Marketed first compounded diesel engine oil (RPM Diesel Engine Lubricating Oil) making high-speed diesel engines feasible.
First in the world to develop compound diesel engine oil that could be used in any diesel engine - adopted by the US Navy. Delo becomes registered trademark.
First in the world to develop a successful multi-grade engine oil.
First grease capable of extending lubrication intervals of heavy-duty equipment to 32,000 km.
First in the world to develop an ashless detergent 2-cycle diesel engine oil.
First borate base “ultra” extreme pressure gear lubricant for industrial and automotive applications.
First low-wear tractor hydraulic fluid with satisfactory wet brake performance in Ford/Massey/Ferguson bronze brakes and John Deere paper composite brakes.
First to document million-mile, no overhaul engine life in Caterpillar 3406B.
Launch of Delo Gear ESI & Delo Trans ESI - first extended drain non-synthetic axle and transmission oils.
Documents the first 1,6 million km, no overhaul engine life for the three major U.S. engine manufacturers and is first to meet the performance levels of PC-7 (CH-4)
1,6 million km
Delo products meet the API CI-4 Plus standard before official licensing.
API CI-4 Plus
Recognized for outstanding performance, Chevron Delo products have been honored by Lubricants World magazine in 1999, 2000 and 2001 because these products “are poised to contribute greatly to the achievement and enrichment of the lubricants industry.
Delo’s Extended Life Coolant formulation is the first to deliver 1,2 million km of service life with no Extender required, and also reached first 1,6 million km life in heavy duty trucks with the addition of an Extender. 1,2 million km without Extender
Chevron launches Delo Grease ESI which provides extended service protection to 48,00 km.
1,6 million km with Extender
Detroit Diesel Series 60 Engine with Delo 400 reaches 2.4 million km without overhaul.
2,400,000 km 2014
Chevron receives SAE research award for “Extending the Boundaries of Diesel Particulate Filter Maintenance with Ultra-Low Ash - Zero Phosphorus Oil.”
Delo Grease ESI is first grease to document 24,000 km re-greasing intervals on over the road trucks for wheel bearings, chassis, U-Joints and fifth wheels.
Delo 400 LE Synthetic SAE 5W-30 becomes first SAE 5W-30 diesel engine oil to achieve 160,000 km oil drain interval with NO oil filter change in Detroit Diesel DD15 diesel engines.
19194 Learn more at middleeast.deloperformance.com A Chevron company product. ©2018 Chevron Egypt. All rights reserved. All trademarks are property of Chevron Intellectual Property LLC.
Delo ELC is first extended life coolant technology launched and approved as factory fill at Caterpillar under Cat EC-1 specification
Launched Delo 400 MGX SAE 15W-40–the first low emission oil (API CJ-4) formulated to protect diesel engines using up to 2000ppm diesel fuel sulfur levels.
Delo 400 XLE SAE 15W-40 is the first North American SAE 15W-40 diesel engine oil to achieve both API CK-4 and European ACEA E6 long oil drain performance; and also achieved the first Daimler MB228.51 approval at this viscosity grade in North America.
Chevron Delo 400 (API CK-4 and API FA-4 products) are the first product line to be fully formulated using new low phos advanced additive chemistry in the industry.
“No man is an island” this statement dependably urges me to believe in myself and try to develop it. Believing in it, I consider each step in my life as a challenge and to win it I need to do the majority of my best. This statement likewise seems to me the portrayal of the objective of the student activities especially AAPG SU SC. As its target not just to diminish the gap between the college and the business environment after graduation but also to break your comfort zone, reach your island and create several connections to it. All things considered, that is what has happened. It has begun with a number of stages which I have taken as a number of challenges and the failure was unacceptable for me. The first stage was to break my comfort zone and begin to deal with others so my start in AAPG as an HR member was extremely effective, in light of the fact, that it has given me the certainty to manage tasks under pressure, evaluate the others’ work and help them to develop their soft skills which has put a gigantic obligations on me to develop myself first efficiently. The second stage which I call “What is next?” was to be one of a kind. It is good to apply all of the rules and maintain the work proficiently but what will be the problem to think out of the box, thoroughly consider the case, and roll out improvements? At this point, I have decided to be unique to draw my following stride. I believe that if I want to develop myself, I have to maximize my responsibilities to learn more so I had worked as a communication skills trainer and especially communication skills to show others my capacities to change myself. The last stage was to boost me and leave my finger print, this stage has begun with applying as the editor in chief of “PetroPulse”. As I have mentioned before, I always want to be unique so I have thought “why AAPG had only PetroPulse? what about the other non-petroleum students in the university?”. From this moment, “ASPIRE” has totally overwhelmed my considerations and I have taken it as a new challenge. These number of challenges have been creating my character and my skills, and the majority of that was being in such a fruitful and beneficial chapter such as AAPG SUSC. Now let’s focus on the AAPG magazines. “ASPIRE” is a non-technical magazine which is created to serve all the students in Suez University and anywhere. The first issue was launched in “Es3a 4” which is our mega annual non-technical event. “ASPIRE“ includes a wide range of topics such as Marketing, Learning English, Freelancing, Entrepreneurship, and Soft Skills. We have added two important sections in it, the first one was “Q&A” which was focusing on the principle questions identified with a particular subject and the vast majority of the people attempt to know their answers such as how to pass an interview?, how to create a good CV?, how to be a successful freelancer, etc. the second section which is called “Role Model”, was added to show the reader that he is not the only one who works hard, there is someone who works harder and faster so that it may motivate him to break their backs more to be a role model like them one day, also because our believe that if you do not see the progress and the success of the others, you will not know whether you are successful or not. “PetroPulse” in its 6th issue was my biggest challenge this season. It is easy to turn an unsuccessful something into a successful one but it was definitely hard to add success to an extremely successful project such as “PetroPulse”. Before starting the working on “PetroPulse”, we had decided to put it on a one and specific track which is the petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. The main target which I was seeking to achieve is to increase our international relations by increasing the participation of the international engineers and geologists in “PetroPulse”. As a magazine team, we are grateful to launch this edition of “PetroPulse” which includes more than one case study, research, geological article, and articles related to reservoir engineering. We were eager to add an article talking about a new technology and to hold the interviews with more than one manager in different international companies. It is an honor for me to work at AAPG SU SC, this work has certainly changed me and the style of my life. Finally, I would like to thank the most powerful team who has really worked his fingers to the bone to present this edition of “PetroPulse” and “ASPIRE”, also thanks to our contributors for their fruitful articles. I hope this edition meets your expectations. Enjoy it!
Marching through my journey in AAPG, I have found many of the achievements that were considered big challenges seasons ago are now classified as routine work. This huge progress can be explained with the evolution in youth mindsets which corresponds the developing needs in the job market. Let’s take it step by step. Nowadays, the criteria of selection in the job market have developed rapidly through the last decade. The requirements in any vacancy have increased compared to the same requirements years ago. This change in requirements are not related to the technical part of the applicant, but to his character, interpersonal and soft skills. Every job now demands more than one task to be done simultaneously, to handle the pressure of any possible load and to communicate with others team members effectively. All of these situations are perfectly simulated in the student activities, especially in our chapter AAPG Suez. All these efforts are made independent of any external development, we all depend on self-learning and sustainable development which are the core of the any student activity. Stating the previous, when there was insufficient knowledge. experience or few resources. They were only equipped with big motives, passion, and strong determination to develop themselves and others with the available resources. This is the first step in the evolution process. Annually, the development was more effective with more quality in the product and more targets yet to hit. The main reason for the continuous upgrade was the sustainable development, which always sets a starting point to complete the progress of that season ago. The huge amount of work carried out by previous leaders has encouraged many to join in the programme of student activities. This can be the second step towards the evolution. While the third one is the new targets put to be achieved every season, which requires an upgrade in work quality, as well as the urge to lead the student activities field. The fourth one is the personal desire to achieve personal success as well as escaping from the poor education system to another beneficial entertaining one. The last one is their seek for having better qualifications to fit the developing requirements in the job market. This led to huge number of students enrolling in these activities are able to take part in a wide range of tasks, not necessarily connected with their field of study. Currently, it has become very common to see students in our University working in the programming field, others using multiple media softwares, students attending meetings with leading people in the field or society. Some students make money during their college time, others pursue career changes based on their experience from the chapte, where they succeed massively. All of which can be looked at now without surprise, even though it may have been a fairy tale initially. This evolution can be witnessed in AAPG crystal clear, as the chapter serves not just the university students but the high school students as well through minute schools project. It served the fresh graduates as well through conducting the first job fair of its kind in Suez, not to forget the community service part through the charity visits. It has an android app and a website as professional as many businesses might have. The designs and videos made are used by multinational companies. Two conferences were held for five hundred attendee. The chapter internal development creates members well aware with soft skills. Those achievements are made beside two magazines published this season were one of them “Aspire” were the first issue ever. While “PetroPulse” is the perfect example for evolution, due to its change from a dream six years ago to annual project with its sixth issue between your hands. These accomplishments make me proud to be part of this chapter, especially this season as a president, which I believe makes me responsible for urging the others to step up to the challenge, where your technical knowledge only is not enough. Each one has to be part of the evolution and who knows, may be these accomplishments may change to routine work during a future evolution. 3
Interview Interview with Eng. Gehad Nasr Country Chairman and Manager Special Projects at Chevron
By Amr Ahmed, Menna Lotfy and Touka Ezz
Tell us a little bit about yourself, your studies, Every successful manager has a lot of chalresponsibilities, and your role at Chevron. lenges in his life so what are the challenges you My name is Gehad Nasr and I am the country chairman have faced? And how have you overcome them? and manager of special projects at Chevron Egypt. I am a civil engineer and I graduated from Cairo University in 1985. I joined Chevron in 1993 as a construction engineer in the retail department. When Chevron decided to build a blending plant in 6 October City I was asked if I was willing to consider a change in my career plans and look after the construction of the new plant and I agreed to take up this new challenge. I began this new phase in my career working in the lubricants plant as a supervisor, and followed up that role with posts as operations manager of lubricants in Egypt and supply chain manager for Egypt and North Africa. It was in 2006 when I took overall responsibility for Egypt and the Middle East. A special opportunity arose in 2009 when I was appointed to a role in South Africa to be the supply chain manager there, a role I occupied until October 2017. And now in 2018, I am back in Egypt in the role of country chairman and responsible for some projects in Europe.
How does your position affect your life? I enjoy my job enormously but it is often true that we spend a considerable amount of time away from our families in our places of work. It is always important to achieve a good work/life balance. I thoroughly recommend looking at your personal work/life balance and ensuring you preserve the right time for your family commitments. 4
As an Operations Manager of facilities in Egypt I learned of the importance of ensuring that safety is always the highest priority and that everyone remembers that. The challenge is in communicating this message each and every day in ways which colleagues remember and take to heart. There is always time to do every task safely and correctly. There are challenges in working in different cultures too, and meeting those challenges by learning and appreciating diversity can be very rewarding. My family joined me in relishing these new challenges as we lived and worked in South Africa on our assignment. How does Chevron see its role in Egyptâ€™s oil industry? Chevron recognizes the potential which exists in doing business in Egypt and our aim is to develop a successful business model in this growing economy. Demands for the products of our industry are growing world-wide and we know that they enable human progress.
Interview From your perspective, what are the challeng- will have the opportunity to put their education to work in a stimulating and collaborative environment where they es Egypt faces in the petroleum industry? At the same time as Egypt’s economy is growing it is inevitable that there are many other demands on infrastructure and key organizations. It is encouraging to see investment in major capital projects taking place and companies taking a keen interest in their future in Egypt.
will gain invaluable experience to help launch their careers.
Chevron has a vast number of technical disciplines throughout its organization. Are there other ways to begin a career at Chevron, if you do not have a technical background?
What are the upcoming projects of Chevron in In short, yes. Chevron employs individuals with a vast amount of knowledge and from backgrounds which are not Egypt? Chevron’s current focus in Egypt is to grow our lubricants business. We have just launched our “Keep Going” campaign promoting our range of Caltex Havoline motor oils. We know that consumers are increasingly searching out products which help them to look after their vehicles. Chevron Egypt is excited that through this campaign consumers can learn more about the care that the Caltex Havoline product range can offer.
Chevron is a multi-international company so from your experience tell us what is the difference between Egypt and the other countries? This is an exciting time for Egypt and Chevron. As countries develop they unlock the talents of their people and their capabilities should never be underestimated.
always technical. We have a number of roles, that tap into other skills, e.g. Finance, HR, Marketing, Analytics, Procurement to name a few.
What is your advice for the petroleum engineering students? My advice to any student is to take part in as many practical activities connected with your study as possible. Practical application will help you develop what you learn in your lectures and your studies. Do not wait for your graduation to think about what you should do, start from now and plan your future. If you have a placement with a company, don’t be shy to ask to sit with the engineers and listen and learn from them too. Use all the modern technological tools you have.
If there is a job vacancy in Chevron, what are the required main qualifications? Chevron has a global recruitment process, that is then tailored to the specific market. Each position that is posted will have its own selection criteria and so dependent on the position being advertised, the selection criteria and qualification required for that position will differ.
Tell us about the training programs for the fresh graduates and students. Globally Chevron, have several development programs where students can apply the skills they’ve learned whilst getting their degree in a work environment. Individuals
PetroPulse Editor In Chief while interviewing Mr. Gehad Nasr at Chevron Headquarters
I have also enjoyed being interviewed and encourage you to continue your excellent program of student activities. You have compiled an excellent issue of “PetroPulse” and it may be a surprise to readers to learn that this was a student production! Thank you for involving Chevron in this issue and we wish you every success in your studies.
Interview Interview with Eng. Osama Halim Egypt & Libya Area Manager Halliburton
By Menna Lotfy, Ahmed Abd El-Kader and Amr Ahmed
Letâ€™s begin by introducing yourself, your expe- You have spent nearly 22 years working in difrience and your career. ferent counties. From your perspective, what My name is Osama Halim. I am a graduate of Mansoura are the challenges which Egypt faces in the peUniversity in Egypt. After graduation, I wanted to work in troleum industry? oil and gas industry where I joined Halliburton. I have started in Egypt for 3 years and then moved abroad where I have worked as an MWD engineer. I started my journey with Halliburton over a span of 25 years. During this time, I had many assignments throughout the years and ended up managing the drilling services in Saudi Arabia until I became the regional manager of drilling services. I am currently holding the position of Egypt and Libya Area Manager in Halliburton Egypt.
Tell us about the challenges you faced throughout this journey and how you have overcome these challenges. My dream was to gain a global experience, to do so I wanted to be part of an international company which gave me such an opportunity and joining Halliburton was my first step towards my dream. The challenge was in how to prove myself and my capabilities in such large multinational organization where I have been working over and beyond my duties, and as a result this changed my conceptions and thinking process. My first real challenge was when I worked in Russia where I had to understand the culture and adapt quickly. Each position and destination afterwards was a new challenge with new responsibilities. 6
Egypt has a great potential to be one of the strongest countries in terms of economy and more specifically in the petroleum industry due to its rich resources. There are many new oil & gas discoveries such as Zohr field which will help boost the country forward. The east and west areas of Zohr field also have outstanding potential for further exploration. Egypt is also starting to develop mature fields in the eastern and western deserts which remind me of the Permian basin in the United States. Additionally, the country is on the right track to developing the unconventional reservoirs with two upcoming horizontal wells for which Halliburton provides hydraulic fracturing services. The major obstacle that the country has is the rapid rise of population. This can be considered as a disadvantage or else it can be converted into our economic benefit through education. We simply need to use and manage our resources efficiently.
In your opinion, can we consider Zohr field as the most important discovery in Egypt to date? Zohr field is absolutely a very important discovery as it contributes nearly one billion cubic feet of gas; however, we need to think what is next through developing and using this discovery to our advantage.
Interview As an Area Manager of both Egypt and Libya, in your opinion, what is the difference if any between the two countries when it comes to developing the petroleum industry? There are no major differences between the two countries. However, The only main difference was after the revolutions that occurred in both countries which led to suspending the operations in Libya for over 4 years while Egypt continued its operations. Libya has a very high potential, high oil quality, and large proven reservoirs. Libya is now on the track to reach a million barrel a day of oil and to produce 3 million barrels by the end of this year. Speaking of Egypt as I have mentioned before, it has very good potential reservoirs and unexplored areas that still need to be discovered.
What are the Halliburton’s activities in Egypt? Halliburton has 10 product service lines currently operating in Egypt such as cementing, directional drilling and wireline and it continuously develops its technologies to maintain leadership in hydraulic fracturing, cementing and pumping services. Halliburton also cooperates with Egyptian and international companies to plan for the upcoming projects.
How does Halliburton conduct training for students and fresh graduates? We have a full system of training either online or offline instructor-led sessions. Graduates start with the online training and then they attend the instructor-led training in one of our 3 training centers around the world. Next, the trainee is given training in the field. The process is in stages or as we call it “gates” which they must pass through. Halliburton has also two development programs; holding the position of a Country Manager to prepare our employees for management positions and the other one is holding the position of Technical Manager which is created to progress the career of those technically oriented. Furthermore, we organize summer internships applied for it almost 100 students from different universities in the last summer. Halliburton would very much like to increase that number without compromising their safety at work.
Do you think technical knowledge is sufficient to get a job at Halliburton? We do not expect the candidates to know everything because part of our process is to educate them and ensure they are competent in their jobs. The candidates should rather work on what will make them unique such as soft skills.
How did you find the Egypt Petroleum Show “EGYPS” this year? Reveal to us more about your personal and Halliburton participation in What is your advice you would like to share with it? the students? It was an honor for me to be a committee member this year. In my opinion, the show was a great success since the technical sessions were well-organized and the number of attendees was huge in comparison with the previous expo with more companies participating as well. I enjoyed very much the discussions and open dialogue with the other companies and I also had the privilege to participate in a session about the young professionals and women in the oil industry where I reviewed over 60 CVs of women working in the oil and gas industry. Halliburton has participated in the exhibition with technical sessions which taken place in our booth showing Halliburton’s newest technologies.
My advice is to understand that life is not easy and has many challenges which can be defeated by developing yourself, building your capacities, and working hard. To get the dream job, you have to do all your best and look for it. Never give up.
At the end of the interview, tell us your impression about AAPG SUSC and PetroPulse. You are very organised and the interview questions are well-structured. PetroPulse is also very structured and good, I like it. Keep doing this great work.
What is your opinion on the role of student activities? I am a firm believer in the role and efforts of students to develop themselves and others. Activities add value to your personality and simulate the work environment while you are still a student.
‘‘ Journey to The Surface of The Earth Introduction Silica tetrahedron is the initial crystal form of any silicate mineral. Silicates represent almost 70% of the Earth’s crust mineralogical content. Thinking about this reality, I might want to bring you into an adventure of a silica tetrahedron from the base of the Earth up to its surface. Through which we will attempt to envision in what structures and procedures it was included until the point when it achieved our hands. 1st) Crystallization
Ascending close to the earth’s crust in the asthenosphere, the Silica tetrahedron crystallized in the Quartz hexagonal crystal forms and it became surrounded by thousands of neighboring Silica and Oxygen crystalline forms. After a series of convection currents in the shallow mantle making the silicate crystals were moving in elliptical orbits, the magmatic mass found a frail section in a diminished piece of the continental crust through which it invaded the crust in a passage like structure called intrusive dyke.
3rd) Metamorphism Deep in the Earth’s mantle, a silicon tetra ion survived the early and mid-magmatic differentiation stages and it was all the while feeling stable in the molten magma mass. All of a sudden at certain weight and temperature the silica tetra particle got itself ionized and differentiated from the surrounding mass. Around then, it was critically looking for stability, it needed to complete its 4e¯ charges, fortunately, 2 Oxygen ions were wandering around it, which encouraged it to form a silicon dioxide mineral or what supposed Quartz.
2nd) Igneous intrusion
The quartz crystal was endeavoring to adjust its temperature and weight with the surrounding new conditions. Moving toward the edge of the granitic dyke, the silica together with the feldspars and mica crystals had reached a cold surrounding rock made of a different type of non-crystalline CaCO3. This sudden contact between a to a great degree hot and frosty bodies prompts what is called as contact metamorphism. The edge of the granitic dyke including our silicate crystals together with the close edge of the surrounding limestone turns into another sort of rock called Gneiss and Marble metamorphic rocks. In the marble rock, the pre-stratified non-crystalline CaCO3 was crystallized into CaCO3 crystals, with an irregular orientation of crystals coating the contact between the dyke and the limestone rock masses. Despite the final result for the silica crystals at that point, the silica and its surrounding group of pre-crystallized silicon dioxide formed a layer of re-crystallized quartz called Quartzite.
4th) Tectonics After quite a while of stability, the Silica incorporated in quartzite close to the crust was experiencing a sudden change in the pressure regime. The variation in the applied 8
Tutorial pressure implies that there is a mechanical movement or what supposed structural movement. The large-scaled tectonics influenced the quartzite rock in a form of normal fault. The major normal fault brought the neighboring rocks down and made the rock mass hosting the silicate crystals exposed to a higher topography. From that time, the silica grain will begin its journey leaving the stable underworld climbing to the Earth’s surface. The significant normal fault which moved the quartzite rock mass up to the surface was followed by a sequence of synthetic faults. The later faults acted to mechanically broke down the rock mass into smaller blocks and boulders. These blocks were then transported by the action of heavy rains into the base piece of the mountain. The pile of quartzite, marble and granitic rocks are currently smaller than before which make them weaker and more prone to be chemically altered by the rainwater of low PH value i.e. acidic. The chemical alteration made the silicate minerals incorporated in the pre-mentioned group of rock to be fragmented into flakes of micas and clays.
5th) Erosion The very fine flakes of micas were the principal type of grains to be expelled from the rock mass and afterward carried out by wind action. The erosional process kept on evacuating all the weaker grains of the chemically unstable minerals leaving behind it the stable minerals like quartz. Chemically stable mineral will be also eroded and altered but after some time and by a stronger element of transport like heavy rain falls. The group of fragmented rocks turned out to be exposed to seasonal heavy rainfalls, leading to the removal of quartz, marble, and feldspars detrital grains.
be refined and sorted into a bar like a body of sandstone. The tidal currents coming from the ocean became stronger and closer to our depositional system. Therefore, the tides were removing and reforming any form of sediments in its route. To dominate its forces on the pre-formed depositional setting, the ebb and flood tides reworked the proximal fluvial sandbars to be more elongated and parallel to their direction. At that point, the tidal sandbars hosting the quartz grain became normal to the shoreline and obeyed the tidal current directions. The back and forth currents acted to reorder the detritus grains to form the well-known cross-bedded sandstone tidal dominated system.
8th) Preservation After the time of contradicting and competing for fluvial-tidal currents, the sediments were settled and deposited in the tidal dominated system in the form of a tidal channel, tidal sandbars, and flats with muddy flats in between. Fortunately, a period of very low currents was followed, leading to topping the previously active depositional elements by muddy and carbonate massively widely distributed layers, which means to preserve them. Going back underneath the Earth’s surface, the previously preserved depositional facies became cemented, through chemical diagenetic processes by which the voids became filled with hydrothermal fluids of silicates. The siliceous sandstone hosting the quartz grain was then solidified and then buried under a massive overburden load. Finally, it became a part of the geological record and this was the end of the silica tetrahedron journey.
6th) Transportation The flow of the rainwater over the mountain slope was very strong. The pluvial flow carried a heavy load of detritus, forming a bed load of angular and fresh immature grains of rocks. The water was flowing with high strength, however, some of the load was very heavy to be carried any further. At that time, the water current expected to incise deep into the flat ground, in order to confine the carried load into a channel forming a river. The bed load carried by the river water began to be decreased by moving down the slope the river topography.
7th) Deposition The coarser, angular and immature detrital grains had been deposited up-stream, followed by the medium and finer grains. Ending up with our quartz grain which became rounded, altered and mature kind of sediment which was then settled in the downstream section of the fluvial channel. The river flow was still strong for quite some time, making the quartz grain together with its surrounding to
A schematic diagram summarizing most of the processes and stages experienced by the Silica tetrahedron.
Conclusion • The Silica tetrahedron is a very strong and sable combination that easily links up together in minerals, sharing Oxygens at their corners. • Silicate tetrahedra are able to bond with many common elements in many different crystal lattice arrangements. In addition, silicate tetrahedra are able to bond with other silicate tetrahedra in a variety of geometric arrangements, including rings, sheets, chains, and three-dimensional networks. • Quartz and the feldspars are the most prominent silicate minerals of this type. 9
‘‘ A Workflow to Derive a Range of Shale Volume Estimates
Introduction The first fundamental flaw in the EPS is the estimate of Shale Volume (VSH), from which Effective Porosity (PHIE) and Effective Water Saturation (SWE) are subsequently derived. If VSH is inaccurate; the PHIE and SWE are also inaccurate. The Total Porosity System (TPS) is technically more robust than the EPS and would be preferred so long as the necessary data has been acquired. This article summarizes a workflow that derives technically defensible Low-Mid-High estimates of VSH, which can then feed into Low-Mid-High estimates of PHIE, SWE, and permeability.
Shale Volume Estimation The estimation of a VSH log is fraught with issues plus, whichever VSH model is adopted, there’s significant uncertainty which is “inherited” into the estimate of PHIE and into SWE because VSH and PHIE are the inputs to SWE. In order to mitigate the issues with estimating a VSH log; below is a relatively simple workflow designed to derive Low-Mid-High estimates of VSH using the Gamma-Ray (GR) as the input log. This approach is not restricted to solely VSH from the GR; the approach can be adapted to other input logs used to estimate VSH, as well as the input parameters to porosity, permeability and saturation estimates. The key aspect is identifying realistic Low-Mid-High input values for the Shale Volume model(s), plus Porosity & Saturation model(s).
VSH-GR Workflow. 1- Ensure all borehole environmental corrections have been undertaken and bad log & core data either removed or replaced. 2- The available GR data controls the best technical approach. The best quality wireline GR data is acquired at the slowest logging speed, which tends to be with the (padbased) bulk density tool. So, identify the best GR data over the Zone Of Interest (ZOI). If Spectral GR is available, investigate the CGR and SGR over the ZOI.
3- Ideally evaluate the ZOI on a well by good basis, but if this is not feasible, for example, due to a large number of wells; generate normalized input log(s). Typically the GR database will be a mixture of standard wireline (acquired at different logging speeds), spectral GR (often over limited intervals) plus LWD data. These data can be quite disparate and not really suitable for normalization or multi-well evaluation; hence keeping evaluation to a well by good basis is recommended. 4- In conjunction with other logs, core analyses, sidewall core information, cuttings, formation pressure plus DST data; interrogate the GR response over the ZOI to understand what the radio-activity represents. As part of this, perform the other quick-look VSH estimated using logs more than the GR. 5- Once you have selected the ZOI(s) generate a histogram and cumulative frequency plot of the best GR log, over the ZOI, such as the one shown below:
Educational 6- Decide on what cumulative frequency percentiles to use to describe the “Clean,” low GR intervals and the “Shaly”, high GR intervals. Illustrative values, taken from the distribution above, are shown in the table below: Cumulative %
7- The selection of the ZOI, plus the cumulative percentage values, has a direct impact on the resulting estimates of VSH; so some iteration is recommended before selecting the final parameters.8-For each ZOI derive raw VSH GR-Hi, VSH GR-Mid, and VSH GR-Lo, using the equations below:
9- Create final constrained VSH GR Hi, Mid and Lo logs, from the raw logs. 10- Plot the constrained VSH GR logs in a layout together with the input log(s) and check for suitability. It may be necessary to iterate on the ZOI and/or the “Clean” plus “Shaly” end-points. The three VSH GR logs, shown below, were derived from the GR data in the histogram shown above. The Net-To-Gross (NTG) flags and NTG percentages, based on application of VSH GR<50%, are also shown. The Gross and “Net” interval thicknesses, for each VSH GR scenario, after application of the VSH GR<50% cut-off are also summarized:
It is recommended that all petrophysics moves away from the single estimate scenario to an industry-wide default of deriving: Low, Mid (or Most-Likely, if this can be achieved) and High estimates of lithology, porosity, permeability and water saturation. The workflow, described above, provides a good starting point for VSH. The approach can be adapted and expanded to estimate three scenarios of PHIE and SWE, linking with the three estimates of VSH. The approach can be adapted to estimate three cases of VSH from other input logs such as the SP, RHOB, NPHI, etc. You combine, deterministically, all the pessimistic estimates of VSH, PHIE, and SWE to provide what may be close to a P99 scenario; where there is a 99% chance the actual values are larger. This pessimistic scenario is very useful in terms of estimating a “downside” case, which geo-modelers, reservoir engineers, and Subsurface Managers really ought to be considering before investing millions of Dollars in appraisal or development. It is recognized that combining all pessimistic values is unlikely to occur in reality; however, this is deliberate in order to extend the range beyond the incomplete data actually used to establish the Low, Mid and High scenarios. The same argument applies to the combination of all optimistic VSH, PHIE and SWE parameters to provide what may be close to a P01 scenario, where there is a 99% chance the actual values are smaller. This can be considered an “upside” case, which should also be modeled for in-place and recoverable volumes.
Conclusion • The range in “Net” thickness from 81.24 m to 88.92 m will tend to outweigh the uncertainty range attributed to porosity plus, where valid calibrating data for saturations exist and vertical fluid distribution(s) are well-constrained; NTG uncertainty will outweigh the saturation uncertainty range. • If the fluid contacts and/or fluid types are poorly constrained, then saturation and/or the definition of Net Pay, can have significant uncertainty ranges; potentially a similar order of magnitude as NTG. This is why it’s essential to incorporate fluid contact uncertainty into all petrophysical evaluations. • The example illustrated above highlights how sensitive the inputs to the VSH GR estimate are, in terms of the resulting NTG. Looking at the input GR log, you could make an argument that the ZOI could be changed; introducing three zones, for example 3080-3095m, 3095-3155m, and 31553190m.
‘‘ Successful Water Injection
Application Oil Recovery at Boscan Field, Western
Introduction Water injection in a heavy oil reservoir can be challenging but has proven to be very successful in the mighty Boscan field. Originally unthinkable, but 60 years of oil production has proven how managed water injection achieves reservoir pressure support resulting in significant secondary oil production.
What is heavy oil? Heavy oil formed as a result of hydrocarbon deposits being degraded by algae which resulted in the loss of its lighter hydrocarbon fractions with heavier remaining. When originally generated by petroleum source rock, crude oil is not heavy. Geochemists generally agree most oils starts out with API gravity between 30o – 40o. Oil becomes heavy only after substantial degradation during migration and after entrapment. Heavy oil is any liquid petroleum with API gravity less than 22° that it is also characterized as being dense, viscous with an asphalt content (very large molecules incorporating roughly 90 percent sulfur and metals). The lower the API, the heavier the oil and higher specific gravity. Extra heavy oil may have an API lower than 10. Heavy oils are normally mobile fluids under naturally existing pressure gradients and reservoir temperatures.
Where is Heavy oil in the world? Heavy oil will often be overlooked as a resource due to the operational/reservoir challenges and associated costs involved in its production. However, the resources of heavy oil in the world are more than twice those of conventional light crude oil. Heavy oil fields cold production generally has a longer life with lower decline rates before economic limits are reached.
The primary Oficina formation is a fluvial and marine-margin deposit in Faja del Orinoco in Venezuela. The deposit is a uniform sequence of strata with general east-west continuity. Individual sand bodies range in thickness from 40 to 45 m, although the majority of “discrete” oil-bearing beds are 8 to 12 meters thick with permeability in the 3 to 15 md range. These zones have good interconnectivity with high oil-saturations as high as 80%. The other primary accumulation of heavy oil is in the Canadian Heavy Oil belt (Fig. 1) where oil is being produced using the Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS) strategy. This depositional environment ranges from channel sands deposited within incised valleys carved by several tens of meters into underlying sediments, to estuarine accretion plains formed by lateral river channel migration on a flat plain, to deltaic, shallow marine, and offshore bar sands. Reservoir thicknesses range from 3 to 5 meter blanket sands to 35 meter channel grains of sand having many curves and turns no wider than a kilometer. All reservoirs are unconsolidated sandstones with porosity ranging from 28% to 32% and permeability in the 0.5 to 15 Darcy range depending on grain size.
Heavy oil reservoirs are located all over the world. However, the larger heavy oil deposits are in Venezuela and Canada. The Orinoco deposits in Venezuela to have recoverable production of 513 billion barrels (8.16×1010 m3) of oil making this area one of the world’s largest recoverable heavy oil deposits in the world. 12
Fig. 1 Canadian heavy-oil and extra-heavy-oil deposits.
Review The Giant Boscan Field The Boscan Field (Fig.2) is located 40 km southwest of Maracaibo, Venezuela. It covers an area of approximately 640 square km. It produces 10.5 degrees API asphaltic crude from the Eocene Misoa Formation. The field has a 2 degree south to southwest dip with depths ranging from 4,000 to 10,000 feet.
WIPM pilots were designed utilizing inverted 7-spot pattern configurations in combination with a pseudo 1-3-1 line dive alignment (Fig. 3). These WIPM pilots showed positive pressure behavior resulting in significant secondary oil production (Fig.4). And a water injection secondary oil response within the Pilot B area. Oil Production Behaviour
Fig. 2 Boscan Field location in North West of Venezuela
Reservoir temperatures vary from 150o to 190o F and live oil viscosity ranges from 150 to 350 centipoises at reservoir conditions. Porosity ranges from 19 to 25 %, average permeability is 500md with a mobility ratio in the range of 2 to 5 which is surprisingly low considering the magnitude of the oil viscosity. The water-wet appearance of the oil/ water relative permeability curve tends to negate the unfavorable oil viscosity. The Boscan Field is a huge reservoir with billion barrels of original oil in place (OOIP), with current production limited to approximately 60,000 BOPD due to recent and challenging operational issues. Normal production rates have recently exceeded 100,000 BOPD. The cumulative recovery to date has been estimated to only be 5% of OOIP after more than 70 years of production. Water flooding in such a heavy oil field was originally considered ineffective by many within the oil industry. However, water injection for pressure maintenance (WIPM) was successfully implemented within the Boscan field using a unique pattern configuration coupled with improved lifting capacity utilizing the advantage of increased reservoir pressure.
Fig.4 Oil production rate of Pilot B before and after water injection beginning in 2003. Incremental production is represented in dark green.
After 2 years of water injection, the pressure was reestablished and well optimization programs were executed to pump off production wells. Incremental secondary oil production was achieved and the reservoir decline rate was reduced by 2%. Currently, WIPM projects support more than 50% of total Boscan field production. Project extensions have been developed within other pressure depleted areas of the field in order to maintain reservoir pressures above bubble point. A new water injection project of eleven patterns and the drilling of more than 50 producer wells are planned with the central area of the field. This project will be executed during the next several years to manage increasing water production and recover significant secondary oil reserves.
Conclusion • Changing from a water disposal program to water injection pressure-maintenance project has successfully increased secondary recovery. • Continuous surveillance of these WIPM projects has found many optimization opportunities. • WIPM in the Boscan field has generated additional barrels of secondary oil production representing a 5% increase in recovery factor. Fig.3 Boscan Field Pressure Map and first Pilot B with inverted 7-spot patterns arranged in a 1-3-1 line drive (i. e. inverted 7-spot patterns with a line of injectors 3 wells spacing’s apart). 13
â€˜â€˜ The Value of Wireline Formation Testing for Reservoir Evaluation Introduction Wireline formation testing is a well-known technology and has been widely used in the oil & gas industry for years to make properly a reservoir evaluation.Geoscientist and engineers use this key information for effective reservoir management and field development planning to maximize hydrocarbon recovery. This article describes the applications of wireline formation testers (WFTs) for pressure transient testing, fluid identification and collect fluid samples.
Wireline Formation Testing Wireline formation tests are performed mostly in open hole using cable-operated formation tester tool anchored at depth while a reservoir communication is established through one or more probes or/and straddle packers. Most of the WFTs are built as a string of modules selected according to the design of the test with each module performing a specific function such as: electric, hydraulic, pump out, fluid analyzer, sampler, multi-sampler, single probe, dual probe and straddle packer. Every module is connected to the others internally with a flow line where formation fluids can be pumped. WFTs are used in conventional reservoirs with high and low permeability (as low as 0.1 mD in some cases) with different type of hydrocarbons from gas to heavy oil. They allow measure static formation pressures at many locations in a well to build a pressure profile versus depth and gradients, downhole fluid analysis, take representative PVT fluid samples, perform micro-frac and estimate reservoir parameter such as: vertical and horizontal permeability, and formation damage. Figure 1: Typical Wireline Formation Tester configuration for Pressure Testing and Fluid Sampling
Understanding the Reservoir Dynamics Formation Pressure Profiling Formation pressures are obtained by withdrawing a small amount of fluid to generate a short transient test, called a pretest. The formation pressure is probably the single most important measurement in petroleum engineering due to it is used to estimate reserves, dynamic reservoir parameters estimation (permeability), reservoir characterization and simulation, production monitoring, well completion and fluid characterization (phase behavior, fluid properties and PVT analysis). Pressure versus depth profiles, mainly in virgin reservoirs, are used to determine the in-situ fluid density, fluid contacts and free water level. It is possible because the reservoir pressures are not affected by production and the equilibrium conditions that were established in the course of geologic time prevail. In development reservoirs, due to the influence of production, differential pressure depletion is frequently occurred and pressure gradient to estimate in-situ fluid density is not possible. However, pressure-depth profiles help to understand reservoirs dynamics behavior such as: fluid movement within the reservoir, vertical and horizontals Figure 2: The Pressures Profiles in a well drilled in a field development highlights low-permeability barriers and vertical flow in the reservoir
evaluation barriers, monitor flood performance and reservoir compartmentalization. (Fig. 2) shows a vertical pressure profile in a well drilled in a development reservoir. This well was completed from an interval perforated in zone 1. On the pressure profiles taken some time after initial completion, it is clear that in zone 1, pressure have been depleted by fluid withdrawal. The pressures in zones 2, 3, 4 and 5, with were left unperforated, nevertheless have been affected by vertical flow through the reservoir. Downhole Fluid Identification and Sampling Collecting representative fluid samples is a need during the life cycle of a reservoir, especially in an early stage. Sampling can be performed by several ways in the field: at the surface or downhole during a well test, with a wireline formation tester in open holes (in few cases in cased hole as well), or by using a production fluid sampler in production wells.
a larger scale and to attest the lateral extent of the reservoir if a boundary is reached during the flow test. It is time-consuming and incurs significant cost to E&P operators. With the introduction of the IPTTs, equivalent well testing deliverables can now be acquired at a considerably lower cost, within hours, and have the unique advantage of targeting multiple sands zones to understand the reservoir homogeneity and quantify the effect of thin layers that play an important role in reservoir drainage, water flood performance and leading to unwanted gas and water entries. (Fig.3) shows the pressure difference and derivative of pressure with respect to the function of time for a buildup. Spherical and radial flows were seen, and vertical and horizontal permeability was estimated. (Fig.4) shows the pressure and pump rate versus time during an IPTT and also showing the sequences to collect fluid samples at the same test.
The main advantage of wireline sampling is to collect multiple fluid samples at different depth from the same reservoir. All the samples can be stored in pressurized bottles and then sent to laboratory for further detailed analysis. WFTs use a pump out module to flow reservoir fluid into and through the tool to the wellbore, and this enable reduction of filtrate contamination to obtain nearby clean native reservoir fluid. The process to monitor the fluid during the cleanup period is done using a module called â€œFluid Analyzerâ€?. The fluid analyzer module uses mainly optical absorptions as basic method to identify the type of fluid. The fluid analyzer could provide the following measurements: fluid identification (gas, oil, and water), hydrocarbon fluid composition, gas/oil ratio, CO2 content, fluid color, pH. live fluid density and viscosity, fluorescence, reflectance and resistivity.
Permeability Characterization WFTs can evaluate vertical and horizontal permeability through multiple pressure transient tests measuring at a length scale between cores and well tests. Drawdown mobility can be estimated during a pre-test, being a good qualitative indicator of productivity near-wellbore region, however, it is influenced by the formation damage, invasion, and other near-wellbore features. To overcome that, WFTs allow performing an Interval Pressure Transient Test (IPTT) or also called Mini-DST, mainly using the straddle packer module to know the permeability value on a medium scale. It is possible to perform at the same time a vertical interference test (VIT) adding monitoring probes above and/or below of the straddle packer. IPTTs are relatively modern techniques to the oil and gas industry, in comparison to the conventional well tests. The conventional DSTs have been widely used in the industry to successfully obtain average reservoir characteristics on
Conclusion Many E&P operators worldwide invest millions of dollars to acquire data from wireline formation testers because this information is essential for reservoir evaluation to take critical decisions for their field development plans and optimize production. For this reason, the biggest challenge for engineers and geoscientists is to know how to get the most out of these data using new workflows and software, and besides that, know the new technologies and tools that service companies bring to market every day for obtaining information in wells and reservoirs that were previously almost impossible. 15
The field training opportunities were introduced to ten students of petroleum engineering at Suez University to decrease the gap between the technical study and the work life.
A mega technical conference held in coope three technical sessions in petroleum and ge with valuable rewar
A distinctive event talking about new technologies in petroleum field. This year was about the well completion new technologies introduced by Kuwait Energy Petroleum Company serving more then 45 students.
An integrated event aimed to add technical valu than 70 students in four different field at leadin Geology students in Enap Sipetrol, Metallurgy
A four-day intensive coarse in Khalda company for 30 students covering the most important topics in petroleum field which were; drilling, reservoir, automatic control and well simulation.
An internship in PhPC oetroleum company which consisted of two days of technical sessions in the company headquarters followed by a field visit in Port Said to enhance the technical Knowledge.
A two-day course in Soliman Training Center about well simulation with an effective workshop in which they learned how to deal with simulation softwares.
eration with Kuwait Energy Company with eology filed followed by article competition rds to the winners.
Great opportunities for the students of Suez University to enhance their technical knowlege through our winter schools in three different companies: Bapetco, Datalog, and Corex.
ue to all students in Suez University serving more ng companies; Petroleum students in SAKNAFTA, students in SES, and Refining students in Mobil.
A petrophysics school Introduced by EREX to eight students in suez university to enhance the technical knowledge of the students
A filed visit to the factory of lubricants at Chevron which is the largest company in the downstream industry in Egypt. Twenty students of refining department enriched their technical Knowledge through this visit.
â€˜â€˜ Porosity vs Permeability Relation from Core and CPI Analysis
Porosity vs. Permeability Relationship
The RCA data used the method of cross plotting permeability vs. porosity with the addition of drawing series of parallel curves defining flow units. These particular flow units are called Global Hydraulic Elements and are standardized Flow Zones. The GHE lines allow comparing data from different fields in the western desert.
In all the wells of those fields, there is not any single log acquisition of permeability, NMR has never been acquired. The most comprehensive permeability data set comes from RCA. Plug samples cover all the Bahariya units, most of the lithologies, and a wide range of porosity and permeability. Starting from the corrected core data for the overburden, the usage of the log curves from CPI is to obtain the log permeability utilizing some of the most common methodology used in the reservoir characterization: Timur and Flow Zone Indicator (FZI). Timur permeability equation takes into account both of the porosity and water saturation in the form below:
By looking at the scatter plot of porosity and permeability from cores (RCA), it is evident at which the range of permeability for a defined range of porosity is wide (Fig.1). Typically, cores with the porosity which is ranging from 20 to 25% show permeability ranges of 0.1-1000 mD. If the samples of the phi-k plot are identified with the units they belong to (color scale), the distribution of points shows some trends related to the units. Figure 1 One trend is for porosity greater than 20% and permeability higher than 100 md, inside the GHE 5 and 6. This trend is populated by core plugs belonging to units B-III to B-V. Only a few points from B-I and B-II fall in this trend. Points from B-I define another trend, less marked and at lower permeability, below 100 mD, inside GHE 2,3 and 4. In this lower trend rarely fall plugs from B-IV and B-V while B-III are more represented.
Core Log Comparison The correction of the core analysis results was for the net overburden pressure. SCAL experiments have estimated this correction. Porosity and permeability were measured in several plugs at various confining pressures and reduction of poro-perm vs. pressure curves increase were defined. Corrections were defined as written below:
Logs then evaluated Timur permeability using CPI porosity and Sw. Coefficients a, b, and c were tuned until the core permeability was matched adequately. Coefficient differs between upper and lower Bahariya. The Timur equation requests the irreducible water saturation (Swi) while the Sw from CPI is not irreducible. The difference among them is that Swi is a characteristic of the rock dependent on pore size mainly, which indicates the least pore volume occupied by water, while Sw from CPI depends on the pore size and also on the position (vertical distance) in relation to the Free Water Level. Therefore, Timur permeability, utilizing Sw from CPI, is reliable only above the transition zone, where the Sw can be reasonably irreducible. Timur permeability may be invalid above the transition zone as in the case of flooded reservoir layers by injected water; these layers have Sw higher than Swi due to the displacement of oil by water flooding. FZI is a function of parameters hardly measurable in real rock like of surface area per unit grain volume, shape factor and pore tortuosity but can be also calculated when porosity and permeability are known, by applying the following equations: where:
The RQI (Reservoir Quality Index) is simply the empirical relationship which links porosity and permeability of a 20
research medium. Effective porosity (Φe) curve is available from CPI, a reliable permeability (K) is available from Timur equation above the transition zone. FZI was calculated in Bahariya III, IV, and V wherever Ktimur is valid and subsequently a logging indicator which shows a relationship with FZI was looked for. Once the FZI was calculated for the bottom Bahariya with the above equation, permeability was then evaluated with the following equation:
Quick Look Model CPI results have calibrated the quick look model, focusing on having the best match between CPI and quick look on the oil sandstones. The results of the quick look are clay volume, porosity (effective and total) and water saturation. » Total porosity was evaluated from density:
» Clay volume was computed by density neutron: PHIN is the neutron porosity log. It is the same equation used as clay volume input for the ELAN CPI with a different multiplier, here 1.8 and for ELAN 2, because for ELAN PHID was computed utilizing a ρmatrix of 2.71 g/cc and therefore the multiplier was lowered to compensate.
the CPI. Rcl and Rw vary with temperature and the variation is reproduced in ELAN. For the quick look, the Rcl and Rw are constant and equal to the mean values in the reservoir. Borehole enlargement affects the measurement of the density and neutron, therefore, the model was undefined on the enlarged section above 9 inches. The model is undefined also for neutron above 0.36 because sometimes enlargements below 9 inches affect the nuclear tools and because the effect of the enlargement may extend beyond the washed out intervals. The QL model was tuned with the Data Functioning module of Well Composite Plus in Geoframe in some key wells and applied to all the other wells directly in Petrel with the Calculator.
Comparison CPI vs. Quick Look The quick look model is tuned on the oil sandstones. The difference with CPI interpretation may arise in the water leg, in carbonate, in highly cemented sandstones, and in quartz sandstones where grain density is lower than 2.68 g/cc (a rare occurrence). In water layers QL porosity is lower than the CPI; in oil-bearing quartz sandstones the QL porosity is higher than CPI. The differences are in the order of 1-2 p.u. Calliper and neutron cut-offs may sometimes not exclude all the erroneous high porosity due to wrong neutron and density reading.
» Effective porosity was computed with the following formula:
- The petrophysical model results are clay volumes (VCL in ELAN terminology), effective porosity (PIGN) and water saturation (SUWI).
CBW is the clay bound water and is 0.12.
- Log porosity is in very good agreement with the core porosity.
» Sw was computed with the Indonesia equation:
- Sw was validated by comparing it with Pc data from the core. The main results of the validation are: • A good match between SW and SWI-RQI generally occurs over those oil-bearing sandstones that are supposed to lie well above the transition zone (very high resistivity values).
where: Rt is the log deep resistivity α=1
m=1.9 Rcl=1 ohm*m
• The sandstones at the top of the Bahariya formation. (Zone 1) are, in terms of SWI, significantly different from the sandstones that occur over the deeper intervals (Zones 3-4-5-6).
Rw= 0.035 ohm*m
Parameters of the Indonesia equation are the same as for 21
â€˜â€˜ Improved Reservoir Characterization
at The Mariner Field Enhanced Multi-Measurement Broadband Data
Introduction The Mariner field is a shallow heavy-oil development field located in the East Shetland basin of the UK sector of the North Sea. It contains the Heimdal reservoir sandstone within the Lista shale formation. The Heimdal sands consist of a complex, disrupted channel system of remobilized unconsolidated and uncemented sands and injectites. There is significant complexity in the overburden, including small-scale shallow glacial channels, and fast-velocity features in the Balder formation. These cause image distortion and defocusing of the underlying events. To address these challenges, a 220 km2 survey was acquired in 2012 using a broadband, multi-measurement data.
The Impact of Low Frequencies in Reservoir Discrimination Two vintages of seismic data were analyzed: a legacy seismic volume based on the original 2012 multi-measurement acquisition and processing, including Kirchhoff depth migration (KDM) using a reflection tomography velocity model, and a new volume using the same conditioned data, with residual source-side deghosting and KDM imaging using an FWI velocity model. These are referred to as original and extended, respectively, in the remaining sections. The low-frequency enhancement was observed in extended data by applying residual source deghosting in addition to receiver-side deghosting. (Fig.1) shows that the seismic inversion result is improved by the resulting representative layer thicknesses in both relative and absolute acoustic impedances (RAI and AAI), particularly across the Lista formation and its Heimdal Member constituent. AAI curves (Fig.1-a and 1-d) show a close match between the extended seismic data inversion and the well AAI, compared to the original seismic inversion. The main improvement is the match of the long-wavelength trend, especially at longer wavelengths - giving a better representation of layer thickness, indicating that the fairly modest low-frequency extension manifests itself in better definition of the Heimdal reservoir unit and sand injective features. (Fig.1) Comparison of AAI/RAI and well profile sections for original (a, b) versus extended (c, d) seismic volumes. All are displayed in time after depth-totime conversion using the same velocity model. In the left panels (a, c), red curves are well AAI, and blue curves are seismic AAI.The relative acoustic impedance inversion result are displayed in right side (b, d).
FWI Full-waveform inversion (FWI) was used to enhance the shallow velocity model resolution. The FWI workflow was comprised of four bands of updates with dominant frequencies of 2.5, 5, 7, and 9 Hz, using both early arrivals and reflection events. A deeper velocity model update was performed using reflection tomography, and the flow also included an iteration of FWI multi-parameter inversion to update the epsilon model parameters. The final model was used to migrate the densely sampled upgoing wavefield derived using the full set of multi-measurement
research data. In particular, comparing a high-frequency 100-Hz reverse time migration (RTM) performed in the native shot domain, with a more conventional Kirchhoff depth migration run on regularized common-offset planes and using a legacy tomography velocity model. The FWI model successfully resolved geologically relevant small-scale velocity heterogeneities in the overburden. The process benefited from the low-frequency boost on hydrophone data across all offsets due to the 18-m deep flat tow, and enabling initial FWI updates using signal from below 2.5 Hz. The results indicate enhanced imaging in the overburden – in terms of removing structural distortions and loss of focusing – and improved resolution and signal-tonoise ratio separation at the target level for more reliable Heimdal sand structural delineation and mapping (Fig.2).
Combining these with FWI spectrum (green) almost fills the low-frequency gap, such that the use of interpolated well data in the final LFM (red) is very small, as indicated by the shaded area. This model provided input to the LFM used for inversion, reducing the reliance on interpolated well data. The results demonstrated improved seismic-to-well ties, predictability, signal-to-noise ratio, and representative layer thicknesses in both relative and absolute AI volumes, particularly across the Lista formation and its Heimdal member constituent. The maximum predictability was more closely focused around the well location, suggesting improved positioning due to imaging using the FWI velocity model. This is illustrated in (Fig.4), which shows the absolute AI (AAI) inversion results at two well locations. The extended seismic volume produced an inversion with a closer match at both well locations – especially at longer wavelengths - giving a better representation of layer thickness, despite the fairly modest increase in low-frequency content after residual source deghosting.
Fig 2. FWI velocity model with 100-Hz RTM shows improved signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of steep dips of Heimdal injectite units (arrowed).
Closing The Low-Frequency Gap FWI enables higher-resolution updates to the seismic velocity model compared to tomography-based methods. As well as aiding imaging, this means we can also extract higher-frequency velocities to guide the low-frequency model (LFM). Figure 2 plots the reflectivity spectrum of the original (light blue) and extended (dark blue) seismic volumes. Extended data boosts the low-frequency content from the seismic side after residual source deghosting such that the seismic data drive the inversion down to approximately 4 Hz.
(Fig.4) AAI inversion results: Original seismic (panel a), extended seismic (panel b), and gamma ray log (panel c) at Well A. Original seismic (panel d), extended seismic (panel e), and gamma ray log (panel f) at Well B. AAI profile curves are well AI (red), seismic AI (blue), and low frequency model (green).
Results The impact of residual source deghosting and the FWI velocity model was evaluated in terms of imaging and low-frequency bandwidth extension on the inversion results. It was demonstrated that a small improvement in low-frequency content can add a significant uplift to seismic amplitude inversions. The result was improved representative layer thicknesses in both RAI and AI volumes, particularly across the Lista formation and its Heimdal member constituent. We also showed that multi-measurement broadband acquisition and processing, combined with FWI for velocity model building, helps minimize the low-frequency gap – reducing the reliance on good data to guide inversion.
(Fig.3) Spectrum of original and extended seismic volumes, FWI velocity model, and LFM used for inversion. 23
‘‘ Fishbones Stimulation Technology Introduction As the main target of the stimulation process is to connect the reservoir pores to increase the productivity and to enhance the reservoir capabilities, more advanced methods and technologies have been set not only to connect the reservoir, but also to connect it with simplicity, accuracy and efficiency. Fishbones stimulation technology makes a great advancement in the stimulation techniques and better results have been found.
How the Fishbones works? The Fishbones subs are run in the open hole with the liner. Each sub assembly contains up to four small diameter tubes with length up to 40 feet. These subs are positioned across the formations where stimulation is desirable. Needles are jetted or drilled into the formation depending on the type of formation. Result is a fishbone style well completion with multiple laterals extending from the mainbore
The benefits of Fishbones: • • • • • • •
Connect the reservoir with numerous laterals Increase the productivity or injectivity Connect to natural fractures Penetrate permeability barriers Bypass the damaged zone around wellbore Accurate placement of laterals Eliminate the risk of stimulating into unwanted zones and reduce coning effects
• Reduce HSE exposure • Connect to sweet spots not penetrated by the mainbore
Applications • • • • • • •
Onshore and offshore wells Vertical, deviated and horizontal wells Producers and injectors Low permeability reservoirs Layered formations Naturally fractured formations Most reservoir types including: carbonate, sandstone and basement formations
The Track Record of Fishbones Usage: • • • • • • • • • •
Fishbones Jetting installations 10 Fishbones Drilling installations 1 Number of Fishbones needles installed 772 Maximum number of Fishbones subs in one run 48 Vertical wells 1 Horizontal wells 10 Onshore wells 9 Offshore wells 2 Longest horizontal section 2,012m / 6,600ft Deepest installation, TVD 3,853m / 12,641ft
• Highest temperature application
142ºC / 288ºF
Case Studies of Using Fishbones: Firstly, The well drilled in 2014 and previously acid stimulated three times, would not flow despite the stimulation efforts. The open hole was severely washed out due to the 24
technology previous acid treatments. A water zone below the target formation called for a precise stimulation method. The Solution is a 4.5” Fishbones Jetting liner with 6 ea. Fishbones subs and 2 ea. Backbone open hole anchors were installed in the open hole, spaced out across a short interval with hole size within the capability of the Fishbones tools (7.3” max hole size). Each sub contained four ea. needles for jetting of a total of 24 ea. laterals into the formation. A 15% HCl acid blend was pumped for the Fishbones jetting process The installation of the Fishbones liner and pumping operation went in accordance with the plan.
• Low risk - The downside risk assessed to be limited • The driller_Otto Vabø_ said that “This is the easiest drilling operation I’ve experienced”.
Evaluation of Fishbones Success: Simfish Reservoir Simulator developed by Fenix Consulting Delft. It uses Sintef MRST simulator. The product is a compare between Fishbones vs. Open hole results on the same figure. These results estimate rates, PI increase and the incremental production for producers or injectors. It also Generates Eclipse compatible wellbore geometry.
The well started to flow naturally with good rates following the Fishbones Jetting stimulation Secondly, when using fishbones drilling installation in subsea well in Norway, July 2015. The well was in tight sandstone formation with 6600 ft horizontal section 8.5’’ open hole, and 5.5’’ liner. The 48 ea. Fishbones drilling subs- 144 laterals have been installed in this horizontal section and they went also accordance to the plan.
The Key Value Driver of Fishbones Drilling Installation in Subsea Well: • Accurate stimulation – Risk of fracturing into gas zone below with the conventional fracturing
• Internal barriers in reservoir – Need to be penetrated for increased reservoir contact
As Productivity is in line with expected results based on measured reservoir properties, Fishbones has upside potential in low permeability formations. No major operational downside is identified.
• Sand strength – Competent and consolidated sandstone requiring no sand control
Stable Isotope Study in ‘‘ Rocks Identifying Carbonate Diagenesis Impact to Porosity Introduction The conclusion of rocks characteristic is one piece of information need to be solved before deciding to drill. That is why the understanding of reservoir rocks quality become paramount knowledge during exploration stage of a prospective area. This article demonstrates the role of stable isotope study in identifying diagenesis impact to carbonate porosity.
We will compare 3 carbonate formation with different stages of digenesis. The three carbonates formation are: A) Permian Ratburi Limestones, B) Oligo-Miocene Kujung Limestones, and C) Pliocene Mundu Limestones. The general location of each studied reservoir was illustrated in fig.1.
berton et al. (1992). Foraminifera microfossil descriptions and definitions follow rules devised by Bolli and Saunders (1985). When plotted on Pee Dee Belemnite scale (PDB)(Fig.2), the three rock types from separate area form sets of well-defined C-O plot-fields. Each plot field indicating the different ways calcite minerals in them has been precipitated and experienced; to varying degrees, ongoing rock-fluid interactions under various temperature, and pore fluid chemistry conditions.
Procedures The study presented in this article has extensively; reviewed literature compilations, rock outcrops, and core observations. About 381 Carbon and Oxygen stable isotopes sam� ples (drilled sequentially across specific textural features, including vein with distinct fracture alignments and rock matrix, also various lithology contacts). As much as 47 XRD samples were run to clarify the texture, composition, and history of the various digenetic features. To verify the relation of mineralogy where the stable isotopes taken, complete analysis from 72 petrographic thin section samples also been made. Porosity and permeability data associated with the three reservoir formation were compiled from published source. Facies descriptions based on the methods of Ashton Embry and Klovan, 1971. Ichnofacies classifications use the definitions by Ekdale et al. (1984) and Pem26
For example; the most negative oxygen values (- 25.76 δ 18/16 O) in the calcites and dolomites samples come from Permian Ratburi carbonate located on Thail and Peninsula, indicate a rock system responding to increasing conditions of temperature and pressure which related to ongoing burial. Petrographic confirmation from this sets of isotope data confirms the diagenesis history where most of the porosity from this carbonate rock has been obliterated. The precursor porosities have been replaced by calcite-filled fractures, breccia filled vein and dolomites (figure.3).The only porosity preserved (< 5% porosity) on the rocks from this area belongs to near present-day dissolution by karstification process (Mansyur & Warren, 2013). The evidence for karst dissolution was indicated by negative Carbon
Case study isotopes (- 5 to -5.7 δ 13/12 C) and confirmed by petrographic observation (fig.3)
Contrast with the Thailand Permian carbonate and Indonesia’s Pliocene carbonate showing almost no diagenesis influence to the rocks quality. With stable oxygen isotope value ranging from 1 to -2.3 δ 18/16 O and Carbon isotope ranging from 0.81 to - 3.01 δ 13/12 C, samples from Pliocene Mundu carbonates occupies the same plot with present day/modern globigerina sampled from Indonesian waters by Makhyar Mohtadi et.al, 2008. The bicarbonate chemistry found from Pliocene carbonate reservoir has somehow preserved until the present day, due to minor or almost no diagenesis process which has been incurred to the studied Pliocene Mundu carbonate reservoirs. Petrographic observation from this Pliocene carbonate samples shows a well-connected network of inter-intraparticle porosity due to the open puncta on foraminifera shells (Fig.4).
Kujung rocks also gives distinct isotope signatures. The result implying both Kujung location have experienced distinct diagenetic history. Most of the carbonate sampled in the DEH-2 ST4 location shows typical burial re-equilibration response. The process is suspected to be related to carbonate minerals dissolution and re-precipitation due to pore fluids increasing temperatures caused by increasing depth. Another group of plots belongs to DEH-3 ST1 location, shows a second trend of increasingly negative carbon values that constitute the sub-vertical arm of the “T shape” (Fig.5).
These samples are typically from zones of; karst leaching, fracturing, and dissolution previously discussed in the Permian samples region. The petrographic description shows carbonates in the DEH-3 ST1 location have been heavily overprinted by the effects of calcite re-crystallization and leaching. It may indicate that DEH-3 ST1 location was linked to better-connected water aquifer which tied with surface exposure induced by the Miocene age uplifting period (Hehakaya, 2017).
Due to minor diagenesis overprints, most of the primary porosity have been preserved in this rocks (Ricky Tampu, 2016). Laboratory routine analysis of Mundu carbonates samples gives an average 45 % total porosities with permeability bigger than 2 Darcy (Mansyur, 2017).
The integration of stable isotope data with; petrography, XRD, and understanding of geological-structural history will establish a well-defined interpretation. This interpretation could help geologist work which related with outcrop and subsurface rocks in defining digenesis and porosity-permeability evolution. In the end, the understanding of porosity-permeability evolution will guide geologist to locate the best proximity of zones where porosity creation due to carbonate leaching or dissolutions likely to occur and preserved. This technique and technology offer a new paradigm in oil and gas industry where geoscientist could work regionally in identifying the best carbonate plays in an exploration area.
The result from the two studied locations of Oligo-Miocene 27
‘‘ Successful Zonal Isolation of Depleted Zone Using Organic Crosslinked Polymer Job Objective Selective and Permanent isolation of the depleted zone in the presence of another producing zone Maximized production from the high-pressure zone and prevented cross flow in Meleiha field, Egypt.
The Field Characterization • The Meleiha lease is in the Northern Province of Egypt’s Western Desert and consists of four main fields (Aman, North-East Meleiha, MeleihaWest, and South-East Meleiha)
• The time needed for the chemical is less compared to mechanical. • The production completion is simpler.
Organic Cross-linked Polymer Technology • There are several other minor fields including Arcadia, (OCP) Emry Deep & Rosa North
• The fields were discovered in the 1970s and development began in 1978. The lease covers an area of 700 km2 • There are 217 oil production wells and 50 injection wells at the field
Well Overview • The well was targeting Alam El Bueib sandstone early Cretaceous formation. • The well was completed with natural completion from AEB-IIB & AEB-IIIA commingle with initial rate 4410 BOPD oil and 6.23 MMSCF gas on choke 48/64”. The rate decreased to 1900 BOPD with 30% W.C. • The AEB-IIB has severe pressure decline during production till 770 psi (recorded from offset new well) while the pressure of AEB-III A was 1500 psi at the same time.
Formation and Well Challenges 1. Mechanical: straddle packer using workover rig. 2. Chemical: using organic crosslinked polymerrigless by coiled tubing. The choice of isolation method was mainly chemical because: • The cost of the chemical is less compared to mechanical.
• Porosity-fill sealant that is applicable for water and gas shut off with radial penetration control (Re-perforation Option) • Permanetly seals the target zone by forming a three-dimentional rigid gel which is proven to be stable up to 400 F.
Case study Operational Procedures: • RIH with coiled tubing to perform depth correlation with wireline run. • Start displacing the hole with brine until continuous returns are observed while POOH to the top of the perforations.
• perform a pressure test across the backstop to ensure full zonal isolation up to 3500 psi differential pressure. • Cleanout the wellbore till the PBTD • Perform an injectivity test in the lower perforation interval resulted in low injectivity results. • Rig down and rease. • Re-perforate (AEB-III A) perforation interval and put the well on production.
• Spot a sand plug to cover the lower perforation interval (AEB lll A). • Spot Low-Temperature Diverting Material to ensure total isolation of the bottom perforation. • Perform an injectivity test on the upper perforations interval (AEB-IIB) and record pressures and rates (The injection profile has to be more than 0.5 bpm to be able to inject the Backstoptreatment). • Squeeze the H2Zero™ and BackStop™ across the targeted perforation interval. • Wait “shut-in time” for soaking. • Cleanout the wellbore from the excess BackStop across the isolated interval.
Field Results • Treatment has been pressure tested against the upper perforated interval up to 3500 psi differential pressure • In addition, the lower perforated interval was successfully accessed by enhancing hydrocarbon recovery with 2500 BOPD.with nil water cut. • Rig time cost reduction.
Conclusion • Successful isolation of depleted zone in the presence of a hydrocarbon zone using OCP Technologies. • Sustainable treatment for wide range of drawdown pressure that enables the operator to test and evaluate the new zones of interest.
Egypt, Cyprus preparing ground for natural gas pipeline
CAPMAS: Egypt achieves 800 Oil & Gas discoveries in 15 years
During visiting Cairo, the foreign minister Nicos Christodoulides said ‘Cyprus and Egypt will be ready in the near future to sign an agreement on a direct undersea natural gas pipeline from Cyprus’ exclusive ec nomic zone to a liquefied natural gas plant in Egypt and We believe that there is a bright future for the cooperation between Cyprus and Egypt in the field of hydrocarbons as our cooperation is based on solid foundations’.
Starting from 2001 and until 2016, the ministry achieved 520 crude oil discoveries, Fiscal years 2011/12 and 2012/13 saw the largest crude oil discoveries, followed by FY 2013/14. As for gas discoveries, fiscal years 2007/08 and 2012/13 saw the biggest gas discoveries, realizing 26 and 29 discoveries respectively. Eni in December delivered the first gas from Zohr field,whose estimated 30 trillion cubic feet (tfc) makes it the biggest gas field in the Mediterranean.
Eni planning to ramp up Zohr production ahead of schedule
Apache plans on drilling 50 new exploration wells in Egypt in 2018/2019
EGAS and Eni are planning to bring production at Zohr to maximum capacity ahead of schedule. They are working hard to have the supergiant East-Mediterranean gas field pumping out its full capacity of 2.7 bcf/d ahead of its slated end-2019 deadline, adding that output from Zohr , which is expected to help Egypt reach natural gas self-sufficiency and become a net exporter of LNG — should also rise to 700 mmcf/d, from a current 350 mmcf/d, by May instead of June.
Apache is planning on drilling 50 new exploratory wells in Egypt in the coming year through its Qarun and Khalda Petroleum subsidiaries, both JVs with EGPC. “The program includes drilling 50 wells through two companies”, Christmann said during his meeting with Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources. The meeting reviewed Apache’s activities in Egypt and its targeted investment plans in the coming years in the fields of search, exploration as well as petroleum and gas production.
Oil Surges to Three-year High as Middle East Tensions Intensify
Offshore Rig Builders Face New Reality
Crude in London and New York are at the highest levels since 2014, an Energy Information Administration report showed American oil inventories rose 3.31 MMbbl. The data only briefly fazed traders, with oil paring its rally, then recovering. West Texas Intermediate for May delivery rose $1.17 to $66.68/ bbl. on the New York Mercantile Exchange. Total volume traded on Wednesday was about 52% above the 100-day average. Brent for June settlement added $1.18 to $72.22/bbl on the London-based ICE Futures Europe exchange.
It was deploying the first offshore robots at a North Sea platform to test them as maintenance tools. Earlier, Shell inked a contract with an engineering firm to find ways of extending the life of its Leman Alpha offshore platform. There is one segment that is feeling the pinch particularly strongly: offshore drillers and platform builders. As oil and gas producers tighten spending and look for smaller, less capital-intensive projects, rig builders and operators are finding themselves forced to undergo their own transformation.
OPEC’s Barkindo Hopes for Oil Market Stability This Year
New Investment Revives North Sea
OPEC Secretary-General said that he hoped a global deal to reduce oil production would help restore stability to global oil markets in the course of the year. “We are beginning to see that the stability is gradual but still returning to the market,” Barkindo said. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and other large oil producers lead by Russia agreed last November to extend the deal to cut their combined oil output by almost 1.8 million barrels per day (bpd) until the end of 2018.
Energy companies are preparing to invest £5bn in new capital projects in the North Sea this year, in the latest sign of recovery in the region after the oil price crash in 2014. Up to 16 oil and gas developments could get the go-ahead during the next 12 months, unlocking investment of about £5bn, which represents North Sea operators. The outlook for new projects is the healthiest the industry has seen since 2013, money is once again flowing into one of the world’s most mature oil and gas basins. 31
Located in the Egyptian sector of the Mediterranean in the Shorouk concession. Area of 100 square kilometres.
Depth of 1,450 metres (4,760 ft).
The ﬁeld was discovered in 2015 by the Italian energy company “Eni”. Phase I envisages the development of six production wells to produce an initial 1bcf/d of gas in 2017, and is expected to reach its peak production capacity of 2.7bcf/d by 2019. The total gas in place is around 850 billion cubic metres (30 trillion cubic feet). Its production started in 2017 with almost 350 million cubic feet, expected to be increased to reach 2.7 billion cubic feet per day by 2019.
“It will completely transform Egypt’s energy landscape, allowing it to become self-sufficient and to turn from an importer of natural gas into a future exporter” Eni’s CEO, Claudio Descalzi
“Production from Zohr will help the most populous Arab nation achieve self-sufficiency of natural gas, ease the burden on the state budget and cut the imports bill” The Minister of the Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Tarek El-Molla 33
This is the 6th issue of PetroPulse; A magazine full of technical knowledge, articles, and technologies in the field of Oil and Gas. It's on...
Published on May 22, 2018
This is the 6th issue of PetroPulse; A magazine full of technical knowledge, articles, and technologies in the field of Oil and Gas. It's on...