerged in the U.S. during that time

images relevant to the ballparks’ physical

period and their implications for ballpark

and socio-physical locations. The main

development throughout the Postwar Era.

objective of this section is to describe the genesis of urban ballpark design in the

The Modern-Retro Ballpark case study

United States and to set the stage for

section provides a visual and textual

changes that occur in following eras.

introduction to the ballpark characteristics and “Modern-Retro” phenomenon (1990s

The Postwar Era Ballpark case study

– present). Aerial imagery, streetscape

section provides a visual and textual

photos and graphic illustrations highlight

introduction to the characteristics of urban

the reconnection of the American

ballpark development exclusive to the

ballpark to the inner-urban fabric, and

Postwar Era (1950s – 1970s). Two distinct

the ideologies associated with the new

case studies, supported by aerial, analytical

ballpark developments during this time

and photographic imagery, describe

period. Additional text, ballpark photos

the new locations of these ballparks in

and graphics explore the impacts and the

settings quite removed from their relevant

benefits of the “Modern-Retro” approach

urban surroundings. Additional text and

to the various residential, commercial and

photographs highlight some of the unique

municipal parties affected by newer ballpark

physical and socio-economic characteristics

developments. Essentially, this section

of ballpark-adjacent neighborhoods that

explains present-day ballpark design

are not in direct contact with the ballparks

ideologies and provides the starting point

themselves. The objective of this section

for my design proposal.

is to showcase the direct correspondence

Figure 12: Tokyo Dome - Tokyo, Japan Exterior (covered) pedestrain plaza


8 The case study observations, findings and

of the present-day relationship between

analysis are reflected in the document’s

the proposed site and its surrounding

conclusion and final design suggestions.

urban environment. This section also

The case study section serves as the

presents the current redevelopment

contextual framework for the design

agenda and introduces the variables that

proposal, while each individual section

were considered in the presentation of the

provides a chronological framework

integrated ballpark model.

for understanding the historic trends in

Figure 13: Petco Park - San Diego, CA Western Metal Supply Building / Playing Field

American urban evolution. Additionally,

The design proposal summarizes the site

each individual ballpark analysis provides

information from the previous section and

insight into individual urban situations

introduces the design through design

throughout various eras in American urban

analysis and presentation. The design

history.

analysis section includes a series of analytical graphics and text relating to

The Design Proposal is divided into two

proposal’s urban design guidelines and

sections, the preliminary site analysis

structural objectives. The proposal itself is

and the actual proposal for an integrated

presented via a series of perspective views

ballpark design.

and diagrams that focus on the proposed ballpark’s relationship to its surrounding

The preliminary site analysis introduces

urban context.

the selection of the site. The site analysis

Figure 14: Petco Park - San Diego, CA Western Metal Supply Building / Street

begins with a brief presentation of the

The Conclusions and Reflections section

history of Hell’s Kitchen. An existing

serves as a synthesis of the research

conditions analysis textually, graphically

and case study findings. Additionally,

and photographically establishes a sense

this section provides an opportunity for


9 the author to expand on the information

potential of ballpark scaled development in

presented in the design proposal as

the twenty-first century.

it relates to the satisfaction (or nonsatisfaction) of pre-design objectives and

Today new ballpark construction has

assumptions.

become commonplace in American cities that host professional baseball teams.

A series of Appendices serve as additional

As the game has evolved, the role and

sources of urban information to accompany

responsibility of the ballpark has expanded.

each case study. Each appendix is

Gone are the days of neighborhood fans

comprised of comprehensive parcel data,

walking to their neighborhood ballpark for

tables and photos that provide a deeper

a summer mid-afternoon doubleheader.

understanding of the neighborhood

Today, the American ballpark is a regional

environment surrounding each ballpark.

icon and catalyst for growth. Events

Figure 15: Petco Park - San Diego, CA Beyond Centerfield Park

are planned months in advance, and draw crowds from all over the world. Final Thoughts

The American ballpark is no longer the mere home of a professional baseball

The relationship of the American ballpark to

organization; the modern American urban

the city has undoubtedly evolved over the

ballpark is expected to serve as cornerstone

course of the twentieth and early twenty-first

for urban vitality, growth and renewal.

centuries. However, the intent of this thesis is not to challenge this growth. The intent is to highlight the changing relationship between the American urban ballpark and the city, and to project forward, into the

Figure 16: Petco Park - San Diego, CA Pedestrain street above Bleacher Section


10

Case Studies I

Figure 17: Case Study Ballparks (Fenway Park and Wrigley Field)


11

Introduction to an Era

technological and economic innovations

The Classic Era (1909 - 1923) & “The Jewel Boxes” (1912 - 1914)

to industrial production [and physical construction that]...refashioned the contour and character of urban America.”3

Pedestrian traffic and animal power characterized movement, production and

Change in the morphology of American

form in American cities throughout the 18th

cities had a significant impact on all facets

2

and 19th centuries. By the start of the 20th

of urban life, including the spectator

century, new urban forces had prompted

sport cultures. Early team sports were

change in traditional urban patterns. Urban

crippled by uncertainty, resulting in short-

America had become a place epitomized

term leases, inconsistent attendance and

by rapid change. Advancements in

vulnerable wood-frame ballparks (fire,

the technologies of building materials

structural failure). By the 1890’s and

(iron, steel, reinforced concrete), plus

1900’s professional organizations were

the emergence of larger “white collar”

able to establish secure sports roots and

organizations spurred a growth in high-rise

stable relationships with their home cities.

construction. The new technologies enabled

Ballparks of this period (1909-1923) were

residents and businesses to crowd dense

built near the city centers using modern

urban regions. The densification of urban

building materials and techniques (masonry,

environments led to an increased demand

concrete and steel). Their new permanence

for improved/expanded public transportation

and scale gave them an iconic presence

networks and ultimately, improvements

within the city. Ballparks were usually

in city streetcar and subway systems.

strategically situated where expanding

Essentially it was “the rise and spread of

public transportation networks could service

mass transportation, the application of

the greatest number of regional fans.4

Figure 18: Original Seat Ebbets Field (1913-57) Ebbets Field Demolition: 1960


12 Classic Era Ballparks:

The combination of technology, physical

on the warning track meant one was

Ballpark Name, Host City

(Year)

connectivity and iconic identity solidified the

in Cincinnati, discussing an event that

Shibe Park, Philadelphia

(1909)

relationship between organization, city and

took place at Crosley Field. A flagpole

Forbes Field, Pittsburgh

(1909)

place during the “classic era” ballpark.

grounded on the playing field was a defining

Comisky Park, Chicago

(1910)

League Park, Cleveland

(1910)

Griffith Stadium, Wash D.C.

(1911)

The classic era in the evolution of

the centerfield warning track at Tiger/Briggs

Polo Grounds, Manhattan

(1911)

American ballparks was witness to the

Stadium. Freeloaders watching games

*Redland Field, Cinncinatti

(1912)

new construction of 14 ballparks over a

from Coogan’s bluff, with Yankee Stadium

*Navin Field, Detroit

(1912)

15-year period, 1909 – 1923. Expanding

in the distance, could only be on Manhattan

Fenway Park, Boston

(1912)

cities saw ballpark dimensions that were

Island, watching the activity at the Polo

Ebbets Field, Brooklyn

(1913) (1914)

dictated by their placement within already

Grounds. Any story or experience regarding

*Weeghman Park, Chicago Braves Field, Boston

(1915)

existent urban parcels. Ballparks of the

monuments on left centerfield outfield grass,

Yankee Stadium, Bronx

(1923)

era were essentially the creative products

a third level seating deck and/or the first

of the considerations for the spatial

ballpark to carry the “stadium” suffix would

requirements of the field juxtaposed with the

put oneself in the Bronx, talking about

spatial requirements of the selected site, a

Yankee Stadium,

* Redland Field renamed Crosley Field (1933-1972) * Navin Field renamed Briggs Stadium (1938-1960) Briggs Stadium renamed Tiger Stadium (1961-current) * Weeghman Park renamed Wrigley Field (1926-current)

characteristic of baseball in Detroit, along

process that resulted in arguably the most recognizable and quirky era in the history of

These ballpark characteristics became

ballpark construction in the United States .

interchangeable with their teams, as well as their host city. However, it was the three

Baseball fans across the northeastern

“Jewel Boxes” of classic era which best

region of the United States quickly learned

personified their respective cities through

to recognize the quirks and characteristics

baseball, ballpark and urban situation.

of these new ballparks. A baseball Figure 19: Ebbets Field (1913-57) Table 1 (above): Classic Era - Completion Dates

occurrence involving an outfield slope


13

The Jewel Boxes

carries with it greater support from a multi-

Fenway Park - Boston, Ma. Wrigley Field - Chicago, Ill.

generational base of nomadic followers than does Ebbets Field. In fact, the City of New York has recently passed a stadium

The “Jewel Box” was a term used by

bill/financial package to construct a long

Michael Grishman, in Diamonds: The

proposed modern new home for the New

Evolution of the Ballpark, to single out three

York Mets (to be completed in April, 2009),

of baseball’s “classic” ballparks; Boston’s

whose trademark design characteristic is

Fenway Park, Brooklyn’s Ebbets Field

a modern-retro facade, designed to pay

and Chicago’s Wrigley Field. The most

homage to Ebbets Field and the memory of

outstanding characteristics of these classic

New York City baseball in Brooklyn.

ballparks is their timeless appeal, and the past/present relationship of each park to

This analysis of the two remaining Jewel

their surrounding urban environments.

Boxes (Fenway Park and Wrigley Field)

Figure 20: Fenway Park - Green Monster (Fenway Park - Along Lansdowne St.)

will recount the evolution of these timeless The Jewel Boxes were originally completed

classics and showcase each ballpark’s

in three successive years beginning with

current relationship to its surrounding urban

Fenway Park in 1912 and ending with

environment. Additionally, these studies will

Wrigley Field in 1914. Fenway Park and

demonstrate some fundamental ideologies

Wrigley Field currently stand as the two

and urban emphases of early twentienth

oldest, most beloved and arguably most

century ballpark construction, that have

successful ballparks in the country. Ebbets

survived nearly a century of American urban

Field is the lone Jewel Box that is no longer

evolution.

physically in existence, yet, no deceased ballpark (or team - Brooklyn Dodgers) today

Figure 21: Wrigley Field - Rooftop Seating (Wrigley Field - Along N Sheffield Avenue)


14

Figure 22: Fenway Park - Boston, MA Aerial Photo (current)


15

Fenway Park

section of Boston – Fenway Park. Rain

4 Yawkey Way Boston, Massachusetts

postponed the park’s opening for two consecutive days (April 18 and 19, 1912) but on April 20, 1912, Fenway Park finally

“It’s in the Fenway section of Boston, isn’t

hosted its first professional baseball game

it? Then name it Fenway Park.”5

in front of a capacity crowd of 27,000. Between 1912 and 1916, the Red Sox

Fenway Park is the oldest major league

played the majority of their homes games

ballpark still in use today. Originally

at Fenway Park. Limited seating capacity

completed in 1912, Fenway Park took only

at Fenway Park persuaded the Red Sox to

eight months to construct. It opened on the

schedule games 3 & 4 of the 1915 World

same day as Navin Field (Tiger Stadium)

Series (Red Sox home games) to be played

in Detroit. Today, Fenway remains nestled

at Braves Field, where the seating capacity

between Lansdowne Street, Yawkey Way

was 42,000. Following the 1916 World

(originally named Jersey Street, renamed

Series, the Red Sox played every home

after owner Tom Yawkey in 1976), Van Ness

game a Fenway Park.

Fenway Park Statistics: Tenant: Boston Red Sox (AL) Opened: April 20, 1912 First night game: June 13, 1947 Capacity: 38,805 night; 37,455 day Surface Area: 99,000 sq. ft. Elevation: 21 ft. Architect: Osborn Engineering (1912) Construction: James McLaughlin (1912) Owner: Yawkey Trust Cost: $650,000 Table 2: Fenway Venue Statistics

Street (constructed in 1914) and Ipswich Street in Boston’s Fenway/Kenmore Square

Fenway Park’s original characteristics were

neighborhood.

highlighted by the presence of a 25-foot high left field wall, deep center field nooks

In 1910, then Boston Globe owner General

and a sharp right field corner to compensate

Charles Henry Taylor bought the Boston

for the constraints placed on the field by

Pilgrims, changed the team name to the

the surrounding street network. A steep

Red Sox, and announced he would build

10-foot embankment in left field was also in

a new ballpark for the club in the Fenway

play/place to help support the left field wall

Figure 23: Fenway Park: Main Facade (Fenway-Kenmore, Boston)


16





 Figure 24: Fenway Park dimensions (1922-25)





and the 25-foot wooden left field wall was

paying surface and Lansdowne Street. The

replaced by a more durable, 32-foot sheet

field dimensions and wall heights were also

metal structure.

in place to eliminate any visual/physical





and ease the grade transition between the

 379

9 390  

access for non-paying customers to the

In 1936, a 23-1/2-foot tall screen was

park. Fenway Park was physically a piece

added on top of the left field wall to protect

of its neighborhood, but concentrated all

the windows of buildings on adjoining

focus within its walls.

Lansdowne Street. In 1940, bullpens were constructed in front of the right field

Fenway Park remained unchanged until a

grandstand and brought the fence 23 feet

May 8, 1926, fire destroyed bleachers along

closer to home plate. In 1946, the ballclub

the left field line and much of the original

installed skyview seats and in 1947 Fenway

25-foot high left field wall. Following the

Park was outfitted with stadium lights.

fire, the field was only minimally repaired

Additionally In 1947, the “Green Monster”

and the bleachers were never rebuilt (due

was born when the 32-foot high left field

to a lack of funds). In 1933 Tom Yawkey

wall of advertisements was raised to 37 feet

bought the Red Sox. Yawkey injected new

and painted dark green – thus the “Green

funds into the club and reinvented Fenway

Monster”

Park. Following the second major Fenway

9  379

Figure 25: Fenway Park dimensions (1992-05)

fire in less than a decade (1934) Yawkey’s

In the 1980s, luxury boxes were added

Fenway Park revitalization project had a

to Fenway, occupying spaces formally

clean slate and a new objective. Concrete

occupied by the press. Press boxes

bleachers replaced the wood bleachers

were moved above the new luxury boxes.

in centerfield. Duffy’s Cliff (a 10 foot

Additionally, seating was added to the

embankment in leftfield) was leveled off

rooftop along each baseline and many older


17 wooden seats were replaced. Over the

distinct off-season stages of construction -

next two decades, Fenway Park continued

three of which are currently complete.

to add additional seating. Prior to the 2003 season, a seating section “In the late 1990’s, the word went out

was constructed on top of the Green

to Red Sox Nation: Fenway Park was

Monster. Prior to the 2004 season a

doomed. Yes, it was one of most celebrated

seating/club section was constructed on

temples in all of sports, but it was nearly

the roof above the right field bleachers

90 years old, with fewer than 35,000 seats,

increasing capacity to 36,298. And most

and utterly inadequate, its owners said,

recently, prior to the 2006 season, the

to meet the demands of a modern sports

former 600 and most recent .406 club

franchise.”

6

was completely remodeled, removing the

Figure 26: Fenway Park Current aerial view - view south

glass panels and selling the naming rights In 2002 the Red Sox were sold to an

to the club section, now the EMC club.

investment group led by John Henry who

Additionally, rooftop seating was extended

vowed to save Fenway Park, both in the

across the entire length of the orginal

physical and the financial sense. Payroll

Fenway Park seating cover, increasing

increased, concession areas improved and

capacity on opening day 2006 to 38,805.

the largest renovation project in Fenway Park history was underway. The current Fenway Park renovation project is due to

Context and Form Analysis

increase the parks fan capacity from 33, 871 to 39,968 in time for the ballparks

Fenway-Kenmore is a neighborhood where

centennial celebration in 2012. The project

once abandoned factories and warehouses

is scheduled to occur over the course of five

are now quant neighborhood shops, bars

Figure 27: Fenway-Kenmore land use Warehouse conversion - 121 Brookline Avenue


18

Cambridge

Charles River Back Bay

Downtown Fenway

Fenway / Kenmore

Kenmore

South End

Mission Hill

Figure 28: Fenway / Kenmore Neighborhood Satellite view


19 and restaurants. Dilapidated apartments

clearly delineated but still dictated by the

and unused buildings have become newly

transportation grid. Building footprints

renovated luxury condominiums, Boston

throughout the neighborhood consistently

University-owned apartments/dorms,

occupy entire parcels. The largest building

and a neighborhood shopping center.7

footprints are concentrated around Fenway

The Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood

Park.

combines several smaller neighborhoods enclaves represented (in city council)

Fenway-Kenmore is home to a number of

as one cohesive neighborhood and is

academic institutions including: Emmanuel,

one of the oldest remaining middle class

Simmons, and Wheelock Colleges,

neighborhoods around downtown Boston.

Boston and Northeastern Universities, and

Fenway Park is located in northern

Wentworth Institute of Technology. Cultural

Kenmore, in the center of the Fenway-

institutions include: The Symphony Hall,

Kenmore neighborhood.

the Massachusetts Historical Society, and

Figure 29: Transportation Network

the Isabella Stewart Gardener Museum. The Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood is

Fenway-Kenmore is also home to leading

slightly isolated from downtown Boston

health care institutions, including the

due to the distinct physical barriers that

Beth Israel and the Brigham & Women’s

surround the neighborhood. The most

Hospitals.8

Figure 30: Ballpark Road & Rail Network

pronounced barriers lie to the north and south. The Boston & Albany Railroad tracks

Multiple transportation modes provide

and the Massachusetts Turnpike define the

direct access to Fenway Park. These

north edge and the Back Bay Fens form

transportation options reduce the need for

the neighborhood boundary to the south.

surface parking lots and include: commuter

Boundaries to the east and west are less

rail, subway and bus stops and stations.

Figure 31: Figure Ground Analysis


20

Boston University

Kenmore Station MBTA Green Line

Massachusetts Turnpike

Yawkey Station

Lansdowne Street

Br

oo

kli ne Av en ue

re

sw

yl

st

on

St

Ip

Fenway Park

Bo

ay ey W

k Yaw

Figure 32: Fenway Park; Immediate Area Satellite view

et

ic

h

St

re

et

Framingham/Worcester Line Bus Routes 8, 19, 60 & 65

Back Bay Fens

et

tre ss S

e

N Van

Fenway Station MBTA Green Line Bus Routes P511 & 55


21 The Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority

Neighborhood Characteristics

Commuter Rail services Fenway Park via Yawkey Station on The Framingham/

From a contextual stand point, the

Worcester Line, running from South Station

Kenmore section of Fenway-Kenmore

to Worcester Station. Boston area Subway

is dominated by three- to five-story brick

services Fenway Park via Fenway Station

walk-ups, brownstone townhouses and

on the Green Line, running from Lechmere

various housing units owned and operated

Station in Charlestown to Riverside Station.

by Boston College. The Fenway section

Fenway Station is approximately .25 miles

of the Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood is

from the junction of Yawkey Way and

comprised almost entirely of five- to six-

Brookline Avenue. Additionally, Bus #P511

story apartment buildings, accompanied by

provides service in and out of Yawkey

a number of small, independently owned

Station. Bus routes 8, 19, 60 & 65 offer

shops scattered throughout .

Figure 33: Single / Multi-Family Residential

service to and from the corner of Yawkey Way and Brookline Avenue and Bus route

In the areas most immediately surrounding

55 services stops along Boylston Street and

Fenway Park, land use ranges from:

Jersey Street, approximately .20 miles from

surface parking (ballpark parking),

Fenway Park’s main entrance.

transportation rights-of-way (Massachusetts

Figure 34: Commercial / Mixed Use

Turnpike, commuter rail) and public open Fenway Park is located within a cluster

space (the Fens and the Fenway Victory

of commercial structures. As distances

Gardens). The majority of the physically

between neighborhood parcels and Fenway

developed parcels serve a retail/commercial

increase, scales and uses diversify and

function. Developed parcels vary in

decrease incrementally.

specific service, ranging from primarily specialty local shops, bars and restaurants

Figure 35: Vacant / Parking


22

1

Figure 37: Lansdowne St and Fenway Park (North)

ips

wi

ch

lansdowne st.

br

2

st.

oo

kli

ne

av

e.

massachusetts turnpike

way

bo

yls

to

key

n

st.

yaw van

ness

Figure 38: Ipswich St and Fenway Park (Southeast)

3

st.

Figure 39: Van Ness St and Fenway Park (South)

t

ey s jers

4 Figure 36: Fenway Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.

Figure 40: Yawkey Way and Fenway Park (West)


23 to several more recognizable national

the baselines and behind home plate. The

franchise establishments. Most of the

most iconic exterior view of Fenway Park

neighborhood “chain” retail establishments

originates at the corner of Yawkey Way

Fenway Park Monster Seats (2.5-stories.)

playing field

are day-to-day service establishments – for

and Brookline Avenue looking south toward

example, Exxon-Mobil fueling stations and/

Van Ness Street (Figure 23). Along this

or Goodyear tire retailers - while most of

corridor (Figure 40), Fenway visitors, or

the local shops cater to local residents and

local passers-by can stroll along a street

ballpark crowds.

occupied exclusively by small local retail

Parking (One-story com.) Lansdowne Street

Figure 41: Section aa Academic Institution (Four-story institutional) Commercial (Two-story retail)

establishments – most of which are selling

Ipswich Street

Red Sox merchandise. Effective at the start Fenway and the street

of the 2006 season, Yawkey Way has now

Figure 42: Section bb

been adapted as a private/public concourse The interaction of Fenway Park and the

in front of Fenway Park main gate (with

surrounding streetscape can essentially be

mixed reviews), closing the street and its

broken into three sectors: the main façade

retail establishments to the general public

along Yawkey Way, the backside of the

on game days at 5 pm. Shops are still

Green Monster along Lansdowne Street,

encouraged to remain open and conduct

and the service façade along Van Ness and

business during game hours.

Commercial (Three-story retail)

Fenway Park (approx four-story)

Van Ness Street

playing field

Figure 43: Section cc

Ipswich Streets (Figures 37-40).

Fenway Park (approx four-story)

Fenway Park’s relationship with Lansdowne Fenway Park stands at a modest scale

Street has changed since the inception

(45’-60’ at its highest points) surrounded

of the Monster Seats in 2003 (Figure

on all four-sides by single lane traffic. The

46). Once a street in which pedestrians

Ballpark Retail (Two-story retail)

Yawkey Way

bulk of the structure stands between 35’-45’

would cover their heads hoping the Green

playing field

tall, highlighted by its tallest sections along

Monster’s 23 foot net would catch homerun

Figure 44: Section dd


24 balls and property owner would replace

School at Fenway, which is adjacent to

broken windows on a bi-monthly basis for

the ballpark on Ipswich Street. The Arts

the same reasons, Lansdowne Street has

Academy... is the crowning achievement of

now become a secondary entrance/exit to

the Fenway revamping project.”9

and from the park. New entrance/exits to the park, via the Green Monster section have changed the park’s relationship with

Special Features: Monster Seating

the street and further energized the corner between Lansdowne Street, Brookline

Baseball’s most famous architectural

Avenue and Yawkey Way (Figure 37).

feature, as fabled as barriers in Jericho,

Figure 45: Green Monster Gameday view of Green Monster Seats

Jerusalem, China, Berlin has gone through Fenway Park extends beyond the walls

four distinct phases:”10

of the ballpark. The ballpark influences the neighborhood and the community

The (Duffy’s) Cliff

1912 - 1933

and in some cases, ballpark revitalization

The Monster

1933 - 1946

projects can work to benefit the ballparks

The Green Monster

1947 - 1975

relationship with the community. The

The Monster Gentrified 1976 - 2003

community’s relationship with the ballpark as is apparent in the following quote

In 2003 the fabled Green Monster entered

discussing one component of the Fenway

its fifth distinct phase, with the addition of a

Park expansion process (Figure 38):

seating level atop the wall. Currently, the Monster stands at 37-feet, covered in hard

Figure 46: Monster Seat Construction Construction view along Lansdowne Street - 2003

“The Boston Red Sox organization and

plastic (1976) – and has been fitted with

the city helped fund the construction of

250 of the most unusual seats available in

the successful Boston Arts Academy High

any ballpark today – the Monster Seats.


25 The Monster Seats debuted in

Following the instant success of the

2003, providing 250 fans the unique

Monster Seating section in 2003, new

opportunity to watch the game from the

ownership worked to construct a right field

Monster for the first time in the history

rooftop seating section in the off-season

of Fenway Park. But the installation

between the 2003 and 2004 seasons. In

of the Monster Seats changed more

2004, the Budweiser Roof Deck debuted

than way in which fans can now watch

on the right field rooftop. The rooftop

the game. The Monster Seat seating

seating deck has become near equal to

exaggerated the ballpark physical

the Monster Seating section in popularity

presence along Lansdowne Street. The

and ticket prices have reflected that

seating area cantilevers over the entire

popularity. Figure 47: 406 club transformation Removal of glass enclosure - November, 2005

southern sidewalk (Figure 48), and adds approximately 10-15 feet of vertical mass

The Budweiser Roof Deck served as a

to the overall height of the Monster.

catalyst for the major expansion project in the off-season of 2005. The right field

The Monster section concourses have

rooftop seating section expanded to

been expanded since 2003, enabling the

the right field roof deck section and left

occupancy of additional Monster section

and right field rooftop sectiona are now

persons, while facilitating increased

connected via a new open air seating

traffic along Lansdowne Street via new

section, where the 406 club past existed.

entrances/exits to the ballpark. Following

“Gone is the high glass that sat in front of

2004 improvements, the Monster section

what was the .406 Club. That area will be

now seats 280 persons with standing-

open now, with a lower half -- the EMC

room tickets sold in compliance with

Club...and upper half known as the Home

Boston city fire code.

Plate Pavilion.�11

Figure 48: Fenway Park - Monster Seats Gameday activity along Lansdowne street


26 Fenway is now home to the most expensive

Avenue. These areas show an evolutionary

tickets in Major League Baseball.

cross-pollination in the form of thriving student population and a maturing

The expansion and modernization of

commercial core between the Charles

Fenway Park enables the Red Sox

River and the Massachusetts Turnpike –

to remain financially competitive an

around the Kenmore Station. Yet, the lone

increasingly money-driven industry.

historical constant is the relationship of

Despite increased ticket prices and modern

Fenway Park to the city, along Yawkey Way.

additions to the ballpark, new ownership

Figure 49: Typical Building Type Architectural typology - Kenmore neighborhood

has embraced Fenway Park, the Save

Today, Fenway Park is still surrounded

Fenway community and the Red Sox faithful

by many of the things that surrounded

in most expansion decisions, to preserve

it in 1912. The ballpark lies within a the

the essence of what is truly a shrine among

same historic network of small multi-family

the major league ballparks today.

residential units, dozens of preserved or re-used industrial/warehouse parcels and mixed commercial blocks – catering to

Synopsis and Conclusion

both the off-season Fenway neighborhood (gas stations, local stores, etc) as well

Figure 50: Typical Building Type Architectural typology - Fenway neighborhood

On any given day, a walk through Boston’s

as to Fenway Park fan base throughout

Fenway neighborhood has the ability to

the summer months (ballpark shops,

showcase an entire century of evolution

restaurants, bars, etc.). On Red Sox

and urban history in Boston. That history

game days, the neighborhood welcomes

is on display in the form of old and new

thousands of red t-shirts, street vendors

parcels surrounding the Back Bay Fens

and the smell of bratwurst to fill its streets,

and changing land uses along Brookline

asking only that through traffic redirect itself.


27 On off-days, the neighborhood becomes

Final Thoughts

quiet, pedestrian traffic disappears and the majority of the local street activity is in the

Fenway Park has provided nearly a century

form of vehicular through traffic. Still, as the

of service to Major League Baseball and

neighborhood continues to evolve, the most

to the Red Sox. Still it continues to evolve

powerful reality surrounding Fenway Park is

and inspire with innovative ways to increase

the neighborhood that has existed around it

seating capacity and provide one-of-a-kind

for the past 95-years.

views for spectators.

Fenway Park is the oldest and perhaps

The Monster Seats stand at nearly 40-feet

most revered ballpark still in existence

above the playing field and 300-400 feet

today. Yet, every year its most clearly

from home plate. Yet the unobstructed view

communicated message is perhaps its

of the playing field from directly beyond the

simplest and most commonly overlooked.

left field wall is so spectacular, it has the

Past models of appropriately scaled

potential to revolutionize the way seating is

stadium structures can function and prosper

configured in future ballpark projects.

Figure 51: Fenway Park - Main Entrance Gameday atmosphere along Yawkey Way

within the confines of functioning urban neighborhoods. Ballparks do not have to act as “black holes� within the greater contextual urban fabric. Instead they can relate, respond and enrich their surround built environments through integrated planning, dynamic placement and appropriate scale. Figure 52: Fenway Park Area Typical retail typology surrounding Fenway Park


28

Figure 53: Wrigley Field - Chicago, IL Aerial Photo (current)


29

Wrigley Field

Consequently the field’s dimensions were

1060 W. Addison Street Chicago, Illinois

extended by 25 feet.13 The ballpark became a piece of neighborhood. Wrigley Field Statistics:

“Wrigley Field in Chicago still surveys

The Federal League folded in 1918 and

blocks of trees and substantial dwellings,

Weegham Park and the Chicago Federals

with the skyline of Lakeshore Drive as a

were sold to William Wrigley. Wrigley

backdrop.” 12

embraced a different vision of the future of the facility. The ballpark saw the first

Since 1914, Wrigley Field, originally

iteration of Wrigley’s outfield bleachers,

Weegham Park, has neatly occupied one

constructed in 1923, which established

square block in Lakeview, a north side

a modest buffer between the north and

Chicago residential neighborhood. Named

east ends of the park and the surrounding

Weegham Park, after its first owner Charlie

residences. The new bleachers increased

Weegham, the ballpark was designed

seating capacity to nearly 20,000 persons.

Tenant: Chicago Cubs (NL) Opened: April 23, 1914 First night game: August 9, 1988 Capacity: 40,052; 38,902 (pre 2006) Surface Area: 108,000 sq. ft. Elevation: 595 ft. Architect: Zachary Taylor Davis Owner: Charlie Weegham (1914-1916)

Chicago Cubs (1916 - current)

Cost: $250,000 Table 3: Wrigley Venue Stats

for the Chicago Federals (and 14,000 spectators) of baseball’s Federal League.

As the game, the team, the city and the

The ballpark instantly established a strong

nature of American cities continued to

bond with its surrounding community. After

expand, Wrigley Field responded with

only its third professional game, Charlie

change. In 1926 changes included a

Weegham had publicly noted how the

lowered playing field, maximizing seating

nearby residential fabric had constrained

space in the lower deck and adding a new

the dimensions of the field. Neighboring

reinforced concrete and steel second deck.

residents responded, and donated portions

Seating capacity swelled to more than

of their own pieces of property to ballpark.

38,000 and the modern form of Wrigley

Figure 54: Wrigley Field: Main Entrance (Wrigleyville / Lakeview, Chicago)


30



In 1981, the Wrigleys sold the franchise

Weegham Park was officially renamed

to the Tribune Company, who still own the

Wrigley Field.

club today. The Tribune Company planned



for the installation of ballpark lights in

 



 Figure 55: Wrigley Field dimensions (1922-25)



Field was born. 1926 was the year in which



Nearly one decade into the life of

1982, but implementation was temporarily

Wrigley Field, several of the ballpark’s

delayed in an effort to appease Wrigley

most emblematic and recognizable

Field purists. In 1984, following a Cubs

characteristics were already established. In

post-season appearance, Major League

1937, the hand-operated scoreboard was

Baseball required that Wrigley be outfitted

installed above new centerfield bleachers.

with game lights or play all future post

That year, the first modern iteration of

season games at a neutral site with lights to

the Wrigley Field’s metal bleachers were

satisfy the leagues contractual obligations

constructed. Additionally, the defining

with primetime telecasters. August 9, 1988,

icon of Wrigley Field, the outfield ivy, was

Wrigley Field was host to the first night

planted in the off-season along the outfield-

game in the 74-year history of the ballpark.

warning track – 200 Boston Ivy plants and

    

 Figure 56: Wrigley Field dimensions (1992-05)

350 Japanese Bittersweet plants that still

Today the Cubs play 30 night games and

cover the outfield walls of the ballpark today.

51 day games at Wrigley Field each year, per agreement with the City of Chicago and

The middle of the twentieth century saw

the Wrigleyville neighborhood. Most Major

little change at Wrigley Field, but following

League ball clubs regularly play between

the success, popularity and continued

twelve and twenty home day games per

neighborhood embrace of the park, the

year and 60-70 home night games. Playoff

Lakeview neighborhood around Wrigley

games at Wrigley Field follow Major League

Field became know as Wrigleyville.

Baseball television agreements and allow


31 for eleven post-season games to be

to the north and Diversity Parkway to the

televised during primetime hours - eleven is

south, and Ravenswood Avenue to the

the maximum number home playoff games

west and Lakeview Park/Lake Michigan

in a single postseason.

to the east. Within this set of larger boundaries, the Lakeview neighborhood

Following the 2005 season, the Cubs

is essentially divided into four quadrants:

added nearly 1,800 seats to the bleachers,

Northalsted, Lakeview East, West Lakeview

increasing the capacity to just over 41,000.

and Wrigleyville, defined by neighborhood

The Cubs also have plans to complete a

transportation barriers (arterial roads and

new multipurpose triangular parking/retail

elevated rail) anchored by Wrigley Field as

structure, prior to the 2010 season. (Figure

its central focal point (Figures 60-62).

Figure 57: Wrigley Field (2010) Future Improvements to Wrigley Field

57). This expansion will enable Wrigley Field to enhance its appeal to accommodate

Collectively the Lakeview neighborhood

younger fans and modern families, without

in dominated by a rectilinear grid of fine

physically changing/expanding the ballpark.

grain one-, two- and three-story residential/

The project will house restaurants, retail

commercial structures. The neighborhood

shops, parking facilities and some private

is highlighted by a hierarchical road

player facilities, built in a vacant lot

network, characterized by access alleys,

adjacent to Wrigley Field’s west entrance.14

elevated rail lines and severed diagonally

Figure 58: Wrigley Field (Current) current view facing east/northeast

by Clark Street. North Lake Shore Drive Context and Form Analysis

and North Lincoln Avenue compliment Clark Street to the east and west respectively, as

Wrigley Field anchors Wrigleyville in

diagonal corridors northwest and southeast,

Lakeview, a North Side neighborhood of

reflecting the form of Lake Michigan to the

Chicago. Lakeview is bound by Irving Road

east. All extend north of Lakeview and run

Figure 59: Wrigley Field (1942)


32

Graceland West

Lincoln Park

Graceland Cemetary

Buena Park

North Center

Lake Michigan

Wrigleyville

Roscoe Village

Lakeview

Wrightwood Neighbors Figure 60: Lakeview Neighborhood Satellite view

Lakeview East

Park West


33 the entire length of Chicago, linking the

U.S Cellular Park (home for the Chicago

North Side most directly (locally) with the

White Sox) at 35th Street Station, south of

Loop and South Side of Chicago.

the subway corridor.

The Red, Purple and Brown EL Lines

The north-south order of Chicago is

service the North Side with direct north-

reinforced in the hierarchy of local streets.

south rail access to the Loop and the south

Nonetheless, West Diversity Parkway

side of Chicago. All three lines run elevated

(southern boundary of Lakeview) and

through Lakeview. The Brown Line veers

West Addison Street are strong east-

west at Clark Street junction (prior to the

west connectors south of the ballpark and

Wrigley Field Addison station) and provides

West Irving Street (northern boundary) is

service from Kimball and Lawrence to the

the strongest east-west connector to the

Loop Elevated via North Side Main Line.

north. Wrigley Field is surrounded on four

(Figure 61). The Purple Line travels past

sides by major and minor streets on: West

Wrigley, with service from Linden-Wilmette

Waveland Avenue (north), North Sheffield

to Howard Street and extended service to

Avenue (east), West Addison Street (south),

the Loop Elevated, via North Side Main

Clark Street (west) and Seminary Street

Line during weekday rush hours. (Figures

(immediate west). (Figure 64).

Figure 61: Transportation Network62

Figure 62: Ballpark Road & Rail Network

61 & 62). The Red Line runs the length of Chicago, from Howard Street in the northern

The Wrigleyville neighborhood grid is a

limits to Dan Ryan Expressway Station in

consistent compilation of privately owned

the Southside (via State Street Subway

parcels and regulated lots. The areas along

tunnel). The Red Line services both

Clark Street, and West Addison Avenue, to

Wrigley Field at Addison Street Station (one

the ballparks immediate south are the only

block to the east of N Sheffield Avenue) and

outstanding outlying forms, deviating from

Figure 63: Figure Ground Analysis


34

W Waveland Avenue N Halsted Street

Shuttle Service Line 154

N Sheffield Avenue

N Seminary Street et

tre

kS

lar

NC

Ashland Drive

Park n Ride

Figure 64: Wrigley Field; Immediate Area Satellite view

Wrigley Field

Addison Station W Addison Street

Red Line


35 the regularity of the neighborhood form and

the picturesque residential backdrop visible

fabric (in size and orientation), as well as

from within the ballpark.

the common uses of structures within the neighborhood grid.

The main entrance of Wrigley Field lies at the junction of Clark Street, Seminary Street and W. Addison Avenue at the southwest

Neighborhood Characteristics

corner of the block. The location of the ballpark’s main gate, opposite the Red Line

Wrigley Field is the only current major

Station along Addison (southeast corner

league ballpark to stand in a predominantly

of the ballpark at W. Addison Avenue &

residential neighborhood. Blocks of early

N. Sheffield Avenue) create a corridor

19th century two/three-story multi-family

conducive to commercial/retail activities

apartment units characterize the residential

associated with gameday travelers and

nature of Wrigleyville. The most iconic

visiting tourists within the otherwise

residential blocks at/around Wrigley Field

residential fabric (note concentration of

are the two prominent rows of three-story

commercial/retail units along Addison

multi-family apartments line the north and

between the main gate and the Red Line

east of the ballpark along W. Waveland

Station). Additionally, shuttle services from

Avenue and N. Sheffield Avenue. The

nearby Northwestern University parking

multi-family apartments epitomize the

lots, pick-up and drop-off spectators and/or

residential character of Wrigleyville and are

tourists at the junction of Clark Street and

home to the infamous rooftop bleachers at

Seminary Street on W. Addison Avenue,

Wrigley. Further in the distance mid-rise

further contributing the human flow along

Lakeview apartments paired with high-rise

the W. Addison Avenue before and after

apartments along Lake Shore Drive paint

games.

Figure 65: Single / Multi-Family Residential

Figure 66: Commercial / Mixed Use

Figure 67: Vacant / Parking / Lt Industry


36

n sheffield ave.

n seminary st.

1

Figure 69: W Waveland Ave and Wrigley Field (North)

nc ks lar t. w waveland ave.

2

Figure 70: N Sheffield Ave and Wrigley Field (East)

red line addison st. station w addison st.

w addison st.

n sheffield ave.

3

Figure 71: W Addison St and Wrigley Field (South)

k lar

nc st.

4 Figure 68: Wrigley Field Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.

Figure 72: N Clark St and Wrigley Field (West)


37 Secondary entrances (bleacher access

pedestrian street between W. Waveland and

only) exist in the opposite (northwestern)

the N. Clark Street and W. Addison Avenue

corner of the ballpark. The nature of this

junction, and two elevated walkways

region of the ballpark caters to reduced

entrances into Wrigley – at the north and

volume of fans; still, several residential

south ends of the west façade. (Figure 57).

Multi-Family Apts Rooftop Seating (three-story) Wrigley Field Right field bleachers (1.5-story)

playing field

W Waveland Avenue

Figure 73: Section aa

parcels have been occupied by small scale

Multi-Family Apts Rooftop Seating (three-story)

commercial/retail establishments and the grid opens slightly to enable the flow of fan

Wrigley and the Street

Wrigley Field Left field bleachers (approx 1.5-story)

traffic.

playing field

N Sheffield Avenue

Wrigley Field is a human-scale ballpark Neighborhood parking is a near impossibility

both in its relationship to the street as well

in traveling to/from games at Wrigley

as in its relationship to the fans, the field

(primary modes of transit are the Red Line

and the game. The south and west ends

and park-and-ride shuttle services). Nearby

of the ballpark are the structure’s highest

parking lots and paved surface parcels

points, a modest five stories above grade.

are generally associated with commercial/

(Figures 71, 76 & 77). The commercial/

retail establishments and the largest plot

retail corridor along W. Addison Avenue

of surface parking immediate adjacent

has a slight bottleneck between North Clark

to Wrigley Field (triangle lot between

Street and N. Sheffield Avenue (Figures 71

(Seminary Street and N. Clark Street) is the

& 75), creating a more desirable pedestrian

site of the first modern addition to Wrigley

path along the commercial street side of

Field that is outside the footprint of the

the West Addison Street. Seminary Street,

original structure. Plans are for a three- to

between North Clark Street and Wrigley

four-story mixed parking, entertainment

Field’s west façade is to the location of the

and retail structure, highlighted by a closed

first modern (structural) ballpark addition

Figure 74: Section bb

Wrigley Field (approx five-story) Starbucks Coffee (two-story retail)

playing field

W Addison Street

Figure 75: Section cc Proposed Parking /Retail facility (three-story)

McDonalds (one-story retail) playing field

Figure 76: Section dd

N Clark Street


38 and controlled ballpark-to-street relationship

Special Features: Rooftop Seating

in the history of the ballpark. (Figures 72 & 76).

On April 23, 1914, the day of the first ballgame at Wrigley Field (Weegham Park),

1050

1010 3649

The northern and eastern ends of the

the first rooftop seating club/deck at Wrigley

ballpark exhibit one of baseball’s most

Field also opened.15

unusual relationships, with outfield

3621

Figure 77: Rooftop Seating Clubs W Waveland Avenue & N Sheffield Avenue

bleachers only reaching one-to-two stories

The rooftop experience uniquely associated

above grade, three-story apartment

with Wrigley Field has entertained fans

buildings across each respective avenue

as long as the ballpark itself. Over

enclose the ballpark. (Figures 69, 70, 73, 74 & 77). The interior playing field and the

the evolution of Wrigley Field, the neighborhood, the sport and use of rooftop

exterior street are literally divided by only

seating along West Waveland and North

several feet at certain points along West

Sheffield Avenues has changed. Once a

Waveland and North Sheffield Avenues,

benefit for building tenants, club owners or

creating a unique relationship/connection

friends with lawn chairs, the rooftop seating

between the life and culture along the

community has developed into an exclusive

street and within the ballpark. (Figures 69,

enclave of private baseball viewing. Today

70, 78, 80 & 81). The surrounding multi-

rooftop seating has become a private

family apartment complexes have created

enterprise, offering fans a one-of-a-kind

unique vantage points and opportunities for

baseball experience with all the perks (and

spectaors and residents to watch games

price) of modern day luxury box seating.

throughout the history of Wrigley Field. Currently there are 13 buildings along West Figure 78: Ballpark relationship to the street N Sheffield Avenue - Righfield corner

Waveland and North Sheffield Avenues


39 outfitted with privately owned rooftop clubs

(Lakeview Baseball Club) and/or group

Rooftop Clubs:

offering gameday views of the field at

payments (Murphy’s Bleachers) for the

Wrigley Field. These clubs are privately

gameday lease of their rooftop club, but

owned and operated, independent from

all open their doors 30 minutes prior to the

building tenants and the Chicago Cubs.

scheduled time of first pitch and ask guests

Rootop by the Firehouse - 1050 W. Waveland Ave. Beyond the Ivy - 1048 W. Waveland Avenue Brixen Ivy - 1044 W. Waveland Avenue Beyond the Ivy - 1038 W. Waveland Avenue The Cubby Bear - 1032 W. Waveland Avenue Beyond the Ivy - 1010 W. Waveland Avenue

However, private club owners have recently

to leave 30 minutes after the game’s final

been asked to collaborate with the city of

out. Total club capacities range from 50

Chicago and the Cubs and participate in

persons to 200 persons.

a revenue sharing/tax program with the

Murphy’s Bleachers -3649 N. Sheffield Avenue The Cubby Bear - 3643 N. Sheffield Avenue Wrigley Rooftop - 3639 N. Sheffield Avenue Ivy League Baseball Club - 3637 N Sheffield Avenue Lakeview Baseball Club - 3633 N. Sheffield Ave Skybox on Sheffield - 3627 N. Sheffield Avenue Tailgators Rooftops - 3621 N. Sheffield Avenue Figure 79: Rooftop Club names and addresses

Chicago Cubs, ending years of controversy

All rooftop clubs provide fans with food

regarding the privatization of the rooftop

and drink (included in the per person ticket

seating terraces and re-establishing a

price/group rental fee price) and provide

modern-day (financial) relationship with

game day access (for guests) to climate-

Waveland and Sheffield Avenue residents

controlled indoor lounges (fireplace, pool

and property owners. Rooftop clubs

table, bar, televisions, etc.), in the event

generally occupy the third and rooftop

of inclement weather. Additionally, all

stories of the multi-family apartment blocks.

rooftop clubs provide guests with access

3649 N Sheffield

3621 N Sheffield Figure 80: Rooftop Clubs - N. Sheffield Avenue

to a lounge level restroom facilities (1-2 Wrigleyville rooftop seating clubs offer

restrooms), as well as handicapped access

a standard variety of unique rooftop

via elevator and lift services.

1010

W Waveland

experience. For approximately $125 $160, rooftop fans can enjoy a seat (and

The evolution of the “rooftops” casts light

indoor lounge access) at any of the clubs

on the changes that have occurred in and

along Waveland or Sheffield Avenues.

around Wrigley Field over the course of the

Several clubs require yearly memberships

twentieth century. Changes in the ballpark’s

1050

W Waveland

Figure 81: Rooftop Clubs - W. Waveland Ave.


40 urban footprint, the club’s monetary

characteristics as other surrounding

motivations and the privatization of the

Lakeview blocks – complete with ownership

“rooftops” are responsible for the modern

of spaces along ballpark corridors.

dynamic that exists along Waveland and Sheffield Avenues. Private residents are asked to share their streets with gameday

Synopsis and Conclusion

traffic, share their neighborhood with ballpark activity and share their homes

In April 1914, the first game at the friendly

(buildings) with gameday spectators for

confines of Wrigley Field was played in the

81-92 days a year– with few of the perks

heart of Chicago’s residential Lakeview

that once that once sold ballpark front

neighborhood. Today, Wrigley Field still

properties. Despite the modern third-party

plays host to Chicago Cubs baseball in the

ownership of the “rooftops,” shutting out

exact same location, the heart of Lakeview,

once lucky/privileged building tenants and

now called Wrigleyville.

changing the public/private spatial balance Figure 82: Wrigleyville - Addison & Clark

around Wrigley Field - Waveland and

Wrigley Field is home to many of the most

Sheffield Avenues still play host to desirable

unusual features in the baseball today.

housing and the nearest shared ballpark

Merely the name “Wrigley Field” or street

spaces in baseball via rooftop access,

names “Waveland Avenue” or “Sheffield

shared public street spaces and general

Avenue” conjure a baseball related thought,

proximately to the ballpark.

specific to day baseball and the ivy covered wall. It is the only Major League

Figure 83: Wrigley Field - Sheffield Ave

Still, for 280 days each year, the residences

ballpark currently located within a primarily

along Waveland and Sheffield Avenue are

residential neighborhood. (Figure 65). It

subject to many of the same residential

is only the second ballpark (AT&T Park) to


41 create unobstructed sightlines onto the field

Final Thoughts

from a public street outside the stadium. (Figure 83). And, though the culture of

Wrigley Field is the only ballpark to offer

rooftop seating has changed over the past

seating sections outside the physical

25 years (Figures 84 & 85), Wrigley Field

confines of the ballpark complex. Yet, the

remains the only ballpark in the league to

rooftop seating terraces along Waveland

allow outside seating with visual access to

and Sheffield Avenues are perhaps the

its playing field.

most influential and characteristic traits of Wrigley Field - both the ballpark experience,

Wrigley Field and Fenway Park represent

and its connection to the neighborhood.

the lone remaining Classic era ballparks, nearly 40-years older then the next oldest

The two oldest remaining ballparks still

ballpark still in use (Dodger Stadium –

in use today, also provide the two most

1962). Consequently these two ballparks

distinctive field-viewing experiences in

stand as a testimony to urban ideologies

Major League Baseball. Rooftop seating

past that valued integration in neighborhood

around Wrigley Field has been a popular

and the greater urban fabric.

tradition in Chicago for neatly 100 years,

Figure 84: New Rooftop Seating Club Constructon along Sheffield Ave

while the Monster Seats will continue to be These two case-studies have proven to be

a preferred choice for as many years as the

successful examples of values that were

Red Sox play in Fenway Park.

abandoned during the postwar era. A ballpark tightly knit into its respective physical fabric, presents unparallel opportunities to create unique and spectacular ballpark seating sections.

Figure 85: New Rooftop Seating Bleacher Constructon on Waveland Ave rooftop


42

Case Studies II

Figure 86: Case Study Ballparks (Dodger Stadium and Shea Stadium)


43

Introduction to an Era

with sprawling parking lots became major

Postwar Stadiums (1953-1991) & The “Cookie-Cutter” (1962 - 1971)

retail marketplaces for the metropolis. These retail developments displaced many urban public market spaces, which led to

Following World War II, the American

the further decline of postwar American

economy entered an era of steady

urban centers.

economic growth and expansion that would continue for nearly three decades. “This

In an effort to combat the decline of

expansion had uneven effects on cities,

inner-cities, urban regions constructed

which were buffeted by opposing forces

highways to link downtown areas to new

of centralization, represented by the influx

suburban developments. These urban

of new residents and decentralization in

actions ultimately led to a new breed of

the form of suburbanization.”

16

Postwar

developmental typology, which developed

governmental subsidies enabled property

somewhere between urban and suburban –

developers to construct entire suburban

along the corridor that united them.

communities. City residents flocked to these new developments, through the

“In Arlington, Texas, and Anaheim,

1950s and 1960s. In numerous city

California, stadiums were built, not for their

suburbs, the rate of growth reached levels

own small populations, but because they lay

in excess of 200% (Chicago - 195%, Detroit

along the new, linear metropolis spawned

– 206%, and Houston – 330%).

by interurban freeways.”18

“Businesses followed the residential

“[Ball]club owners followed their customers

expansion and sometimes even preceded

out of declining American cities, into

17

it.”

Large suburban retail developments,

suburban landscapes of new affluence and

Figure 87: Original Seat Shea Stadium (1964-09) Shea Stadium Demolition: 2009


44 Postwar Ballparks:

mobility [and] new team names – Minnesota

ballparks, over a 38-year period, (1953-

Ballpark Name, Host City (Year) **County Stadium, Milwaukee (1953) *Candlestick Park, San Francisco (1960) Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles (1962) ***Shea Stadium, Queens (1964) Anaheim Stadium, Anaheim (1965) **Astrodome, Houston (1965) **Fulton County Stadium, Atlanta (1966) **Busch Stadium, St. Louis (1966) Oakland County Stadium, Oakland (1968) *Jack Murphy Stadium, SD (1969) **Riverfront Stadium, Cincinatti (1970) **Veterans Stadium, Phila (1970) **Three Rivers Stadium. Pittsburgh (1970) Royals Stadium, Kansas City (1973) **Kingdome, Seattle (1977)

Twins, California Angels, and Texas

1991). Sprawling suburbs saw ballpark

Rangers – reflected the shift of Americans

dimensions that were no longer dictated by

from the urban to the regional loyalties.”19

surrounding urban fabric. Instead, perfect

New ballparks were no longer being

symmetry dominated this era.

Comiskey Park, Chicago

(1991)

* No longer in service for a professional baseball club ** No longer in use/existence in any sporting capacity *** To be demolished 2009. Note: Candlestick Park (3com Park), Anaheim Stadium (Edison Field), Oakland County Stadium (Mcafee Collosium), Jack Murphy Stadium (Qualcomm Field), Riverfront Stadium (Cinergy Field), Royals Stadium (Kaufman Stadium), Comisky Park (U.S. Cellular Field), underwent name changes (1996 - current).

Figure 88: Veteran Stadium Implosion (2004) Table 4 (above): Postwar Era - Completion Dates

constructed within the fabric of America’s declining city centers. In fact, postwar

By the late 1990s, the ballparks of the

ballparks were often so removed from the

1950s and 1960s once celebrated, were

central fabric, that they were unable to

increasingly seen as obsolete “dinosaurs”.

maintain any direct physical relationship

Seven of these stadiums were demolished

with their surrounding environments.

and two more abandoned over a nineyear period between 1996 and 2006. The

Furthermore, the increased popularity of

demolished ballparks were: Atlanta’s Fulton

both baseball and football throughout the

County Stadium (1997), Seattle’s Kingdom

1960’s produced the “cookie-cutter” stadium

(2000), Milwaukee’s County Stadium

typology. The “cookie-cutter” was generally

(2000), Pittsburgh’s Three Rivers Stadium

a round, multi-purpose, concrete structure

(2001), Cincinnati’s Riverfront Stadium

unsatisfactory to both sports. Beginning with

(2002), Philadelphia’s Veterans Stadium

the construction of the Astrodome (1965),

(2004), St. Louis’ Busch Stadium (2005) and

eight of these multi-function venues were

Queens’ Shea Stadium (To be demolished

opened between 1965 and 1971. Today

in 2009). Houston’s Astrodome and San

only two multi-sport “cookie-cutters” remain,

Diego’s Qualcomm Park remain today,

and none are still in use by Major League

despite being abandoned by their baseball

Baseball. The postwar era in the United

clubs in 1999 and 2003 respectively.

States witnessed the birth of fourteen new


45

First from the Postwar

New York as the true commencement of

Dodger Stadium - Los Angeles,CA. Shea Stadium - Queens, NY

postwar baseball, with the ballpark era beginning with Candlestick Park (1960) and Dodger Stadium (1962). Shea Stadium was

“Baseball parks have a unique geometry, ill suited to other sports.”

20

completed two-years later (1964) to serve as the home to the New York Mets.

Ex-professional ballplayer Richie Hebner

Despite prominent locations in Los Angeles

(1968-1985) once said, “I stand behind the

and New York City respectively, both

plate in Philadelphia and I don’t honestly

Dodger Stadium (Elysian Park) and Shea

know whether I’m in Pittsburgh, Cincinnati,

Stadium (Flushing Meadow Park) occupy

St. Louis or Philly. The all look alike.”21

vast acreages of land with litte physical

The same truth was evident outside these

connection to any existing urban fabric.

stadiums, in their exterior relationships to

Additionally, each ballpark is surrounded by

their surroudings.

vast surface parking lost and clear proximity to major highways. These ballparks are

The postwar ballpark refers to any ballpark

best characterized as the products of a

construction that was completed post World

postwar era of economic prosperity and

War II, and prior to the “Modern-Retro”

reformed urban ideals.

Figure 89: Dodger Stadium - Bleachers (Dodger Stadium - Right Field Scoreboard)

movement, which began in 1992 with the completion of Camden Yards. The postwar

Today, Dodger Stadium and Shea Stadium

era technically began in 1953 with the

are the two oldest postwar ballparks (of

completion of Milwaukee’s County Stadium.

six reaming) still in use by Major League

However, many baseball purists credit the

Baseball, and Shea Stadium is scheduled

exodus of the Giants and Dodgers from

for demolition in 2009.

Figure 90: Shea Stadium - View from 7-train (Shea Stadium - Right Field Scoreboard)


46

Figure 91: Dodger Stadium - Los Angeles, CA Aerial Photo (current)


47

Dodger Stadium

On April 10, 1962, Dodger Stadium opened

1000 Elysian Park Ave. Los Angeles, California

as the temporary shared home of the Los Angeles Dodgers and the Los Angeles Angels. Dodger Stadium would unofficially

in 2009 Dodger Stadium is the third oldest

be referred to as “Chavez Ravine” until

major league ballpark in active use today.

1965, when the Angels officially moved

Originally completed in 1962 (one-year

into Angels Stadium (now Edison Field) in

behind schedule), Dodger Stadium remains

Anaheim, California.

an icon of the westward expansion of

Dodger Stadium Statistics: Tenant: Los Angeles Dodgers (NL) Opened: April 10, 1962 Previous Home: Ebbets Field, Brooklyn Capacity: 56,000 Field Surface Area: 113,000 sq. ft. Elevation: 340 ft.

baseball into the state of California. The

Dodger Stadium was originally designed

Dodgers relocated from Brooklyn to Los

to be expandable to 85,000 fans, but has

Angeles following the 1957 baseball season

never been expanded. In fact, very little

(the same year the Giants relocated from

changed at Dodger Stadium over the

New York to San Francisco).

first 30-years of the Stadium’s existence.

Architect: Emil Praeger Owner: Los Angeles Dodgers Cost: $23,000,000 Table 5: Dodger Stadium Statistics

However, after the 1999 season, new luxury In September 1957, Dodger owner Walter

seating areas were added behind home

O’Malley agreed to the exchange of 300

plate. The same year the luxury suites

acres of land in Chavez Ravine, Los

were also upgraded to provide the same

Angeles, for a privately funded 50,000-seat

amenities that ones in newer ballparks

stadium commitment on that site. Dodger

typically provide.

Stadium was the first ballpark since Yankee Stadium in 1923 to be privately financed

Additional minor improvements were

(and until Pac-Bell in 2000). Construction

made to Dodger Stadium following the

began on September 17, 1959.

2004 season. Team dugouts were pushed forward, which allowed for the insertion of

Figure 92: Dodger Stadium: Outfield Entrance (Chavez Ravine, Los Angeles)


48

Elysian Park

Lincoln Heights

Echo Park

Central City

Westlake Chinatown

Figure 93: Chavez Ravine / Elysian Park Neighborhood Satellite view


49 several more rows of “Dugout Club” seating

Stadium lies approximately 300-500-feet

and new seats along the foul lines. At the

above sea level, elevating the ballpark

conclusion of the 2005 season, the Dodgers

above residences to east, west and south.

announced plans to replace all the seats

The ballpark offers some wonderful vistas

at Dodger Stadium. By opening day 2006,

to sections of downtown Los Angeles.

all stadium seating had been returned to its original color scheme: yellow, light orange,

One of the most stunning characteristics of

turquoise, and sky blue.

Dodger Stadium is that there is no direct

Figure 94: Transportation Network

bus/rail service to ballpark. The closest Until Denver’s Coors Field was constructed

public lines are: Metro bus routes 2, 3 & 4

in 1995, Dodger Stadium and Wrigley Filed

are available in Echo Park at the corner of

were the only two national league parks (in

Sunset Boulevard and Elysian Park Avenue

use) constructed solely for baseball.

– approximately 1/4 -1/2 mile from the main gate (along Elysian Park Avenue). Since 2005, the City of Los Angeles has been

Context and Form Analysis

providing shuttle bus service from nearby MTA rail stations to the ballpark. Shuttle

Dodger Stadium and its surrounding

bus service currently originates at Union

facilities occupy 300 acres within Elysian

Station and Chinatown stations nearest

Park in Northern Los Angeles. The site

to Dodger Stadium. Shuttle bus service is

is characterized by the rolling hills of

most frequent from Union Station - every

Elysian Park to the north, limited access

fifteen-minutes - and is also available every

to surrounding neighborhoods, and the

half hour from the Chinatown Station.

Interstate10 / Interstate110 freeway

However, due to financial limitations and

interchange to the south/southwest. Dodger

ridership concerns, shuttle bus service from

Figure 95: Ballpark Road & Rail Network

Figure 96: Figure Ground Analysis


50

02

,3

Pas ade na F

4 ay , W :2 m es iu ut ad Ro St us B

ree wa

Stadium Bus Gate: Bus Routes: ce419, ce413 394, 96, 94, 91, 90, 81

y1 10

Dodger Stadium

04

,3

Figure 97: Dodger Stadium; Immediate Area Satellite view


51 each respective station is only available

in nature and all modest in scale. The two

for opening day and Friday home games.

most prominent neighborhoods nearest to

Dodger Stadium is isolated from the urban

the ballpark are: Echo Park to the west and

fabric of Los Angeles. The ballpark site is

Chinatown to the east/southeast.

surrounded by several neighborhoods – most notably Echo Park and Chinatown.

Echo Park is primarily a residential

The surrounding functions and layout of the

neighborhood characterized by its short

surrounding forms appear to organically

rectilinear blocks of residential structure

radiate from the ballpark as an epicenter

sloping upward towards Elysian Park. The

- however, the plan is the product of

neighborhood is highlighted by commercial

infrastructure and the natural topography

activity along West Sunset Boulevard and

surrounding the region. The reality is that

Stadium Way (with ballpark inlet/outlet

physical linkages between the ballpark and

corridors along Elysian Park Avenue and

surrounding neighborhoods are few.

Scott Avenue). West Sunset Boulevard and

Figure 98: Single / Multi-Family Residential

Stadium Way establish parallel corridors of activity throughout the neighborhood, while Neighborhood Characteristics

Elysian Park and Scott Avenue serve as

Figure 99: Commercial / Mixed Use

the primary perpendicular bisectors in the Dodger Stadium is a ballpark without

establishment of an organic neighborhood

much surrounding neighborhood context.

grid. (Figure 95).

The immediate neighborhood consists of primarily of car stalls and pavement. The

Chinatown is physical divided from Elysian

neighborhood beyond the vast limits of the

Park (and the ballpark) via Interstate 10.

stadium facilities include Elysian Park and

The neighborhood is located between

several small neighborhoods –residential

Interstate 10 to the west/northwest and

Figure 100: Vacant / Parking


52

1

Figure 102: Dodger Stadium (North)

2 Figure 103: Dodger Stadium (East)

3

Figure 101: Dodger Stadium Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.

ay ew fre

pa

e

na

ac

de

err

sa

ct

sta d

lila

ium

wa y

Figure 104: Dodger Stadium (South)

4

Figure 105: Dodger Stadium (West)


53 the Southern Pacific rail line to the east/

unique relationship with one of the largest

southeast, but still thrives as a culturally

parking lot areas in major league baseball

diverse destination for commerce/retal

today. (Figure 113).

activity and residential life. Chinatown

Dodger Stadium: Bleecher Section

North Parking Lot

playing field

is essentially a commercial district,

The paved area/parking lots that surround

characterized by long retail blocks,

Dodger Stadium are responsive to the

concentrated along N. Broadway

topographic conditions that surrounded

(Chinatown Gate is at North Broadway

Dodger Stadium. The parking area is

and Caesar Chavez Avenue). Smaller

divided into two distinct parking sections.

residential clusters lie off Broadway and

The ballpark “inner-ring” of parking lots

provide housing and business opportunities

(visually reminiscent of fan blades when

that comprise the mixed demographic of

viewed from above) provides tiered parking

Chinatown. Bisecting Broadway, Bernard

for physically impaired fans, stadium

Street and College Street act as secondary

club ticket holders and team players and

corridors, with the majority of the secondary

employees. The “outer-ring” slopes down

activity-taking place along College Street.

from southwest to northeast and provides

Caesar Chavez Avenue serves as the

parking stalls for all general fans.

Figure 106: Section aa

Dodger Stadium: Bleecher Section

North-East Parking Lot

playing field

Figure 107: Section bb

Accessible Entrance Dodger Stadium Main Grandstand (approx ten story)

playing field

Figure 108: Section cc

southern neighborhood border and major arterial thoroughfare.

The “inner-ring” steps down in series of four-separate parking sections. The parking section located immediately behind

Dodger Stadium and the Street

the rooftop seating section at Dodger

Dodger Stadium Main Grandstand (approx ten story)

Stadium lies approximately 120 feet above Dodger Stadium has no direct relationship

the ballpark playing surface and at a

playing field

with the street. However, it does have a

higher elevation than any of the ballpark’s

Figure 109: Section dd

Executive Entrance


54 spectator seats. Two parking sections –

at Dodger Stadium is home to the only

behind first and third base respectively

ballpark-specific parking lot gas station in

– lie approximately 30-feet lower than the

Major League Baseball. (Figure 112). The

central rooftop seating section. (Figures

Union 76 gas station opens three hours

104 & 108). These parking sections

prior to game first pitch (the same hour the

provide fan access to seating areas most

ballpark gates open to the general public),

immediately behind homeplate. Two

and closes approximately one hour after the

additional parking sections – including the

game’s final pitch.

Dodgers’ main executive entrance in left field – lie approximately 60 feet below the previous parking section and 30 feet above

Synopsis and Conclusion

the ballpark playing surface. (Figures 105

Figure 110: Echo Park Residences

& 109). The inner and outer-parking rings

Dodger Stadium is an anomaly. Excluding

unite behind the outfield bleachers and

the two remaining Jewel Boxes (Fenway

extend northward towards the sloping hills

Park and Wrigley Field), Dodger Stadium

of Elysian Park. (Figures 102 & 103).

is the oldest ballpark in Major League Baseball today. Still, it reflects the postwar

Figure 111: Chinatown Streetscape

The “outer-ring” of stadium parking

era as the only five-deck stadium in Major

surrounds the ballpark and gradually

League Baseball, with the capacity to

slopes downward towards the largest

hold in excess of 56,000 - (ranking third in

parking bays beyond the outfield bleachers.

the league behind only Yankee and Shea

(Figure 113). This general parking section

Stadiums – both slated for demolition in

houses the majority of the 16,000 Dodger

2008). Additionally, it resides alone in the

Stadium parking stalls. Additionally, the

center of Elysian Park, isolated amidst the

parking lot beyond the leftfield bleachers

largest parking lot in professional baseball


55 – connected to greater Los Angeles via

Today, Dodger Stadium remains one of

four entry roadways and access to nearby

the few remaining older park experiences.

highway onramps and arterial throughways.

Fans often arrive during the second and third innings after fighting downtown traffic,

Still, a ticket to sit in the upper-deck at

only to leave following seventh-inning

Dodger Stadium offers one of the most

stretch to beat the traffic out. However,

affordable and romantic vistas in all of

once inside, the ballpark removes its

baseball. With sight lines that extend deep

fans from the gridlock of everyday Los

in to the wooded hills surrounding Elysian

Angeles and provides individuals with a

Park, Dodger Stadium is an anomaly, but

unique combination of excellent cuisines

only in the ways that make the entire city of

and wonderful stadium atmosphere. The

Los Angeles a fascinating urban case study.

overall experience at Dodger Stadium truly embodies the unique urban characteristics (culture, diversity, traffic, etc.), that define

Final Thoughts

Los Angeles as a singular American

Figure 112: Dodger Stadium: 76 Gas Station (North Parking Lot)

metropolis. “I live about 20 miles from Dodger Stadium. I left for yesterday’s game at 5:30 p.m. Took to the 105 east to the 110, and exited at Figueroa Street, thus avoiding the ghastly 10-110 interchange. I took Figueroa through downtown L.A. all the way to where it spills out onto the 110 just before the Stadium Way exit...I got to my seat as the National Anthem was ending.”22

Figure 113: Dodger Stadium Parking Lots


56

Figure 114: Shea Stadium - Queens, NY Aerial Photo (current)


57

Shea Stadium

Houston were awarded National League

123-01 Roosvelt Avenue Flushing, New York

franchises to begin playing in 1962. On October 28, 1961, ground was broken for a new multi-purpose stadium in Queens,

“Shea Stadium is generally regarded as

New York. Shea Stadium was scheduled

one of the loudest stadiums in the Major

for completion, opening day 1964, leaving

Leagues, not necessarily because of the

the Mets had to play in antiquated Polo

crowd noise, but because of its proximity to

Grounds for two years in the interim.

Shea Stadium Statistics: Tenant: New York Mets (NL) Opened: April 17, 1964 Previous Home: Polo Grounds, NYC Capacity: 55,777 Field Surface Area: 113,000 sq. ft.

[New York’s] LaGuardia Airport.”23 Shea Stadium officially opened on April 17, Following the 1957 baseball season, the

1964, with a seating capacity of of 55,601

Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants

persons. It was the first mutli-purpose

relocated to California (San Francisco and

“super-stadium” to have an extensive

Los Angeles respectively). New facilities

escalator system and a motorized field

were among the primary reasons both the

level of seating, to convert the seating

Dodgers and the Giants left New York.

configuration from a football gridiron to a

Neither organization was interested with

baseball diamond.

Elevation: 55 ft. Architect: Praeger-Kavanaugh-Waterbury Owner: City of New York Cost: $28,500,000 Table 6: Shea Stadium Statistics

the site the city had proposed for what ultimately became Shea Stadium, leaving

Shea Stadium has undergone very few

the New York metropolitan area with only

changes over the first 40-years of its

one baseball team (the New York Yankees).

history. Prior to the 1987 season, large blue panels with neon artwork of baseball

For the city to be awarded an expansion

players were installed on the stadium’s

franchise, a new stadium had to be

exterior. Additionally 50 club suites were

built. In 1961, the cities of New York and

added to the press level of the stadium that

Figure 115: Shea Stadium: Central Gate (Flushing, New York)


58

College Point

Flushing Bay East Elmhurst

North Corona

Flushing

Flushing Meadow Park

Corona

Figure 116: Flushing Meadow Park Area Satellite view


59 off-season to compete with some newer

serves as a buffer between the stadium

stadium suites that were being introduced in

site and the fine-grain of the diverse

other ballparks.

Corona neighborhood in Queens. The Whitestone Expressway and the rail lines

In April 2006, the Mets unveiled plans for

divide the ballpark from Flushing Bay and

a new ballpark that is being constructed in

the remainder of the Flushing Meadow Park

the parking lot beyond centerfield. The Mets

respectively. The Van Wyck Expressway

have continued to play at Shea Stadium

defines the edge of the industrial enclave

during the 2007 and 2008 seasons and will

that occupies land adjacent to the ballpark.

Figure 117: Transportation Network

move into their new ballpark in 2009. Then Shea Stadium will be destroyed.

Shea Stadium occupies approximately 120acres just two miles south of LaGuardia Airport. The stadium’s proximately to

Context and Form Analysis

the airport has long been responsible for the ballpark notoriously loud playing and

Shea Stadium anchors the north end of

viewing conditions.

Flushing Meadow Park in north-central Queens. The ballpark site lies wedged

Shea Stadium is well connected to

between the Grand Central Parkway to the

the greater New York City regional

southwest, the Whitestone Expressway to

transportation network, despite a strong

the north and the Van Wyck Expressway to

sense of physical separation and

the east. Shea also lies adjacent to a NYC

surrounding parking lots. The primary

transit line (running over Roosevelt Avenue)

modes of transit to Shea Stadium are

and LIRR (Long Island Railroad) rail lines to

divided between the transit line and the

the southeast. The Grand Central Parkway

automobile. In addition to these primary

Figure 118: Ballpark Road & Rail Network

Figure 119: Figure Ground Analysis


60 ay

sw

s pre

ne

Ex

to tes

i

oin t Wil lets P

t tree th S

126

Shea Stadium

Bou lver

ad

Wh

et

Stre

rkway tral Pa d Cen Grann

th 114

Willets Point / Shea Stadium Station NYC #7 Train

e

nu Ave elt e v e s in Roo rain L #7 T

Shea Stadium Station LIRR Red Line

Figure 120: Shea Stadium; Immediate Area Satellite view


61 modes of transit, theCcity of New York

Q104 connect with the 7 train at various

offers fans from various corners of the tri-

transfer points along its route - providing

state region (New York, New Jersey and

transit access to the ballpark. Additionally,

Connecticut) other transportation options to

Brooklyn service along the B24 & B61 lines,

and from Shea Stadium.

as well as Nassau county (Long Island) service along the N7, N20 & N21 connect

NYC Subway service along the 7-train line

passengers to the 7-train from surrounding

provides direct service to Shea Stadium.

counties.

Figure 121: Residential

The 7-train originates in Manhattan at Times Square and stops at 5th Avenue

Alternative transportation options include:

and Grand Central Station in Manhattan

New York Water Taxi Boats and Seastreak

before crossing the river into Queens,

Ferry service. New York Water Taxi service

and eventually stopping at Shea Stadium/

departs from: Brooklyn Army Terminal, the

Willets Point Boulevard. The 7-train

South Street Seaport and E. 34th Street.

also transports persons from downtown

The Seastreak Ferry provides transportation

Flushing/Main Street (#7 origin in Queens)

access to the ballpark from Highlands in

to Shea Stadium. Additional rail services

Monmouth County, New Jersey.

Figure 122: Commercial / Lt Industry

to the ballpark include: the LIRR (gameday only) and indirect service via the Metro North Railroad and NJ Transit.

Neighborhood Characteristics

Shea Stadium is directly served by only one

Fields of parking and transportation

Queens bus, the Q48. However, Queens

infrastructure buffer Shea Stadium from

service along the Q18, Q23, Q29, Q32,

most of its surrounding neighborhoods.

Q39, Q45, Q47, Q53, Q58, Q60, Q67, Q72,

Still, the ballpark is centered among some of

Figure 123: Vacant / Parking


62 ay

sw

ee

ton

s hite

es xpr

w

1

2

ss pre 7 ex station / m ain 7 tr stadiu a she

Figure 125: Shea Stadium (Northeast)

Figure 126: Shea Stadium (Southeast)

3 Figure 127: Shea Stadium (South)

) oad railr land tation s i ong dium s R (l LIR ea sta h s

Figure 124: Shea Stadium Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.

4

Figure 128: Shea Stadium (Northwest)


63 the most diverse residential neighborhoods

(separate from the Manhattan Chinatown),

in New York City. Shea Stadium is located

dominated by immigrant residents from

between the neighborhoods of Corona and

southern China, Korea, Vietnam, as well

Downtown Flushing, and adjacent to a small

as a recent influx of people from the

enclave of industrial manufacturing and

Dominican Republic and Haiti. Downtown

distribution parcels.

Flushing also serves as a major transit

“Picnic Area” Seating Section

North Eastern Parking Lot

playing field

Figure 129: Section aa NYC Subway 7 train / 7 express Shea Stadium Station

Shea Stadium Scoreboard (approx 85 ft.)

hub at the junction of Main Street, Kissena Corona is primarily a residential

Boulevard and Roosevelt Avenue. The

neighborhood, comprised of single-

7-train, LIRR and/or fourteen Queens bus

family attached homes and mixed-use

lines converge at this junction providing

developments along the Roosevelt

public transportation option serving Queens,

Aveune/7-train corridor. (Figures 116 &

Manhattan, Brooklyn and Nassau County

121). The neighborhood is bounded by

(Long Island).

“Fan Fest” Plaza Area

playing field

Figure 130: Section bb N Sheffield Avenue Shea Stadium Main Grandstand (approx Twelve-story)

the Grand Central Parkway to the east,

North Western Parking Lot (Nearest Roosevelt Avenue)

The Long Island Expressway to the south

The small manufacturing node closest to

and Flushing Bay to the north. The 7-train,

Shea Stadium is comprised of several small

playing field

along Roosevelt Avenue, dominates the

blocks of individually owned and operated

Figure 131: Section cc

evolution of space west and carries the

automotive scrap yards and generally

second highest volume of daily passengers

unlicensed auto-repair shops. (Figure 134).

in Queens.

The “Junk Yards” provide additional parking

Shea Stadium Main Grandstand (approx Twelve-story)

area on gamedays, but are scheduled to be Downtown Flushing is home to some

sold and redeveloped when the new Mets

of the most diverse residents and rapid

ballpark opens in 2009.

densification in Queens. The neighborhood

playing field

is locally recognized as a Chinatown

Figure 132: Section dd

South Western Parking Lot (Nearest Whitestone Expressway)


64 Shea Stadium and the Street

can even catch a partial view of the field from the upper level of the 7-train station

Shea Stadium has a limited relationship to

rotunda – on the stadium side of the 7-train

the street. The ballpark is surrounded on

overpass.

three sides by flat parking lots and shares a restricted relationship with Roosevelt

Synopsis and Conclusion

Avenue and the 7-train line on its fourth side. Roosevelt Avenue and the 7-train

As one of the few postwar ballparks

share the right-of-way along Roosvelt

remaining in major league baseball today, a

Avenue, just south of Shea Stadium.

trip to Shea Stadium (like Dodger Stadium)

(Figure 135).

has become a distinctive experience. Shea has always provided fans with unique sight

Figure 133: Typical Corona streetscape 7-train Intersection at Roosevelt

Figure 134: Typical Shea Stadium area land-use Auto Shop on 126th Street

The Shea Stadium parking lot hosts annual

lines from high in the sky, overlooking the

summer carnival activities during various

urban infrastructure of downtown Queens.

Mets road trips.

The ballpark’s gritty inner workings challenge fans to embrace the era of their

The 7-train runs immediately above

teams’ inception, in a structure that conjures

Roosevelt Avenue for approximately half

the gritty sense of the public streets of New

the course of its Queens route. However,

York. Shea is no doubt a dated ballpark,

the section of Roosevelt Avenue that runs

however; the impending construction of a

parallel to the ballpark is blocked from the

new ballpark in the current ballpark parking

ballpark by a limited access fence. Only

lot threatens to compromise many of the

designated entry points and the 7-train

distinguishing postwar characteristics so

overpass allow street access to the Shea

unique to Shea Stadium – bringing the

Stadium parking lot and/or main gate. Fans

postwar era to the brink of extinction.


65 Current ballpark philosophies embrace

the sucesses of these precedent projects

quasi-physical integration and neighborhood

it is possible that designers and planners

revitalization. Yet, in the case of the new

might begin to seelectively associate any

ballpark construction for the New York

modern ballpark constructed a modern-

Mets (Citi Field), the physical infrastructure,

retro aesthetic, as a “cant miss” catalyst in

natural barriers and paved surface parking

an urban revitalization master plan. Will

that currently surround Shea Stadium will

that be the case with the ballpark that will

still surround the new ballpark – more

replace Shea Stadium?

closely linking its product to a modern postwar ballpark in the modern-retro

Shea Stadium will be demolished and The

aesthetic than to an actual modern-retro

New York Mets new home – Citi Field, will

ballpark in the twenty-first-century.

open in April, 2009.

Final Thoughts

Figure 135: 7-Train above Roosevelt Avenue (Image along 126th Street)

Current trends appear to indicate that Major League Baseball and sports facilities designers are on the verge of establishing a new template for the “cookie-cutter” for the twenty-first century. Modern ballpark ideologies have had unparalleled success via complex integration in specific urban cases in Baltimore, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, San Francisco and San Diego. Based on

Figure 136: New Mets Ballpark construction (Shea Stadium south lot - August 2006)


66

Case Studies III

Figure 137: Case Study Ballparks (Camden Yards and AT&T Park)


67

Introduction to an Era

improved national economy also ignited a

The “Modern-Retro” Movement (1992 - Present)

reinvestment in central cities. Revitalization projects in Chicago, Cleveland and Detroit redeveloped acres of inner-city high-rise

“American civilization was experiencing

public housing to reduce the density of

a major revolution in how it was building

concentrated inner-city poor. “In 1990,

cities”24

15 percent of all poor people lived in high poverty neighborhoods, but ten years later,

Throughout the final quarter of the twentieth

only 10 percent did.”25

century, the physical future of urban America was challenged by economic

By the end of the twentieth century, new

and social change. In contrast to the

ideologies on urban function and design

postwar era of expansion, the American

had transformed the images of central

urban reality was characterized by a static

cities. “Planners, architects, retailers and

national economy, the implications of

community people continued to try to revive

deindustrialization and the dismantling of

old cities by rejuvenating what they believed

New Deal social programs, which increased

had been inspiring about time-honored

the gap between rich and poor.

urban life.”26

During the economic boom of the Clinton

These urban revitalization efforts saw

administration (1993-2001), the declined

ballpark aesthetics of this era designed to

state of American inner-urban life began

pay homage to the classic ballparks of past.

to recover. The 1990’s saw reduced

These new parks mixed classic ballpark

unemployment rates and increased

materials (brick, stone and natural grass),

earnings for the working poor. An

with modern ballpark materials (concrete,

Figure 138: Original Seat Camden Yards (1992-TBD) Camden Yards Demolition: Unknown


68 Modern-Retro Ballparks:

steel and plastic). Ballpark dimensions

from 1992 to 2006. Officials in declining

Ballpark Name, Host City (Year) Camden Yards, Baltimore (1992) *The Ballpark at Arlington (1994) Jacobs Fields, Cleveland (1994) Coors Field, Denver (1995) Turner Field, Atlanta (1997) Bank One Ballpark, Phoenix (1998) Safeco Field, Seattle (1999) *Pac-Bell Park, San Francisco (2000) *Enron Field, Houston (2000) Comerica Park, Detroit (2000) Miller Park, Milwaukee (2001) PNC Park, Pittsburgh (2001) Citizens Bank Park,Philadelphia (2002) Great American Ballpark, Cincinnati (2003) Petco Park, San Diego (2004) Busch Stadium III, St. Louis (2006)

were again constrained by the physical

city centers in Baltimore, Cleveland and

characteristics of their urban surrounding

Detroit envisioned ballparks as potential

urban forms and parks were integrated into

catalysts for revival and growth. Officials

their surrounding urban networks - similar

in expanding urban areas in Pittsburgh,

to the classic era ballparks (1912–1923).

San Diego, San Francisco and Seattle

Postwar ideologies regarding stadium scale

envisioned new ballparks as cornerstones

and use were also abandoned in favor of

for future development. Ballpark officials

the urban ballpark ideologies of the past.

in Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and Philadelphia

Ballparks were constructed in urban settings

replaced their postwar homes with state-of-

as site-specific baseball-only facilities with

the-art facilities, constructed in the modern-

significantly decreased seating capacities

retro aesthetic.

* The Ballpark at Arlington renamed Ameriquest Field (2004) * Pac-Bell Park renamed SBC Park (2004) * SBC Park renamed AT&T Park (2006) * Enron Field renamed Astros Field (2002) * Astros Field renamed Minute Maid Park (2003)

relative to their postwar predecessors - for example, Pittsburgh replaced its 48,000

(New ballparks in Cincinnati, Milwaukee and

to 57,000 seat cookie-cutter with a 38,365

Philadelphia were constructed in parking

seat modern-retro ballpark.

lots adjacent to old “cookie-cutter” parks in non-urban/site specific setting. Citi Field

The union of past considerations and

and Yankee Stadium are both currently

modern urban ideology yielded the

being constructed in parking lots adjacent to

“modern-retro” ballpark.

their existing venues as well).

The Modern-Retro era of ballpark construction in the United States has so far witnessed the construction of sixteen new Figure 139: Petco Park Construction (2003) Table 7 (above): Modern-Retro - Completion Dates

ballparks, over the fourteen-year period


69

Modern-Retro Ballparks

a baseball culture in the Baltimore region

Camden Yards- Baltimore, MD. AT&T Park - San Francisco, CA.

of the United States. AT&T Park redefined baseball in the Bay Area, and has gained national recognition for its site-specific

“In what is arguably the most significant

construction along McCovey Cove and San

urban design intervention in America of the

Francisco Bay.

last decade, the new Oriole Park at Camden Yards opened in Baltimore – April, 1992.” 27

The following modern-retro era ballpark analyses will deconstruct the relationships

Oriole Park at Camden Yards was the first

of Camden Yards and AT&T Park to their

ballpark completed since Yankee Stadium in

respective urban environments. These

1923, to be designed into existing pattern of

studies are designed to reveal a change

urban fabric of its host city.

in late twentieth century urban ideologies and consequent ballpark construction.

Ballparks of the modern-retro era represent

Addiionally, these studies will provide insight

more than the mere modern replication

into the physical relationship between

of the classical ballpark aesthetic – they

these ballparks and their specific urban

are designed to be adaptive and to fit

surroundings.

Figure 140: Camden Yards - B&O Warehouse (Camden Yards - Along Eutaw Street)

within constraints of a specific urban site. Modern-retro parks are integrated into the physical context, the regional transportation networks and maintain a direct relationship to the street, as well as the broader context. Camden Yards is the pioneer park of the modern-retro movement. It has resurrected

Figure 141: AT&T Park - Right Field Porch (AT&T Park - Along McCovery Cove)


70

Figure 142: Camden Yards - Baltimore, MD Aerial Photo (current)


71

Camden Yards

Most fans enter the ballpark through the

333 West Camden Street Baltimore, Maryland

Main Entrance Gate or the Eutaw Street entrance. (Eutaw Street entrance extends the length of the ballpark between the

“Camden Yards has become one of the

seating areas and the B&O Warehouse).

most influential ballparks since Shibe Park

Once inside the gates, fans choose their

and Forbes Field in 1909....When it opened

ticketed seat or the view from behind the

in 1992, Camden Yards ushered in a new

25-foot high out-of-town scoreboard in right

age of ballparks.”28

field and the left center-field picnic area.

Oriole Park at Camden Yards was designed

Camden Yards has enjoyed great success

to replicate the feeling of classic ballparks

since its completion in 1992. Consequently,

built in the early 1900’s. The ballpark

the park has remained relatively unchanged

features exposed steel supports, a street-

throughout its brief existence. Following

wall brick façade and depressed playing

the 2000 season, the field dimensions

surface designed to maintain a human

increased from 318 to 320 feet (right), 400

scale along the street. The park’s interior

to 406 feet (center), 410 to 417 feet (left-

features all green seats, an outfield picnic

center), and from 333 to 337 feet (left).

area and an ivy covered batter’s eye

Additionally, following the 2003 season, the

to support a sense of history within the

ballpark added several rows of seating and

ballpark. Additionally, the preservation of

a brick backdrop behind home plate. Today

the 1898 B&O Warehouse (beyond the

Camden Yards draws nearly three million

right-field wall) helps maintain the ballpark’s

fans per year and the ballclub has gained

sense of intimacy and historical connection.

regional recognition and market embrace as

to the site and the city.

the pioneer modern-retro ballpark.

Camden Yards Statistics: Tenant: Baltimore Orioles (AL) Opened: April 6, 1992 Previous Home: Memorial Stadium, Balt. Capacity: 48,262 Field Surface Area: 106,600 sq. ft. Elevation: 20 ft. Architect: HOK Sport (Kansas City) Owner: Maryland Stadium Authority Cost: $110,000,000 Table 8: Camden Yards Statistics

Figure 143: Camden Yards: Main Entrance (Inner Harbor/Stadium Area, Baltimore)


72

Jonestown

Downtown Poppleton

University of Maryland

Inner-Harbor

Ridgely’s Delight Washington Village

Otterbein

Camden

Carrol Park

Carrol-Camden

Figure 144: Carrol-Camden / Inner Harbor Neighborhood Satellite view

SharpLeadenhal

Federal Hill


73 Context and Form Analysis

Camden Yards was designed to reflect the urban character of downtown

Oriole Park at Camden Yards is located

Baltimore and stands amidst a mid-large

on the south west edge of downtown

grain network of physical structures.

Baltimore. The site is neatly tucked

(Figure147). The ballpark is well connected

between the historic B&O Warehouse

to the surrounding fabric and is most

building to the east, Martin Luther King

distinguishable from parks of the previous

Boulevard to the west (running north-south)

postwar era due to the absence of a

and Camden Street to the north (running

massive surrounding surface parking area.

east west). Within the greater context of

The park’s direct link to its surroundings is

downtown Baltimore, Camden Yards lies

characterized by small independent parking

immediately southeast of the University of

areas to the north, large concentration of

Maryland’s downtown campus. Additionally,

parking areas to the south (surrounding

the ballpark occupies the northern edge of

M&T Bank Stadium), and numerous

a larger sporting complex anchored to the

phsyical connections to the street grid

south by M&T Bank Stadium and bisected

(north. east and west) as well as to the

by Martin Luther King Boulevard, Interstate-

greater regional public transportation

395 and Baltimore light-rail transit lines.

network. More specifically, the ballpark is

(Figure 144). Both sports facilities were key

serviced by sixteen local/regional buses,

components of the city of Baltimore’s 1988

Maryland Area Rail Commuter (MARC)

Inner Harbor master plan. Camden Yards

rail service, creating a link between

was completed in 1992 and M&T Bank

the southern suburbs of Baltimore and

Stadium was completed in 1998. (M&T

Washington DC, and Baltimore Light Rail

Stadium serves as home to the National

and Metro Subway. (Figure 148).

Football League’s Baltimore Ravens).

Figure 145: Transportation Network

Figure 146: Ballpark Road & Rail Network

Figure 147: Figure Ground Analysis


74

Howard Street

Eutaw Street

Paca Street

Pratt Street

MARC LightRail Camden Street Station MARC Blue & Yellow Lines

MTA Bus

Camden Street Bus Lines: 17 & 27

Camden Yards Russell Street

MTA Bus Bus Lines: 160, 310, 311 320, 410, 411, 412, 420

MARC Train Camden Line

Interstate 395

Figure 148: Camden Yards; Immediate Area Satellite view

Conway Street


75 Camden Yards lies within the Stadium Area

The surrounding industrial uses are

adjacent to the Inner-Harbor neighborhood,.

concentrated to the south of the ballpark

The Stadium Area is bordered by several

in Carroll-Camden Industrial Area and

small neighborhoods: Carroll-Camden

the Sharp-Leadenhal neighborhood.

Industrial Area, Otterbien, Ridgely’s Delight,

Carroll-Camden lies adjacent to M&T

Sharp-Leadenhal and the University of

Bank Stadium, southwest of Camden

Maryland. Each area/neighborhood/

Yards. This area serves as one of

campus is characterized by individual

the most active industrial waterfronts

land-use patterns, but all maintain a

in Baltimore. The Sharp-Leadenhal

strong physical connection with downtown

industrial node, located southwest of the

Baltimore and Camden.

ballpark, extended into the current site

Figure 149: Single / Multi-Family Residential

of Camden Yards prior to construction in the 1990’s. Now, following the ballpark’s Neighborhood Characteristics

completion, the redevelopment of the Inner Harbor waterfront and the ongoing

In sharp contrast ballparks of previous

expansion of Baltimore’s light rail system,

eras, ballparks of the modern-retro era are

this neighborhood’s industrial identity has

designed to co-exist within the existing

been largely displaced by recreational and

urban fabric. Small neighborhoods

residential development.

Figure 150: Commercial / Mixed Use

consisting of single-family residences, commercial towers, Industrial facilities,

The Sharp-Leadenhal neighborhood is

transportation stations and the University of

on the verge of quasi-annexation by the

Maryland surround Camden Yards. Since

Otterbien neighborhood to its immediate

the completion of the ballpark in 1992,

east. Otterbien and Ridgely’s Delight are

these neighborhoods have slowly changed.

the two residential neighborhoods adjacent/

Figure 151: Industrial Service / Parking


76

greene street

paca street

1

Figure 153: Russell Street & Camden Yards (Northeast)

pratt street

2

camden street

Figure 154: Camden Street & Camden Yards (North)

russell street

3

lee street

Figure 152: Camden Yards Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.

interstate 395

eutaw street

m kin artin g b lu ou the lev r ar d

Figure 155: Eutaw Street & Camden Yards (East)

4 Figure 156: Russell Street & Camden Yards (South)


77 nearest to Camden Yards. Otterbien is

Camden Yards and the Street

the lone residential enclave to the east, characterized by it location between the

The playing surface at Camden Yards is

Inner Harbor waterfront and Camden Yards.

located sixteen-feet below grade. The

West of the ballpark, Ridgely’s Delight is a

sunken playing field enables much of the

triangular cluster of mid-century residential

ballpark’s lower half/seating level to lie

units wedged between Martin Luther King

below street level, minimizing the vertical

Boulevard, the University of Maryland and

mass of the ballpark above grade - and

Camden Yards. (Figure 144) Both of these

consequently preserving a human scale

residential neighborhoods and the Inner

façade at the street. The modest scale of

Harbor waterfront have gentrified over the

the façade eases the park’s integration into

past decade – the direct result of increased

the surrounding urban fabric and street.

activity associated with Camden Yards.

Camden Yards lies in direct contact with

Camden Yards: Seating Area

Russell Street

playing field

Figure 157: Section aa

Camden Yards: Bullpen Area

playing field

Figure 158: Section bb B&O Warehouse (eight story)

the urban street network on three-sides. The structural characteristics of downtown

(Figures 153-155). The lone disconnected

Baltimore and the University of Maryland

side is adjacent to a small parking lot at the

have remained relatively unchanged.

ballpark’s south end. (Figure 156).

North Plaza / Picnic Area (Camden Street)

Eutaw Street

East Warehouse Parking Lot

playing field

Figure 159: Section cc

However, an influx of restaurants, shopping venues and hotel/condominium projects -

The main entrance is at the southwest

directly north of Camden Yards (occupying

corner of the park along Greene Street

the parcels shown as surface parking -

(Figures 156 & 157). The main entrance

Figure 148) can most directly be linked to

opens to the street via small street level

the ballpark and the recent improvements to

plaza, and pedestrian paths (with select

the Inner Harbor waterfront area.

visual connections to the ballpark’s

playing field

concourse) extend to both Eutaw Street

Figure 160: Section dd

Camden Yards: Seating Area

South Pakring Lot


78

camden street station

eutaw street

and Camden Street entry gates (at the

by an open iron fence, strengthening the

northwest and southeast corners of the

visual connection between the ballpark and

ballpark respectively). At the main entrance

downtown. Additionally, the use of open

gate, spectators are encouraged to enter

iron fence physically encourages an internal

directly or walk to one of four secondary

connection to Camden Street and the

entrance gates - due to a high volume

street-level connection to the picnic/plaza

of vehicular through traffic along Russell

area and Eutaw Street.

Street. Secondary entry gates along

b&o warehouse

Camden Street (Figures 153 & 157) and

Eutaw Street links the traditional ballpark

two along Eutaw Street (north and south)

seating levels, concourse levels and

anchor the ballpark’s most dynamic

concession stands to the experiential

relationships between park and street.

urban nature of Camden Yards. Between

Figure 161: Camden Yards Plan Eutaw Street Gate

Figure 162: Oriole Baseball Ticket Window North facade - B&O Warehouse

the north and south Eutaw Street entry Camden Street is the primary path for

gates (Figures 155 & 159), visitors can

pedestrians and vehicles traveling to and/

meander in and out of shops built into the

or from downtown. This path is marked by

B&O Warehouse, admire plaques and

two northern parking lots and is highlighted

tributes to great ballplayers of the past, or

by the Camden Street Station, the north

simply look out to watch the game from a

façade of the B&O Warehouse and the

unique informal outfield perspective. The

ballpark picnic/plaza area (Figures 154

gameday experience along Eutaw Street

& 158). At the junction of Eutaw and

can best be compared to an urban street

Camden Streets is the northern Eutaw

fair (Figure 163) – bordered on one side by

Street entrance and the largest open plaza

the warehouse and the other by the playing

space within the ballpark. The picnic/

field.

plaza space is separated from the street


79 The Warehouse is in the unique position

for passenger rail service had dramatically

to have a different relationship with the

declined and consequently the B&O

ballpark on each side. The east side caters

warehouse storage facility had largely been

to parking / rail commuter traffic. The west

abandoned.

side faces Eutaw Street game activity. Despite the functional decline over the second half of the twentieth-century, the Special Features: B&O Warehouse

B&O Warehouse stood as an icon in Baltimore. The warehouse was described

Throughout the 1850’s passenger demand

as the East Coast’s longest building. In

into central Baltimore exceeded regional

1992, despite initial plans to destroy the

station capacity. Therefore, to increase

warehouse, both Camden Street Station

capacity and satisfy passenger demand,

and the B&O Warehouse were restored to

the Baltimore & Ohio (B&O) Railroad began

their original appearance. Today, Camden

construction of a new station at Camden

Street Station still serves as a MARC rail

Street in 1857. Camden Street Station was

station, while the warehouse currently

officially completed in 1865.

houses team offices for the Baltimore

Figure 163: Gameday activity on Eutaw Street

Orioles, an executive stadium club, Oriole Camden Street Station operated for thirty

merchandice shops, ticket windows (Figure

years before the B&O Warehouse was

154), and its structure serves as the support

constructed. In 1898, the eight-story,

for the right-field light towers, permanently

1160-foot long warehouse was constructed

mounted to its roof. (Figures 164 & 167).

to serve as a storage facility, adjacent to Camden Street Station. However, by the

Additionally, the preservation and

middle of the twentieth century the demand

incorporation of the warehouse into the

Figure 164: B&O Warehouse


80 stadium design prompted the vehicular

Synopsis and Conclusion

closure of through traffic along Eutaw Street. The closure of Eutaw Street and the

Since its completion in 1992, Camden

eight-story warehouse eight-story beyond

Yards has influenced on construction of

the ballpark’s seated limits creates the

fifteen additional new ballpark across

intimate urban sensation, earlier referred to

the country. Of these new ballparks,

as an urban street fair to within the confines

eleven were physically constructed

of this ballpark (Figures 155 & 163).

within the parameters of existing urban neighborhoods (for example, Jacobs Field)

Figure 165: View north along Howard Street. Convention Center re-development & MARC Rail

The B&O Warehouse has become a visual

or as the cornerstones for new growth in

icon representing Camden Yards and the

dilapidated or underdeveloped urban areas

city of Baltimore. The preservation and

(for example, Comerica Park). The four

re-use of the warehouse building was the

exclusions (The Ballpark at Arlington, Bank

first integration of existing structure into a

One Ballpark, Miller Park and Citizen Bank

ballpark design. Still, the significance of the

Park) more resemble modern postwar

B&O Warehouse extends beyond the iconic

ballparks, surrounded by highways and

nature of the building, the spatial impacts of

parking lots, but they were still constructed

its presence and its visual appeal beyond

in the modern-retro aesthetic.

the right-field wall. The Warehouse is a truly integral component of the ballpark’s

Camden Yards literally “re-wrote the book”

philosophy and design - linking the past with

on the potential of inner-urban stadium-

present, the existing with the designed, and

scaled projects. For the first time since

the ballpark with the city.

the end of the classical era in ballpark construction, ballpark designers are looking

Figure 166: View northeast along Russell Street Re-development and Hotel construction

into dense urban fabrics as the potential


81 destination for stadium-scale redevelopment

Avenue. Additionally, the MARC light rail

projects. City official and urban planners

system continues its regional expansion,

are working with designers to best situate

while dozens of neighboring downtown

and re-integrate ballparks into existing

parcels are undergoing renovation or re-

urban networks. Modern-retro ballpark

development.

ideologies have the unprecedented ability to physically integrate structure, transportation systems and neighborhood character into

Final Thoughts

and through new ballpark projects. Beyond the physical and experiential, the modern-

Camden Yards rediscovered the link of

retro ballpark also has the capability to

the ballpark and the city, but Eutaw Street

serve as a financial catalyst beyond it’s own

rediscovered the link between Camden

stadium walls.

Yards and Baltimore. Eutaw Street on game day is festive. However, an open

Nearly sixteen years after the park opened

street running between the B&O Warehouse

in 1992, Camden Yards is still serving as

and the ballpark’s playing field on off-days

the epicenter of an urban renaissance in

is the defining characteristic that emerges

downtown Baltimore. New mid-rise hotel

as the most influential component of the

and condominium construction projects

ballpark. It marks the first time a planned

are underway along Camden Avenue to

break in the stadium wall was constructed

the parks immediate north. The Baltimore

and open to the public year round.

Figure 167: View South along Eutaw Street View looking into Camden Yards

Convention Center expansion project is underway, with skyway connections planned to link the convention center to new hotel construction along Camden

Figure 168: View North along Eutaw Street View looking out of Camden Yards


82

Figure 169: AT&T Park - San Francisco, CA Aerial Photo (current)


83

AT&T Park 24 Willie Mays Plaza San Francisco, California

In 1995, the Giants unveiled plans to construct a brick, steel and concrete ballpark along McCovey Cove (off San

“It’s hard to say what’s best about [AT&T]

Francisco Bay) without the assistance

Park, except that it is San Francisco. The

of public dollars. AT&T Park is the first

view from the worst seats in the house still

privately financed ballpark constructed

gives you a view of the Bay Bridge and the

in Major League Baseball since Dodger

marina...this is the best fan’s ballpark.” 29

Stadium nearly forty years earlier (1962).

AT&T Park was constructed as a modern-

The Giants sold the naming right to their

retro descendant of Camden Yards. The

new ballpark to help with the construction

ballpark was built along San Francisco Bay

costs of the ballpark – a phenomenon that

in the China Basin area of San Francisco.

has become increasingly common in the

AT&T Park Statistics: Tenant: San Francisco Giants (NL) Opened: March 31, 2000 Previous Home: Candlestick Park, SF Capacity: 41,503 (+1,500 standing) Field Surface Area: 110,000 sq. ft. Elevation: 0 ft. Architect: HOK Sport (Kansas City) Owner: China Basin Ballpark Corp. Cost: $357,000,000 Table 9: AT&T Park Statistics

modern era. Naming rights were sold to AT&T Park was conceived following the

Pacific Bell Telephone and the ballpark

1992 sale of the Giants to current owner

was originally named Pacific Bell Park.

Peter Magowan. The sale saved the

In 2003, Pacific Bell Park (or PacBell

franchise from a potential move to Florida,

Park) was renamed SBC Park following

but declared Candlestick Park (the previous

the SBC Communication acquisition of

home of the Giants) an unsuitable venue for

Pacific Bell Telephone. In 2006 SBC

baseball. In 1994, the city of San Francisco

Park was renamed AT&T Park following

rejected a percentage-tax finance package

the AT&T corporate acquisition of SBC

to support the projected cost of construction

Communication.

of a new ballpark in San Francisco.

Figure 170: AT&T Park: Main Facade (China Basin, San Francisco)


84

Financial District

Rincon Hill South Beach

SoMa (South of Market)

San Francisco Bay

Mission Bay

Figure 171: Mission Bay / SoMa Neighborhood Satellite view


85 On April 11, 2000, the Giants played their

south of the main commercial center in

first regular season game at AT&T Park.

downtown San Francisco. (Figure 171).

AT&T Park is a ballpark built in the modernContext and Form Analysis

retro tradition. The ballpark is integrated into the urban network surrounding the site.

AT&T Park occupies a historically industrial

The paved street network wraps around the

thirteen acre site along McCovey Cove

���land” sides of the site and continue with

(an inlet off San Francisco Bay - named

repetitive consistency north, to the grid shift

after San Francisco Giants legend Willie

at Market Street. The ballpark’s function

McCovey). The ballpark is nestled between

separates itself from surrounding parcels,

King Street and the Embarcadero to north

but the building scale and footprint does not

and west, Third Street to the southwest

dominate the contextual surroundings. In

and San Francisco Bay to the southeast

fact, the park’s red brick and exposed green

and east. The neighborhood is physically

steel dressing, were designed to reflect the

defined by several urban barriers; US

classical ballpark aesthetic while making

Highway 101 to the north, McCovey

a suggestive reference to the industrial

Cove and Beach Channel to the south,

character of the immediate neighborhood.

Figure 172: Transportation Network

Figure 173: Ballpark Road & Rail Network

San Francisco Bay to the east and the combination of CalTrain and Interstate 280

The area’s expansion of its diverse public

to the west. Within a broader context, the

transportation system has further integrated

ballpark is located just north of the Mission

the ballpark into the surrounding urban

Bay industrial waterfront. The ballpark

network. The park is publicly serviced

maintains a visual connection to the Bay

by rail via: Muni Metro N-line service to

Bridge and stands approximately one mile

the Second and King Street Muni station,

Figure 174: Figure Ground Analysis


In St ter ill st m at an e St 80 re / et

86

Se

co

nd

St

re

et

Muni Metro St

re

et

2nd & King Station Metro Lines: N & J

an

Th

B

ra

nn

ird

St

AT&T Park

re

et

et

Fo

St

St

th

re

ur

g

re

K

in

et

McCovey Cove

Caltrain San Francisco Station

Muni Metro 4th & King Stations Metro Lines: T & J

Figure 175: AT&T Park; Immediate Area Satellite view


87 BART via an in-station link to Muni Metro

commercial outlets and ballpark related

and CalTrain - service to the Fourth and

retail establishments. Furthermore, the

King Street rail station. Additionally, AT&T

neighborhood’s public transportation

Park and the area immediately surrounding

network has expanded, further supporting

the ballpark is serviced by: Muni, AC

current and future growth throughout the

Transit and Fairfield Suisun Transit local

area.

bus service, as well as Almeda/Oakland, Larkspur and Vallejo Bay ferry service.

Construction and expansion of the Muni

Figure 176: Residential & Mixed-Use

Metro line (Figures 175 & 188) has focused the first wave of change line along King and Neighborhood Characteristics

Third Streets. Single-story industrial spaces have been replaced by several multi-story

AT&T Park is located at the junction

condominiums and mixed-use residential

of Mission Bay and South Beach

projects along King Street across from

neighborhoods. (Figure 171) Prior to the

the ballpark. Commercial developments

ballpark construction, these neighborhoods

along Third Street (north of King Street)

were primarily low-rise light industrial in

have emerged along the most common

character.

pedestrian corridors, linking the South or

Figure 177: Commercial - Office/Retail

Market (SOMA) neighborhood with the Since the ballpark’s construction was

neighborhood at and around ballpark.

completed in 2000, the industrial character around the park has started to undergo

Despite the expansion of Muni Metro along

change. Ballpark-related activity and

Third Street, the industrial character of the

land speculation has induced an influx

Mission Bay neighborhood has remained

of mixed-use residences, life-service

relatively unchanged. In fact, the only

Figure 178: Industrial / Parking


88

se co nd re

st et

1

ki

ng

st

re

et

to

w

ns

en

d

st

re

et

Figure 180: King Street & AT&T Park (Northwest)

2

ve

y co

ve cco

3 Figure 182: McCovey Cove & AT&T Park (Southeast)

m

third street

Figure 179: AT&T Park Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.

Figure 181: 2nd Street & AT&T Park (Northeast)

4

Figure 183: 3rd Street & AT&T Park (Southwest)


89 current other change in the Mission Bay

the physical relationship to the water is the

area (minus the Muni Metro expansion) is

most dynamic relationship between the

the recent expansion of the ballpark’s Initial

ballpark and its surrounding environment.

5000 parking stalls to 11,500. Additionally,

A public waterfront promenade was created

vacant spaces along Mission Bay docks

between the ballpark and McCovey Cove,

have been the occasional host for Cirque de

originating on Third Street and extending

Soliel and Barnum & Bailey Circus.

into the marina beyond center field (Figures

AT&T Park Seating Area

playing field

King Street

Figure 184: Section aa

182 & 186). The use of the promenade has Currently the neighborhood around

established a unique and active relationship

AT&T Park is a mix of the light industrial

between the park that extends beyond the

buildings that have historically occupied

physical promenade and into the water.

the neighborhood, mid-rise residential

Kayaks, boats and rafts congregate on

development projects and modern

game days in hopes of retrieving a “splash

commercial buildings primarily associated

hit” – a homerun ball hit directly into the

with ballpark activities. (Figures 176-178).

cove (Figure 191). On land, spectators can

“Coca Cola Fan Lot”

Rightfield Bleachers playing field

East Executive & Marina parking lot

Figure 185: Section bb Levi’s Landing

playing field

watch the game through a fence (Figure

McCovery Cove

190) from the promenade outside the AT&T Park and the Street

ballpark. In fact, this characteristic was so

Figure 186: Section cc

successful at AT&T Park that it was recently Despite being surrounded on one side

replicated at the friendly confines of Wrigley

by water, AT&T Park maintains a direct

Field in 2005 (page 38 – Figure 78). The

connection with the external environment to

promenade is open year round, providing

all sides. (Figures 180-183). The ballpark’s

fans and San Francisco residents a new

primary relationship to the urban network is

opportunity to visit the ballpark.

along King and Third Streets. Nevertheless,

AT&T Park Seating Area playing field

Figure 187: Section dd

Third Street Entrance


90 The ballpark’s main entrance gate is

Synopsis and Conclusion

located at King and Third Street. At this junction the ballpark lies along

Since its opening in April 2000, AT&T Park

unobstructed views, down palm-tree-lined

has served as the quintessential example

King Street, towards the Bay Bridge and

of catalytic success in modern-retro era of

ultimately into downtown San Francisco

urban ballpark construction.

– via the Embarcadero. In the opposite direction, new residential and commercial

AT&T Park stands in the center of an

developments have lined the corridor

industrial reclamation/redevelopment project

between AT&T Park and the CalTrain rail

in SoMa’s China Basin. Modern mid-high

station. Third Street is characterized by

rise mixed use developments have created

pedestrian traffic traveling from parked

a neighborhood that no longer resembles

cars to the ballpark over Lefty O’Douls

its pre-ballpark past. It has spurred the

drawbridge.

extension of Muni-rail south of Market Street

Figure 188: View west along King Street King Street Muni Rail Sation

– along King Street, with further plans to AT&T Park presents its largest permeable

extend deep in the China Basin along 2nd

street facing façade along King Street

Avenue. It has drawn Caltrain service

between Second and Third Streets. (Image

north, directly linking an expanding piece

188). And, unlike postwar ballparks and

of central San Francisco to the South Bay

many introspective modern-retro parks,

region. It occupies a serene plot of land

AT&T Park has a very strong sense of

along San Francisco Bay, with postcard

connection to the activity and life around it.

views of the Bay Bridge.

AT&T has carried three-corporate titles Figure 189: View east along King Street Current Streescape - Ballpark, Road and Rail

in seven-year history (Pac-BelI, SBC


91 and now AT&T Park), reinforcing the new

city to open up new revenue streams. Still,

age of corporate sponsorship that has

the ballpark stands as a static structure in

accompanied an explosion in baseball

the center (or along a bayfront edge) of

cost, expenditures and profitability

these redevelopment projects.

associated with modern-retro movement. It reduced capacity and raised ticket prices

Final Thoughts

(Candlestick Park: 59,000. AT&T Park: 41,500). This ballpark was constructed

AT&T Park is a stunning ballpark with

with private money, limiting reliance on

a year round waterfront promenades,

public funds to neighborhood infrastructure

magnificent views of San Francisco Bay

improvements and taxable upgrades to

and a Modern-Retro aesthetic that lies

public grounds. AT&T Park plays hosts to

along a light rail extension on King Street.

baseball in arguably the most picturesque

However, for the purposes of this thesis

city in the country.

the most influential characteristic of this

Figure 190: McCovey Cove Promenade Left Field Wall - Inside/Outside relationship

ballpark is its standing as the catalyst for For any number of reasons AT&T

urban redevelopment in the Mission Bay /

Park has quickly become one of the

SoMa neighborhoods.

games premier ballparks. However, for conclusive purposes of the case study

A modern ballpark project can serve as the

analysis section of this document, AT&T

cornerstone and the catalyst for successful

Park is utterly reflective of the modern

new neighborhood redevelopment

relationship between ballpark team owners and city officials. The city needs the ballpark to justify the public investment in redevelopment, while the team needs the

Figure 191: Game Day - McCovey Cove Kayakers in anticipation of a “Spalsh Hit�


92

Existing Conditions Analysis

Figure 192: Hells Kitchen - Aerial Photo Aerial Photo (current)


93

Introduction to a New Era

that has reshaped American cities.

The New American Metropolis (Post Modern Retro)

It remains to be seen whether changes in social support systems, employment policies and wage structures can keep

“Attempts to re-shape the city to a static

cities from becoming a two-class society

pattern failed even during the Renaissance,

populated by the very poor and the well-off

as economic and social change were too

and can stem the feminization of poverty

rapid and too complicated to be contained.

that condemns many urban women and

How much more difficult would it be to

their children to lives of deprivation. It

30

accomplish the same task today.�

remains to be seen whether continuing calls for combined private sector-public sector

Predictions about the American urban future

efforts to revive central city economies can

remain uncertain. According to Chudacoff

succeed. It remains to be seen whether

and Smith, authors of The Evolution of

the economic downturn of the early twenty-

American Urban Society, there are many

first century, effected by federal cutbacks

questions regrading the certainty of our

in urban aid, by unemployment and under-

American urban futures.

employment resulting from the nation’s deindustrialization, and by government and

It remains uncertain whether the various

corporate policies that have opened a deep

supporters of the various public sector

chasm between the incomes of the rich and

remedies of public housing and housing

the poor will stifle whatever positive efforts

subsidies, rent control, and controlled

cities and their residents are making.31

development can form effective political coalitions to challenge the direction of

Despite a relative lack of confidence and

massive financial and corporate expansion

clarity regarding the future of the American

Figure 193: Retractable Seat Prototype - West Side Stadium


94 city, recent trends in leadership, planning

Metropolis will continue to embrace these

and community involvement have ignited

opportunities for ballpark development and

inner-city revivals and optimism in cities

urban expansion.

across the country. Baltimore has seen tremendous growth in the Inner-Harbor

“Cities [will] remain what they have always

and downtown areas. Seattle has also

been – centers of economic, social and

witnessed growth throughout its downtown,

cultural opportunity.”32 However, present

as well as the re-development of the South

urban ideologies can no longer no embrace

Lake Union neighborhood. San Diego has

a singular past model. A new urban doctrine

endured an incredible construction boom

will combine growth management principles

– blanketing its downtown and Gas Lamp

with a re-emerging urban populous, and a

districts with dozens of new residences,

new emphasis on flexible urban space that

mixed-use commercial spaces and

draws upon multiple traditions. As result,

refurbished downtown structures, creating

the modern ballpark of the new American

new urban destinations and vibrance.

metropolis will continue to respond to the opportunities of the previous era, while

One common thread woven through the

integrating itself into the fabric of pre and

center of each of these inner-city revivals

post-industrial solutions of era’s past.

has been the successful redevelopment of under-utilized urban-industrial lands – and

“The goal...has to give priority to promoting

the physical placement of a new Modern-

a wider range of choices...”33

Retro ballpark at (or near) the center of each redevelopment. As the ModernRetro/ post-industrial era of ballpark design Figure 194: Hell’s Kitchen, NYC - 1879

grows nearer to an end, the New American


95

The Hudson Yards

In the late eighteenth centuiries, central

Hell’s Kitchen South & Manhattan’s West Side Rail Yards

Manhattan was characterized by a rapidly declining farming industry. By the end of

West Side Rail Yards Statistics:

the eighteenth century, central Manhattan

Tenants: Long Island Railroad

“...the decade of the 1870s saw a brawling

farmlands were completely displaced by

Opened: 1934 (renovated 1986)

rookery of a house at 39th Street and 10th

the commercial and industrial needs of

Capacity: 27 storage tracks

Avenue give rise to the famous name of

the growing city. Throughout the 1800’s,

Surface Area: 1,437,480 sq. ft. (total)

‘Hell’s Kitchen,’ which was spread loosely

Hell’s Kitchen, extending from 30th to 59th

Breakdown: East Yards - 578,000 sq. ft.

over much of the West Side” 34

Streets west of 8th Avenue (Image 200),

became home to a dense concentration of

Elevation: 0 ft.

Today the name “Hudson Yards” is used

slaughterhouses, warehouses, distilleries

Owner: MTA (Metro Transit Authority)

in reference to the southern section of

and lumberyards. Consequently, Hell’s

Renovation Cost: $194,000,000

the Hell’s Kitchen. Hell’s Kitchen south

Kitchen attracted a tremendous number of

is occupied, in part by the West Side Rail

skilled and unskilled immigrant workers.

West Yards - 566,500 sq. ft

Table 10: West Side Rail Yards Statistics

Yards and the area is currently slated for massive redevelopment. The West Side

By the late nineteenth century, southern

Rail Yards, lie below grade, between 11th

sections of Hell’s Kitchen had become

and 9th Avenues, from 30th and 33rd

known as “Battle Row” because of the gang

Streets, and create a prominent, 33-acre

related activities that often occurred along

barrier between the Hell’s Kitchen and

39th Street. City authorities grew fearful

Chelsea (Figures 200 & 204). These two

of the neighborhood, often leaving area

neighborhoods share a colorful history as

residents to govern themselves.

the epicenter of nineteenth and twentieth century gang-related violence in New York

As result, Hell’s Kitchen rapidly became one

City.

of the most feared slums in the city.

Figure 195: Aerial Photo - Future Hudson Yards (Hells Kitchen South, Manhattan, NY)


96

Figure 196: Local Market - 9th Ave (1890-1937)

However, new transportation lines began

transportation and infrastructure projects.

to change the cityscape of Hell’s Kitchen.

In 1934 the West Side Improvement Project

In 1851, the Hudson River Railroad station

sank the rail lines of New York Central

(later renamed New York Central Station)

station below street level creating a massive

opened at 30th Street and 11th Avenue.

33-acre cut through Hell’s Kitchen South.

In the 1870s, freight train service began

In 1936, the Port Authority of New York

along 9th Avenue. The construction of

and New Jersey demolished hundreds of

these rail lines along the West Side were

buildings and began work on the Lincoln

critical in supporting the continued growth

Tunnel. The first tube opened in 1937,

of lumberyards, slaughterhouses and

the second in 1945, and a third in 1954.

tanneries, and prompted an increase in

The approach roads to the tunnel were

residential densities throughout Hell’s

constructed to service the first tube, but

Kitchen South. By 1930, an increased

were reconfigured and expanded in 1973

population and frequency of rail service at

to accommodate increased traffic volume.

grade, had caused street-level conditions

In the late 1930s, the elevated West Side

to become so severe that 11th Avenue was

Highway was constructed, which created

referred to as “Death Avenue”. Thus, in

physical barrier between Hells Kitchen and

1934, an elevated track was constructed

the Hudson River piers. In 1950, the Port

over 11th Avenue in an effort to create safer

Authority Bus Terminal was completed. In

conditions along 11th Avenue.

1963, the roads, ramps and overpasses that linked the bus terminal to the Lincoln

Figure 197: West Side Rail Yards (1934)

As Midtown Manhattan continued to

Tunnel were expanded, and in 1983, the

demand more space and regional

terminal station expanded to accommodate

connectivity throughout the 1930s, Hell’s

more bus routes, service and riders. Each

Kitchen south became the focus of massive

of these projects strengthened the city’s


97 connection to the greater New York region.

creation of the Special Clinton District in

However, in just sixteen years (between

1973. The “special district” designation

1934 and 1950), these four separate

provided strict protection for existing

improvements projects re-shaped Hell’s

residential structures. The special district

Kitchen and displaced hundreds of local

limited the mass and scale of future

residents, businesses and institutions.

development or improvement projects between 42nd and 57th Streets and 8th

In 1969, The Jacob K. Javits Convention

and 11th Avenues. The south of 42nd was

Center became the next regionally-scaled

separately designated as the “Convention

project to be proposed for Hell’s Kitchen.

Center District,” with more liberal

This new convention center was originally

developmental allowances. Figure 198: Lincoln Tunnel Construction (1937)

planned as a potential neighborhood catalyst between 43rd and 47th Streets and

Also during the early 1970s, the West Side

between 10th and 11th Avenues. However,

Highway fall into serious disrepair. In 1973,

following nine years of neighborhood

the city began demolition of the highway,

opposition, and local development politics,

but it was not until the late 1980s that the

the convention center site was pushed

currently existing street-level boulevard

southward to the Penn Central Rail Yards

plan was approved. With that plan in place,

site (34th to 39th Streets, west of 11th

public focus shifted to the long-neglected

Avenue). After eight additional years of

waterfront and underutilized piers along

delays, the Javits Center opened in 1986.

the Hudson River. After several more years of debate, the Hudson River Park

One victory for the Hell’s Kitchen community

plan, a riverfront park project extending

in the fight over the proposed northern

from Battery Park (at the southern tip of

location of the Javits Center, was the

Manhattan) to West 59th Street, emerged.

Figure 199: Lincoln Tunnel Construction (1937)


98

Central Park Lennox Hill Hudson River Hell’s Kitchen

Theatre District

Turtle Bay

Hell’s Kitchen South

Midtown

Murray Hill Chelsea

Garment District

Tutor

Kips Bay Figure 200: Hell’s Kitchen / Midtown Manhattan Neighborhood Satellite view


99 The Hell’s Kitchen section of the Hudson

city grid. Hundreds of east-west streets

River Park is currently (2008) under

intersect these north-south arterials to form

construction.

Manhattan island’s long, slender, rectilinear block pattern. Beneath this grid of roadways

Hell’s Kitchen is no longer the dark, violent,

and pedestrian infrastructure lies the

gang-infested neighborhood of the early

city’s 685-mile subway system and central

twentieth century. In fact, neighboring

stations for each of the area’s five regional

districts like Chelsea and the Upper West

rail systems.

Figure 201: Transportation Network

Side have become a popular for young professionals. Still, despite tremendous

At the center of the grid, Midtown

municipal and economic pressure,

Manhattan is at the core of the city’s

Hell’s Kitchen locals take pride in their

commercial activity and the busiest

neighborhoods past and hope to retain a

commercial district in the country. Midtown

sense of its original working-class character.

extends from Central Park at 59th Street to Union Square at 14th Street. It is located between the East River and the

Context and Form Analysis

Figure 202: Neighborhood Road & Rail Network

Hudson and encompasses many central Manhattan neighborhoods – including Hell’s

Manhattan Island is the narrow 33 square

Kitchen and Chelsea on the West Side.

mile epicenter of New York City. Only 2.42

Hell’s Kitchen extends from 59th Street to

miles wide at its widest point, geographic

30th Street, between 9th Avenue and the

constraints were the most influential factor

Hudson River, while the parameters of the

in the development of a north-south grid

Chelsea neighborhood extend south from

system. Fifteen major avenues traverse

33rd Street to 14th Street, also between 9th

the length of the island and anchor the

Avenue and the Hudson. The overlapping

Figure 203: Figure Ground Analysis


100

Jacob Javits Convention Center

Port Authority Bus Terminal

Hudson River 34

th

Str

ee

t

MTA Bus

Lincoln Tunnel Entrance

Bus Lines: M34 & M42

West Yards

MTA Bus 30

Bus Lines: M11

West Side Rail Yards th

Str

34

ee

t

th

East Yards

Str

ee

The High Line 30

th

Str

t

Penn Station Av en 9th

Figure 204: West Side Rail Yards; Immediate Area Satellite view

Madison Square Garden

ee

ue

10 th Av e

nu e

11t hA ve

nu e

12th

Ave n

ue

t

MTA Subway Lines: A, C, E 1, 2, 3, N, R, Q, W, B, D, F, V MTA Bus Lines: M4, M10, M16, M20, M34 NJ Transity, PATH, LIRR and Amtrak Hubs


101 border shared by these two neighborhoods

the neighborhood as well, with only two

is the West Side Rail Yards.

limited bus lines servicing the Jacob Javits Convention Center.

Hell’s Kitchen is located immediately west of Midtown Manhattan in the heart of the

Existing Conditions

city’s regional transportation network. Still, despite varied regional outlets connecting

Hell’s Kitchen South is a dynamic blend

Manhattan with the Bronx, Brooklyn,

of industrial, commercial and residential

Queens, Staten Island, Long Island, New

use and is dominated by mid-century

Jersey, Connecticut and upstate New York,

transportation infrastructure. The center

Hell’s Kitchen South is locally an isolated

of the neighborhood, once predominantly

neighborhood. City subway service travels

residential, is now comprised of physically

predominantly in the north-south direction

scattered residential remnants (Figure 205).

along Broadway, Lexington, and 5th, 6th,

Small-scaled industrial and residential

7th and 8th Avenues. The locations of the

parcels occupy voids left by the construction

A, C, and E lines to the west (along 8th

of the sunken West Side Rail Yards

Avenue) leave the majority of Hell’s Kitchen

(extending from 33rd Street to 30th Street,

South more than one quarter of a mile or

between 9th and 12th Avenues), the Lincoln

a 15-minute walk from the nearest subway

Tunnel (infrastructure extending from 42nd

station. Regional rail service travels

Street to 34th Street, along Dyer Avenue)

into and out of Manhattan exclusively

and the Port Authority Bus Terminal (at

via Grand Central Station at 42nd Street

42nd Street, between 8th and 9th Avenues;

and Lexington Avenue and Pennsylvania

infrastructure extending from 42nd Street to

(Penn) Stations at 33rd Street and 8th

38th Street between 9th and 10th Avenues).

Avenue. Bus service is limited throughout

The construction of Penn Station’s sub-

Figure 205: Multi-Family/Mxd Use Residential

Figure 206: Commercial / Institutional

Figure 207: Industrial / Transportation


102

6

5

4

1

2

Figure 208: Existing Conditions / Neighborhood Character

3


103 surface infrastructure and the new Pier 79

210). The Port Authority Bus Terminal, at

Ferry Terminal on the waterfront have had

42nd Street and 8th Avenue, marks the

less severe physical impact on the physical

northeast corner of the neighborhood.

form of Hell’s Kitchen. At the same time,

The bus terminal occupies a dynamic

they contribute to the neighborhood’s status

space in Midtown Manhattan on the

as the regional multi-modal transportation

threshold of Times Square. The bus

hub of central Manhattan.

terminal lies between the rapidly gentrifying northern section of Hell’s Kitchen and

A recent influx of new residential and

the predominantly infrastructural Hell’s

commercial developments along 8th

Kitchen South. Adjacent roads and

Avenue, between 46th and 33rd Streets has

ramps demarcate the northern edge of

slowly started to blur the border between

the neighborhood and physically divide

Hell’s Kitchen and Midtown. However,

Hell’s Kitchen into distinct north and south

small-scale industry and commercial

sections. The Jacob Javits Convention

business establishments (laundry,

Center defines the west edge of the

automotive, shipping, etc.) are still the most

neighborhood, between 34th and 40th

prevalent land use typologies throughout

Streets. This superstructure physically

the neighborhood (Figure 207).

separates the existing neighborhood from

Lincoln Tunnel Ramps

West Side Rail Yards

Figure 209: Rail Yards and Tunnel Ramps

Jacob Javits Convention Center

Lincoln Tunnel

West Side Rail Yards

Madison Square Garden

Figure 210: Landmarks & Notable Sturctures Hudson River Park

the river and a lack of connection to 12th Avenue, the nearest major thoroughfare Neighborhood Characteristics

The High Line

(behind the Javits Center). The West Side Rail Yards consume the entire southern

Hell’s Kitchen South is surrounded on all

edge of the neighborhood, leaving the

sides by massive physical landmarks that

remaining edge along 9th Avenue, between

overshadow the neighborhood (Figure

42nd and 33rd Streets, obstructed one-

Port Authority Bus Terminal

Chelsea Piers

Figure 211: Open / Park Space


12 th A ven ue

104

11t hA ven ue

1 Figure 213: West Side Rail Yards (33rd Street)

z

2

Av en

ue

12

th A ven

ue

Figure 214: West Side Rail Yards (11th Avenue)

11t h

3 10

th A ven

ue

Figure 215: The High Line (30th Street)

Figure 212: West Side Railyards Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.

4

Figure 216: Hudson River Park (12th Avenue)


105 block west, by Lincoln Tunnel ramps and

West Side Rail Yards and the Street

viaducts. (Figure 209). The neighborhood is essentially bound by: superstructure, tunnel

The relationship of the West Side Rail

ramps, rail yards and bus terminal ramps.

Yards, the Western Yard and its surrounding

Consequently, eerily calm streets with little

streetscape can be subdivided into three

street life has traditionally characterized

sections: The western terminus of the

Hell’s Kitchen South.

rail yard along 12th Avenue (Figure 216),

Freight Storage Yard

33rd Street West Side Rail Yards

Figure 217: Section aa

11th Avenue Bridge

the south corridor between 30th Street Recently the city has made efforts to

development and the Highline (Figure 215),

reconnect the neighborhood to life outside

and the east and north roadways along 11th

“the box”. Construction of a new extension

Avenue and 33rd Street (Figures 213 &

of the Hudson River Park has begun. The

214). The entire property of the West Side

planned extension will to connect the

Rail Yards extends from 33rd Street to 30th

recently completed riverfront park at 29th

Street between 9th and 12th Avenues.

West Side Rail Yards

Figure 218: Section bb

The Highline

Street in Chelsea to the Upper West Side at 59th Street.

Additionally, the elevated

West Side Bus Yard

The West Side Rail Yards consist of 27

rail lines over 11th Avenue (out of service

storage tracks (extending from Penn

since 1980) have been preserved and

Station) used by the MTA for storage

will be transformed into park space. The

of Long Island Railroad train cars. The

“High Line” endured threats of demolition

network of rails run below grade, but is

throughout the 1980s and will now become

exposed between 9th and 12th Avenues.

an elevated urban park. The park will

The lone exception is between 9th and

originate at the West Side Rail Yards and

10th Avenues, where a large commercial

will extend into Chelsea and the Meat

structure (constructed in 1967) stands atop

Packing Districts.

a lid between 33rd and 30th Streets.

Figure 219: Section cc

The High Line

West Side Rail Yards

Figure 220: Section dd

12th Avenue


106 The western section (Section dd) has the

along 12th Avenue. Here the High Line

most active street side. Bikers, joggers,

serves as a buffer between residential

walkers and skaters crowd the newly

development along 30th Street and an MTA

constructed extension of the Hudson River

bus storage facility, which is tucked between

Park, while hundreds of motorists travel

the Highline and West Yards. (Figure 208,

along 12th Avenue – the former site of the

# 6). This relationship is unique to this

elevated West Side Highway. On the rail

particular section of the yards. Additionally,

yard side of 12th Avenue, a small empty

the section of elevated track extending

lot tucks itself beneath the origin of the

from 12th Avenue to 11th Avenue along

remaining 11th Avenue elevated railway

30th Street is one of the only instances in

– soon to be converted into the High Line

which the High Line travels in an east/west

Park. The roads and rail yard sit at the

direction.

same level along the west end, and the High Line overlooks the rail yard quite

The final two street relationships are along

dramatically along 12th Avenue. From here,

11th Avenue and 33rd Street (Figures

one can see a striking urban contrast from

217 & 218). Both the 11th Avenue bridge

east to west (Figure 208 - 4 & 5), as well as

and 33rd Street are physically elevated

presenting the fascinating developmental

above the sunken rail lines and are visually

opportunity of incorporating the High Line

removed from the activities along the tracks

into the Hudson Yard redevelopment plans

by eight foot tall concrete walls. (Figure

(page 144, Figure 287).

221). However, 33rd Street is only closed to its surrounding environment on its south

Figure 221: Perimeter Wall - 11th Avenue

The characteristics along 30th Street, the

side. The 33rd Street corridor has strong

southern street section (Figure 219) is

relationship with the Hudson River Park (to

similar to the rail yard side characteristics

the west) and views to Midtown Manhattan


107 (to the east) and the Javits Center (to the

to Midtown Manhattan and redevelopment

north). A freight yard occupies the lot

potential than its “gangbuster” past.

between 33rd and 34th Streets. (Figure 208,

As result of its physical proximity to

# 3). The most isolated street surrounding

Midtown, the Hudson Yards have been

the rail yards, in terms of connection to its

coined Manhattan’s “Final Frontier” for

surrounding physical environment, is 11th

large-scale redevelopment in Manhattan.35

Avenue, between 33rd and 30th Streets.

“The Hudson Yards is ideally located to

This section of street stands physically

allow for the expansion of the Midtown

divided by street-lined concrete walls

Central Business District and to help

(Figure 214). Still, the relationship of the

secure New York City’s economic future.

street to the Highline and the elevated

The project includes a series of actions to

character of 11th Avenue over the current

transform Hudson Yards into a dynamic,

rail yards creates potential for street-vibrant

transit-oriented urban center, permitting

redevelopment.

medium- to high-density development and a mix of uses, including commercial, residential, open space, cultural and

Hudson Yards Redevelopment Proposal

entertainment”36 In order to achieve this objective, the city has identified four

Hell’s Kitchen has long been defined by

critical components in the Hudson Yards

its tumultuous history, displaced residents,

redevelopment proposal:

massive regional infrastructure projects, non-existent neighborhood environment

- Extending subway service

and its under-populated streets. However,

- Re-zoning for future densities and uses

Hell’s Kitchen today has become much

- Establishing a new open space network

more closely linked to its physical proximity

- Creating a Convention Corridor

Figure 222: Hudson Yards Neighborhood Plan


108

Javits Center Expansion

levard Open Space Bou

Jacob Javits Convetion Center

MTA NYC Subway #7 Line Expansion

West Yards Stadium / Rec Facility

Hudson River

Figure 223: Current Hudson Yards Redevelopmemt Plans

East Yards Cultural Center

MTA NYC Subway ACE Lines Lincoln Tunnel Entry Ramp Redevelopment

Moynihan Station


109 Extending Subway Service

Yards area would reinforce existing neighborhoods while transforming

In conjunction with the impending Hudson

underused areas into a thriving and

Yards rezoning, the MTA is planning the

desirable urban district.”37

extension of the subway system’s #7 line. The present extension plan for the current

The new zoning proposal would preserve

#7 line would create two new stations in

most of the low-density zoning in the

the Hell’s Kitchen neighborhood and would

areas immediately surrounding the Javits

assure that nearly all points within the

Center (Figures 224 & 225). Additionally,

redevelopment area would be within one

new zoning would increase high-density

quarter mile of a subway station. The first

commercial opportunities along the edge

new station would extend from the current

of the area’s Midtown CBD and would

terminal station at 42nd Street and 8th

concentrate residential and mixed-use

Avenue to 42nd Street and 10th Avenue.

development opportunities in the centr of

The #7 line would then turn south towards

the development area (Figure 225).

C6-4/6

M2-3

C6-2/4 M2-5/6 R8 Figure 224: Hudson Yards - Current Zoning

a new terminal station at 34th Street and

CR6-12/15

11th Avenue. Plans for an additional line

The East Yards would be designated for

extension to 23rd Street are also being

high-density, residential and commercial

discussed.

mixed-use redevelopment and public open space. The West Yards was originally planned to accommodate a stadium and

Re-Zoning for Future Densities and Uses

M1-5/6

convention space; however, due to the dissolution of the West Side Stadium

According to the New York City Department

plans, MTA and City Council officials are

of City Planning, “Rezoning the Hudson

still current negotiating a new zoning and

C6-4

R7/15

M2-3

CR68/18

RC8 11/33 C6-10/20

Figure 225: Hudson Yards - Zoning Changes


110 redevelopment strategy for the West Yards.

square would be located atop a decking

Establishing a New Open Space Network

system constructed over the East Yards. (Figure 229).

The largest component of the Hudson Yards

Figure 226: Subway Expansion 7-Train Terminal Station (41st & 10th Ave)

redevelopment plan is the proposal of three

The second park would essentially be

separate parks, which will comprise a single

a network of small infill green spaces,

20-acre open space network. (Figure 223).

interspersed along Dyer Avenue and near

The proposed open-space network would

the entry ramps into the Lincoln Tunnel.

weave through the heart of the Hudson

Construction and re-zoning along the

Yards, creating a dynamic mixed-use

Lincoln Tunnel entry corridor would be

residential and commercial district.

primarily residential, thus this series of small

The first park would originate at the northern

parks would serve as both a component of

edge of the Hudson Yards at 42nd Street,

the open-space network, and the central

would bridge a series of Port Authority

connective element for a new residential

Bus Terminal roads and ramps that lead

community.

into the Lincoln Tunnel and would end at

Figure 227: Hudson Yards Vision - 2025

39th Street. (Figure 228). At 39th Street;

The open space network would also include

a pedestrian bridge would expand into a

connections to the existing Hudson River

linear north-south park bordered by a new

Park and High Line park projects. The

tree-lined “Open-Space Boulevard” between

Hudson Yards open space plans include

10th and 11th Avenues. This linear park

two block-sized parks to the north and south

and adjacent “Open Space Boulevard”

of 39th Street, along the Hudson River. The

would anchor a series of new residential

High Line originates at the Western Yard

and commercial towers before terminating

and runs along 30th Street to the southern

at a six-acre mixed-use public square. This

junction of the East and West Yards.


111 The proposed public square, to be

meeting rooms to 365,000 square feet.”39

constructed atop the East Yards is intended

Any redevelopment plan of this magnitude

to elevate the public onto the Highline.

raises dozens of questions regarding the

Western Yard plans and its open space are

reality of the project’s planning, politics

yet to be determined.

and future. However, for the purposes of this document, the only component of the current proposal that will be considered in

Creating a Convention Corridor

detail will be the undecided plans for the Western Yards site.

The fourth critical component of the Hudson Yards redevelopment proposal

According to the New York City Department

is the overdue expansion of the Jacob

of City Planning, “Hudson Yards is the

Javits Convention Center. The Hudson

future of New York City.”39

Yards redevelopment proposal calls for the creation of a Convention Corridor, where

Figure 228: Hudson Yards Open Space Boulevard Pedestrian Bridge (38th-42nd St.)

the convention center is currently located. “The Jacob K. Javits Convention Center [will] be expanded north to West 41st Street with a hotel on West 42nd Street. The expansion will increase the size of its contiguous exhibition area from 760,00 square feet to 1,300,000 square feet. Additionally, the expansion will provide a convention center hotel, a ballroom of 86,000 square feet, and an increase in

Figure 229: Hudson Yards Open Space Boulevard Open Space Terminus - East Yards


112

Ballpark Model Proposal

Figure 230: Conceptual New Urban Ballpark (Studio Gang Architects)


113

A Mixed-Use Ballpark Model

by the Department of City Planning (Figure

An Integrated Ballpark Proposal for the West Side Rail Yards - Western Yard

232). West Side Ballpark Statistics: Since its initial draft in 2001, the plan for

Tenants: New York Ciity Baseball

“It is especially important to understand

the expansion of Midtown Manhattan

Opened: 2012 (hypothetical)

the circumstances that mold a plan...

and the redevelopment of Hell’s Kitchen

Capacity: 41,500 - 43,500

that municipalities employ to guide actual

has undergone numerous revisions and

Field Surface Area: 106,000 sq. ft.

development. It is equally critical to

has reallocated developmental priorities.

Surface Area: 1,100,000 sq. ft. (total)

discover the ways in which localities deviate

In 2003, the Hudson Yards “preferred

Breakdown: West Yards - 578,000 sq. ft.

from agreed-upon recommendations and to

direction” document was officially published.

discern their reasons for doing so.”40

In that early iteration of the Hudson Yards

Elevation: 26 ft.

Plan, the focus of the redevelopment was

Ownership: Variable Public / Private

Following the 2000 Census, the New

essentially the same as the current plans.

Construction Cost: Varied / TBD

York City Department of City Planning

However, the cornerstone of the initial

determined that Midtown Manhattan would

proposal was a massive stadium and event

need to accommodate nearly 500,000

space, which was to be constructed on the

new workers and over 100 million new

West Yards site of the West Side Rail Yards

square feet of office space by the year

(Figure 233). In that initial proposal, much

2025. Therefore, in 2001, the New York

of the economic support for the Hudson

City Department of City Planning drafted

Yards was woven into the West Yards

the first iteration of the “Hudson Yards

stadium as a catalyst for neighborhood

Redevelopment Plan”. The document

redevelopment. The Hudson Yards was

was initially called the “Far West Midtown

just one of the beneficiaries of the West

Framework for Development Proposal,”

Yards stadium proposal.

based on the preferred direction proposed

(appox) Surrounding - 522,000 sq. ft

Table 11: West Side Ballpark Statistics

Figure 231: Concept Sketch Integrated Ballpark Model


114 In addition to benefiting the Hudson Yards,

to redevlop the the Hudson Yards had been

the stadium project was marketed as the

eliminated. However, in a neighborhood

future home for the New York football Jets,

were massive physical intervention is

as well as a potential site of the Olympic

responsible for a severing community fabric,

Stadium venue for the 2012 Olympic

a redevelopment strategy of such massive

Games. Plans called for the stadium to

proportions for Hells Kitchen South can be

open for the 2012 Olympics, later to be

questioned.

converted into a permanent football home

Figure 232: Original Hudson Yards Rezoning Plan Far West Midtown Framework (2001)

for the Jets in New York City and also to

The extension of the #7 subway line and the

serve as an anchor for redevelopment

expansion of the Jacob Javits Convention

efforts. Nevertheless, in 2005 the IOC

Center are necessary improvements

(International Olympic Committee) granted

for Hell’s Kitchen, the Hudson Yards,

the 2012 Olympics to London, U.K. In

and for the city of New York. West Side

the immediate aftermath of the IOC’s

neighborhoods (Hell’s Kitchen and Chelsea)

decision, the city maintained its support

have long been neglected by Manhattan’s

for the stadium plan atop the Western

mass transit network. Furthermore,

Yard. However, following tremendous

according to the New York City Department

neighborhood contention and lost Olympic

of City Planning, the Javits Center has been

revenue streams and fading bureaucratic

in need of additional area for nearly twenty-

support, the city eventually abandoned the

five years41. While the expansion will add

stadium component of the original 2006

contestable mass to an already massive

plan.

West Side superstructure, thoughtful plans to modernize the convention center can

Figure 233: Hudson Yards Stadium Proposal (2003)

Without the West Side Stadium component,

increase square footage, without further

the largest single component in the plans

severing the neighborhood from the River.


115 The new neighborhood zoning

an already fragmented urban fabric (Image

agenda and open space network are

235). This open space division of ten city

the most contentious components of

blocks will obstruct east/west access along

the redevelopment plan42. The new

half of them – and add new north/south

neighborhood zoning objective calls for

roads between 10th and 11th Avenues.

increased densities and infill development

The resultant Open Space Boulevard will

throughout the area. Both of these

resemble a large green traffic median,

objectives are seemingly beneficial

rather than a green gathering space, and

amendments to the current zoning policy

will further divide circulation from 42nd

in place for Hell’s Kitchen South (Figure

Street to 33rd Street (Figure 234).

225). However, specific zoning allowances and the implementation of a massive

Additional open space plans call for public

new open space boulevard between 10th

open space to be constructed over the

and 11th Avenues raise questions about

Eastern Yard, and for the “greenization”

neighborhood appropriateness.

of Dyer Avenue and the Lincoln Tunnel

Figure 234: Segment - Open Space Boulevard Hudson Yards Redevelopment Plan

onramps. The objective of these open The Open Space Boulevard proposes a

space proposals is for them to serve as a

complete reconstruction of the blocks from

terminus for the Open Space Boulevard and

42nd and 33rd Streets, between 10th and

a means of beatification for new residential

11th Avenues. Furthermore, the featured

development along Dyer Avenue.

characteristic of the reconstructed “openspace boulevard” will be a divisive strip

Throughout the early half of the twentieth

of open space, designed to occupy one

century, the construction of the West Side

third of the redeveloped land and layer yet

Rail Yards, Port Authority Bus Terminal,

another oversized singular element onto

The Lincoln Tunnel onramps and the Jacob

Figure 235: Current / Existing Conditions Hell’s Kitchen South / Hudson Yards


116 Javits Convention Center systematically

The thesis is based on a critical acceptance

displaced residents, disengaged local

of the proposed plans for the Hudson Yards.

culture and destroyed street life in Hell’s

The following proposal will showcase

Kitchen South. This urban evolution

socio-physical integration of a stadium

left behind a hodgepodge of land uses,

scaled structure, within a dense urban

building types and infrastructure. Half

redevlopment strategy.

a century later, plans to redevelop the Hudson Yards promise to reactivate and repopulate this neighborhood. However,

The Ballpark Model Proposal

the essence of the redevelopment strategy

Figure 236: Initial Open Space Vision (2003)

Figure 237: Initial 11th Avenue Vision (2003)

seems to ignore, avoid and attempt to

Despite strong neighborhood opposition

mask many of the interventions that have

and contention with stadium-scaled

historically fragmented the neighborhood.

development in Hell’s Kitchen, this thesis

“Contemporary planning suffers, when

proposal for the West Yards is a non-

planners lack perspective on the historic

divisive ballpark. This proposal will not play

contexts of their work.”43 In this case, it

host to a professional football organization.

appears as if the strategy is an aspiration

There is little justification in urban football

to a textbook utopia, consisting of dense

venues because there are so few home

modern structure and blocks of open

games each year.44 The proposal will not

space – to stand amidst and atop the

be reliant on expectant revenues of Olympic

imperfections of the past. Even the recently

proportions, or even revenues traditionally

abandoned proposal for West Side football

associated with sporting stadia. It will also

stadium would have stood as yet another

not exist as another monolithic blemish

divisive (yet modern) superstructure, further

on the physical fabric of Hell’s Kitchen,

fragmenting Hell’s Kitchen South.

or the Hudson Yards redevelopment


117 agenda. Furthermore, it will not impact

framework for the development of a new

its surrounding urban fabric in the same

urban ballpark model to be sited over the

manner as would a traditional stadium

West Yards.

because it has been designed to perform as a component of the urban whole. Emphasis has been placed on the creation of a greater

Urban Goals and Guidelines:

urban dialogue rather than the creation of a single-use stadium.

1 - Create a dynamic, identifiable neighborhood center.

The proposal proposes an urban framework for a mixed-use ballpark that is part of an

2 - Discourage the development of divisive

integrated design proposal. Its guidelines

and/or massive superstructure.

are derived from the history of Hell’s Kitchen, the existing conditions of Hell’s

3 - Connect the ballpark plan to the Hudson

Kitchen South and the Hudson Yards

Yards open space network.

Figure 238: Ballpark Model - Concept Sketch

Redevelopment Plan. An in-depth historical analysis of American ballparks throughout

4 - Minimize traffic congestion by placing

various eras of twentieth century American

facilities near transit connections.

urban history provides applicable urban ideologies. Urban ideologies applied to

5 - Provide limited parking in order to

the proposal are based on a chronological

encourage the use of mass transit.

understanding of American urban evolution and the author’s innate desire to exploit the

6 - Minimize neighborhood noise pollution

unique physical traits of New York City.

by placing facilities near the river.

The following goals serve as the urban

Figure 239: Early Concept Plans/Diagrams


118

Ballpark Location

Exisiting Structure Hudson Yards / New Structure New + Ballpark Structure Western Yards Ballpark Traditional Seating Area

Open Space Boulevard Ballpark Complex

Figure 240: Urban Guideline #1 - Create a functional identifiable neighborhood center


119 Urban Objective 1 - Create a dynamic

a new open space network, creating a

and identifiable neighborhood center

Convention Corridor), in order to create a strong neighborhood center. Based on

The West Yards Ballpark stands at the

its physical location, local and regional

junction of Hell’s Kitchen to the north,

appeal, a dynamic mix of structure, activity

Chelsea to the south, Midtown to the east

and proximity to transportation options,

and the Hudson River to the west (Figure

the West Yards Ballpark would enable the

241). Additionally, the East and West Yards

redevelopment plan to focus on a center at

are critical connective components of the

the West Yards.

Hudson Yards Redevelopment Plan, most Hell’s Kitchen

notably in their relationship to the Open Space Boulevard Plan, the neighborhoods’

Urban Objective 2 - Discourage the

relationship to the High Line urban park

development of divisive and/or massive

project (Figure 245), and their relationship

superstructures.

Hudson River

to the Hudson River in the center of the redevelopment proposal.

34

th

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ee

This urban objective is designed to ensure

t

a cohesive future for Hell’s Kitchen South The Hudson Yards Redevelopment

with an emphasis of a new central ballpark.

Plan will be one of the largest single

The neighborhood was disjointed and

redevelopment efforts in the history of

scarred throughout the twentieth century

Manhattan. Currently (2008) the focus

by large-scale urban improvement projects.

of the redevelopment plan has shifted to

The enforcement of a building footprint

highlight the four prominent features of the

restriction guideline would help to prevent

plan (extending subway service, re-zoning

any massive, single structure from being

for future densities and uses, establishing

constructed atop the Western Yards such as

Midtown

Chelsea

Figure 241: Neighbohood Center


120

Urban Fabric

Exisiting Structure Proposed / New Structure

Ballpark Complex

Figure 242: Urban Guideline #2 - Discourage the development of divisive/massive superstructure.


121 that of the stadium plan previously desired

Urban Objective 3 - Connect the ballpark

for the site. Additionally, this guideline

to the Hudson Yards open space network

Under the conditions of such a guideline,

The porous nature of the building

the development of any West Yards site

configuration also caters to the

would have to conform to approved size

neighborhood features that surround the

and scale guidelines and be sensitive to the

ballpark proposal: the Hudson River, the

current redevelopment agenda.

East Yards – Open Space Terminus, the

12 th A ven ue

protects investment in the Hudson Yards.

the ballpark proposed by this thesis stands

considering the relationship of solid and

as a series of smaller and more dynamic

void within the physical layout of the various

structures than those associated with more

ballpark structures was a critical urban

traditional stadium-scaled developments

consideration for the site (Figure 245).

30

th

Str

ee

t

Figure 243: 30th Street (11th & 12th Avenue)

(Figures 243 & 244). The general size and scale of the ballpark structure is

The proximity of the Western Yards to the

inspired by the proportions created along

Hudson River is one of the site’s most

the Open-Space Boulevard Plan (Figure

valuable assets. Therefore, maintaining a

242). In maintaining proportions similar

strong relationship with the river frontage

to the current redevelopment strategy and

is a critical factor in street and building

surrounding them with elements of the

treatment in this proposal. The 33rd Street

current neighborhood fabric, this ballpark

corridor remains unobstructed, while access

model will indubitably function more like a

along 30th Street isenhanced by an open

“piece of the neighborhood” than an single

space void between 11th and 12th Avenues,

function athletic venue.

further expanding the outlet to the Hudson

33

rd

Str

ee

11t h

Av en

ue

t

Figure 244: 33rd Street and 11th Avenue

Av en

Space Boulevard) and the High Line. Thus,

11t h

In response to these urban constraints,

ue

Javits Center (and the adjacent Open


122

Open Space Linkages

Exisiting Structure Proposed / New Structure Open Space Linkages

Linked Open Space Area Ballpark Complex

Figure 245: Urban Guideline #3 - Connect the ballpark plan into Hudson Yards open space network


123 River Park (Figure 245). The massing and

246). The High Line continues deep into

orientation of the parcels along 12th Avenue

Chelsea and ultimately Greenwich Village.

are situated to take advantage ballpark

However, 31% of the Highline structure

views to the east and the river views to the

falls within the physical boundaries of this

west.

ballpark proposal, the entirety of which contribute to the unique character that

The link between the existing Hudson

embodied in this ballpark proposal.

Yards Open Space Plan and the High Line is the most unusual open space link in this

The strongest open space relationship

proposal. The High Line originates along

exists between the ballpark’s West Yards

the northern edge of the West Yards and

site and the Open Space Terminus atop

is one of the few existing elements that

the East Yards. This connection originates

is directly incorporated into the ballpark

along 34th Street between the Javits

design, therefore linking the past to present.

Center and voids in the ballpark’s northern

The High Line is directly linked to every

structure. The “Convention Corridor” links

piece of the ballpark structure with which

the Javits Center to a large open plaza

it is engaged. Along the western edges of

beyond the ballpark’s outfield wall. From

the ballpark, the High Line pierces though

the Eastern Yards, the ballpark’s open

the proposed structure to create dynamic

public space along 11th Avenue would invite

mixed-use space (i.e. covered commercial/

the public across the street into the ballpark

public gathering space beneath a proposed

(Figure 235) so that the pedestrian flow on

mixed-use hotel, etc.). Along the southern

the street compliments the slow east-west

edges of the ballpark, the High Line actually

flow of rail traffic below it. The sensations

serves as the main public circulation and

created in that space embrace the dynamic

gathering space for ballpark visitors (Figure

nature of street life in New York City, but

Figure 246: Ballpark Open Space Connections


124

Outer Ring

Inner Ring

Field Ring

Figure 247: Urban Guideline #6 - Minimize neighborhood noise through isolated placement nearest to the river.

7-Train Terminal

Existing Bus

Proposed Bus

Figure 248: Urban Guideline #4 - Minimize congestion though placement nearest to multi-modal transit connections.

Proposed Parking

Existing Parking

Figure 249: Urban Guideline #5 - Provide limited pay for parking stalls, to encourage the use of mass-transit.


125 may also recreate an environment similar

properly exist without direct access to local

to Eutaw Street at Camden Yards (Page

subway service.

79 - Figure 163). This space would offer baseball festivities and an open public view

At a regional scale, the proposal of

of the playing field from beyond (through)

increased bus service to the Hudson Yards

the outfield wall and into the public plaza,

is imperative for this proposal to operate

along 11th Avenue.

properly and efficiently. North/south service along 11th and 12th Avenues would link the

Urban Objectives 4 & 5 - Minimize

complex to surrounding neighborhoods,

congestion by placing facilities near to

as well as to a major local transit system

multi-modal transportation connections

hub at Columbus Circle (59th Street and

& provide limited parking, in order to

8th Avenue). East West Bus Service

encourage the use of mass transit.

along 33rd and 34th Street would link the complex to Midtown Manhattan subway

The proposed extension of the #7 train

lines along 34th Street, regional rail lines

line to a new terminal station at 34th Street

at Penn Station, as well as provide indirect

and 11th Avenue will be the core of a new

access to Grand Central Station. These

mass transit hub at the West Yards ballpark

services are critical in light of the deliberate

(Image 250). Funneling more than 40,000

neglect of stadium parking or nearby public

individuals to and from a stadium site on the

parking, as outlined by urban objectives 4 &

far west side of Manhattan on a semi-daily

5 (Figures 249 & 251). The combination of

basis would be an impossible task if not

new subway service and extended bus lines

for the presence of a nearby multi-modal

will link the site (locally and regionally) into

transportation options. For that reason

the greater New York City fabric.

a New York City baseball venue cannot

Figure 250: Mass Transit Hub (42nd & 11th Ave)

Figure 251: Parking Coverage / Service


126 Urban Objective 6 - Minimize noise

structure from the neighborhood around it.

pollution in the neighborhood by placing

These six urban guidelines highlight a

facilities near the river.

responsive and dynamic relationship between the West Side Ballpark and its

Placement of the proposed ballpark along

surrounding environment. The objectives

the Hudson River creates developmental

in the following section, differ from the

opportunities, ranging from developer

objectives of the previous section in scale

interest and investment, to open space

and ballpark specificty, but expand on the

linkages and increased street activity

same integrated urban objective.

around and within the ballpark site. One

Figure 252: Conceptual Circulation Section

of the additional advantages to this

The following are three ballpark objectives,

ballpark’s placement along the riverfront is

derived from the urban framework

that the playing field, the ballpark seating

established in the previous section.

sections and the surrounding structure are surrounded on three sides: by the

Ballpark Model Objectives

river, by the convention center and by the open space plaza (Image 247). In a

1 - Encourage flexibility in structure to

neighborhood where the resurgence of

encourage diverse occupancy and use.

residential community is a priority, it is important to limit the extraneous sounds

2 - Maintain near 100% street level

and activities associated with ballgame

connection and a high urban profile to

events. The dynamic composition and

encourage vitality and year round use.

placement of this ballpark ensures the

Figure 253: Early Land-Use Sketch

safety and potential marketability of the

3 - Capitalize on new neighborhood zoning

surrounding community without isolating the

to encourage dynamic development.


127 Ballpark Objective 1 - Encourage

unused for nearly 200 days out of the

flexibility in structure to accommodate

year. Thus, the integration of collapsible

sporting events and encourage diverse

seating sections and the provision of nearly

occupancy and use.

6,000 disappearing event seats is essential in the development of year-round urban

The most innovative component and the

vitality around the West Side Ballpark and

heart of the ballpark proposal’s physical

throughout the the Hudson Yards.

structure is the integration of retractable seating sections into the structures around

The integration of retractable seating

the park (Figure 254).

technology into the ballpark’s perimeter structures would provide more than

The conceptual force behind such flexible

just off-season advantages. When in

seating sections is simple. Professional

use, retractable seating sections would

baseball stadiums only host 81 home

be expected to perform as any fully

games a year (up to 92 for World Series

functional section of stadium seats. In this

participants). Assuming that the stadium

proposal, these sections would create

complex hosts a modest assortment of

eight independent clusters of retractable

additional public events (concerts, film

seating. These seating sections can be

screenings, exhibition events, etc.), a

elevated above the field and over the

baseball stadium could potentially be

street, providing some of the most unique

used on up to 125 days in a given year.

viewing vantage points of any ballpark

If an additional 50 days for complex

in the United States. Additionally, the

transformation, maintenance and inspection

retractable seating sections have the ability

are factored in, it can be determined that

to transform designated sections of the

the average ballpark complex may stand

urban environmental around the ballpark,

Figure 254: Retractable Seating Sketch


128

Ballpark Entry Diagram

Ballpark Seating Chart Stadium Seating Only

Points of Entry

Building + Rooftop Seating

Ballpark / Neighborhood Structure

Rooftop Seating Only

Stadium Seating Section

Temporary “Event Space” Seating

“Inner Ring”

Street Level Retail

“Outer RIng”

Seating Ring Seperation

2500

1500

750

500

1500 3500

250 500

13,500 15,500

1000

1500

500 250

3500 1000

250

500

500 6500 500

250

500

500

250

Figure 255: Ballpark Model Guideline #1 - Seating Chart Encourage flexibility in structure to accommodate sporting events and encourage diverse occupancy and use.

Figure 256: Ballpark Model Guideline #1 - Entry Diagram Encourage flexibility in structure to accommodate sporting events and encourage diverse occupancy and use.


129 for example, 33rd Street between 11th and

the rooftop), and seven in the “outer ring”

12th Avenues (Figure 258). In this example,

(Figure 256).

a retracted seating section cantilevers over 33rd Street on game days creating an

This ballpark model’s “inner ring,” refers

environment that would link the ballpark

to all sections that provide ballpark seats

with the urban streetscape (Figures 279 &

within approximately 500 feet of home plate.

280). Similar phenomena can exist along

The four “inner ring” structures share points

30th Street and 11th and 12th Avenues, as

of entry and are comprised of extended

well as at the public entry plaza along the

building seat section structures as well as

west side of 11th Avenue.

traditional stadium seating sections (Figure 256). The “outer ring” is comprised of the

The retractable seats would only account

remaining seating sections, primarily rooftop

for one third of the model’s non-traditional

and retractable seating sections, with

seating types. In addition to the retractable

smaller satellite entry points located across

seating sections, the West Yards ballpark

the street from “inner ring” entry gates

features approximately 12,000 seats on

(Figure 266).

the rooftops of surrounding buildings and 10,000 seats extending from buildings

The total capacity of this proposal is 42,000-

within the ballpark complex. The rooftop

44,000 persons, which is comparable to

seating sections are scattered over eleven

AT&T Park in San Francisco. The ballpark’s

different structures throughout the complex.

inner ring seats 33,750 - 35,750 persons,

Most of these structures provide access

which is comparable to total capacity of

to the retractable seating sections. (Figure

Fenway Park in Boston, and offers 13,500-

257). Of these eleven structures, four

15,500 traditional seats. The outer ring

would lie within the “inner ring” (three on

provides an additional 8,250 seats.

Ea

st Y ard

s

Figure 257: Main Public Entry - 11th Avenue

33

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ee

t

Pla

yin

gF

ield

Figure 258: Seating Section Relationship


130

Street Contact Diagram

Pedestrian Circulation Diagram

Main Ballpark / Neighborhood Use Sructure

Main Pedestrian Paths (Inner Ring)

Traditional Stadium Seating Section

Pedestrian Paths (Outer Ring)

Points of Public Structural contact (to the street)

Pedestrian Paths (Elevated) Pedestrain Paths (Highline) Redevelopment Structure Stadium Seating

Figure 259: Ballpark Model Guideline #2 - Physical Street Contact Maintain at/near a 100% street level connection / urban street presence to encourage vitality and use all year.

Figure 260: Ballpark Model Guideline #2 - Pedestrian Circulation Maintain at/near a 100% street level connection / urban street presence to encourage vitality and use all year.


131 Ballpark Objective 2 - Maintain near

ballpark proposal. The east side of 11th

100% street level connection and high

Avenue has limited frontage as the terminus

urban profile to encourage vitality and

to the Open Space Boulevard. (Figure 261).

year-round use. Along the remaining two streets, the High Street connections result in street use,

Line creates unusual challenges and

and “the city is first an foremost a melting

opportunities for creating street-friendly

place for people...�45 The separation

environments. The presence of the

of the ballpark structures will enable

High Line along 12th Avenue creates an

street frontages to wrap around corners

opportunity to unite the ballpark structure

and encourage circulation between the

and the street below, while proving an

ballpark’s various mixed-use structures

alternative route for heavy pedestrian/

(Figure 260). An urban street presence

recreational traffic along the river side of

through the Convention Corridor is

the street (Figure 260). Additionally, the

significant in leading circulation between

presence of the High Line along 30th Street

the Javits Center and the ballpark. Ballpark

facilitates an opportunity to create a urban

street frontage along 33rd and 34th Streets

environment beneath the infrastructure. A

ensures the development of more active

single strip of retail service tucked beneath

intersections at the junctions of the Corridor

the High Line serves double duty, servicing

and 33rd and 34th Streets. Additionally,

both the street (south side) and a retail

ballpark street frontage along the west side

corridor (north side), though activities

of 11th Avenue, between 30th and 33rd

beneath the infrastructure would most likely

Streets is critical in creating a relationship

be limited to game day activities.

Pla

yin

gF

ield

between the ballpark and the neighborhood along the most exposed street in the

Figure 261: Circulation Detail


132

Physical Land Use Diagram

Land Use Plan

Stadium Seating Section

Mixed Residential

Void Space (street and playing field)

Mixed Commercial (Hotel)

Land Use Designation

Mixed Commercial (Office) Street Level Retail Ballpark

Figure 262: Ballpark Model Guideline #3 - Land Use Diagram Capitalize on new neighborhood zoning regulations / encourage dynamic mixeduse development.

Figure 263: Ballpark Model Guideline #3 - Land Use Plan Capitalize on new neighborhood zoning regulations / encourage dynamic mixeduse development.


133 Ballpark Objective 3 - Capitalize on new

the High Line. Parcels along 12th Avenue

neighborhood zoning regulations to

are designated mixed-commercial (hotel)

encourage mixed-use development.

due to their proximity to the Javits Center, the High Line and their split orientation

The ballpark proposal’s land-use objective

towards both the ballpark and the Hudson

can essentially be summarized as follows:

River (Figure 263). Parcels along 30th and

Variable mixed-use restrictions prevents

33rd Streets, are designated as commercial/

monopolistic occupancy within the complex,

retail due to their direct relationships to

including stadium only uses (Figure 263).

the street (Figure 263). Corner parcels on

The common thread throughout all of

11th Avenue corner parcels are designated

the structural objectives is to encourage

mixed commercial (office) to exploit

dynamic use and occupancy of related

unique opportunities along the street and

stadium structures (Figure 264), while at

connections to the ballpark and to the

the same time ensuring that all of these

Javits Center. The two remaining parcels

components relate directly to the ballpark’s

along the east side of 11th Avenue are

playing field.

components of the existing Hudson Yards

iiii ii iii

Open Space Boulevard redevelopment and The actual land-use designations of

are designated mixed-residential and mixed

structures within the ballpark complex,

commercial - hotel accordingly.

i

however, were derived on a parcel-byparcel basis. Parcels along 30th Street are

The individual building components of this

designated as mixed-residential due to their

proposal range from 40–120 feet in height.

proximity to residential developments in

This range allows for the ballpark to easily

northern Chelsea and in order to optimize

integrate itself into the fabric of structures

property values along the Hudson River and

already proposed throughout the Hudson

v iiii

ii Figure 254: Diversity in Land Use

Ea

st Y ard

s


134

Figure 265: Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Plan (rail yards exposed for reference)


135

Figure 266: Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Perspective (Northeast)

Figure 267: Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Perspective (Southwest)

Figure 268: Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Perspective (Southeast)

Figure 269: Ballpark Proposal - Aerial Perspective (Northwest)


12 th A ven ue

136

11t hA ven ue

1 Figure 271: 33rd Street & the West Side Ballpark

z

2

ue

12

th A ven

ue

Figure 272: 11th Avenue & the West Side Ballpark

11t h

Av en

3 10

th A ven

ue

Figure 273: 30th Street & the West Side Ballpark

Figure 270: Stadium Proposal Aerial Map, Analysis & Relationship to the Street.

4

Figure 274: 12th Avenue & the West Side Ballpark


137 Yards. Additionally, the height restrictions

unite, collide, and/or absorb one another.

provide developmental opportunity for

Circulation patterns intertwine on the street,

private integration into the ballpark complex.

above and through the ballpark and higher

Building height restrictions between 40 and

above from building to building. Land uses

120 feet, enable additional structures to

are varied and diverse, within the confines

be constructed, with unobstructed visual

of a single structure as well as within the

access to the playing field.

project as a whole. It is apparent that this

Figure 275: Section aa (33rd Street)

proposal could successfully function as a The collection of images on pages 134-135

ballpark. However, it will also function as

shows the potential for a three-dimensional

a dynamic component of the high density

union of the aforementioned ballpark

developing urban environment.

Figure 276: Section bb (11th Avenue)

framework guidelines and structural objectives. Each individual structure is

The conclusion section that follows will

defined relative to the neighborhood and

further show the relationship of this

linked to the playing field. The playing field

ballpark proposal to the surrounding street

itself is traditional, and the total complex

environment. This series of graphics is

occupies approximately one million square

intended to demonstrate the relationships

feet (less than typical for modern ballpark

among building masses and buildings to

construction). In fact, at first glance, many

the surrounding street network (note the

of the physical features one would expect

structural absorption of the High Line into

to associate with a ballpark (playing field,

and the relationship of seating to the street).

location of seating sections, ballpark

The following pages include projected

shape, etc.) seem apparent. However, a

perspectives of the ballpark proposal in

more critical glance reveals instances in

greater detail with corresponding images of

which structural elements of the stadium

present-day existing conditions.

Figure 277: Section cc (30th Street)

Figure 278: Section dd (12th Avenue)


138

Conclusions

Figure 279: A New Ballpark Model A Ballpark for the West Side Rail Yards


139

Thesis Conclusions

grown to embody new urban ideals and a

General Conclusions & Reasearch Reactions

re-investment in American downtowns.

To some extent unlike a building, a bridge “Designers have learned that while a

or an open-space project whose parameters

building, a bridge, or a park is a clearly

are quantifiable, Major League ballparks

defined product with a form that will remain

have long stood in sync with urban

fixed for a long time, city designs cannot be

developments and stand as testaments to

fixed the same way.�46

the conditions and ideologies of their day.

Over the past 95 years, 30 American cities have been host to 67 Major League

Design Process Reflections

ballparks. American cities of the early century embraced ballpark development,

This thesis has highlighted the link between

born from urban transportation innovations

the development of American ballparks and

and industrializing economies. 40 years

their respective urban environments and

later, postwar urban expansion witnessed

the twentieth century evolution of urban

a new era in ballpark construction. Mid-

ideals. The thesis process began with an

century ballparks were the direct products

investigation of a conceptual ballpark in

of building material advancements and

regard to its potential feasibility. To validate

suburbanizing urban ideals. Today, there

this concept, the case studies, in parallel

are 30 distinct Major League ballparks,

with critical highlights in the history of

in 28 different American cities. Twenty of

American urban evolution were established

those ballparks have been constructed

to provide a framework for the provision of

since 1990. Still, all 30 ballparks have

an integrated ballpark proposal.

Figure 280: West Yards Ballpark Propsal Rooftop view (sketch)


140

Figure 281: Ballpark Proposal - Perspective Montage (33rd Street) - Non Gameday.


141 Through case study analysis, imagery

then be linked to its consideration of the

and text, this document revealed

various elements that combine to create a

a comprehensive link between the

sense of place in the urban environment.

evolutionary patterns associated with

The in-depth analysis of the existing

ballpark design and development. The

conditions and current redevelopment

inclusion of various aerial maps and

proposals of the potential model site have

analytical diagrams (transportation, figure

been vital to the proposal for a dynamic

ground, land uses, etc), provide insight into

urban ballpark model.

historic ballpark’s usage patterns and urban circulation routes that resulted from their original placement within the urban context.

General Reflections

Additionally, the visual documentation and analysis of the various street conditions

The breakdown of ballpark case study

surrounding each independent case study,

sections into era-specific pairs highlighted

impart a sense of the physical reality that

trends consistent with each era and

surrounds current ballparks and their

revealed a direct correlation between city

integration into present day urban fabrics.

and ballpark development.

The provision of constraints, created by the

Turn of the century American ballparks often

selection of an actual site was critical in the

developed in the heart of well-connected

proposal of an integrated ballpark proposal.

urban neighborhoods. These central

The objective of the integrated ballpark

locations were essential in ensuring that

proposal is to seamlessly integrate itself

the general public and residents of these

into an existing set of urban conditions. The

neighborhoods were within close proximity

measure of this proposal’s success can

to the parks to ensure respectable levels

Figure 282: Gameday Conditions - 33rd St.

Figure 283: 33rd Street “Before” Photo


142

Figure 284: Ballpark Proposal - Perspective Montage (11th Avenue)


143 of attendance. Case studies in Boston

a ballpark ambience that extends well

and Chicago reinforce the developmental

beyond the walls of the park. In Chicago,

trend that places each ballpark in a dense,

modern upgrades and increased rooftop

mixed-use neighborhood. Both Fenway

and bleacher seating capacities in and

Park and Wrigley Field are immersed in

around Wrigley Field have strengthened the

working neighborhoods, in contrast to the

camaraderie between the ballpark and its

surrounding parking lots of the post-war, or

neighborhood.

the manufactured surrounding environment of the modern-retro era. Consequently,

In contrast to the immersion of classic

there is a very strong relationship between

era ballparks into existing urban fabrics,

the turn of the century ballparks and their

ballparks constructed throughout the

surrounding urban fabrics.

postwar era reflected a changing set of urban ideologies. Physical place was no

Despite a strong connection between the

longer a critical developmental factor. In

classic era ballparks and the neighborhoods

fact, advancements in technology and the

that house them, modern ballpark

consequent postwar reliance on individual

improvements have further strengthened

mobility encouraged the American urban

their relationships to the street. In Boston,

landscape to sprawl. Case studies in

the Monster Seats and rooftop seating

New York and Los Angeles reinforce this

clubs in Fenway have created visual

phenomenon with new ballpark construction

connections between the outside street

occurring amidst acres of undeveloped

and spectators within the ballpark walls.

land. Despite distinct differences in

Game day closures along Yawkey Way

the urban form of these two cities, both

and an entourage of ballpark related

Dodger Stadium and Shea Stadium were

street activity around Fenway Park create

constructed in an era when individuals were

Figure 285: West Yards - from the Highline

Figure 286: 11th Avenue “Before� Photo


144

Figure 287: Ballpark Proposal - Perspective Montage (30th Street)


145 encouraged to travel greater distances

(1992) and AT&T Park (2000) are currently

to new ballparks standing in isolation.

(2008) enveloped in neighborhoods

The physical relationship of the ballpark

of public and private investment and

to the neighborhood (or the city) was no

the consequent (re)development of

longer as important as the relationship

underdeveloped downtown areas.

of the individual to the network of roads and parking lots associated with postwar

Nevertheless, in contrast to the classic era

ballparks.

urban ballparks, which often succeeded neighborhood development, the modern-

The final quarter of the twentieth century

retro ballparks tend to encourage the

saw significant change from the postwar

development of large new urban enclaves.

era of expansion. Postwar expansion

In Baltimore and San Francisco urban

resulted in the decay of inner-urban

environments that extend beyond the

neighborhoods. Thus the late twentieth

parameters of the ballpark have been

century new downtown urban developments

created. However, developing land use

were encouraged to catalyze re-growth

patterns (hotels and/or ballpark-specific

in dilapidated urban cores. In an era

shops, restaurants and activities) threaten

where the urban values of the past meet

to seasonally isolate new neighborhoods

technological capacity of the present,

and threaten the long-term integration of

modern inner-urban ballpark developments

the ballpark with the city. Despite these

have proven to be successful short-term

potential consequences, the long-term

catalysts for renewal and re-growth. Case

urban vitality of the modern-retro model is

studies in Baltimore and San Francisco

yet to be fully determined.

Figure 288: View South from the Highline

support the regenerative strength of the modern-retro ballpark. Both Camden Yards

Figure 289: Covered Retail - Kobe, Japan Retail model along 30th Street - beneath Highline


146

Figure 290: Ballpark Proposal - Perspective Montage (12th Aveune)


147 Project Shortcomings

- What community support/resistance would exist in response to an integrated ballpark

The unfortunate reality of any research

proposal?

document is the shortcomings of the research and consequent impacts on the

- How would the proposal of a ballpark in

results. The objective of this thesis was

a dense urban area burden the adjacent

to identify physical correlations between

urban infrastructure?

twentieth century urban development and ballpark construction, and to propose a

Even without answers, these questions

ballpark that would redefine the relationship

cast tremendous light on some of the

between ballparks and American cities.

complexities involved in any stadium

Answering the following following questions

scale development. Despite the fact

could have strengthened the “real-world”

that this thesis uses physical analysis to

feasibility of the final proposal.

inform a conceptual physical proposal, the logistics of a stadium-scale project of

- Is the integrated ballpark model

this type is notably ambitious. The reality

economically feasible (both public and

of a singular integrated project being

private investment)?

developed and designed by a multitude of

Figure 291: 12th Avenue River Trail

individual entities, without a more rigid set - How would individual building design affect

of collaboration guidelines, challenges the

the functionality of an integrated ballpark?

feasibility of this proposal, both physically and financially. Therefore, the absence of

- How might individual developmental /

research dedicated to how the individual

economic agendas influence the overall

investors, designers and developers would

functionality of an integrated ballpark?

collaborate with regards to the criteria

Figure 292: 12th Avenue “Before” Photo


148 proposed herein based on the contextual

and opportunity. At the scale of the urban

forces, could be considered the most

block, American urban land-use patterns

significant shortcoming of the proposal

are often rigid and singular. City zoning

presented in this document.

restrictions have essentially pigeonholed the American urban landscape into a dynamic form at the urban scale, with little variation

Future Implications

within or between the urban blocks that create the whole.

This thesis is a conceptual look into the potential for urban integration at the stadium

It is easy to imagine an urban environment

scale. Through an exploratory urban design

that is comprised of various structures

approach to stadium-scaled design, the

and uses, operating independently from

ballpark can be composed of a system

one another, but underneath the same

of smaller sub-structures, enabling the

urban umbrella. It is easy to imagine the

ballpark’s mass to be dissolved into the

superimposition of residential, office, and

surrounding urban fabric

commercial schedules operating in unison. It is also easy to imagine a neighborhood

The physical implications of this type of

with residential lights dominating many

fragmented urban development (relative

upper floors in the mornings and the

to more traditional monolithic ballpark

evenings, office employees flooding in and

construction types) transcend ballpark

out during the 9-5 work day and commercial

development and expand into the realm

employees catering to the changing flows

of greater urban design ideologies. Urban

of office and residential occupants. It is all

environments are often perceived as dense,

easy to imagine because it is the current

dynamic places of use, people, experience

model for American urban development,


149 However, what if it were the model for

into several sub-structures facilitates the

architectural development within these

growth and future direction of sporting

urban realms? What if the urban realm

spaces. In the event of the following:

was comprised of individual structures that embodied the notions of diverse use?

- should a team choose, or require

What if event space could also be vibrant

relocating to another city of region;

urban space? What if ballparks were not monolithic elements on the urban fabric?

- should a city no longer stand to afford acres of low-rise real estate within CBD’s.

The concentration of variable uses within the confines of a single ballpark

- should the financial state of sports change

complex would consist of several satellite

to no longer support teams within CBD’s.

structures, each with the ability to function independently within the greater urban

- should the physical demands/requirements

realm. This phenomenon embodies the

for a ballpark (size, scale, etc.) change.

integrated ballpark proposal as it relates to a future urban form typology and stadium

The proposed integrated ballpark model

scaled sporting space. Simply stated, the

provides host cities with the flexibility to

integrated ballpark model would be both an

re-allocate the use of any stadium-scaled

urban ballpark complex and a compilation

complex originally designated for sport.

of individual structures that embody the

The primary objective of this thesis has

same notions of dynamic and diversified

been to challenge the current nature of

use. Since we cannot absolutely forecast

American urban form and to embrace the

the future of the American urban landscape,

potential for urban evolution. Shortcomings

the dissolution of a stadium-scaled structure

and unpredictable events are the reality


150 in any projected future. Still, the resultant

redeveloped and presented this rigid, yet

integrated stadium-scale urban model

successful urban environment.

promotes flexibility and diversity at the block scale, to ultimately inform social/physical

For the next era in the history of American

function and use/re-use at the urban scale.

urban evolution, the reinvention of a new urban economy, the continued development of existing cities, and the unprecedented

Final Thoughts

growth in new developing urban regions will be extensive. The reinvention of this era will

Throughout the post-industrial age of urban

be laden in the dramatic re-appropriations

redevelopment, municipal decisions treated

of increasingly obsolete industrial lands

the urban fabric as an entity with a defined

within these urban environments, and the

form. Land parcels were expropriated

adaptation of these lands might perhaps

and redeveloped. Urban populations re-

be the single-most critical challenge in the

emerged as dire social conditions were

physical future of American urban history.

“fixed� and then reconstructed. In 1960, preliminary designs for Battery Park City

Ballparks are only singular components of

were realized and constructed over the

the evolutionary matrix that will continue

decaying remains of Manhattan’s historic

to grow and change in the United States.

port. The project was constructed over

Still, the ballpark model proposed in this

large areas of vacant land and docks,

thesis should be viewed as both a potential

railway yards and transit sheds - which

next step in urban-based stadium scaled

formed a barrier between the city and the

development, as well as an increasingly

waterfront.47 From its inception, the project

critical step towards the physical integration

image was clear and the city reclaimed,

of the American urban form.


151 ENDNOTES 1.Barnett, Jonathan. The elusive city: five centuries of design, ambition and ideas. (New York: Harper & Row, 1986), p. 193 2. Warner, Sam Bass. Streetcar Suburbs: A Process of Growth in Boston (1870-1900). (Harvard College, 1978), p. 85 3. Warner, p. 85 4. Neilson, Brain James. “Dialogue with the City: The Evolution of Baseball Parks.” (Landscape. Vol. 29, no. 1, 1986, p. 39-47), p. 41 5. Ballparks of Baseball. Ballpark of Baseball - The Fields of Major League Baseball. 2001. <http://www.ballparksofbaseball.com/> 6. Nocera, Joseph. JNocerablog.com. http://www,jnocerablog.com 7. Boston Redevelopment Authority & Fenway Planning Task Force. “Land Use and Urband Design Guidleines: Fenway Speail Study Areas” (March 2002), p. 9 8. Boston Redevelopment Authority & Fenway Planning Task Force, p.13 9. Boston Redevelopment Authority & Fenway Planning Task Force, p.17 10. Gershman, Michael. Diamonds : the evolution of the ballpark. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993), pg. 164 11. Shalin, Mike. “Fenway Renovations on Schedule”. Renovation Related New Archive. (Februaury 8, 2006). <http://www.safefenwaypark.org/archives/news/newsarchive/> 12. Neilson, p.41 13. Gershman, p. 120 14. Ballparks of Baseball.com 15. Ivy League Baseball Club. Ivybaseball.com. <http://www.ivyleaguebaseballclub.com/> 16. Chudacoff, Howard and Smith, Judith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005), p. 249 17. Chudacoff & Smith, p. 256 18. Neilson, p. 45 19. Neilson, p.45 20. Neilson, p. 45 21. Gershman, p. 191 22. Michaels, Phillip. “When’s Dodger Stadium geeting a BART station?” (Idiots Write About Sports. 2004), <http:/.intertext.com/archives/2004/04/whens_dodger.php.> , p. 1 23. Ballparks of Baseball.com 24. Chudacoff & Smith, p. 294 25. Chudacoff & Smith, p. 297


152 26. Chudacoff & Smith, p. 304 27. Prowler, Don. “Baltimore Hits Home With a New Baseball Park.” (Progressive Architecture. June 1992), p. 26 28. Ballparks of Baseball.com 29. Gammons, Peter. “They did it right when the built Pac Bell”. ESPN.com. (May 6, 2000). <http://espn.go.com/gammons/s/0506.html> 30. Barnett (1986), p. 193 31. Chudacoff & Smith, p. 301 32. Chudacoff & Smith, p. 310 33. Rohe, William M. and Gates, Lauren B. Planning with Neighborhoods. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985), p.1 34. Browne, Henry J. One Stop Above Hell’s Kitchen. (Rutgers University, 1977), p.1 35. New York City Department of City Planning. “Far West Midtown: A Framework for Development.” (2001). 36. New York City Department of City Planning. “Hudson Yards Development Information.” (2004), p. 13 37. New York City Department of City Planning. (2004), p.13 38. New York City Department of City Planning. “Hudson Yards Master Plan: Preferred Direction.” (2003), p. 3 39. New York City Department of City Planning (2003), p. 3 40. Sies, Mary Corbin and Silver, Christopher. Planning in the 20th Century American City. (The Johns Hopkins Press, 1996), p. 470 41. New York City Department of City Planning (2003), p. 13 42. New York City Department of City Planning (2003), p. 11 43. Birch, Eugenie Lander. Presidential Address: Proceedings of the fourth conference in American Planning History. (Hilliard, Ohio: Society for American City and Regional Planning, 1991), p. 1268-69 44. Barnett, Jonathan. Redesigning cities : principles, practice, implementation. (Chicago: Planners Press; American Planning Association, 2003), p. 193 45. Yeang, Ken. Reinventing the Skyscraper: A Vertical Theory of Urban Design. (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2002), p. 101 46. Barnett (1986), p. 182 47. Powell, Robert. Rethinking the Skyscraper: The Complete Architecture of Ken Yeang. (Robert Powell, 1999), p. 134


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159 Figure Credits 1. Photo by author. 2. Photo by author. 3. Photo by author. 4. Photo by author. 5. Photo by author. 6. Photo by author. 7. Photo by author. 8. Photo by author. 9. Photo by author. 10. Photo by author. 11. Photo by author. 12. Photo by author. 13. Photo courtesy San Diego Padres Baseball Club. http://www.padrescom (Date accessed: August 2006) 14. Photo by author. 15. Photo by author. 16. Photo by author.


160 17. Image by author, aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www. maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 18. “Ebbets Field.” Ballpark Seats.com. http://www.ballparks seats.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 19. “Ebbets Field – Outside 1.” Photofile.com. http://photofile.com/cataloghtml?search=ebb ets&x=0&y=0. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 20. Image by author, photo “Fenway Park”. http://www.earthlink.net/fenwaypark.htm. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 21. Image by author, photo “Wrigley Field – Inside 2.” Photofile.com. http://www.photofile. com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 22. Aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www.maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 23. Image by author, photo by author. 24. Image by author. 25. Image by author. 26. “Aerial of Fenway Park.” http://www.sportsevents.net/fenway_park.jpg. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 27. Photo by author. 28. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 29. Image by author. 30. Image by author.


161 31. Image by author. 32. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 33. Image by author. 34. Image by author. 35. Image by author. 36. Image by author, aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics. com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 37. Photo by author. 38. Photo by author. 39. Photo by author. 40. Photo by author. 41. Image by author. 42. Image by author. 43. Image by author. 44. Image by author. 45. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Fields of Major League Baseball - 2001.â&#x20AC;? Ballparks of Baseball. http://www. ballparksofbaseball.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006) 46. Gilbert, Robert. http://wwwrbgilbert.com. (Date accessed: July, 2006).


162 47. Photo courtesy of the Boston Globe. 48. Photo by author. 49. Photo by author. 50. Photo by author. 51. Photo by author. 52. Photo by author. 53. Aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www.maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 54. Image by author, photo by author. 55. Image by author 56. Image by author 57. Image courtesy HOK Sport (Kansas City). http://www.hoksport.com/ (Date accessed: June, 2006). 58. “Aerial of Wrigley Field.” http://www.earthlink.net/wrigleyfield.html. (Date accessed: June, 2006) 59. “The Fields of Major League Baseball - 2001.” Ballparks of Baseball.http:// wwwballparksofbaseball.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006) 60. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 61. Image by author. 62. Image by author.


163 63. Image by author. 64. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 65. Image by author. 66. Image by author. 67. Image by author. 68. Image by author, aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics. com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 69. Photo by author. 70. Photo by author. 71. Photo by author. 72. Photo by author. 73. Image by author. 74. Image by author. 75. Image by author. 76. Image by author. 77. Image by author. 78. Photo courtesy Chicago Cubs.http://www/cubs.com. (Date accessed: March, 2007) 79. Image by author.


164 80. “Sheffield Avenue”. http://www.earthlink.net/wrigleyfieldrooftop1.html. (Date accessed: July, 2006) 81 “Waveland Avenue.” http://www.earthlink.net/wrigleyfieldrooftop1.html. (Date accessed: July, 2006) 82. Photo by author. 83. Photo by author. 84. Photo by author. 85. Photo by author. 86.Image by author, aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www. maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 87. “Shea Stadium.” Ballpark Seats.com. http://www.ballparksseats.com. 88. “Philly’s Blast Implosion Photos” Phillyblast.com. http://www.phillyblast.com/VetStadium/VetStadm.htm. (Date accessed: July, 2006). 89. Image by author, photo by Joseph Reed. http://www.earthlink.net/Dodger%25Stadium. html. (Date accessed: July, 2006). 90. Image by author, Photo “Shea Stadium.” http://www.d4.dion.ne.jp/~smatt/newyork0001.htm. (Date accessed: July, 2006). 91. Aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www.maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 92. Image by author, photo “Dodger Stadium Outfield Entrance.” http://www.earthlink.net/ dodger.html. (Date accessed: July, 2006). 93. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006).


165 94. Image by author. 95. Image by author. 96. Image by author. 97. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 98. Image by author. 99. Image by author. 100. Image by author. 101. Image by author, aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics. com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 102. Photo by author. 103. Photo by author. 104. Photo by author. 105. Photo by author. 106. Image by author. 107. Image by author. 108. Image by author. 109. Image by author. 110. Photo by author.


166 111. Photo by author. 112. “76 Gas Station.” http://www.earthlink.net/dodger.html. (Date accessed: July, 2006). 113. “Dodger Stadium Parking” Ballparks of baseball. http://www.ballparksofbaseball.com/ nl/dodger781.jpg (Date accessed: July, 2006). 114. Aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www.maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 115. Image by author, photo by author. 116. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006).v 117. Image by author. 118. Image by author. 119. Image by author. 120. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 121. Image by author. 122. Image by author. 123. Image by author. 124. Image by author, aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics. com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 125. Photo by author.


167 126. Photo by author. 127. Photo by author. 128. Photo by author. 129. Image by author. 130. Image by author. 131. Image by author. 132. Image by author. 133. Photo by author. 134. Photo by author. 135. Photo by author. 136. Photo by author. 137. Image by author, aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www. maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 138. “Camden Yards.” Ballpark Seats.com. http://www.ballparks seats.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 139. Photo courtesy San Diego Padres Baseball Club. http://www.padres.com. (Date accessed: August, 2006). 140. “Camden Yards – Eutaw Street.” http://www.geocities.com/thetropics.html. (Date accessed: July, 2006).


168 141. Photo courtesy San Francisco Giants. http://sanfrancisco.giants.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20060106&content_id=1292034&vkey=news_sf&fext=.jsp&c_id=sf (Date accessed: July, 2006) 142. Aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www.maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 143. “Camden Yards –Exterior 11.” Ballpark of Baseball. http://www.ballparksofbaseball. com/al/camden911.jpg (Date accessed: August, 2006). 144. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 145. Image by author. 146. Image by author. 147. Image by author. 148. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 149. Image by author. 150. Image by author. 151. Image by author. 152. Image by author, aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics. com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 153. Photo by author. 154. Photo by author. 155. Photo by author.


169 156. Photo by author. 157. Image by author. 158. Image by author. 159. Image by author. 160. Image by author. 161. Image by author. 162. Photo by author. 163. “Eutaw Street” Baseball 2006: The Year in Pictures. http://www.thebirdwatch.com/ archives/100_0101.jpg. (Date accessed: August, 2006). 164. Photo by Jonah Weilman. http://www.jonahweilman.com/gallery.com. (Date accessed: August, 2006). 165. Photo by author. 166. Photo by author. 167. Photo by author. 168. Photo by author. 169. Aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www.maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 170. Image by author, photo “AT&T Park 5.” Ballparks of Baseball. http://www.ballparksofbaseball.com/nl/pacbell725.jpg. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 171. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006).


170 172. Image by author. 173. Image by author. 174. Image by author. 175. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 176. Image by author. 177. Image by author. 178. Image by author. 179. Image by author, aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2006). http://www.terrametrics. com. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 180. Photo by author. 181. Photo by author. 182. Photo by author. 183. Photo by author. 184. Image by author. 185. Image by author. 186. Image by author. 187. Image by author. 188. Photo by author.


171 189. Photo by author. 190. Photo by author. 191. “McCovery Cove - Gameday.” Trainweb.org. http://www.trainweb.org/oldmainline/ ccs1.htm. (Date accessed: August, 2006). 192. Aerial photos courtesy of Microsoft Vurtual Earth (2008). http://www.maps/live.com (Date accessed: August 2008). 193. “Commuter Train Seating.” Montie.com. http://images.google.com/ imgres?imgurl=http://www.montie.com/_borders/lrv_folding_seat_lhs_rhs_view. jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.montie.com/seating.htm&h=737&w=661&sz=80&hl=en&start=5& um=1&tbnid=9gEMz4gXdP4FJM:&tbnh=141&tbnw=126&prev=/ient%3Dsafari%26rls%3De n%26sa%3DN. (Date accessed: June, 2007). 194. Map Courtesy Library of Congress Geography & Map Division. 195. Image by author, “Hudson Yards” photo courtesy of Cooper, Robertson & Partners. http://www.cooperrobertson.com/work/urban/hudson.php. (Date accessed: July, 2007). 196. Michael Conard and David Smiley. Hell’s Kitchen South: Developing Strategies a project of the Design Trust for Public Space with the Hell’s Kitchen Neighborhood Association. Fälth & Hassler, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002 197. Michael Conard and David Smiley. Hell’s Kitchen South: Developing Strategies a project of the Design Trust for Public Space with the Hell’s Kitchen Neighborhood Association. Fälth & Hassler, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002 198. Michael Conard and David Smiley. Hell’s Kitchen South: Developing Strategies a project of the Design Trust for Public Space with the Hell’s Kitchen Neighborhood Association. Fälth & Hassler, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002 199. Michael Conard and David Smiley. Hell’s Kitchen South: Developing Strategies a project of the Design Trust for Public Space with the Hell’s Kitchen Neighborhood Association. Fälth & Hassler, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002


172 200. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2007). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2007). 201. Image by author. 202. Image by author. 203. Image by author. 204. Aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2007). http://www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2007). 205. Image by author. 206. Image by author. 207. Image by author. 208. Image by author, photos by author, aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2007). http:// www.terrametrics.com. (Date accessed: June, 2007). 209. Image by author. 210. Image by author. 211. Image by author. 212. Image by author, aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2007). http://www.terrametrics. com. (Date accessed: June, 2007). 213. Photo by author. 214. Photo by author. 215. Photo by author.


173 216. Photo by author. 217. Image by author. 218. Image by author. 219. Image by author. 220. Image by author. 221. Photo by author. 222. Image courtesy Cooper, Robertson & Partners. http://www.cooperrobertson.com/ work/urban/hudson.php. (Date accessed: July, 2007). 223. Image by author, underlay courtesy of Olin Partnership. http://www.olinptr.com/project_past_urban5.html. (Date accessed: July, 2007). 224. Image by author, underlay courtesy of Olin Partnership. http://www.olinptr.com/project_past_urban5.html. (Date accessed: July, 2007). 225. Image by author, underlay courtesy of Olin Partnership. http://www.olinptr.com/project_past_urban5.html. (Date accessed: July, 2007). 226. Image courtesy of the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/html/hyards/hymain.shtml (Date accessed: July, 2007). 227. Image courtesy of Michael McCann / DCP. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/gif/hyards/ hy_eis1.jpg (Date accessed: July, 2007). 228. Image courtesy of the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/html/hyards/hymain.shtml (Date accessed: July, 2007). 229. Image courtesy of the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/html/hyards/hymain.shtml (Date accessed: July, 2007).


174 230. Photo courtesy of Studio Gang Architects. http://www.studiogang.net/site/projects_ d3.htm. (Date accessed: August, 2008). 231. Sketch by author. 232. Image courtesy of the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/html/hyards/hymain.shtml (Date accessed: July, 2007). 233. Image courtesy of the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/html/hyards/hymain.shtml (Date accessed: July, 2007). 234. Image courtesy of the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/html/hyards/hymain.shtml (Date accessed: July, 2007). 235. Image courtesy of the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/html/hyards/hymain.shtml (Date accessed: July, 2007). 236. Image courtesy of the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/html/hyards/hymain.shtml (Date accessed: July, 2007). 237. Image courtesy of the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/html/hyards/hymain.shtml (Date accessed: July, 2007). 238. Sketch by author. 239. Sketch by author. 240. Image by author. 241. Image by author. 242. Image by author. 243. Image by author. 244. Image by author.


175 245. Image by author. 246. Image by author. 247. Image by author. 248. Image by author. 249. Image by author. 250. Image by author. 251. Image by author. 252. Sketch by author. 253. Sketch by author. 254. Sketch by author. 255. Image by author. 256. Image by author. 257. Image by author. 258. Image by author. 259. Image by author. 260. Image by author. 261. Image by author. 262. Image by author.


176 263. Image by author. 264. Image by author. 265. Image by author. 266. Image by author. 267. Image by author. 268. Image by author. 269. Image by author. 270. Image by author, aerial photo courtesy Terra Metrics (2007). http://www.terrametrics. com. (Date accessed: June, 2007). 271. Image by author, photo by author. 272. Image by author, photo by author. 273. Image by author, photo by author. 274. Image by author, photo by author. 275. Image by author. 276. Image by author. 277. Image by author. 278. Image by author. 279. Image by author. 280. Sketch by author.


177 281. Image by author, photo by author. 282. Photo by author. 283. Image by author, photo by author. 284. Photo by author. 285. Photo by author. 286. Image by author, photo by author. 287. Photo by author. 288. Photo by author. 289. Image by author, photo by author. 290. Photo by author. 291. Photo by author. 293. Image by author. 294. Photo by author. 295. Photo by author. 296. Photo by author. 297. Image by author. 298. Photo by author. 299. Image by author.


178 300. Photo by author. 301. Image by author. 302. Photo by author. 303. Photo by author. 304. Photo by author. 305. Image by author. 306. Photo by author. 307. Image by author. 308. Photo by author. 309. Image by author. 310. Photo by author. 311. Image by author. 312. Photo by author. 313. Image by author. 314. Photo by author. 315. Image by author. 316. Photo by author. 317. Image by author.


179 318. Photo by author. 319. Image by author. 320. Photo by author. 321. Photo by author. 322. Photo by author. 323. Image by author. 324. Photo by author. 325. Photo by author. 326. Photo by author. 327. Image by author. 328. Photo by author. 329. Image by author. 330. Photo by author. 331. Image by author. 332. Photo by author. 333. Photo by author. 334. Photo by author. 335. Image by author.


180 334. Photo by author. 335. Image by author. 336. Photo by author. 337. Image by author. 338. Photo by author. 339. Photo by author. 340. Photo by author. 341. Image by author. 342. Photo by author. 343. Image by author. 344. Photo by author. 345. Photo by author. 346. Photo by author.


181 Table Credits 1. “Past Ballparks.” Ballparks by Munsey & Suppes. http://www.ballparks.com/baseball/index.htm. (Date accessed: July, 2006). 2. Baseball Statistics.com. http://www.baseball-statistics.com/Ballparks/Bos/index.htm (Date accessed: July, 2006). 3. Baseball Statistics.com. http;//www.baseball-statistics.com/Ballparks/ChiC/index.htm (Date accessed: July, 2006). 4. “Past Ballparks.” Ballparks by Munsey & Suppes. http://www.ballparks.com/baseball/index.htm. (Date accessed: July, 2006). 5. Baseball Statistics.com. http;//www.baseball-statistics.com/Ballparks/LA/index.htm (Date accessed: July, 2006). 6. Baseball Statistics.com. http;//www.baseball-statistics.com/Ballparks/NYM/index.htm (Date accessed: July, 2006). 7. “Present Ballparks.” Ballparks by Munsey & Suppes. http://www.ballparks.com/baseball/ index.htm (Date accessed: July, 2006). 8. Baseball Statistics.com. http;//www.baseball-statistics.com/Ballparks/Bal/index.htm (Date accessed: July, 2006). 9. Baseball Statistics.com. http;//www.baseball-statistics.com/Ballparks/SF/index.htm (Date accessed: July, 2006). 10. Statistics courtesy the New York City Metro Transit Authority. http://www.mta.info/mta/ procurement/wsy/. (Date accessed: June, 2007). 11. Statistics by author. 12. Statistics courtesy the City of Boston. http://www.cityofboston.gov/. (Date accessed: June, 2006).


182 13. Statistics by author. Statistics courtesy the City of Boston. http://www.cityofboston.gov/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 15. Statistics by author. 16. Statistics courtesy the City of Boston. http://www.cityofboston.gov/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 17. Statistics by author. 18. Statistics courtesy the Chicago Department of Planning and Development. http://www. cityofchicago.org/PlanAndDevelop/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 19. Statistics by author. 20. Statistics courtesy the Chicago Department of Planning and Development. http://www. cityofchicago.org/PlanAndDevelop/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 21. Statistics by author. 22. Statistics courtesy the Chicago Department of Planning and Development. http://www. cityofchicago.org/PlanAndDevelop/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 23. Statistics by author. 24. Statistics courtesy the Chicago Department of Planning and Development. http://www. cityofchicago.org/PlanAndDevelop/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 25. Statistics by author. 26. Statistics courtesy the Chicago Department of Planning and Development. http://www. cityofchicago.org/PlanAndDevelop/. (Date accessed: June, 2006).


183 27. Statistics by author. 28. Statistics courtesy the Los Angeles Department of City Planning. http://cityplanning.lacity.org/ (Date accessed: June, 2006). 29. Statistics by author. 30. Statistics courtesy the Los Angeles Department of City Planning. http://cityplanning.lacity.org/ (Date accessed: June, 2006). 31. Statistics by author. 32. Statistics courtesy the Los Angeles Department of City Planning. http://cityplanning.lacity.org/ (Date accessed: June, 2006). 33. Statistics by author. 34. Statistics courtesy the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 35. Statistics by author. 36. Statistics courtesy the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 37. Statistics by author. 38. Statistics courtesy the New York City Department of City Planning. http://www.nyc.gov/ html/dcp/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 39. Statistics by author. 40. Statistics courtesy the Baltimore City Planning Department. http://www.ci.baltimore. md.us/government/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 41. Statistics by author.


184 42. Statistics courtesy the Baltimore City Planning Department. http://www.ci.baltimore. md.us/government/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 43. Statistics by author. 44. Statistics courtesy the Baltimore City Planning Department. http://www.ci.baltimore. md.us/government/. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 45. Statistics by author. 46. Statistics courtesy the San Francisco Planning Department. http://www.sfgov.org/site/ planning_index.asp. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 47. Statistics by author. 48. Statistics courtesy the San Francisco Planning Department. http://www.sfgov.org/site/ planning_index.asp. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 49. Statistics by author. 50. Statistics courtesy the San Francisco Planning Department. http://www.sfgov.org/site/ planning_index.asp. (Date accessed: June, 2006). 51. Statistics by author.


185

Appendices Neighborhood Parcel Data: A-1: Fenway Park 4 Yawkey Way Boston, Massachusetts A-2: Wrigley Field 1060 W Addison St. Chicago, Illinois B-1: Dodger Stadium 1000 Elysian Park Ave. Los Angeles, California B-2: Shea Stadium 123-01 Roosvelt Avenue Flushing, New York C-1: Camden Yards 333 West Camden Street Baltimore, Maryland C-2: AT&T Park 24 Willie Mays Plaza San Francisco, California


186

Appendix A-1 Neighborhood Parcel Data Fenway Park 4 Yawkey Way Boston, Massachusetts

“Fenway Park for the most part is unchanged. With its manually operated scoreboard, its geometrically peculiar shape and the stories of the legends that have played there for more than eight decades, Fenway remains a link to the legends of baseball’s past.” (Redsox official website)


187 Year 1969 1969

Land Area 8,625 sq. ft. 3,817 sq. ft.

1920 1920 1920 1970 1899

8,479 sq. ft. 8,479 sq. ft. 8,630 sq. ft. 21,059 sq. ft. 42,725 sq. ft.

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 10 Single Family Home Parcels 0 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 0 Commercial /Retail Parcels 7 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 0 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 0 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 1 Table 13: Parcel Type Totals

common

wealth

mass

achu

setts

con

turnp

ike

bea

avenue

et

stre

nu

t ee

Table 12: Parcel Data (Boylston Street & Ipswich Street)

Figure 293: Parcel Data Area (Ipswich Street & Van Ness Street)

Figure 294:: 176 Ipswich Street

Figure 295: 1175-1179 Boylston Street

Figure 296: 1249-1295 Boylston Street

n

str

47,352 q. ft.

to

eet

s str

nes

yls

van

bo

ve ea lin ok bro

way

1920

12,150 q. ft. 40,920 q. ft.

e

lansdowne street

1920 1920

key

Land Use / Parcel Type Seven-story Commercial Five-story Multi Family Apartments Five-story Multi Family Apartments Five-story Multi Family Apartments Five-story Multi Family Apartments Five-story Multi Family Apartments Five-story Multi Family Apartments Five-story Multi Family Apartments Five-story Multi Family Apartments Five-story Multi Family Apartments Five-story Multi Family Apartments One-story Commercial Four-story Fenway High School One-story Commercial Three-story Commercial Three-story Commercial Two-story Commercial Four-story Commercial

yaw

Address 2 Charlesgate West 1161 Boylston St. 1167 Boylston St. 1171 Boylston St. 1175 Boylston St. 1179 Boylston St. 1185 Boylston St. 1191 Boylston St. 1197 Boylston St. 1203 Boylston St. 1209 Boylston St. 200 Ipswich St. 176 Ipswich St. 168 Ipswich St. 1249 Boylston St. 1255 Boylston St. 1265 Boylston St. 1295 Boylston St.


188

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels Table 15: Parcel Type Totals

common

wealth

mass

achu

setts

et

stre

con

turnp

ike

avenue

bea

re

ee

t

st

str

ich

n

sw

van

to yls

t

tree

ss nes

bo

ve ea lin

ip

way

ok

key

bro

yaw

nu

e

et

lansdowne street

Figure 297: Parcel Data Area (Commonwealth Aveune & Lansdowne Street)

Figure 298: 490-472 Commonwealth Avenue

0 4 7 10 1 5 0

Address 1-99 Lansdowne St. 1-99 Lansdowne St. 1-99 Lansdowne St. 603 Newbury St. 10 Brookline Ave. 540 Commonwealth Ave. 534 Commonwealth Ave. 530 Commonwealth Ave. 526 Commonwealth Ave. 524 Commonwealth Ave. 522 Commonwealth Ave. 520 Commonwealth Ave. 518-12 Commonwealth Ave. 510 Commonwealth Ave. 508 Commonwealth Ave. 506 Commonwealth Ave. 500 Commonwealth Ave. 490 Commonwealth Ave. 484-80 Commonwealth Ave. 476-72 Commonwealth Ave. 470 Commonwealth Ave. 464 Commonwealth Ave. 523 Newbury St. 525 Newbury St. 529 Newbury St. 531 Newbury St. 533 Newbury St. 535 Newbury St.

Parcel Type / Land Use Year Three-story Commercial Four-story Light-Industrial One-story Commercial Three-story Commercial 1899 Two-story Commercial 1981 Three-story Commercial/retail 1899 Five-story Mixed Use 1910 Three-story Commercial 1899 Two-story Commercial Four-stoyr Mixed Use Four-story Commercial Parking / Vacant / Commercial Parking / Vacant / Commercial Four-story Commercial Parking / Vacant / Commercial 4.5-sory Mixed Use Two-story Commercial Four-story Mixed Use Four-story Multi Family Four-story Multi Family 1899 Five-story Mixed Use 1899 Parking / Vacant / Commercial Two-story Multi Family 1920 Three-story Multi Fam (4 Apts) 1910 Three-story Multi Fam (3 Apts) 1890 Parking / Vacant / Commercial 1999 Three-story Multi Fam (4 Apts) 1904 Three-story Multi Fam (4 Apts) 1904

Table 14: Parcel Data (Commonwealth Avenue, Newbury Street, & Lansdowne Street)

Land Area

8,700 sq. ft. 7,359 sq. ft. 9,331 sq. ft. 6,184 sq. ft. 6,256 sq. ft. 6,250 sq. ft. 3,121 sq. ft. 18,754 sq. ft.

6,247 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 4,375 sq. ft.

3,125 sq. ft. 3,250 sq. ft. 2,045 sq. ft. 1,909 sq. ft. 1,911 sq. ft. 1,913 sq. ft. 1,913 sq. ft. 1,945 sq. ft.


189

18,620 sq. ft. 10,640 sq. ft. 13,300 sq. ft. 9,133 sq. ft. 24,362 sq. ft. 23,209 sq. ft. 14,527 sq. ft. 11,837 sq. ft.

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 0 Single Family Home Parcels 0 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 1 Commercial /Retail Parcels 17 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 2 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 4 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 2 Table 17: Parcel Type Totals

common

wealth

5,461 sq. ft. 26, 132 sq. ft.

mass

achu

setts

turnp

ike

avenue

et

stre

con

bea

t

Figure 299: Parcel Data Area (Brookline Street, Beacon Street & Yawkey Way)

54,268 sq. ft. 10,920 sq. ft.

Figure 300: 104 Brookline Avenue

str

ee

4,765 sq. ft.

to

n

eet

s str

nes

yls

van

bo

br

oo

kli

ne

av

en

ue

lansdowne street

way

Table 16: Parcel Data (Yawkey Way, Boylston Street & Brookline Avenue)

Land Area

key

Land Use / Parcel Type Year One-story Retail/Service (Mobil Oil) 1960 Two-story Commercial 1925 One-story Commercial 1952 One-story Retail (Goodyear Tires) 1935 One-story Commercial 1920 One-story Commercial ` One-story Commercial 1905 Two-story Commercial 1925 Three-story Commercial 1960 Three-story Commercial Three-story Commercial Two-story Commercial Two-story Commercial 1920 Two-story Light Industrial 1925 Three-story Commercial Three-story Institutional Parking / Vacant / Commercial Parking / Vacant / Commercial Parking / Vacant / Commercial Four-story Mixed Use 1905 One-story Retail/Commercial Two-story Commercial Three-story Light Industrial One-story Governmental Parking / Vacant / Commercial Two-story Commercial 1920

yaw

Address 63 Yawkey Way 1313 Boylston St. 1325 Boylston St. 1341 Boylston St. 1393 Boylston St. 1371 Boylston St. 16 Kilmarnock 148 Brookline Ave. 136 Brookline Ave. 124 Brookline Ave. 112 Brookline Ave. 104 Brookline Ave. 98 Brookline Ave. 121 Brookline Ave. 115 Brookline Ave. 105 Brookline Ave. 87 Brookline Ave. 83 Brookline Ave. 79 Brookline Ave. 72 Brookline Ave. 61 Brookline Ave. 715 Beacon St. 729 Beacon St. 731 Beacon St. 10 Maitland St. 829 Beacon Ave.


190

Appendix A-2 Neighborhood Parcel Data Wrigley Field 1060 W Addison St. Chicago, Illinois

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ballhawks as they are called, wait on Waveland Avenue to catch homeruns during the game. Fans sit atop buildings behind Wrigley Field and watch the game. Ivy still covers the brick walls in the outfield, the scoreboard is still manually operated, and bleacher bums still sit in the bleachers in the outfieldâ&#x20AC;? (Ballparks of Baseball)


191 Address

Land Use / Parcel Type

Bldg. Area

1999 1996 1999. 1912 1999 1906 1888 1898 1893 1893 1888 1888 1926 1918 1923 1898

4,773 sq. ft. 5,305 sq. ft. 3,672 sq. ft. 8,052 sq. ft. 4,150 sq. ft. 3,410 sq. ft.

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 16 Single Family Home Parcels 0 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 1 Commercial /Retail Parcels 1 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 0 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 0 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 1 Table 19: Parcel Type Totals

2,104 sq. ft. 2,041 sq. ft. 3,372 sq. ft. 2,435 sq. ft. w waveland ave.

3,771 sq. ft.

n sheffield ave.

n seminary st.

t.

ks

lar

nc

1052 W Waveland Ave. Fire House 1050 W Waveland Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (5 Apts.) 1048 W Waveland Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (5 Apts.) 1044 W Waveland Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1040 W Waveland Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (6 Apts.) 1038 W Waveland Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1032 W Waveland Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 3701 N Kenmore St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 3703 N Kenmore St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts 3705 N Kenmore St. One-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.) 3709 N Kenmore St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.) 3711 N Kenmore St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (4 Apts.) 3715 N Kenmore St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 3714 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Condos 3700 N Sheffield Ave. Four-story Commercial/Residential 3701 N Sheffield Ave. Single-story Retail (Cellular One) 3709 -13 Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.)

Year

w addison ave.

Table 18: Parcel Data (W Waveland Ave, N Kenmore St. & N Sheffield St.)

Figure 301: Parcel Data Area: (W Waveland Avenue, N Kenmore Street & N Sheffield Ave)

Figure 302: 3769 - 3713 N Sheffield Avenue

Figure 303: 1040 Waveland Avenue

Figure 304: 1052 - 1040 W Waveland Avenue


192

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels Table 21: Parcel Type Totals

w waveland ave. n sheffield ave.

t.

n seminary st.

ks

lar

nc

w addison ave.

Figure 305: Parcel Data Area (N Sheffield Avenue & W Addison Avenue)

18 0 3 3 0 3 0

Address

Land Use / Parcel Type

Year

3653 N Sheffield Ave.

One-story store

1991

3651 N Sheffield Ave. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.)

Bldg. Area

1903

3,150 sq. ft.

3649 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1903

6,122 sq. ft.

3643 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (6 Apts.) 1917

9,895 sq. ft.

3639 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (5 Apts.) 1916

5,238 sq. ft.

3637 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (4 Apts.) 1913

5,490 sq. ft.

3633 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (4 Apts.) 1895

5,228 sq. ft.

3631 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (4 Apts.) 1898

4,869 sq. ft.

3627 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts

1993

3621 N Sheffield Ave. Mxd use Com/Multi-Family (7 Apts.)

1898.

3619 N Sheffield Ave. Vacant/Commercial (Improv)

1974

3617 N Sheffield Ave. Vacant/Comm (Improv)

1974

3611 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts

1900

3609 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts

1900

20k + sq. ft.

954 W Addison St.

Three-story Multi-Family Apts (5 Apts.) 1917

8,673 sq. ft.

950 W Addison St.

Three-story Multi-Family Apts (5 Apts.) 1901

6,310 sq. ft.

948 W Addison St.

Three-story Multi-Family Apts (4 Apts.) 1899

4,512 sq. ft.

944 W Addison St.

Vacant/Commercial (Improv)

1994

947 W Addison St.

One-story Retail

1901

3549 N Sheffield Ave. Two-story Retail (Coffee)

1901

3547-45 Sheffield Ave. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.)

1898

2,520 sq. ft.

3543 N Sheffield Ave. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.)

1900.

2,920 sq. ft.

3535 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (6 Apts.) 1893

7,260 sq. ft.

3541 N Sheffield Ave. Vacant Parcel/Lot 3531 N Sheffield Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Condos 3538 N Sheffield Ave. 2/3-story Retail Figure 306: 3643 & 3639 N Sheffield Avenue

Table 20: Parcel Data (N Sheffield Avenue & W Addision Avenue)

1896 1937


193

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 2 Single Family Home Parcels 0 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 5 Commercial /Retail Parcels 14 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 0 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 6 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 0 Table 23: Parcel Type Totals

w waveland ave. n sheffield ave.

1979 2001 1898 6,927 sq. ft. 1908 1922 1987 1993 1918 1963 1912 1912 1987 1951 1900 1911 5,499 sq. ft. 1928 1891 1944 1999 1993 1912 1892 1926 1979 1896 3,968 sq. ft. 1896 2,480 sq. ft. 1969 1979

t.

One-story Retail (7-11) Vacant/Commercial (Improv) 3-story Retail/M-Fam (3/Starbucks) One-story Retail (Sports World) Public Garage One-story Retail (Sports merchandise) Vacant/Commercial Parking One-story Commercial (Louieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bar) One-story Commercial (Lounge) Three-story Commercial (Diner) Three-story Com (Restaurant) Two-story Commercial (Bar) One-story Commercial (Restaurant) Two-story Retail/M-Fam (Bar/2 Apts.) Two-story Com/M-Fam (Vacant/3) Three-story Commercial/Residential Two-story Commercial/Residential Two-story Com/M-Fam (Bar/2) Vacant Commercial (Improv) One-story Commercial One-story Commercial (Restaurant) Two-story Com/Res (Sports Bar) Two-story Commercial (Sports Bar) Vacant/Commercial Parking Two-story Multi-Family Apts (5 Apts.) Two-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) Two-story Commercial One-story Retail (Taco Bell)

n seminary st.

1009 W Addison St. 1015 W Addison St. 1023 W Addison St. 1027 W Addison St. 1035 W Addison St. 3555 N Clark St. 3549 N Clark St. 3547 N Clark St. 3541 N Clark St. 3539 N Clark St. 3535 N Clark St. 3527 N Clark St. 3515 N Clark St. 3511 N Clark St. 3516 N Clark St. 3526 N Clark St. 3530 N Clark St. 3538 N Clark St. 3546 - 48 N Clark St. 3550 N Clark St. 3554 N Clark St. 3556 N Clark St. 1063 W Addison St. 1128 W Eddy St. 1124 W Eddy St. 1122 W Eddy St. 1152 W Eddy St. 1111 W Addison St.

Table 22: Parcel Data (W Addison Avenue, N Clark Street & W Eddy Street)

Bldg. Area

ks

Year

lar

Land Use / Parcel Type

nc

Address

w addison ave.

w eddy st.

Figure 307: Parcel Data Area (W Addison Ave, N Clark Street & W Eddy Street)

Figure 308: 1063 - 1111 W Addison Street


194

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels

27 5 0 0 0 1 0

Land Use / Parcel Type

Year

Bldg. Area

1888

1,864 sq. ft.

1123 W Addison St. Two-story Single-Family Home (1 Unit) 1898.

2,782 sq. ft.

1125 W Addison St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.)

1888.

2,620 sq. ft.

1129 W Addison St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.)

1893

3,236 sq. ft.

1131 W Addison St. 1.5-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.)

1888

1,845 sq. ft.

1133 W Addison St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1902

2,547 sq. ft.

1121 W Addison St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.)

1137 W Addison St. Two-story Single-Family Home (1 Unit) 1999 1139 W Addison St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts

Table 25: Parcel Type Totals

w waveland ave.

n sheffield ave.

n seminary st.

t.

ks

lar

nc

w patterson st.

Address

w addison ave.

Figure 309: Parcel Data Area ( W Addison Avenue & W Patterson Street)

Figure 310: 1117-1130 W Patterson Street

1997

1138 W Addison St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.) 1908

3,105 sq. ft.

1136 W Addison St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.)

1893

1,764 sq. ft.

1134 W Addison St. 1.5-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.)

1888

1,240 sq. ft.

1132 W Addison St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1888

3,105 sq. ft.

1128 W Addison St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.)

1901

2,840 sq. ft.

1126 W Addison St. 1.5-story Single-Family Home (1 Unit) 1913

1,341 sq. ft.

1124 W Addison St. 1.5-story Single-Family Home (1 Unit) 1922

1,542 sq. ft.

1122-18 Addison St.

Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1923

3,171 sq. ft.

1116 W Addison St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1994

4,152 sq. ft.

1114 W Addison St.

1,884 sq. ft.

Three-story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.) 1888

1110 W Addison St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1113 W Patterson St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (4 Apts.) 1117 -25 Patterson St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1127 W Patterson St. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1131 W Patterson St. Two-story Single-Family Home (1 Unit) 1130 -28 Patterson St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1118 W Patterson St. Two-story Multi-Family Apts (6 Apts.) 1139-41 Waveland Ave. Vacant / Parking / Residential 1143 W Waveland Ave. Three-story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) Table 24: Parcel data ( W Addison Avenue & W Patterson Street)

1888 1888 1893 1893. 1999 1891 1888 1982 1894

2,750 sq. ft. 2,871 sq. ft. 3,228 sq. ft. 3,009 sq. ft. 2,730 sq. ft. 2,418 sq. ft. 5,892 sq. ft. 3,740 sq. ft.


195

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 6 Single Family Home Parcels 2 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 4 Commercial /Retail Parcels 4 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 9 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 13 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 0 Table 27: Parcel Type Totals

w waveland ave.

t.

n sheffield ave.

n seminary st.

Commercial Parking 1980 One-story Retail (McDonalds) 1980 One-story Retail (McDonalds) 1980 Commercial Parking 1980 Vacant / Parking /Commercial 1930 Three-story Multi-Family Apts (4 Apts.) 1893 One-story Retail (Restaurant) 1892 Two-story Retail/M-Fam Residential 1888 Two-story Commercial Retail 1913 Vacant Commercial (Improv) 1986 Three-story Commercial/M-Fam (5) 1915 Two-Story Multi-Family Apts (4 Apts.) 1916 Three-Story Multi-Family Apts (5 Apts.) 1911 Three-Story Com/M-Fam (Rest/3 Apts.) 1913 Three-story Commercial/M-Fam (6) 1918 Three-story Commercial/M-Fam (6) 1902 Lt Industrial / Warehouse 1967 Lt Industrial / Warehouse / Parking 1967 Lt Industrial / Warehouse / Parking 1984 Light Industrial / Warehouse 1984 Vacant / Commercial / Parking 1984 Three-Story Multi-Family Apts 1922 1.5-Story Single-Family Home (1 Unit) 1888 1,562 sq. ft. Three-Story Multi-Family Apts (4 Apts.) 1888 2,322 sq. ft. Two-Story Multi-Family Apts (3 Apts.) 1888 3,137 sq. ft. Two-Story Single-Family Home (1 Unit) 1888 Two-Story Multi-Family Apts (2 Apts.) 1888 1,386 sq. ft. One-story Lt Industrial / Warehouse 1967

Table 26: Parcel Data (N Clark Street & N Clifton Street)

Bldg. Area

ks

3616 - 22 N Clark St. 3624 N Clark St. 3628 N Clark St. 3632-40 N Clark St. 3654 N Clark St. 3658 N Clark St. 3662 N Clark St. 3664 N Clark St. 3700 N Clark St. 3708 N Clark St. 3710 N Clark St. 3714 N Clark St. 3718 N Clark St. 3720 N Clark St. 3724 N Clark St. 3726 N Clark St. 3729 N Clark St. 3727-17 N Clark St. 3711-07 N Clark St. 3708 N Clifton St. 3701-09 N Clifton St. 3711 N Clifton St. 3713 N Clifton St. 3717 N Clifton St. 3719 N Clifton St. 3721 N Clifton St. 3723 N Clifton St. 3716 N Clifton St.

Year

lar

Land Use / Parcel Type

nc

Address

w addison ave.

Figure 311: Parcel Data Area (N Clark Street & N Clifton Street)

Figure 312: 3701-3709 N Clifton Street


196

Appendix B-1 Neighborhood Parcel Data Dodger Stadium 1000 Elysian Park Ave. Los Angeles, California

“I live about 20 miles from Dodger Stadium. I left for yesterday’s game at 5:30 p.m. Took to the 105 east to the 110, and exited at Figueroa Street, thus avoiding the ghastly 10-110 interchange. I took Figueroa through downtown L.A. all the way to where it spills out onto the 110 just before the Stadium Way exit...I got to my seat as the National Anthem was ending.” (Phillip Michaels)


197

Table 29: Parcel Type Totals

t

ad

ro

or

ue

ad

en

av

am

ee

y

no

em

ad

ac la

so

sta diu m

ad ro

ce

s op

terra

sh bi

lilac

wa pa sa y de na f

ree wa

y

bo

yls

et

ton

re

str

st

Table 28: Parcel Data (W Academy Road, W Solano Avenue & W Amador Street)

2,811 sq. ft. 2,557 sq. ft. 6,799 sq. ft. 2,171 sq. ft. 5,310 sq. ft. 5,316 sq. ft. 5,311 sq. ft. 3,702 sq. ft. 1,107 sq. ft. 2,971 sq. ft. 5,296 sq. ft. 5,589 sq. ft. 5,507 sq. ft. 5,593 sq. ft. 5,591 sq. ft. 5,946 sq. ft. 5,946 sq. ft. 5.954 sq. ft. 5,961 sq. ft. 5,968 sq. ft. 5,982 sq. ft. 5,987 sq. ft. 5,992 sq. ft.

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 1 Single Family Home Parcels 63 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 0 Commercial /Retail Parcels 0 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 0 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 1 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 0

e

2930 sq. ft. 3,392 sq. ft. 3,854 sq. ft. 3,698 sq. ft.

riv

1928 1966 1928 1920 1923 2004 1913 1924 1942 1924 1903 1904 1922 1922 1993 1904 1912 1898 1923 1907 1912 1913 1923 1985 1907 1913 1922 1913

ld

Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Multi-Family Residential (2) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Vacant / Open Space / Parking Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1)

ol

750-748 W Amador St. 742-738 W Amador St. 734-726 W Amador St. 725-718 W Amador St. 716-708 W Amador St. 706-704 W Amador St. 702 W Amador St. 674-658 W Amador St. 654-642 W Amador St. 624-634 W Solano Ave. 638-644 W Solano Ave. 648-652 W Solano Ave. 656 W Solano Ave. 662 W Solano Ave. 701 W Amador St. 705 W Amador St. 709-721 W Amador St. 725-737 W Amador St. 741-745 W Amador St. 749 W Amador St. 753-745 W Solano Ave. 741-733 W Solano Ave. 729-721 W Solano Ave. 717-709 W Solano Ave. 705-701 W Solano Ave. 648-644 W Academy Rd. 640-636 W Academy Rd. 632-628 W Academy Rd.

kn

Land Area

te

Year

i wh

Land Use / Parcel Type

w

Address

Figure 313: Parcel Data Area (W Academy Road, W Solano Avenue & W Amador Street)

Figure 314: 644 - 636 W Academy Road


198

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels Table 31: Parcel Type Totals

t

ad

ro

or

ue

ad

en

av

am

ee

y

no

la

em

ad

ac so

yls

et

ton

re

str

st

Land Use / Parcel Type

Year

Land Area

455 E Savoy St. 451 E Savoy St. 449 E Savoy St. 443 E Savoy St. 441 E Savoy St. 439-437 E Savoy St. 435 E Savoy St. 431 E Savoy St. 429-427 E Savoy St. 425 E Savoy St. 421-419 E Savoy St. 417 E Savoy St. 418 E Savoy St. 430 E Savoy St. 434 E Savoy St. 438 E Savoy St. 442-448 E Savoy St.

Multi-Family Residential (4) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Multi-Family Residential (2) Multi-Family Residential (2) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Multi-Family Residential (7) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Single-Family Residential (1) Multi-Family Residential (2) Vacant / Parking Single-Family Residential (1) Multi-Family Residential (2) Multi-Family Residential (4) Commercial/retail (Auto Body)

1989 1896 1892 1954 1964 1895 1962 1895 1926 1927 1890 1966 1963 1927 1890 1965 1937

4,978 sq. ft. 5,310 sq. ft. 5,302 sq. ft. 5,294 sq. ft. 5,294 sq. ft. 7,437 sq. ft. 8,291 sq. ft. 5,011 sq. ft. 5,057 sq. ft. 5,104 sq. ft. 5,150 sq. ft. 8,369 sq. ft. 5,870 sq. ft. 4,904 sq. ft. 5,055 sq. ft. 5,055 sq. ft. 5,055 sq. ft.

Commercial Office Building 1924 Vacant / Commercial Parking 1963 Church 2002 Multi-Family Residential (4) 1989 Multi-Family Residential (4) 1989 Multi Family Residential (4) Commercial Resaurant/Bar 1922 Multi-Family Residential (2) 1885

5,571 sq. ft. 5,511 sq. ft. 6,632 sq. ft. 6,732 sq. ft. 6,525 sq. ft. 6,261 sq. ft. 5,441 sq. ft. 4,607 sq. ft.

Figure 316: 429 - 425 E Savoy Street

ad ro

(Bishops Road, E Savoy Street & N Broadway)

s

Figure 315: Parcel Data Area

op sh

e

riv

ld

ol

kn ce

-outisde mapping section-

bi

ite

wh terra

sta diu m

w lilac

wa pa sa y de na f

ree wa

y

bo

11 8 0 6 0 5 1

Address

1201-1213 N Broadway 1217-1231 N Broadway 1305 N Broadway 1311 N Broadway 1315 N Broadway 1319-1321 N Broadway 1325 N Broadway 1329-1331 N Broadway

Table 30: Parcel data (Bishops Road, E Savoy Street & N Broadway)


199

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 16 Single Family Home Parcels 25 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 0 Commercial /Retail Parcels 0 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 0 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 0 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 0 Table 33: Parcel Type Totals

em

ad

ac

t

ad

ro

or

ue

ad

en

av

am

ee

y

no

la

so

yls

et

ton

re

str

st

ay ew fre na

wa y

de

sa

sta diu m

pa

ce

ad ro

e

terra

s op

riv

ld

lilac

sh bi

ol

Table 32: Parcel Data (W White Knoll Drive, N Marview Avenue & Boylston Street)

6,217 sq.ft. 4,591 sq.ft. 4,849 sq.ft. 4,667 sq.ft. 4,832 sq.ft. 4,033 sq.ft. 3,910 sq.ft. 4,747 sq.ft. 4,804 sq.ft. 4,860 sq.ft. 4,902 sq.ft. 6,049 sq.ft. 6,082 sq.ft. 4,955 sq.ft. 4,896 sq.ft. 4,837 sq.ft. 4,778 sq.ft. 5,643 sq.ft. 5,643 sq.ft. 6,150 sq.ft. 7,306 sq.ft. 6,471 sq.ft. 6,250 sq.ft. 6,250 sq.ft. 6,250 sq.ft. 6,250 sq.ft. 6,250 sq.ft. 6,250 sq.ft.

kn

Multi-Family Residential (4) 1924 Multi-Family Residential (2) 1924 Single-Family Residential (1) 2005 Single-Family Residential (1) 1923 Single-Family Residential (1) 1926 Single-Family Residential(1) 1924 Multi-Family Residential (2) 1933 Multi-Family Residential (2) 1925 Single-Family Residential(1) 1983 Single-Family Residential(1) 1978 Single-Family Residential(1) Multi-Family Residential (2) 1939 Multi-Family Residential (4) 1923 Multi-Family Residential (4) 1933 Multi-Family Residential (2) 1923 Single-Family Residential(1) Multi-Family Residential (4) 1924 Single-Family Residential(1) 1924 Multi-Family Residential (2) 1988 Muli-Family Residential (2) 1912 Single Family Residential (1) 1928 Single Family Residential (1) 1999 Single Family Residential (1) 1937 Single Family Residential (1) 1970 Single Family Residential (1) 1945 Single Family Residential (1) 1939 Single Family Residential (1) 1946 Single Family Residential (1) 1927

te

1130-1126 W White Knoll Dr. 1027 N Marview Ave. 1021 N Marview Ave. 1017 N Marview Ave. 1009 N Marview Ave. 1151 N Figueroa Terr, 1000-1002 N Marview Ave. 1008-1010 N Marview Ave. 1014 N Marview Ave. 1018 N Marview Ave. 1022 N Marview Ave. 1118 W White Knoll Dr. 1100 W White Knoll Dr. 1035 W White Knoll Dr. 1023-1019 W White Knoll Dr. 1015 W White Knoll Dr. 1011-1009 W White Knoll Dr. 1109 N Figueroa Terr. 1107 N Figueroa Terr. 1028 W White Knoll Dr. 1657-1663 N Boylston St. 1618 N Boylston St. 1610 N Boylston St. 1606 N Boylston St. 1600 N Boylston St. 1548-1518 N Boylston St. 1508 N Boylston St. 1502 N Boylston St.

Land Area

bo

Year

i wh

Land Use / Parcel Type

w

Address

Figure 317: Parcel Data Area (W White Knoll Drive, N Marview Avenue & Boylston Street)

Figure 318: 1027 - 1009 Marview Ave


200

Appendix B-2 Neighborhood Parcel Data Shea Stadium 123-01 Roosvelt Avenue Flushing, New York

“For a long time, I feared the day when Shea Stadium would close forever and in its place, a hulking corporate-sponsored ball field would rise from the ashen depths of Flushing Meadows. But now I’ve accepted that there is no choice” (Author).


201

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 0 Single Family Home Parcels 0 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 0 Commercial /Retail Parcels 2 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 13 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 6 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 0 Table 35: Parcel Type Totals

y

wille

ts p

oint

w

ay)

ubw

YC s

ne (N

#7 li

Figure 319: Parcel Data Area (126th Street, 38th, 37th, 36th, 35th, & 34th Avenues)

Table 34: Parcel Data (126th Street, 38th, 37th, 36th, 35th, & 34th Avenues)

Figure 320: 126th Street and 34th Avenue

Figure 321: 126th Street and Roosevelt Avenue

blvd

swa

pres

e ex

ton hites

t stree

9,584 sq. ft. 12,500 sq. ft. 12,500 sq. ft. 10,000 sq. ft. 3,667 sq. ft. 15,110 sq. ft. 7,080 sq. ft. 7,500 sq. ft. 17,500 sq. ft. 10,000 sq. ft. 23,500 sq. ft. 19,850 sq. ft. 10,500 sq. ft. 14,500 sq. ft. 8,000 sq. ft. 12,000 sq. ft. 10,000 sq. ft. 10,000 sq. ft. 20,000 sq. ft. 10,000 sq. ft. 44,500 sq. ft. 24,739 sq. ft.

y

1988 1940 1976 1930 1930 1980 1996 1980 1970 1950 1950 1971 1940 1989 1930 1960 1940 1991 1970 1990 1960 1930

kwa

Two-story Commercial/Office (Reality) One-story Transportation / Utility One-story Industrial Manufacturing Commerical / Ballpark Parking Commercial / Ballpark Parking One-story Industrial Manufacturing One-story Transportation / Utility Commercial / Ballpark Parking Commercial / Ballpark Parking Two-story Transportation / Utility One-story Industrial Manufacturing One-story Transportation / Utility One-story Transportation / Utility One-story Commercial/Office One-story Industrial Manufacturing One-story Industrial Manufacturing Commerical / Ballpark Parking One-story Industrial Manufacturing One-story Industrial Manufacturing One-story Industrial Manufacturing Commerical / Ballpark Parking Two-story Industrial Manufacturing

114th

39-09 126th St. 39-09 126th St. 39-09 126th St. 126-02 38th Ave. 126-20 38th Ave. 126-61 38th Ave. 126-45 Willets Blvd. 126-10 38th Ave. 37-11 126th St. 126-30 37th Ave. 126-83 37th Ave. 126-63 37th Ave. 126-23 37th Ave. 126-59 36th Ave. 126-49 36th Ave. 126-25 36th Ave. 126-05 36th Ave. 126-16 35th Ave. 34-09 126th St. 126-12 34th Ave. 126-23 34th Ave. 126-02 Northern Blvd.

l par

Land Area

ntra

Year

d ce

Land Use / Parcel Type

gran

Address

Figure 322: 127th Street and 36th Avenue


202

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels Table 37: Parcel Type Totals

ay

y

t tree

s 114th

kwa

l par

ntra

d ce

gran

wille

ts p

oint

blvd

ssw

xpre

ne e

esto whit

ay)

ubw

YC s

ne (N

#7 li

8 10 0 1 1 0 0

Address

Land Use / Parcel Type

Year

Land Area

111-91 41st Ave.

Two-story Single-Family Home

1950

2,880 sq. ft.

111-87 41st Ave.

Two-story Single-Family Home

1950

2,100 sq. ft.

111-85 41st Ave.

Two-story Single-Family Home

1950

2,400 sq. ft.

111-83 41st Ave.

Two-story Single-Family Home

1950

2,433 sq. ft.

111-81 41st Ave.

Two-story Single-Family Home

1950

2,434 sq. ft.

111-77 41st Ave.

Two-story Single-Family Home

1950

2,400 sq. ft.

111-75 41st Ave. 112-40 Roosevelt Ave. 112-44 Roosevelt Ave. 112-51 Roosevelt Ave. 112-49 Roosevelt Ave. 112-47 Roosevelt Ave. 112-45 Roosevelt Ave. 112-38 39th Ave. 112-34 39th Ave. 112-30 39th Ave. 112-26 39th Ave. 112-22 39th Ave. 112-18 39th Ave. 39-06 114th St.

Two-story Single-Family Home One-story Transportation / Utility Two-story Commercial/Office Two-story Multi-Family Res. (3 Apts.) Two-story Multi-Family Res. (3 Apts.) Two-story Multi-Family Res. (3 Apts.) Two-story Multi-Family Res. (3 Apts.) 2.5-story Single-Family Home 2.5-story Multi-Family Res. (5 Apts.) 2.5-story Single-Family Home 2.5-story Single-Family Home Two-story Multi-Family Res. (2 Apts.) Two-story Multi-Family Res. (2 Apts.) Six-story Multi-Family Res. (70 Apts.)

1950 1939 1965 1931 1931 1934 1910 1931 1920 1920 1920 1915 1915 1965

2,400 sq. ft. 10,000 sq. ft. 10,000 sq. ft. 1,120 sq. ft. 1,150 sq. ft. 1,150 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 6,250 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 21,875 sq. ft.

Figure 323: Parcel Data Area (Roosevelt Avenue, 41st Avenue & 39th Avenue)

Figure 324: 112-34 - 112-18 39th Avenue

Table 36: Parcel data (Roosevelt Avenue, 41st Avenue & 39th Avenue)

Figure 325: 112-40 - 112-44 Roosevelt Avenue

Figure 326: Roosevelt Ave & 114th St.


203

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 11 Single Family Home Parcels 17 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 0 Commercial /Retail Parcels 1 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 0 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 0 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 0 Table 39: Parcel Type Totals

ay

essw

expr

wille

ts p

oint

wh

blvd

ne itesto

kwa y

t tree

s 114th

6,250 sq. ft. 6,250 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 6,250 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 15,625 sq. ft. 6,250 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 6,250 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 2,500 sq. ft. 2,500 sq. ft. 2,500 sq. ft. 2,500 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 3,125 sq. ft. 46,875 sq. ft.

l par

2.5-Story Multi-Family Res (2 Apts.) 1950 Two-Story Multi-Family Res (2 Apts.) 1915 Two-Story Single-Family Home 1915 Two-Story Multi-Family Res (2 Apts.) 1915 Two-Story Single-Family Home 1920 2.5-Story Single-Family Home 1915 Two-Story Multi-Family Res (4 Apts.) 2001 One-Story Multi-Family Res (3 Apts.) 1940 Two-Story Single-Family Home 1915 2.5-Story Single-Family Home 1915 2.5-Story Single-Family Home 1915 Three-Story Single-Family Home 1910 2.5-Story Multi-Family Res (2 Apts.) 1915 Three-Story Multi-Family Res (27 Apts.) 1972 2.5-Story Single-Family Home 1920 Two-Story Multi-Family Res (2 Apts.) 1920 2.5-Story Multi-Family Res (3 Apts.) 1920 1.5-Story Single-Family Home 1920 2.5-Story Single-Family Home 1920 Two-Story Single-Family Home 1920 Two-Story Multi-Family Res (2 Apts.) 1920 One-Story Single-Family Home 1910 One-Story Single-Family Home 1910 One-Story Single-Family Home 1910 One-Story Multi-Family Res (2 Apts.) 1910 Two-Story Single-Family Home 1925 Two-Story Single-Family Home 1925 Eight-story Commercial/Office 1963

Land Area

ntra

38-26 114 St. 112-35 39th Ave. 112-33 39th Ave. 112-29 39th Ave. 112-27 39th Ave. 112-23 39th Ave. 112-21 39th Ave. 112-19 39th Ave. 112-13 39th Ave. 112-11 39th Ave. 112-09 39th Ave. 112-07 39th Ave. 112-03 39th Ave. 112-02 38th Ave. 112-14 38th Ave. 112-18 38th Ave. 112-22 38th Ave. 112-26 38th Ave. 112-30 38th Ave. 112-34 38th Ave. 112-36 38th Ave. 112-42 38th Ave. 112-44 38th Ave. 112-48 38th Ave. 112-52 38th Ave. 112-39 38th Ave. 112-37 38th Ave. 37-10 114th St.

Table 38: Parcel Data (114th Street, 39th Avenue & 38th Avenue)

Year

d ce

Land Use / Parcel Type

gran

Address

ay)

ubw

YC s

ne (N

#7 li

Figure 327: Parcel Data Area (114th Street, 39th Avenue & 38th Avenue)

Figure 328: 112-07 39th Avenue


204

Appendix C-1 Neighborhood Parcel Data Camden Yards 333 West Camden Street Baltimore, Maryland “Powerless to prevent deindustrialization and recession [Baltimore’s urban elite] have tried to create a profitable growth machine that has focused on tourism, leisure and conspicuous consumption as an antidote to falling profits and urban decline. In limited ways the strategy has worked.” (David Harvey, Chapin).


205 Year

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels

7 0 1 8 0 7 3

Table 41: Parcel Type Totals

eutaw street

pratt street

howard street

camden street

conway street

MARC rail lee street

interstate 395

6-Story Hampton Inn Two-Story Commercial (Bar) 2,395 sq. ft. Three-Story Commercial (Restaurant) Two-Story Commercial (Bar) 1,680 sq. ft. Three-Story Commercial (Bar) 6,630 sq. ft. Two-Story Commercial (Restaurant) 7-Story Multi-Family Residential 28,967 sq. ft. 7-Story Multi-Family Residential 28,967 sq. ft 7-Story Multi-Family Residential 28,967 sq. ft 7-Story Multi-Family Residential 28,967 sq. ft U of Maryland Mediical Center 27,660 sq. ft. 18-Story Multi-Famil Residential 8-Story Marriott Hotel ` 64,338 sq. ft. 5-Story Mxd Use (Com/Res) 24,611 sq. ft. 7-Story Pakring Structure 80,150 sq. ft. Multi-Story Multi-Family Res (Construction) Multi-Story Multi-Family Res (Construction) Civic Building - Davidge Hall University of Maryland Mdeical Center 151,492 sq. ft. 6-Story Mxd Use Com/Res . 16-Story Historic Baltimore Arts Tower 18-Story Multi-Family Res/Parking 10-Story Holiday Inn Two-Story Parking Structure 6,671 sq. ft. Surface Parking 33,715 sq. ft. Three-Story Mxd Use (Com/Res) 35,632 sq. ft. Three-Story Mxd Use (Com/Res)

paca street

110 Russel St. 520 Washington Blvd. 512 Washington Blvd. 510 Washington Blvd. 508 Washington Blvd. 504 Washington Blvd. 519 W Pratt St. 527 W Pratt St. 529 W Pratt St. 531 W Pratt St. 110 S Paca St. 210 S Paca St. 110 S Eutaw St. 300 W Pratt St. 405 W Lombard St. 501-513 W Lombard St. 513-517 W Lombard St. 522 W Lombard St. 501 W Baltimore St. 408 W Lombrad St. 36 S Eutaw St. 16 S Eutaw St. 26 S Howard St. 22 S Howard St. 10 S Howard St. 11 S Eutaw St. 16 S Eutaw St.

Table 40: Parcel Data (Eutaw Street, Howard Street, Lombard Street & Pratt Street)

Land Area

russell street

Land Use / Parcel Type

greene street

Address

Figure 329: Parcel Data Area (Eutaw Street, Howard Street, Lombard Street & Pratt Street)

Figure 330: 36 S Eutaw Street


206

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels

22 0 1 2 0 1 3

Table 43: Parcel Type Totals

eutaw street

paca street

greene street

howard street

pratt street

camden street russell street

conway street

MARC rail

interstate 395

Address

Land Use / Parcel Type

Year

502 S Sharp St. 504-506 S Sharp St. (2) 508-510 S Sharp St. (2) 512-516 S Sharp St. (1) 300-302 W Barre St. (2) 304-306 W Barre St. (1) 301-305 W Barre St. (2) 309-313 W Barre St. (2) 310-316 W Barre St. (2) 500 Comb Alley (2) 501 Comb Alley (3) 112 W Conway St. 1 W Pratt St. 200 W Pratt St. 206 W Pratt St. 250 W Pratt St. 221 W Lombard St. 100 Hopkins Pl.

Two-Story Multi-Family Res Two-Story Multi-Family Res Two-Story Multi-Family Res Three-Story Multi-Family Res Three-Story Multi-Family Res Two-Story Multi-Family Res Three-Story Multi-Family Res Three-Story Multi-Family Res Three-Story Multi-Family Res 5-Story Multi-Family Res 8-Story Multi-Family Res United Methodist Church 19,253 sq. ft. Baltimore Convention Center 608,968 sq. ft. 6-Story Parking Structure 8-Story Mxd Use (Com/Res) 4,080 sq. ft. 20-Story Commercial (Bank) 32,569 sq. ft. 6-Story Civic Arena 40,724 sq. ft. Three-Story Com/Office 24,396 sq. ft.

w barre street

Table 42: Parcel data (Conway Street, Howard Street, Pratt Street & W Barre Street)

lee street

Figure 331: Parcel Data Area (Conway Street, Howard Street, Pratt Street & W Barre Street)

Figure 332: 200-250 W Pratt Street

Figure 333: 1 W Pratt Street

Figure 334: 112 W Conway Street

Land Area


207 Land Area

camden street

portland street

rd

va

ule

o nb

conway street

MARC rail

910 sq. ft. 19,819 sq. ft. 2,159 sq. ft. 5,044 sq. ft. 3,240 sq. ft. 3,800 sq. ft. 761 sq. ft. 1,368 sq. ft. 952 sq. ft. 1,680 sq. ft. 897 sq. ft.

pratt street dover street

to

ing

sh

wa

lee street

interstate 395

Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Commercial Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Commercial (Grocery) Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Multi-Family Residential

Table 45: Parcel Type Totals

howard street

628-636 Washington Blvd. (5) 400 Russell St. 619-623 Washington Blvd. (3) 625-627 Washington Blvd. (2) 629-639 Washington Blvd. (6) 641 Washington Blvd. 515 Warner St. 544-540 S Paca St. (3) 538-534 S Paca St. (6) 526-524 S Paca St. (2) 545-549 S Paca St.(3)

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels

eutaw street

University of Maryland Three-Story Comm (Vacant) 1,350 sq. ft. Surface Parking 2,628 sq. ft. Three-Story Mxd Use Three-Story U of Maryland 2,628 sq. ft. Three-Story Mxd Use (Vacant) Two-Story Multi-Family Residential 564 sq. ft. Two-Story Multi-Family Residential 507 sq. ft. Two-Story Multi-Family Residential 564 sq. ft. Two-Story Multi-Family Residential 507 sq. ft. Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Multi-Family Residential 6,229 sq. ft. Three-Story Vacant 740 sq. ft. Three-Story Comm/Office (Law) 1,437 sq. ft. Two-Story Multi-Family Residential Two-Story Multi-Family Residential 1,456 sq. ft. Two-Story Multi-Family Residential 884 sq. ft.

russell street

220 S Greene St. 635 W Pratt St. 647 W Pratt St. 649 W Pratt St. 665 W Pratt St. 295 Penn St. (3) 662-658 Dover St. (3) 656-646 Dover St. (6) 644-634 Dover St. (6) 632-622 Dover St. (6) 631-629 Portland St. (2) 625 Portland St. 603 Portland St. 300 Russell St. 612 Washington Blvd. 610-604 Washington Blvd. (4) 618-626 Washington Blvd. (3)

Table 44: Parcel Data (Portland Street, Pratt Street & Washington Boulevard )

Year

paca street

Land Use / Parcel Type

greene street

Address

Figure 335: Parcel Data Area (Portland Street, Pratt Street & Washington Boulevard)

Figure 336: 656-646 Dover Street

52 0 1 3 0 7 2


208

Appendix C-2 Neighborhood Parcel Data AT&T Park 24 Willie Mays Plaza San Francisco, California “Anything would have been better than [Candlestick Park], but Pac Bell is a gem. It’s easy on the eyes, easy to get to, and easy to feel at home in. It fits the neighborhood, sports some funky angles and clear sight lines, and offers up some fine grub.” (Eric Neel).


209

*Several large scale Condominum / Mixed-Use projects along Berry and Townsend Streets are currenly under construction and/or

et re

se

st

co

et

st

re

to

et

w

ns

en

d

st

br

st

re

re

an

et

na

n

nd

ki

ird

ng

th

st

re

et

et

re

26,675 sq. ft.

Table 47: Parcel Type Totals

st

1,160 sq. ft. 2,210 sq. ft. 2,195 sq. ft. 2,210 sq. ft. 4,416 sq. ft. 6,157 sq. ft. 8,563 sq. ft. 30,070 sq. ft. 5,576 sq. ft. 19,402 sq. ft.

be rry

6,398 sq. ft. 10,957 sq. ft. 3,702 sq. ft. 6,025 sq. ft.

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels

et

21,997 sq. ft.

tre

Four-story Commercial/Office 1902 Mixed-Use Commercial/Residential 2003 Commercial/Retail 1918 Two-story Light Industrial 1935 One-story Light Industrial 1955 Three-story Commercial/Retail 1919 Vacant/Commercial Vacant/Commercial Vacant/Commercial Three-story Multi-Family Apartments 1907 Two-story Light Industrial 1923 One-story Light Industrial 1922 Two-story Light Industrial 1917 Two-story Commercial/Retail 1909 Seven-story Commercial/Office 1986 Vacant/Commercial Two-story Light Industrial 1947 Five-story Condominiums (101 units) 2002 Six-story Commercial/Office 1920

ts

660-670 Third St. 200 Townsend St. 210 Townsend St. 228 Townsend St. 336-348 Ritch St. 330 Ritch St. 2 Clyde St. 10 Clyde St. 16 Clyde St. 18-28 Clyde St. 36 Clyde St. 45 Lusk St. 25 Lusk St. 244 Townsend St. 260 Townsend St. 280 Townsend St. 655 Fourth St. 150 Berry St. 185 Berry St.

Land Area

ke

Year

ar

Land Use / Parcel Type

m

Address

Figure 337: Parcel Data Area (Berry Street, King Street & Townsend Street)

do not yet have avaialble parcel data.

Table 46: Parcel Data (Berry Street, King Street & Townsend Street)

Figure 338: 330 Ritch Street

Figure 339: 200-210 Townsend Street

Figure 340: 250 Townsend Street

5 0 1 10 10 4 0


210

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels Single Family Home Parcels Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels Commercial /Retail Parcels Industrial/Warehouse Parcels Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels Miscellaneous/Service Parcels

0 0 1 16 14 1 3

se

re

et

m

ar

ke

ts

tre

et

Table 49: Parcel Type Totals

st

co

et

st

to

re

w

et

ns

en

d

st

re

br

st

re

et

an

na

n

nd

ki

ird

ng

th

st

re

be rry

st

re

et

et

Figure 341: Parcel Data Area (King Street, Townsend Street, Second Street & Third Street)

Figure 342: 128 King Street

Address 737-759 Third St. 701 Third St. 188 King St. 170 King St. 160 King St. 144 King St. 128 King St. 760 Second St. 102 King St. 750 Second St. 101-109 Townsend St. 111 Townsend St. 123-131 Townsend St. 135 Townsend St. 139 Townsend St. 100-117 Townsend St. 130 Townsend St. 136 Townsend St. 144-146 Townsend St. 148-154 Townsend St. 164 Townsend St. 166-178 Townsend St. 180 Townsend St. 699 Third St. 689-695 Third St. 679-685 Third St. 665 Third St.

Land Use / Parcel Type Year One-story Commercial/Retail 1900 One-story Commercial/Retail 1970 One-story Commercial/Retail 2001 One-story Commercial/Retail Nine-Story Commercial/Office 2002 One-Story Light Industrial 1946 Three-story Commercial/Retail 1913 Commercial/Retail Space Vacant / Commercial Development Two-story Light Industrial 1940 Three-story Light Industrial 1913 Three-story Light Industrial 1911 Seven-story Commercial/Office 1903 Five-story Light Industrial/Warehouse 1911 Five-story Commercial/Office 1905 Public Service / Office 1900 One-story Commercial Office 1900 One-Story Light Industrial 1902 Three-story Light Industrial 1922 Three-story Light Industrial 1922 Two-story Mixed-Use Residential 1997 One-story Light Industrial 1900 Three-story Commercial/Office 1900 One-story Commercial/Retail 1917 One-story Commercial/Retail 1917 Three-story Light Industrial 1906 Five-story Commercial/Office 1916

Table 48: Parcel data (King Street, Townsend Street, Second Street & Third Street)

Land Area 6,634 sq. ft. 13,750 sq. ft. 12,271 sq. ft. 12,271 sq. ft. 12,271 sq. ft. 16,382 sq. ft. 8,367 sq. ft. 3,455 sq. ft. 6,333 sq. ft. 12,645 sq. ft. 19,158 sq. ft. 22,875 sq. ft. 11,578 sq. ft. 14,207 sq. ft. 15,999 sq. ft. 22,000 sq. ft. 18,989 sq. ft. 16,496 sq. ft. 23,674 sq. ft. 22,000 sq. ft. 9,197 sq. ft. 6,000 sq. ft. 6,000 sq. ft. 3,918 sq. ft. 24,320 sq. ft


211

et re st

se

nd

d en

et

et

ns

re

w

st

to

ki

ng

th

ird

st

re

st

br

re

an

et

na

n

co

st

re

st

re et

et

rry

12,104 sq. ft. 7,816 sq. ft. 35,062 sq. ft. 17,531 sq. ft. 17,557 sq. ft. 3,200 sq. ft. 29,098 sq. ft.

Table 51: Parcel Type Totals

be

17,000 sq. ft. 16,000 sq. ft.

et

18,905 sq. ft. 5,156 sq. ft. 6,875 sq. ft. 17,363 sq. ft. 17,363 sq. ft. 24,880 sq. ft.

Parcel Data Multi Family Apartment Parcels 1 Single Family Home Parcels 0 Mixed-Use (Res/Com) Parcels 2 Commercial /Retail Parcels 10 Industrial/Warehouse Parcels 11 Vacant (Improv)/Parking Parcels 1 Miscellaneous/Service Parcels 0

tre

Four-story Commercial/Office 1909 Two-story Commercial/Office 1920 One-story Light Industrial 1971 One-story Light Industrial 1979 Two-story Light Industrial 1928 Two-story Light Industrial 1928 Vacant /Commercial 1900 One-story Commercial/Office 1972 Six-story Commercial/Office Three-story Commercial/Office 1927 Six-story Mixed-Use Residential 1996 Commercial/Office Four-story Commercial/Office Four-story Commercial/Office 1905 Six-story Light Industrial/Warehouse 1909 Three-story Light Industrial/Warehouse 1906 Three-story Commercial/Retail 1908 One-story Light Industrial 1904 One-story Mixed-Use Com/Res 14-story Residential 2000

ts

625 Third St. 601-605 Third St. 375 Brannan St. 371 Brannan St. 361-365 Brannan St. 355 Brannan St. 345 Brannan St. 329 Brannan St. 301 Brannan St. 35 Stanford St. 650 Second St. 670 Second St. 678-680 Second St. 625 Second St. 601-615 Second St. 275 Brannan St. 48 Townsend St. 64 Townsend St. 219 Brannan St. 84 King St.

Land Area

ke

Year

ar

Land Use / Parcel Type

m

Address

Table 50: Parcel Data (Brannan Street, King Street & Townsend Street)

Figure 343: Parcel Data Area

Figure 344: 88 King Street

Figure 346: 301-329 Townsend Street

Figure 345: 625 Second Street

(Brannan Street, King Street & Townsend Street)


Stick-Ball Aaron Asis University of Washington Š copyright 2008


Stick-Ball

Aaron Asis University of Washington Š copyright 2008


Stick-Ball