Barack Hussein Obama II was born on August 4, 1961 is the 44th and current President of the United States, in office since 2009. He is the first African American to hold the office. Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He served three terms representing the 13th District in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, running unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives in 2000
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (, born 1 August 1924)is the King of Saudi Arabia. He ascended to the throne on 1 August 2005 upon the death of his half-brother, King Fahd.Abdullah, like Fahd, was one of the many sons of Ibn Saud, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. (Abdullahâ€™s mother was Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim, the eighth of Ibn Saudâ€™s 16 wives.) Abdullah held important political posts throughout most of his adult life. In 1961 as a young man, he became mayor of Mecca, his first public office.And, in 1962, he was appointed commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard, a post he was still holding when he became king. He also served as deputy defense minister and was named crown prince when Fahd took the throne in 1982. After King Fahd suffered a serious stroke in 1995, Abdullah became the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia until claiming the throne a decade later.
Daniel Toroitich arap Moi (born 2 September 1924) is a Kenyan politician who was the President of Kenya from 1978 to 2002. Previously, under President Jomo Kenyatta, he was Vice-President from 1967 to 1978; he succeeded Kenyatta as President upon the latter’s death.Daniel arap Moi is popularly known to Kenyans as “Nyayo”, a Swahili word for “footsteps”, as he was said to be following the footsteps of the first Kenyan President, Jomo Kenyatta. When Jomo Kenyatta died on 22 August 1978, Moi succeeded him. He was popular, with widespread support all over the country. He toured the country and came into contact with the people everywhere, which was in great contrast to Kenyatta’s imperial style of governing behind closed doors
Enver Hoxha was the Communist leader of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985. Hoxha was born on 16th October 1908 in Gjirokastër, a city in southern Albania (then under the Ottoman Empire) that has been home to many prominent families. At age 16 he helped found and became secretary of the Students Society of Gjirokastër, which protested against the monarchist government. After the government closed the Society, he moved to Korçë, continuing his studies in a French secondary school. There he learned French history, literature and philosophy. In this city he read for the first time the Communist Manifesto. The 40-year period of Hoxha’s rule was characterized by the elimination of the opposition, prolific use of the death penalty or long prison terms of his political opponents and evictions from homes where their families lived and their internment in remote villages that were strictly controlled by police and State Security (secret police) . Also his rule was characterized by Stalinist methods to destroy his associates who threatened his own power.
Fidel Castro born August 13, 1926 is a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who was Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, and President from 1976 to 2008. He also served as the Commander in Chief of the countryâ€™s armed forces from 1959 to 2008. Born the illegitimate son of a wealthy farmer, Castro adopted leftist anti-imperialist
politics while studying law at the University of Havana. After participating in armed rebellions against right-wing governments in the Dominican Republic and Colombia, he planned the overthrow of the United Statesbacked military junta of Cuban president Fulgencio Batista, and served a yearâ€™s imprisonment in 1953 after a failed attack on
the Moncada Barracks. On release he traveled to Mexico, where he formed a revolutionary group with his brother Raul and friend Che Guevara, the 26th of July Movement. Returning to Cuba, Castro led the Cuban Revolution which ousted Batista in 1959, and brought his own assumption of military and political power.
George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946 in New Havan, Connecticut. He is an American politician and businessman who was the 43rd President of the United States starting on 20th January 2001 till January 20 2009 and was the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. George Bush is only the second president to be the son of a former president, his brother Jeb Bush is also in the politicion business as he is the Governer Of Florida. In Bushâ€™s time as president he faced a lot of contrerversial times such as issues surrounding 9/11, the war in iraq and how America would be protected from terrorists. In 1977 Bush married Laura Welch and is still with her to this day and also has 2 daughters called Jenna and Barbara. On Bushâ€™s road to success he studied at Yale University and Harvard Business School. Baseball and Oil were his speciality for making money, not long after his marriage in 1977 he went on to co-own Texas Rangers baseball team.
Ho Chi Minh was born in Nguyen in Sinh Cung on the 19th May 1890. He died on 2nd September 1969, aged 79 in Hanoi, North Vietnam. From 1919–23, while living in France, Ho Chi Minh began to approach the idea of communism, through his friend and Socialist Party of France comrade Marcel Cachin. Ho Chi Minh claimed to have arrived in Paris from London in 1917, but the French police only had documents of his arrival in June 1919.Following World War I, under the name Nguyen Ái Quec (“Nguyen the Patriot”), he petitioned for recognition of the civil rights of the Vietnamese people in French Indochina to the Western powers at the Versailles peace talks, but was ignored. Citing the language and the spirit of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, Quec petitioned U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to help remove the French from Vietnam and replace them with a new, nationalist government. Although he was unable to obtain consideration at Versailles, the failure further radicalized Nguyen, while also making him a national hero of the anti-colonial movement at home in Vietnam
Idi Amin born mid-1920s and died 16 August 2003was the third President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Amin joined the British colonial regiment, the Kingâ€™s African Rifles, in 1946, serving in Somalia and Kenya. Eventually, Amin held the rank of Major general in the post-colonial Ugandan Army and became its Commander before seizing power in the military coup of January 1971, deposing Milton Obote. He later promoted himself to field marshal while he was the head of state. Aminâ€™s rule was characterised by human rights abuse, political repression, ethnic persecution, extrajudicial killings,, corruption, and gross economic mismanagement. The number of people killed as a result of his regime is estimated by international observers and human rights groups to range from 100,000 to 500,000. Over the many years of Idi Amins life he had 5 wifes, 3 of them resulted in divorce and the other 2 died.
One of the most powerful and murderous dictators in history, Stalin was the supreme ruler of the Soviet Union for a quarter of a century. His regime of terror caused the death and suffering of tens of millions, but he also oversaw the war machine that played a key role in the defeat of Nazism. Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili was born on 18 December 1879 in Gori, Georgia, which was then part of the Russian empire. His father was a cobbler and Stalin grew up in modest circumstances. He studied at a theological
seminary where he began to read Marxist literature. He never graduated, instead devoting his time to the revolutionary movement against the Russian monarchy. He spent the next 15 years as an activist and on a number of occasions was arrested and exiled to Siberia. After World War Two, the Soviet Union entered the nuclear age and ruled over an empire which included most of eastern Europe. Increasingly paranoid, Stalin died of a stroke on 5 March 1953.
Kim Jong Il was born on Feb. 16, 1942 aged 69, in a secret military camp on Baekdu Mountain, on the North Korean border, his official biography says. But Soviet records claim he was born on February 16, 1941 in the village of Vyatskoye, in Russia, where his parents were in exile during the Japanese occupation of Korea. North Korea has one of the largest armies in the world. According to the US State Department, it has an estimated active duty military force of up to 1.2 million personnel, compared to about 680,000 in the South, with about one in five of men aged 17-54 in the regular armed forces. He forced waitresses at restaurants frequented by foreigners in Pyongyang to have cosmetic surgery in order to appear more “western”. He reportedly drank £450,000 of cognac each year in a country where average income was about £580.
Kabila was born to a member of the Luba tribe in Baudoinville, Katanga Province, (now Moba, Tanganyika District) in the Belgian Congo. His father was a Luba and his mother was a Lunda. He studied political philosophy in France, and in Serbia at the University of Belgrade; later he attended the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Laurent Desire Kabila took the role of president of the republic of congo on May 17th 1997 and his reign ended on January 18th 2001 when he was assasinated by 1 of his bodyguards. He was succeeded by his son Joseph 8 days later. The investigation into Kabila’s assassination led to 134 people being tried before a special military tribunal - including 4 children. The alleged ringleader, Colonel Eddy Kapend (one of Kabila’s cousins), and 25 others were sentenced to death in January 2003, but not executed. Of the other defendants 64 were jailed, with sentences from six months to life, and 45 were exonerated. Some individuals were also accused of being involved in a plot to overthrow his son. Among them was Kabila’s special advisor Emmanuel Dungia, former ambassador to South Africa. Many people believe the trial was flawed and the convicted defendants are innocent.
Muammar Al Gaddafi was born June 1942. Having a home is considered a human right in Libya, Gaddafi vowed that his parents would not get a house until everyone in Libya had a home. Gaddafiâ€™s father has died while he , his wife and his mother are still living in a tent. Colonel Muammar Gaddafi is the longest-serving leader in both Africa and the Arab world, having ruled Libya since he toppled King Idris I in a bloodless coup at the age of 27. Known for his flamboyant dress-sense and gun-toting female body guards, the Libyan leader is also considered a skilled political operator who moved swiftly to bring his country out of diplomatic isolation.
Nicolae Ceausescu (26 January 1919 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician. He was General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and as such was the country’s last Communist leader. He was also the country’s head of state from 1967 to 1989. His rule was marked in the first decade by an open policy towards Western Europe and the United States, which deviated from that of the other Warsaw Pact states during the Cold War. He continued a trend first established by his predecessor, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, who had tactfully coaxed the Soviet Union into withdrawing its troops from Romania in 1958. Ceausescu’s second decade was characterized by an increasingly brutal and repressive regime—by some accounts, the most Stalinist regime in the Soviet bloc.
Al-Bashir was born in Hosh Bannaga, just north of the capital, Khartoum. He belongs to Al-Bedairya AlDahmashya a religious clan of the larger jaâ€™alin tribe, an Arab tribe in middle north of Sudan, then part of the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan. He received his primary education there, and his family later moved to Khartoum where he completed his secondary education. Al-Bashir is married to his cousin Fatima Khalid. He also has a second wife named Widad Babiker Omer, who had a number of children with her first husband Ibrahim Shamsaddin, a member of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation who had died in a helicopter crash. He recently married for the third time. Al-Bashir does not have any children of his own.
Paul Biya (born Paul Barthélemy Biya’a bi Mvondo, 13 February 1933) is a Cameroonian politician who has been the President of Cameroon since 6 November 1982.A native of Cameroon’s south, Biya rose rapidly as a bureaucrat under President Ahmadou Ahidjo in the 1960s, serving as SecretaryGeneral of the Presidency from 1968 to 1975 and then as Prime Minister of Cameroon from 1975 to 1982. He succeeded Ahidjo as President upon the latter’s surprise resignation in 1982 and consolidated power in a 1983–1984 power struggle with his predecessor.Biya introduced political reforms within the context of a single-party system in the 1980s. Under pressure, he accepted the introduction of multiparty politics in the early 1990s. He narrowly won the 1992 presidential election with 40% of the plural, single-ballot vote and was reelected by large margins in 1997, 2004, and 2011. Opposition politicians and Western governments have alleged voting irregularities and fraud on each of these occasions.
Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling born on 18 July 1887 – 24 October 1945 was a Norwegian politician. On 9 April 1940, with the German invasion of Norway in progress, he seized power in a Nazi-backed coup d’état.From 1942 to 1945 he served as Minister-President, working with the occupying forces. His government, known as the Quisling regime, was dominated by ministers from Nasjonal Samling, the party he founded in 1933. The collaborationist government participated – wittingly or unwittingly – in Germany’s Final Solution. Quisling was put on trial during the legal purge in Norway after World War II and found guilty of charges including embezzlement, murder and high treason. He was executed by firing squad at Akershus Fortress, Oslo, on 24 October 1945. During World War II, the word quisling became a synonym for traitor.
Robert Mugabe was born on 21st February 1928 in Harare, Zimbabwe and studied at the University of Fort Hare, University of South Africa, University of London. At the end of the war in 1979, Mugabe emerged as a hero in the minds of many Africans.He won the general elections of 1980, the second in which the majority of black Africans participated in large numbers (though the electoral system in Rhodesia had allowed black participation based on qualified franchise). Mugabe then became the first Prime Minister after calling for reconciliation between formerly warring parties, including white Rhodesians and rival political groups.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006)was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba’ath Party and its regional organisation Ba’ath Party – Iraq Region—which espoused ba’athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and Arab socialism— Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq. As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, and at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he tightly controlled conflict between the government and the armed forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and other industries. The state-owned banks were put under his control, leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Persian Gulf War, and UN sanctions. Through the 1970s, Saddam cemented his authority over the apparatuses of government as oil money helped Iraq’s economy to grow at a rapid pace. Positions of power in the country were mostly filled with Sunnis, a minority that made up only a fifth of the population.
Than Shwe was born in Minzu village, near Kyaukse, British Burma in 1933. In 1951, Than Shwe attended Government High School in Kyaukse. He took up employment at the Meikhtila Post Office as a postal clerk in 1952. Later he enlisted in the Burmese Army and was in the ninth intake of Army Officer Training School. Than Shweâ€™s leadership has been criticized for violence and human rights abuses. Amnesty International described human rights violations in Myanmar as â€œwidespread and systematic.As many as a million Burmese have allegedly been shipped off to jungle gulags, or rural slave camps, and forced to perform manual labor in the last ten years. There is no free speech, and dissent is not tolerated by the government. In 2007, mass demonstrations were led by crowds of Buddhist monks, but they were put down by security forces who killed, beat and detained hundreds.There were persistent rumors that thousands of monks and others were rounded up and summarily executed and their bodies dumped in the jungle
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 â€“ 24 January 1965) was a British politician, best known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the 20th century, he served as Prime Minister twice (1940â€“45 and 1951â€“55). A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. He is the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature and was the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States.Churchill was born into an aristocratic family as the grandson of the 7th Duke of Marlborough. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India, the Sudan, and the Second Boer War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns.
Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko (born 30 or 31 August 1954) is President of Belarus, having assumed the post on 20 July 1994. Before his career as a politician, Lukashenko worked as director of a state-owned agricultural farm and spent time with the Soviet Border Troops and the Red Army. When he first entered politics, he was seen as a champion against corruption and was the only deputy to vote against the independence of Belarus from the Soviet Union. Under Lukashenko’s rule, the Belarusian government’s conduct has been criticized in reports by international non-government organizations for violations of human rights and of international law.Belarus has been called “the last true remaining dictatorship in the heart of Europe” by former and current European and American leaders.He and other Belarusian officials are also the subject of sanctions imposed by the European Union and the United States for human rights violations off and on since 2006.His domestic policies are similar to those of the former Soviet Union, maintaining government control over key industries and slowing the privatization seen in other former Soviet republics.
Yuan Shikai (Wade-Giles spelling: Yuan Shih-kai; 16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was an important Chinese general and politician, famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor of China, his autocratic rule as the second President of the Republic of China (following Sun Yatsen), and his short-lived attempt to revive the Chinese monarchy, with himself as the “Great Emperor of China.”
Ziaur Rahman, Bir Uttam, (19 January 1936 – 30 May 1981) was a Bangladeshi politician, the seventh President of Bangladesh (1977) and an army general, who declared the Independence of Bangladesh on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.During the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971, he was first a sector commander before being promoted to one of three brigade commanders of the Bangladesh Forces; his brigade was called the Z Force, after his first initial. A highly decorated and accomplished military officer, he became a Bir Uttom, the highest gallantry award for a living officer for his wartime services, and retired from the Bangladesh Army as a Major General. He later became the seventh President of Bangladesh from 1977 until 1981. During his administration, he founded the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), one of the two largest political parties in the country. He is popularly known as Shaheed President Zia, meaning “martyred Zia,” in reference to his 1981 assassination. Though he personally informed Sheikh Mujibur Rahman earlier about military conspiracy,his role during the subsequent military coups in 1975 have made him a controversial figure in Bangladesh.
A-z of world leaders