The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems
Dear Readers, In traditional project management managers have to consider three constraints: Finance, Human Resources and Time. If you decrease one, you increase the need for the others. If a project has to be finished sooner than planned, you need more money. Or more staff. Or maybe more of both. Time is money – a truism we all know from our daily work. We at Leica Geosystems want to provide our customers with products and solutions that enable them to do their job more productively, more effectively, in less time and with lower manpower requirements – but with no concessions in terms of quality. You can find one very impressive example of how our customers save time and money starting on page 19: Australian customer Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM) has standardized its national survey services equipment portfolio, and now completely relies on Leica Geosystems’ products from total stations to laser scanners. SKM surveyors benefit from a short learning curve, ease of use and minimized risk of errors – and so do SKM’s customers. Productivity paired with quality – in addition to the projects highlighted in this edition of the Reporter, you can also see the outcome of our recent efforts at Intergeo 2008 in Bremen. We would be pleased to welcome you to our booth in Hall 5!
03 In the Kingdom of White Gold 06 Mission Service 08 Leica ADS40: 700 people saved 09 The Great Ancona Landslide 12 World's Largest Trimaran 14 Laser Dots and Lines for Living History 16 Recording World Heritage 18 Excavating in the Brisbane River 19 Standardization: Strong Return on Investment for SKM 22 City-Tunnel Leipzig 25 A City on the Move 28 3D Measuring for Building Refurbishment 32 Documenting a Subsea Tunnel 34 Training & Service in Guatemala 35 Terrain Measurement in Japan 35 Accuracy for the Agriculture Industry
Imprint Reporter: Customer Magazine of Leica Geosystems
Published by: Leica Geosystems AG, CH-9435 Heerbrugg Editorial Office: Leica Geosystems AG, CH-9435 Heerbrugg, Switzerland, Phone +41 71 727 34 08, email@example.com Contents responsible: Alessandra Doëll (Director Communications)
Ola Rollén CEO Hexagon and Leica Geosystems
Editor: Agnes Zeiner Publication details: The Reporter is published in English, German, French and Spanish, twice a year. Reprints and translations, including excerpts, are subject to the editor’s prior permission in writing. © Leica Geosystems AG, Heerbrugg (Switzerland), September 2008. Printed in Switzerland Cover: The "Spiegelsee" (Mirror Lake) at the Berchtesgaden salt mine, © Emanuel Raab
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In the Kingdom of White Gold by Agnes Zeiner
Museum? Tourist attraction? High-tech mine? The Berchtesgaden Salt Mine is something of all of them. The show mine attracts around 400'000 visitors per year. Every day, the 28 solution mining boreholes produce about 2'000 cubic meters of brine, which yields over 530 tonnes of highvalue raw salt. And for surveying specialists, too, the salt mine is a fantastic journey through time. Wolfgang Lochner, Mining Surveying Manager and leader of the five-person strong surveying team in the Berchtesgaden Salt Mine, knows that not only is his workplace especially exciting; it is also extremely beautiful. When he is not actually underground, he has a direct view of the Watzmann, the third highest mountain in Germany: “Who else can say that?” Berchtesgaden is one of the last working salt mines in Germany. It began in 1517 with the founding of the Petersstollen works by Prince Provost Gregor
Rainer. “The Celts knew about salt production and salt has been mined in neighboring Bad Reichenhall since prehistoric times. In Berchtesgaden too, there had been earlier salt mines, but it had to wait until 1517 and Gregor Rainer to make salt mining its major activity,” recounted Lochner as he delved into the area's treasure trove of history. Since then 100 km of mining tunnels have been driven into the mountain. The earliest plans he has been able to lay his hands on stem from the mid-1800s. “But the first survey maps had already been drawn by the 16th century!” Despite this long tradition of mining here, he has no need to worry about the salt running out anytime soon: the deposits for the next 30 years have been identified, it is known that there are sufficient deposits for a further 100 years, and experts estimate there is capacity for the next 300. Each year approximately 600 meters of tunnels are driven and 28 solution mining boreholes worked through about 30 km of open caverns (tunnels) – with each of these works having a useful mining life of about 30 years.
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Drawing of the Dietrich plant at the Berchtesgaden salt mine from 1855.
One centimeter per day Berchtesgaden produces brine, a liquid solution containing the valuable raw salt. This brine is transported along a pipeline to the salt works at Bad Reichenhall. There the solution is heated until all that remains of the Berchtesgaden brine is pure food-grade salt. Each cubic meter of brine contains up to 26.5 % salt. “Wet salt mining, the process we use here to extract our salt, is relatively expensive,” explains Lochner. The salt is not in discrete blocks in the rock; it must be washed out by the introduction of fresh water. “This takes place in the wet mining works: we pump drinking water quality water from above into the works to wash out the salt, which then, in solution form, separates from the lighter fresh water, because of the higher density of the brine. Then the salt water can be brought to the surface and pumped into the pipeline using a submersible pump.” What sounds simple is actually quite a lengthy process – the water level rises by only about 1 cm per day in each wet mining works. At the same time a typical wet mining works is about 125 m long, 65 m wide and 120 m high.
Laptops and Lederhosen Mine surveying, taking measurements underground, is almost as old as mining itself. “Today our main tasks revolve around monitoring the existing tunnels and works, taking measurements for tunnel driving, general underground surveying and – above ground – surveying for building construction and for management of the salt work's land and real estate,”
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explains Wolfgang Lochner. “This makes my job very stimulating – it encompasses practically the whole spectrum of engineering surveying: we are never bored!” It includes surveying and drawing up the existing excavations; surveying, monitoring and recording the mining works; planning and setting out the drives; surveying during driving, similar to tunnel construction, and surveying and plotting ground movements. “The accuracies we can achieve today are less than 1 mm standard deviation in leveling underground, approx. 0.5 mm standard deviation in leveling above ground and less than 15 mm positioning accuracy in the network of control points in the underground control network,” adds Lochner. Our mining surveyors work closely with in-house and external geologists, as well as cooperating with the national mining authorities. “This is why we need to maintain two data systems: on the one hand we still keep existing drawings of the local mining authority up to date by hand using ink, pens and color washes on paper. But of course we use modern CAD drawings for our own design and record drawings. Thus the turn of phrase 'Lederhosen and laptops (old and new)' is very apt,” points out Lochner with a smile. Old and new in peaceful coexistence greet visitors to the Berchtesgaden Salt Mine. And not only in the show mine, where around 400'000 visitors from all over the world can experience the subterranean world of salt mining on the newly opened salt time
travel tour. There are also glass display cabinets containing modern instruments like the Leica TPS1200 as well as old mining surveying instruments such as an alidade dating from the mid-19th century and a Wild T2 theodolite. These Wild instruments were manufactured from 1926 to 1996 by Wild Heerbrugg (today Leica Geosystems).
From Reichenbach to Leica Geosystems Lochner and his team also rely on a mixture of old and new: on the one hand the latest technology, such as the Leica DINI03 digital level, total stations Leica TCRA1100 and System 1200, or the Leica DISTO™ laser distance meter. But on the other hand they still find some ancient instruments indispensable, such as the suspended mine surveying compass that has been used in virtually unaltered form since 1897 and has only recently been replaced by a specially designed digital compass with a Bluetooth® interface link to a portable computer. “Most of the instruments, like the tasks we perform, have changed over time – in earlier days, mining surveyors worked underground with alidades and goniometers, while today we have digital levels and total stations. But some can simply never be replaced,” maintains Lochner. “Some of the oldest instruments were made in the Reichenbach workshops in the 1800s.” These masterpieces of technology are naturally no longer in use but: “They continue to work perfectly – the advantage of mechanical devices!” The process of mining also has some older devices that are still essential today. For example, the “Röhrlkasten”, a wooden box that provides a simple way of measuring the flow of water through the solution mining works to an accuracy of <1 %. “A 1756 model, precise and with no signs of wear,” laughs Lochner. Next to it stands – as if from another world – an ultramodern computer cabinet with contents controlled from above ground through fibre-optic cables. Although the past is still very much alive, Wolfgang Lochner's thoughts are directed towards the future. His team has recently carried out trials with Leica Geosystems high definition scanners, the results of which are currently being evaluated. Underground survey information is presently captured as level and positional data but not yet as 3D models. “This is certainly adequate to create a reference to the above ground surveying but we have even higher aims!”
This underground world is open to everybody The tradition of salt mining has shaped life in the region over many centuries. The salt time travel tour in the Berchtesgaden Salt Mine brings this history to life for everyone with the help of state-of-the-art entertainment, edutainment and infotainment technology. An exciting visitor guide system, active and interactive control modules, lighting installations, sensing experiences and educational exhibits take the visitor through a completely new subterranean experience. Further information: Salzbergwerk Berchtesgaden Bergwerkstraße 83 D-83471 Berchtesgaden, Germany Phone +49 (0)86 52-6002-0 Fax +49 (0)86 52-6002-6, www.salzzeitreise.de, firstname.lastname@example.org Opening hours: 1st May to 31st Oct. 2008: 09.00 to 17.00 hrs* 2nd Nov. 2008 to 30th April 2009: 11.30 to 15.00 hrs* (* last admittance)
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Mission Service by Agnes Zeiner
Leica Geosystems instruments and solutions are in use with our customers in all parts of the world. At the same time we are committed to providing the best support and service – no matter where the customer and instrument are located. A balancing act that our Central Technical Services Team and its partners perform every day. In the office of Peter Ammann, Manager of Central Technical Services (CTS) this morning the blinds are pulled half-way down as protection from the bright Swiss summer sun. “In the afternoons it can be almost unbearable in here,” he laughs – no special treatment for the manager of this 30+ strong CTS Team. Ammann is a missionary. Not in the religious sense, but in the sense of his job, for all too often the duties of his team are equated with repairs. But technical service is only one part of the range of services that Leica Geosystems offers its customers. “We also define the framework for the scope of these services, ensure that it is implemented and continuously
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monitor performance. The time it normally takes a customer to decide on a Leica Geosystems instrument is actually very short. But in the years that follow he will work with this instrument, upon which often his livelihood will depend. Therefore we are doing the right thing by focusing our efforts on this latter period,” explains Ammann. The customer obtains a complete solution comprising product and service: With Leica Customer Care Packages, short CCPs , each customer can be offered a service package that corresponds exactly to his requirements – anything from a simple software update package right up to a “Gold Package” with comprehensive hard- and software service and extended warranty. Leica Geosystems and its partners maintain a total of over 200 certified service centers worldwide. Every three years, these centers are audited to ensure that the specified standards are being observed. This task is performed during a service audit as part of the quality assurance system. “These audits are also used as an opportunity to discuss any issues with our partners, since this is a way of bringing about improvements in working processes, e.g. by mak-
ing small changes in infrastructure or investment. And that has a direct effect on the throughput of instruments received for servicing and repair,” adds Peter Ammann. How to ensure that all our customers – wherever they may be in the world – receive the same service?
Not so simple, admits the head of CTS. “We are of course often out in the field to see that our service standards are kept universally high. And our partners also invest a great deal.” He leads us through to a large room – a workshop, we assume. Ammann laughs: “No, it's a training room. Every new technician appointed by a Leica Geosystems service partner comes first to us here in Heerbrugg, Switzerland. Here the technicians learn about all our instruments, so that servicing can take place locally without any problems and the customer receives his instrument back as quickly as possible. Our experienced technicians also become involved when Leica Geosystems brings a new, innovative product to market.” For this knowledge gained from servicing is first hand information, which then flows back into new product developments. “Factors such as Customer Care Packages, the assured quality in our certified service workshops and continuous education of our globally active service technicians create trust. And if our customers trust Leica Geosystems now, they will decide in our favour in the future too,” says Peter Ammann confidently.
CTS staff member Guido Grossmann ajusting a Leica TCP1205+ total station.
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Leica ADS40: 700 people saved by Rüdiger Wagner
700 people could be saved in Cao Ping after their message “SOS700” was discovered in imagery collected with a Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor. In the aftermath of the devastating May 12th earthquake in Sichuan, China, local authorities coordinating disaster relief efforts required a fast, accurate and comprehensive overview of the damage and the affected areas. Following a request from the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Taiyuan Aero Photography Co. Ltd immediately agreed to dispatch their Leica ADS40 digital airborne sensors to Chongqing near Chengdu in the Sichuan province. Starting on May 13th, fifteen flights were undertaken in the earthquake area, taking full advantage of the efficiency of the Leica ADS40 sensor system. Supported by Leica Geosystems staff, terabytes of continuous high quality image data were acquired and processed on a daily basis and sent overnight to local authorities and the President’s Office for analysis and updates. On May 16th, after processing a flight undertaken earlier that day, Leica Geosystems’ support staff sent the corrected image data to the China Central Government Earthquake Salvation Centre for inspection. Whilst analyzing the image strip, staff attention was drawn to a sign stating “SOS700” on a rooftop
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in the village of Cao Ping near Yingxiu town. Although nobody in the Salvation Centre immediately understood the message, a rescue team was quickly dispatched to the village. Upon arrival in Cao Ping, the rescuers encountered seven hundred villagers without food and water, many of them wounded. Says Sam Chen, Vice President of Leica Geosystems, China: “This is truly a case in which the superior Leica ADS40 sensor technology helped save lives. At Leica Geosystems we are honoured that in a combined effort with our customers and local authorities, we could assist our people and our country in this time of need. Using our technology we will continue to help rebuild the lives of our people in Sichuan.” The discovery of the villagers’ colourful call for help was only made possible by the unique performance features of the Leica ADS40. The state-of-the-art line sensor technology of Leica ADS40 permits fast data collection of large areas with equal resolution, in all multispectral bands and without loss of quality or information. In combination with a fast and simple workflow, the Leica ADS40 delivers real production efficiency when time is of the essence. About the author: Rüdiger Wagner is Product Manager Airborne Sensors at Leica Geosystems in Heerbrugg/Switzerland.
The Great Ancona Landslide by Carlo Bonanno and Massimo Magnani
On 13th December 1982, a very large zone of the city of Ancona was devastated by a huge landslide, affecting 11 % of the urban area. Homes and infrastructure were seriously damaged, about 3â€™000 people had to be evacuated. The railway and state highway were blocked, and water and gas supplies interrupted. After years of study authorities decided that consolidation was not a feasible option. This was due to both the cost and the environmental impact, which would have devastated the areasâ€™ natural character. Therefore, the City Council decided to ensure the safety of the local population by designing and installing a complex integrated monitoring system to provide constant control of the landslip area. The affected area of Ancona consists of an entire hillside, approximately 341.5 hectares in total. It
ranges from an approximate height of 170 metres above sea level down to the sea itself. During the 15 days prior to the landslide on 13. December, 1982, the rainfall in the area was not exceptionally high in absolute terms but was persistent. This caused a significant rise in groundwater levels. In response to the landslide, a series of specific laws were passed at both a regional and national level. This enabled the allocation of funds needed for the emergency operations, as well as to complete the clean-up and rehabilitation of the affected area and provide aid to the local people. After the initial emergency operations, a detailed study was done of the landslide area, in order to draw up a plan for the repair or reconstruction of the affected homes. Preparation of a plan for continuous monitoring of the landslide area using geodetic and geotechnical instrumentation also began. This was used as the basis for a Civil Defence Emergency Plan.
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The Monitoring Plan was subdivided into 2 parts; the first of these, relating to the geodetic instrumentation, was put out to tender in 2006. The contract was awarded to Leica Geosystems Italy for the supply and installation of a high-precision continuous integrated topographic monitoring system. In association with the Ancona City Council engineers installation of the monitoring system began at the end of 2006 and was completed in the summer of 2007. In October 2007 local and national government representatives officially presented the system to the public. This coincided with the system startup and calibration stage. This stage, currently still underway, has enabled those responsible to analyse the main results and to use them as a basis for setting the alarm thresholds in the Civil Defence Plan.
Each station in the 1st and 2nd level network was installed on reinforced concrete piles. Each pile is 1 meter in diameter, sunk into the ground to depths varying from 10 to 25 meters, with about 3 meters above ground level. Each concrete pile has a Leica TCA2003 robotic total station installed on top. The AX1202 GPS antennas together with the Leica GRX1200 GPS receivers were installed by means of stainless steel posts, 10 cm in diameter, with variable heights. Each station was completed with wiring for communication and power supply. The 3rd level network stations, were created by installing single frequency GPS antennas and solar panels on the roofs of private homes. Each station was wired to protect the power supply and installed in positions allowing easy access for possible maintenance work. Approximately 200 prisms were installed on the homes in the area, for measurement by the seven Leica TCA2003 robotic total stations.
No significant movements by May 2008
Three steps for maximum safety
The system runs automatically and is managed by the Control Center in the City of Ancona, about 3 km from the monitoring area. A WLAN â€“ HyperLAN main communications line provides complete and continuous real-time control of all the field sensors. The Control Center has a network of computers running Leica GeoMoS and Leica GNSS Spider software. The software controls the sensors and performs analyses of the acquired data. Custom software modules were specially developed for the management of the alert, pre-alarm and alarm thresholds and the subsequent triggering of warning systems to protect the population. Remote access to the system is possible via the Internet to enable relevant personnel to manage and oversee the system at any time.
Due to the large area to be monitored and the complex morphology of the landslide zone, the system was designed on the basis of three monitoring levels. The first (alarm) level is comprised of three main stations outside the landslide area each with a robotic total station, dual frequency GPS and dual axis inclinometer . The second level is comprised of five monitoring stations inside the landslide area, with identical instrumentation. The third level is comprised of a network of 26 single frequency GPS sensors and 200 prisms installed on homes, with all prism points measured by robotic total stations.
The Leica TCA2003 robotic total stations perform a measuring cycle to the prisms every 4 hours. The GPS receivers record measurement sessions lasting 6 hours, with a 15 sec. acquisition rate. Analysis of the results obtained between October 2007 and May 2008 revealed that no significant movements of the structures in the risk area occurred. One year after the start-up of the surface topography monitoring system, the engineers in charge have been able to analyse the first results. This period of fine-tuning of the system has been fundamental in allowing the definition of the alert, the pre-alarm and alarm thresholds.
View of the "Great Ancona Landslide" today.
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Future implementations The tender for the second functional stage of the monitoring project includes supply and installation of underground geotechnical sensors and extremely high precision surface dual axis inclinometers. The combination of different sensors and technologies allows for the most effective monitoring of complex gravitational phenomena, such as the Ancona landslide. This will allow the landslide phenomenon and its evolution over time to be studied by analysing the acquired measurements. Therefore helping to make targeted, effective planning of any future consolidation work possible.
landslide. This new philosophy is a fresh, dynamic response to a complex problem: the solution moves beyond the usual static concepts of ordinary engineering solutions, unfeasible or unaffordable in this case, while simultaneously reducing the risk level for the people living in the affected areas. About the authors: Massimo Magnani is Engineering & Solutions Sales & Technical Support, Carlo Bonanno is Engineering & Solutions Sales Manager. Both work at Leica Geosystems SpA in Italy.
In Ancona, the local government and local population have taken an active approach to living with a huge
Installation "Great Ancona Landslideâ€œ 7 7 26 230 40
Leica TCA2003 robotic total stations Leica GRX1200 L1/L2 GPS sensors Leica GX1210 L1 GPS sensors Monitoring prisms Power supply systems
1 WLAN â€“ HyperLAN communications system 1 Center for Real-Time Control and Management of the Monitoring System, with Leica GeoMoS and Leica GNSS Spider software
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World's Largest Trimaran by Hélène Leplomb
With a wealth of experience acquired through the construction of a long line of racing boats, the Banque Populaire has gained considerable notoriety in the field of sailing. The “Sailing Bank” is staying its course with a new challenge: the construction of the world’s largest trimaran – the Banque Populaire V. Designed with the aim of beating the major sailing records, it consists of a forty-meter-long central hull, floats measuring thirty-seven meters in length and a forty-five-meter mast. The “Sailing Bank” has chosen the French company Ecartip to measure and test the manufactured parts using a Leica Geosystems 3D laser scanner. Technological choices are essential in the race for performance. Consequently, for the structure of the Banque Populaire V, the technical team relied on tried-and-tested technology: a layer of Nomex (strong synthetic fibres in honeycomb structure) between two layers of carbon. There was a risk that the components of this immense prototype would warp during this process due to the heat. That is why Olivier Bordeau, a member of Team Banque Populaire and responsible for monitoring compounds, called on Ecartip, a company originally consisting of land
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surveyors, but now also working in the shipbuilding industry, to measure and test the boat’s components using a 3D laser scanner. The aim was to test the deviation between the manufactured parts and the theoretical digital model in order to identify any distortion and to take appropriate action to ensure that the performance of the boat complied with the initial plan.
Scan of the hull and floats Two employees at Ecartip were called upon to scan the different components and process the data onsite in order to save time. During these operations, Eric Rabaud, project leader at Ecartip, appreciated the full dome of the Leica HDS3000 laser scanner: “The full dome meant that the bottoms of the hulls could be scanned quickly and with no restrictions by placing the scanner on the ground. Without this characteristic, we would have had to raise the floats and that would have been impossible!” The thirty-seven-meter-long floats required 10 scan positions each. These multiple scans enabled Ecartip to obtain a level of precision of ± 4 mm in assembling a scatter plot and ± 2 mm in modelling. Ecartip could therefore provide sections, 3D views, reports presenting the deviations obtained and verification plans in order to check the conformity of the boat’s
components. By modelling the hulls, they were able to define the real axes and planes of symmetry of the boat. The different parts of the boat could therefore be repositioned precisely taking into account the distortions observed and the mechanical characteristics of the boat. This precision operation was decisive in positioning the centreboard well, foils, rudder blade and other parts of the boat. Finding himself five days ahead of schedule, the leader of Team Banque Populaire was entirely convinced: “Before, we didn’t know why the boat was pulling more to the right or to the left – we used a plumb line and a decameter to check the manufactured parts. This technology allows us to save time, increase the reliability and precision of the measurements and, above all, correct the axis of symmetry before the launch!” exclaimed Olivier Bordeau.
Providing help in assembly Assembling this type of component is not easy and precise positioning is essential. In the past, the components were guided into position on the central hull using a projection on the ground, a plumb line and a spirit level. This meticulous work could take days to be completed. Then the part in question would be cut and positioned and these operations would be repeated until it was perfectly fitted. Already won over by the service provided by Ecartip, Team Banque Populaire decided to test the assembly of the arms on the central hull using a Leica HDS3000. Eric Rabaud identified the zone to be cut on model elements of the boat before marking the outline on
the hull using a theodolite. “We are used to working with a safety margin”, explains Olivier Bordeau. “Initially we didn’t want to take the risk of cutting exactly along the outline…” However, from the very first cut, the team had to accept the obvious: the outline was perfect. As a result, the scanner monitored the entire progression of the boat’s assembly, providing invaluable aid in assembling the hulls and positioning the foils. This first 3D laser scan service has revolutionised measurement techniques in the field of racing boats: “In the past, there was no real culture of measurement in this domain, it is a revolution in our measurement system”, confirms Olivier Bordeau. The test and assembly operations took only a third of the time allowed for in the very tight construction schedule for this prototype, enabling the installation of the elements on the central hull to be adapted to ensure optimum geometry of the boat. The availability and commitment of Ecartip were greatly appreciated by Team Banque Populaire, who will be sure to contact Ecartip when they make future modifications to the boats in the fleet of the “Sailing Bank”. For his part, Eric Rabaud from Ecartip could feel the team spirit which reigned around the boat, giving him the feeling that he too was part of this great adventure. About the author: Hélène Leplomb is responsible for Marketing at Leica Geosystems in France.
Banque Populaire V Type: Crewed Oceanic Maxi Trimaran Skipper: Pascal Bidégorry Length: 40.00 m Breadth: 23.00 m Displacement: 23 t Draught: 5.80 m Clearance: 45 m www.voile.banquepopulaire.fr www.ecartip.fr
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Laser Dots and Lines for Living History by Daniel Stettler
High on a sunny slope on the Eastern border of the Engadin Valley in the Swiss Canton of Graubünden is a small mountain village, home to 175 people. Its name is Tschlin. The economic prospects of this village would be bleak, were it not for a spirit of enterprise and innovation among its people. But no change without challenges: How can you stem the demographic bleeding of a dying town and sustain a viable population by providing young families with a livelihood? How can you restore and maintain the iconic buildings without turning them into museums? How can you adapt historic farm houses to become vacation homes without losing the village’s character? Tschlin is a perfect example of a European mountain village in transition and was chosen to serve as a case study for architecture students at the University of Washington in Seattle. As initiator of the study, I came here with a group of students to spend the summer of 2007 to lend a hand in addressing the village’s challenges. For two months we engaged in a number of concrete projects intended to help the community in its planning for the future. Some
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instruments from Leica Geosystems played an important role in this effort.
Challenging measuring conditions One of our projects was to make an accurate inventory of the existing buildings in Tschlin. This called for making precise drawings of the current structures and public spaces of the village as a base for future planning. As simple as this may sound, the steep topography of the community combined with the irregular shape of buildings created challenging measuring conditions. It would be cumbersome and unsafe to attempt the use of ladders with primitive measuring equipment such as poles and tapes. The well known Engadiner house with its complex form and vast size only compounds the problem. Leica Geosystems’ lasers allowed us to measure these buildings safely from the ground. We used three specific instruments, the Leica DISTO™ A5, Leica DISTO™ A8 laser distance meters and the line laser Leica Lino L2. The Leica DISTO™ A5 and A8 served to take overall height and distance measurements while the Leica Lino L2 set horizontal and vertical reference lines. The Leica DISTO™ A5 proved to be the most reliable in taking point-topoint measurements. As a basic measuring device
the simplicity of the instrument was very welcome. But at critical times of low light and long distance, the Leica DISTO™ A8 offered an additional feature. It has a digital viewfinder that allows zooming into the target in three stages and to precisely locate the measuring point.
the most efficient way to take the measurements. It occasionally called for some explanation when locals were perplexed by the red gridlines on their homes. They were relieved to discover the next day that the lines were no longer there.
Inside measurements during summer 2008 Fast and accurate measurements Due to the village’s topography the measuring plane was not always plumb and leveled. Therefore the trigonometric functions in the Leica DISTO™ were not applicable at all times. Here the Leica Lino L2 was a real asset. In fact, it turned out to be an essential piece of equipment for our purposes. The self leveling function made what would be a constantly tedious and time consuming task fast and easy. The instrument provided accurate level and plumb lines that when photographed and assembled digitally, created grid lines on the building facades. These grids were vital to the reconstruction of these buildings as line drawings. In order to document our proceedings with photographs, including grids from the Leica Lino L2, and to increase our productivity, we quickly decided to work also by night. The villagers were surprised to see us working in the dark as we determined this to be
By the end of the summer 2007 thanks to the efficiency and accuracy of the Leica Geosystems’ instruments, our team of six had been able to fully measure and draw thirty buildings in Tschlin. This data collection continued during the summer of 2008. Indeed, new students from the University of Washington have started to make additional measurements inside the buildings this time. The Leica Lino L2 has been most useful in determining horizontal and vertical lines inside the old Engadiner houses where few things are plumb or level. The Department of Architecture at the University of Washington expresses its sincere gratitude to the Leica Geosystems team and looks forward to working with their instruments on this project for several more years. About the author: Daniel Stettler works as an architect in Seattle, is a lecturer at the University of Washington Department of Architecture, and Director of the Studio Tschlin
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Recording World Heritage by Paul Burrows
CAP, the Cyrene Archaeological Project, is devoted to recording the remains of the Greco-Roman city at Cyrene in Libya and is a joint venture between Oberlin College (USA), the University of Birmingham (UK) and the Department of Antiquities (Libya). The site is part of the Green Mountain Conservation and Development Area, which was recently established by the Libyan government under “The Cyrene Declaration”. CAP’s aim is to record the standing structures and buried features within this UNESCO World Heritage Site in a systematic, traceable and comprehensive method using a combination of land-based, aerial and sub-surface measurement techniques – amongst them a Leica ScanStation and a Leica HDS6000 scanner. Nestled in the heart of the University of Birmingham is VISTA, the Visual and Spatial Technology Cen-
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tre, part of the Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity (IAA). This archaeological group is committed to the capture, analysis and preservation of 3D data through the creation of digital environments, with data capture projects ranging from object to landscape modeling. VISTA has been in existence since 2003 and has nurtured relationships with universities and professional institutions around the world. These global ties have supported large open-ended research projects which require dedicated teams of highly skilled experts using the latest technology to capture data – this is where Leica Geosystems High Definition Surveying™, terrestrial total stations and GPS (TPS/GPS) technology have been utilized by VISTA to achieve an accuracy of data collection thought near impossible a few years ago. “Our aim as an historical group is to capture and integrate all data types with cutting edge technology into the largest volumetric and sub-surface model ever captured for archaeological purposes,” says
“Our aim as an historical group is to capture and integrate all data types with cutting edge technology into the largest volumetric and sub-surface model ever captured for archaeological purposes.” Prof. Vince Gaffney, head of the VISTA group Chair in Landscape Archaeology and Geomatics.
Prof. Vince Gaffney, head of the VISTA group Chair in Landscape Archaeology and Geomatics.
VISTA and the CAP project As one of the best funded groups in Europe, VISTA was well placed to take part in the CAP project. The 2007 season was undertaken between the 17th and 28th June and the Leica HDS6000, in conjunction with an external camera solution, was used to record data from several key sites. In addition, a Foerster magnetometer array, combined with a Leica SR530 differential GPS solution, was used to carry out the vast geophysical survey. The Leica HDS6000 was chosen as it represented the most advanced phase-based scanning technology on the market. “The unit performed excellently in unseasonably high temperatures of over 35 °C whilst its relatively light construction and high battery capacity meant the unit was highly mobile – it can be worn in its transport case like a rucksack too”, stated Dr. Helen Goodchild, Project Geomatics Manager. Using both the Leica HDS6000 and the pulse based scanner Leica ScanStation, over 120 scans were carried out over the two week period and over 150 GB of data were collected, representing billions of survey points. Registration was carried out using Leica Cyclone Register and the data was geo-referenced using GPS data control-points acquired with the Leica SR530 DGPS base station and rover.
Full 3D surface models The data acquired by the Leica HDS6000 has been used to generate animated fly-throughs, 2D sections and slices of the data for interrogation. Full 3D surface models have also been generated that have helped aid the investigation and provide an irreplaceable document of the area. In addition, the data has been incorporated into the VISTA GIS software suite alongside GPS, Magnetometry, GPR and environmental survey data so it can be analyzed in context. Birmingham Archaeology is a long standing user of Leica Geosystems survey technology, so its foray into the world of High Definition Surveying is a natural technological progression. Without the use of the Leica HDS6000 or Leica ScanStation, the CAP team would not have been able to capture the data from ancient standing structures with the same level of detail in such a short period of time. VISTA is currently working with IBM (UK) in developing procedures for the analysis, manipulation and display of these types of datasets using Birmingham’s BlueBEAR, one of the largest University computing facilities in the UK (www.bear.bham.ac.uk). About the author: Paul Burrows is Project Engineer for High Definition 3D Laser Scanning at Leica Geosystems in the UK.
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Excavating in the Brisbane River by Stefana Vella
Clean water is a precious commodity – especially when there just isn’t enough. Unfortunately this is the case in the eastern parts of Australia which have been experiencing significant drought over the last two years. As part of an overall plan to forestall the effects of any future drought, and to buffer the effects of the current one, the Queensland Government’s Western Corridor Recycled Water Project was implemented. When it is constructed, it will be the largest recycled water scheme of its kind in the southern hemisphere – no small feat. Caldme Excavation Pty Ltd., specialists in long reach excavation and under water work, was involved in this project as a subcontractor. The challenge was to excavate a 60 m outfall pipe with three diffusers that
was installed at the Goodna Waste Water Treatment Plant – in up to 14.5 meters of water in the Brisbane River. An important requirement was the ability to operate in all tide conditions, to maximize the time available to complete the vital works. Caldme turned to the Leica Geosystems 3D GPS system to simplify an otherwise difficult excavation. With a Leica 2D MC300 DigSmart system already permanently installed on their Hyundai R290LC-7 LR long reach excavator, Caldme simply rented the 3D GPS system from Leica Geosystems distributor CR Kennedy for the duration of the project. The systems integrated smoothly, made the low visibility of the work far less of a problem and sped up the progress of the job. The excavator worked from a spud-anchored barge supplied by QPort Marine Services, and the GPS system was used to assist the tug in positioning the barge for work. This simplified the barge set-up and provided significant time savings. The primary aim of the work was to construct a level pad on the bed of the river and install the diffusers in a sarcophagus. The scope of work also included placing rock armor, and shaping the river bank with a 1 in 4 slope. Although the excavator was operating at its maximum depth, the Leica Geosystems 3D GPS system allowed Caldme to complete the work well within the required tolerance, and in around half the allotted time. When limitations occurred due to reach, the barge, guided by the excavator’s GPS, was repositioned to allow the excavator to complete the work. Despite the work being classified as high risk, it was completed without a single scratch to the pipeline or any Lost Time Injury. About the author: Stefana Vella is Business Development Consultant and Marketing Manager for Machine Automation at C.R. Kennedy, Leica Geosystems’ distribution partner in Australia.
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Surveying the historical Port Arthur penitentiary, Hobart, Tasmania, with Leica HDS and Leica TPS units.
Standardization: Strong Return on Investment for SKM by Alison Stieven-Taylor
Known for its leadership and innovation in spatial information products and services, Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM) is once again forging a new path – this time in the delivery of its spatial services. On a scale not often seen in Australia SKM has standardized its national survey services equipment portfolio after entering into a significant contract with Leica Geosystems Australian distributor CR Kennedy.
This ambitious project, which has seen the company replace its entire survey equipment catalogue with new Leica Geosystems equipment and firmware, has enabled SKM to realize a new level of interoperability and efficiency by working on a common platform. Leigh Finlay, Spatial Manager New South Wales and SKM Practice Leader for Surveying, explains: “The decision to standardize our survey services equipment portfolio was really influenced by two main factors – the issue of operator familiarity with the various brands we were using, and the need to
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update aging equipment.” The fundamental reasoning behind the plan was to try and achieve a level of standardization across the country to remove the barriers that prevent the efficient movement of resources, both staff and equipment, to areas where the work is required. “In addition, this approach has enabled us to lock in an efficient national long term plan with a supplier that delivers a clear and cost effective provision of the most up to date and technically advanced survey equipment that is updated on a regular basis. The major beneficiary will be our clients”, Mr. Finlay said. “When you have a variety of brands and a mobile workforce you can’t always guarantee the employee and the equipment will match. We don’t have the luxury of learning on the job. Any time taken up with familiarization becomes another operational cost. We strongly believe these improved efficiencies in delivering survey services will benefit our projects and clients. We believe that by working with the one brand and one supplier we can streamline our pro-
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cesses, work more collaboratively across regions and remove the barriers we had previously encountered by having a range of brands.”
Technology, Service and Support Mr. Finlay admits it wasn’t an easy sell internally with various brand loyalties within the company. “It’s a bit like trying to sell a Ford to a die-hard Holden fan. There are those who would rather stick with an old Holden than drive a brand new Ford.” The decision followed a rigorous evaluation process of the various distributors that involved SKM representatives from all regions and also included an assessment of the back-up service and ongoing support the respective distributors were prepared to offer. At the end of the day it came down to a very simple equation – leading edge technology combined with a comprehensive national service and support package. “Over the past decade technological developments in the spatial survey sector have literally altered the way we work. In my mind Leica Geosystems has really
been the true innovator in survey technology. It was the first to introduce barcode levels – a concept that was totally out of the box. The recent introduction of the Leica SmartStation, which combines both GPS/ GNSS and TPS into a single instrument, was another major step forward and Leica Geosystems’ 3D laser scanning technology has revolutionized the way we capture data. We’ve been extremely satisfied with the Leica Geosystems equipment and in particular the Leica 3D laser scanner which has opened doors enabling the expansion of our client base. Working with Leica Geosystems technology enables us to deliver above client expectations and meet our own meticulous standards.”
Confidence to take on new projects On the issue of service and support Mr. Finlay said CR Kennedy went above and beyond the call of duty. “It would be true to say we have enjoyed good relationships with all our suppliers in the past. In this instance CR Kennedy came through with an outstanding package to meet our needs. Their training, supply and
service solution gives us the confidence to take on new projects knowing we are fully supported.” CR Kennedy’s package also includes a rental agreement which initially Mr. Finlay didn’t believe SKM would require. But business has been brisk and SKM is already taking advantage of its ability to hire additional equipment to supplement its own catalogue, which is consistently in use. “We are already seeing the benefits of standardization. The service offered us by CR Kennedy combined with the fact that everyone is familiar with the equipment means the spatial group can react very quickly in the delivery of services across all of SKM’s business units. It’s given us renewed confidence in knowing that whatever projects we take on we have the right combination of skills, equipment and back up that enable us to deliver on our promises.” About the author: Alison Stieven-Taylor is a Melbourne based journalist.
The deal included 28 18 12 7 6 1
Leica GPS1200 GNSS units Leica TCRP1200+ Total Stations Leica RX1250 T Robotic Control Units Leica SmartStations Leica DNA03 Digital Levels and Leica HDS6000 3D Laser Scanner to augment their existing Leica HDS3000 Scanner
Left: Robinson River, Northern Territory, land lease survey for Australian Government. Right: Hobart Smelter, Tasmania. As the smelter could not be closed down the Leica HDS6000 was placed in a specially built cage and lowered into the smelter works.
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City-Tunnel Leipzig by Michael Amrhein, Guido von Gösseln and Dieter Heinz
Ranked among the largest stub terminals in Europe, Leipzig's main rail station is one of the most important transportation nodes in Central Germany's regional and long-distance public transport system. The stub terminal certainly offers travellers easy access and convenient connections but its architecture makes changes in the direction of travel very time-consuming and takes up a much greater area than a through station would. One of Germany’s most complex tunnel projects shall end this situation: The City-Tunnel Leipzig. During the construction of the main station (19021915), the possibility of a direct connection to Leipzig's Bayerischer Bahnhof (Bavarian station) to link the north and the south of the city was already being explored, but two world wars prevented this idea from being realised. With the establishment of S-Bahn Tunnel GmbH (SBTL) in 1996, the City-Tun-
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nel Leipzig project was resurrected and preliminary investigations conducted into its feasibility and financial viability. In 2003 a green light was finally given for the works to go ahead. The City-Tunnel Leipzig project (CTL) consists of three sections: the entry section to the south of the Bayerischer Bahnhof (Contract A); the main part of project (Contract B) with two shield-driven tunnels (each approx. 1'500 m) and 4 stations; and the third section (Contract C) comprising the route under the main station after which the tunnel emerges to connect to the existing track system. The completion of such a project represents an extreme challenge to all engineers involved, especially if – as in the case of the CTL – work is carried out below a city of half a million people. All surveying for the three contracts was undertaken by Angermeier Ingenieure GmbH (Contract B in a joint venture with Geodata ZT). This task also included the relocation of the porticus at Bayerischer Bahnhof. The relocation of this listed structure
was necessary to build one of the four stations and its progress was keenly followed by Leipzig's population and media alike. All the surveying work is based on surveying programmes in which all the geodetic tasks are precisely described and specified. Approval is given by a representative of the client, DEGES (Deutsche Einheit FernstraĂ&#x;enplanungs- und -bau GmbH). The scope of the surveying programmes â€“ there were more than 20 in all â€“ makes clear the scale of this project and impressively demonstrates the high demands placed upon the work of the surveying engineers.
The geodetic network The starting point for all measurements was the highly accurate geodetic network provided by the client. The basic network was made more detailed with two further large networks extending over all the works contracts, each surveyed in three separate and independent surveying campaigns. The resulting information was used to control the tunnel boring machine (TBM) and the surveying for all the defor-
mation monitoring and construction setting out. Positional surveying was performed using Leica TCA 2003 total stations in conjunction with GPH1-P precision prisms and GPS surveys (Leica GPS 500, Leica GPS1200). Level surveys were carried out in 2 campaigns using digital levels (Leica DNA03) using invar staffs and the BFFB-levelling method. The network survey data provided accuracies of approximately 1-2 mm in position and 0.5 mm in level. The surveying tasks on the City-Tunnel Leipzig generally fell into one of two principle types. On the one hand, there was surveying for construction and the subsequent checking of the constructed works against the drawings. And on the other hand, there was surveying for the monitoring of movement and deformation, since, with a project of this magnitude, deformation at surface level and subsidence of buildings must be taken into account.
Minimising risk The reduction of risk to a minimum was accomplished using a comprehensive safety and monitoring con-
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cept in which more than 60 buildings and items of engineering infrastructure were precisely monitored using tacheometric surveying and precision levelling. Upon completion of the approximately 6 km long project, it is estimated that up to 8'000 km of levelling will have taken place. Compensation grouting is used to counteract any building subsidence. This process involves drilling horizontally under all building foundations from a total of 12 shafts. A cement suspension grout is introduced into these holes to stabilise the ground. If any subsidence occurs, the buildings standing on this ground can be returned to their original position by inserting further grout into the holes. This system was used on 35 buildings in total and over 1'350 hydrostatic levelling gauges had to be controlled and monitored. These hydrostatic levelling systems were installed and continuously maintained by Angermeier Ingenieure GmbH. In critical situations they supply measurements every 45 seconds to a central analysis program. By the end of the project over 400 gigabytes of data will have been collected.
Tacheometric monitoring A further highly sensitive area in the construction of the underground station is the west wing of Leipzig's
main rail station. A tacheometric monitoring system consisting of 12 total stations (Leica TCA2003) was set up to monitor the work. Measurements are taken, processed and automatically evaluated every hour. This enables estimates of possible deformations of the works themselves or loadbearing components, such as roof supports, to be made at any time. The system has about 200 deformation points and 60 fixed points, all of which are fitted with Leica GPH121 reflectors. High precision and fully automatic operation is achieved by using more than 12 Leica Geosystems total stations, which have already proved to be very reliable. That this system does not interfere in any way with the operation of the station as far as the travelling public is concerned, demonstrates the excellence of the concept and its implementation. About the authors: Michael Amrhein (Managing Director), Guido von Gรถsseln and Dieter Heinz work for Angermeier Ingenieure GmbH. The company's activities centre on the areas of engineering surveying (tunnels, tracks), the design and installation of systems for monitoring construction works and the geometric control of large infrastructure projects.
High effort for safety The City-Tunnel Leipzig project is one of the most complex tunnelling projects in the field of infrastructure modernisation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The requirements placed on the surveying engineers, both from the engineering point of view and in respect of the continuous responsibility for protection against personal injury or death and financial damages, are immense. For the inhabitants of Leipzig and its visitors however, all this effort is a small price to pay for safety.
The tunnel boring machine just before deployment.
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A City on the Move by Vicki Speed
High above the streets of Manhattan there is a new form of public servant dedicated to serving and protecting the people, property and assets of New York City. This servant works 24/7, never asks for a raise and never takes a break. Its main purpose is to continuously measure and monitor any movement of buildings and structures that might take place while heavy construction continues around the clock throughout the city that never sleeps. In the last five years, New York City has become one of the most active construction zones in the world – both above and below ground. In addition to the very visible 16-acre World Trade Center rebuild, the city is expanding its subway system with several new lines while public and private developers construct or renovate numerous commercial and residential high-rise projects. Mega construction projects such as these inevitably cause some shift in surrounding structures. It is up to the New York surveying and engineering community to manage and monitor this movement to prevent disaster. Advanced laser-based
monitoring instruments offer a reliable, affordable and continuous solution. In New York City, there are currently over 40 automatic long-term movement monitoring instruments working to provide engineers, project managers, contractors and owners with answers to the question, “Did it move?” and if so, “How much, and when?”
South Ferry Terminal and World Trade Center Rebuild: 24/7 Response Part of the New York City subway system is the $490 million South Ferry Terminal project, located underneath Peter Minuit Plaza in Lower Manhattan, adjacent to Battery Park and the Staten Island Ferry Terminal. Once complete in early 2009, this terminal will accommodate 10-car trains and have multiple station entrances, including escalators and elevators. Geocomp Corporation, a leader in real-time performance monitoring of constructed facilities, is charged with monitoring the underground and above ground structures including many of the historic buildings that are located throughout this southern portion of Manhattan. The firm installed Leica TCA1800 total stations on several facilities throughout the South Ferry Terminal construction site.
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Gerard Manley of Leica Geosystems discussing World Trade Project with Geocomp engineer.
According to Allen Marr, President of Geocomp, “We use the tool’s Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) capabilities to measure changes in target positions located on existing structures to an accuracy of 1 mm. These instruments are workhorses, built to withstand harsh environments with accuracy and reliability. Some units were placed inside the existing tunnels where they had to operate while heavy construction equipment created dust, dirt, grease and moisture.” Each instrument can be programmed to automatically search and collect data on as many as 100 targets. On the South Ferry project, ten total stations and hundreds of targets were used for this purpose. The recorded data is collected and transferred in real time via wireless radio to Leica Geosytems GeoMos software at the Geocomp project site. Geocomp interfaces the Leica GeoMos software with its iSiteCentral software to provide automated alert messages by email any time a measured value exceeds a preset limit. Another example is directly in the center of the World Trade Center reconstruction site, where Geocomp is monitoring an active subway tube while the earth above and below is removed to make way for the foundations of the new towers. Gerard Manley, Vice President of Engineered Solutions at Leica Geosystems, says, “It’s an amazing engineering feat to see
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a New York subway that was once under ground, now fully exposed and supported only by pillars. We are monitoring this subway suspension as well as several other locations within the World Trade Center site for any sag or subsidence.”
From East to West Manhattan’s Upper East Side, best known for its high-priced high-rise real estate, internationallyfamous museums, and 843-acre Central Park, is also undergoing extensive renovations, including the construction of the new 2nd Avenue subway line to relieve severe congestion on the subway and buses. Wang Engineering is involved in monitoring many of the buildings surrounding the 2nd Ave project. Again Leica TCA1800’s and TCA2003’s are deployed on the sides of buildings. The instruments’ lasers focus on targets located on the sides of buildings up and down 2nd Avenue. Data is collected at a construction site location then transferred to Wang’s headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey for analysis and presentation. Similarly, Tectonic Engineering and Surveying Consultants P.C., implemented an unmanned geodeticlevel monitoring system in Queens to measure possible Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) subway system track shifts caused by the construction of a nearby commercial building and parking garage. Of specific concern to MTA authorities was deep foundation pile driving which causes impact
and vibration to surrounding structures, and thus the potential for movement of nearby train tracks, which could cause derailment. The commercial building is located about 25 feet from MTA subway tracks, a bridge and a highway. Tectonic Engineering and Surveying Consultants P.C. monitored the movement of the bridge, tunnel walls and retaining walls during the nearby pile driving over the course of 15 months. The structural monitoring network consisted of 32 prisms and a TCRP1201 robotic total station with power search and Pinpoint R300 reflectorless distance measurement with a laptop running the Leica Geosystems GeoMoS automatic monitoring software. The roboticcapable total station and laptop were mounted on a custom built pedestal permanently attached to a concrete abutment of the bridge. A shed was built around it for protection from the weather and security. Michael Lacey, P.L.S., Tectonic’s Chief Surveyor says, “The entire network was unmanned 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, with the capability of checking on required readings and managing the “raw” data through our FTP site, from anywhere at anytime. Even if the Internet signal went down, the GeoMoS software continued to gather data from the prisms. The entire monitoring effort was controlled by the GeoMoS software on site using a laptop computer.” On Manhattan’s west side along the Hudson River, GZA GeoEnvironmental Inc., a premium geotechnical engineering firm, is conducting structural movement studies of buildings, existing tunnels and bridges in advance of the underground construction that will
become part of the $2.1 billion expansion of the MTA’s No. 7 Line subway extension, one of the larger construction projects in all of Manhattan. These movement studies allow engineers to develop a “baseline” of data that represents existing conditions and alerts all responsible parties in near real time using Webbased data transfer and reporting systems.
The Big Apple and Beyond “Structural monitoring data is the basis by which industry professionals can ascertain overall structural movement, an integral part of most construction projects throughout New York City and around the world,” concludes Leica Geosystems’s Manley. “We currently have over 40 automatic total stations operating in New York City. Surveyors and engineers use them for everything from engineering analysis to resolving legal disputes. The technology has gone from ‘nice to have’ to absolutely required. We’ve even seen construction completely stopped until our instruments were put in place and collecting data and providing protection.” While the demand for the structural monitoring systems continues to grow, developers continue to advance the technology’s capabilities in terms wireless data options, ever-tighter accuracy, speed and size. It’s fast become the most reliable way to watch a city on the move. About the author: Vicki Speed is a freelance writer based in Dove Canyon, California. She specializes in the architecture, engineering, surveying and construction industries.
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3D Measuring for Building Refurbishment by Reinhard Gottwald and Thomas Knabl
In times of energy shortages and price increases, more attention is paid to ways to exploit energy saving potential. The CCEM Retrofit Project does exactly this in the building sector, an area thought to offer major energy saving potential. One approach to maximise saving potential is to jacket old buildings with prefabricated elements. An indispensable step in the process is highly accurate and reliable acquisition and provision of 3D planning data. This is where geomatics comes in, making an important contribu-
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tion to future energy savings in buildings within the CCEM Retrofit Project. In mid-2006, a large joint project was approved in the University of Zurich (ETH) “Competence Center Energy and Mobility” (CCEM) under the title of “Advanced Energy-Efficient Renovation of Buildings” (or “CCEM Retrofit”) with research partners from 10 European countries. By the year 2050, over 90 percent of the energy demand associated with buildings will be caused by buildings constructed before 2000. This shows that there is clearly an enormous energy saving potential in the area of old buildings. Conse-
quently, the declared aim of the project is to work with competent partners in industry to develop and implement detailed concepts for the comprehensive renovation of old buildings, especially blocks of flats and other multi-family houses. In order to reach the set targets (including 30-50 kWh/m² for heating, cooling and hot water, usage of solar energy, good thermal comfort, noise protection), a basic renovation concept was drawn up that included various inter-related, prefabricated renovation modules (“retrofits”) for facades, roof, and building services engineering. A number of research partners including the University of Applied Sciences in Northwestern Switzerland and the ETH in Zurich came together to develop the detailed concept and implement it on selected objects. 20 industry partners are also involved in the project, ensuring a multi-disciplinary, practical and application-oriented approach to running the project. With total costs of approximately 5 million Swiss Francs (€ 3.1 million, US$ 4.3 million), the project is due to be completed by 2010.
The idea seen through the eyes of measuring technology If we analyse the measurement technology processes currently associated with large construction and renovation projects, we usually see that all of the parties involved in the project either take the measurements required for their specific portion of the project themselves or arrange to have them taken. The reasons for this lie predominantly in the current legal situation, according to which planning institutions accept no liability whatsoever for the dimensioning of the basic planning, shifting responsibility instead to the institutions carrying out the work. On the other hand, there is also still a fundamental lack of understanding about the possibilities offered by precise three-dimensional measurements of such objects with modern measuring technology and central data management and usage. Thanks to the consistent use of suitable 3D measuring technology, corresponding processing of the data and a central geometry data management system, it is however possible to significantly reduce the time, installation risks and costs whilst simultaneously significantly increasing the planning reliability. Consequently this was proposed and implemented
for the acquisition and usage of the 3D geometry information of renovation objects for the energyefficient renovation of old buildings in the CCEM Retrofit Project. The following are some of the objectives defined for the “3D measuring technology” part of the project: Development of a concept which ensures that sufficiently accurate three-dimensional geometrical data are available for a renovation project and can be used as a reliable basis from the planning stage through to production and assembly. Definition of the required data quality, the data volume and the interfaces for data transfer to systems that process the data further . Development of a “toolbox“ for cost/benefit optimised data acquisition and processing as well as data management (flow of geometric data).
Description of the problem When renovating a building with prefabricated retrofits (e.g. facade or roof modules including ventilation and electrical installations), reliable measurement of the building geometry and/or the actual inventory is an indispensable basis for a smooth project flow. Any construction plans or architect’s drawings which are still in existence are generally not adequate. This means that the facade structure, windows, doors, balconies, roof, stairwell, apartments and surroundings need to be measured. The required accuracy (1 σ) is around ± 4 mm in the window areas and ± 7 mm in the roof/facade area.
The measuring technology toolbox A range of different sensors must be used to meet the relatively complex and varied requirements in terms of the 3D geometric representation of a renovation object as cost-effectively as possible. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS): With terrestrial laser scanning, the object geometry can be measured more quickly thanks to the ability to capture complete areas and objects. The problems associated with TLS lie in the further processing of the data and in object extraction. Close-range photogrammetry: Close-range photogrammetry is a good addition to terrestrial laser scanning and offers a good alternative for building façade pictures thanks to fast photographic data capture. Here, it is also possible to take airborne pictures with the aid of microdrones in order to add additional perspectives to the terrestrial recordings.
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Tachymetry, individual distances: For data acquisition based on single points, classic electronic tachymetry is still a useful tool. Here, the data can be supplemented, simplified and accelerated with the aid of numerous software tools. Handheld distance meters can also be used to supplement data acquired with the above technologies, to generate dimensions for checking, for individual supplementary measurements or measurements of partially obscured objects. Comprehensive and cost-benefit optimized object capture is undoubtedly only achievable through a meaningful combination and supplementation of these technologies (measuring technology toolbox).
Initial experience A typical multi-family building in need of renovation was chosen as the first object for basic studies and tests. The building was used for general testing of the different methods, processes and instruments and combinations thereof under proper application conditions. The initial results and products were then used for the detailed discussions and specifications as well as to test processes with the project partners involved. TLS was used to scan the facade, stairwell, loft and selected inside rooms (a Leica HDS3000 was used). These scans were supplemented with photogrammetric recordings (terrestrial, microdrone) and single point measurements (total stations).
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In the following we take a closer look at some of the options and applications available with the described toolbox. Creation of a photographic overview: Removing distortions in images through definition of a flat surface in the image is a simple and time-saving method to generate groundwork plans. The accuracy which can be achieved depends to a very large degree on the camera, its calibration and the deviation of the facadeâ€™s surface from the defined surface. Photogrammetric evaluation: Drone-based closerange photogrammetry offers an additional way to fill in gaps (e.g. roof surfaces, window sills and balcony doors) sometimes caused by shading or areas which are inaccessible for laser scanning. Initial results have shown that this type of combination is perfectly feasible. Due to the limited load capacity of the microdrones, it was necessary to use a standard commercially available compact digital camera. Consequently the resolution is not sufficient for detailed analysis (e.g. on windows) at present. In terms of the image measurement accuracy, values of less than one pixel can be achieved with the aid of self-calibration. The option of a combined evaluation with laser scanning data should not be ignored either. Laser scanning evaluation: Evaluations have shown that terrestrial laser scanning is very well suited to flatness analyses on facades (and possibly roofs). The â€œgeneration of orthophotoâ€? function also
"The strengths of geomatics lie in the absolute and non-invasive measurements. Working with interdisciplinary teams of planers and architects this can also help overcome a lack of measurement knowledge." Professor Dr. Reinhard Gottwald, Head of the Institute for Surveying and Geo Information at the University of Applied Sciences in Northwestern Switzerland
makes it possible to generate the initial basis for planning quickly and easily. However, the time and effort required to completely extract all of the necessary geometric elements for a model is very high, and depending on the product it can be many times the time required for field recordings. Laser scanning – reverse engineering: Reverse engineering has long been used in the areas of mechanical engineering, medicine and art. In the process, existing or modelled objects (e.g. freeform surfaces) are digitized so that they can be digitally edited, adapted and manufactured. The effort involved is significantly less than for the generation of interactive 3D geometry models, and the information density of the point clouds can be largely retained. The accuracy which can be achieved with this method is in the same order of magnitude as 3D point determination and would therefore be immediately sufficient.
Conclusions and outlook The requirements of all of the different parties involved in the project need to be defined as accurately and in as much detail as possible in the planning phase so that the costs and benefits of the chosen methods of data acquisition and data processing can be optimized in relation to the acquisition of the 3D geometry of the renovation object. Initial experience has shown that the object-based recording method with TLS is suitable for geometric modelling
of renovation objects. The information density is of particular interest, as it makes it possible to detail a non-regular object – which is what most buildings are – and describe it with a sufficient level of detail. Ultimately though, it will always be necessary to combine different instruments from the toolbox. The acceptance of centralized data access by all parties involved in the project and the extraction of the required data with suitable user-friendly tools must be ensured. This is the key element which will either make or break the project we have presented in this article. About the authors: Prof. Reinhard Gottwald is the head of the Institute for Surveying and Geo Information at the University of Applied Sciences in Northwestern Switzerland, College for Architecture, Construction and Geomatics in Muttenz. Graduate engineer Thomas Knabl is a scientific research assistant at the Institute. This article is the short version of a report in the "Flächenmanagement und Bodenordnung" magazine.
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Documenting a Subsea Tunnel by Frode Edvardsen, 3D-Drawing by Arild W. Solerød
The E18 Bjørvika project, scheduled to be completed in February 2010, will improve the environment of Oslo’s inner city and enhance the area around the new opera near Bjørvika harbour by moving traffic underground – and under water. Part of this ambitious project is a subsea tunnel – the first one ever built in Norway – consisting of six 100 m long elements. The shape of the tunnel is an additional challenge for the engineers: each element is curved, and some of them were built on a flat floor in the dry dock, but will have to fall to the seabed to reach their final destination. A case for Leica Geosystems’ High Definition Surveying™, as told by Frode Edvardsen from contractor Skanska in Norway. When completed, the Bjørvika tunnel will be 1'100 m long with three lanes of traffic in each direction. 675 m of the project consist of a subsea tunnel – the first one ever built in Norway, and one of the great-
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est Norwegian contractor projects ever. It is made up of 6 elements, each over 100 m long with walls 1 m thick and roofs and floors 1.20 m thick. The elements were pre-fabricated in a dry dock on the west coast of Norway, and were towed to Oslo by sea.
As-built documentation of the elements Following our customer’s demand for as-built documentation of the elements, we scanned the first two elements with a normal total station. This took quite some time and the resolution was not comparable to a modern scanner. The horizontal surfaces were scanned with the total station and vertical surfaces were measured by single point lines. For the next two elements, we relied on Leica Geosystems’ High Definition Surveying™ (HDS) technology, since as-built surveying is easier to accomplish with a laser scanner than a total station. At this time (2006) we had just started using HDS technology and did a complete scan of the inside and outside of the two elements. In the course of a few days 35
scanning positions with high resolution were finished with a Leica HDS3000 scanner. Lots of heavy scanning equipment made the job difficult since the foundations for the walls of the ballast tanks were under construction at the time. These were 0.5 m high and all of the equipment had to be dragged over each of them. This meant about 60-70 kg had to be moved from one scanning position to another. The process for the last two elements was almost the same, only here we started with the Leica HDS3000 scanner and ended with the Leica ScanStation 2. Lars Gulbrandsen, HDS Sales Engineer for Leica Geosystems Norway, drove all the way from Oslo to Bergen (540 km) just to deliver the first ScanStation 2 in Norway. Working with the Leica ScanStation 2 was almost like working with a “greased up” Leica HDS3000: much faster! Instead of 7-8 different full FOV scanning positions per day, the capacity with the ScanStation 2 expanded to 11-12. Even though the Leica ScanStation 2 was the main scanner on the job, ordinary surveying was used to measure the targets because of narrow sights to the fix points inside the elements. Since it is not possible to measure single points precisely with the scanner, a total station was used to measure the break lines inside the elements. The mesh operation was easier to accomplish with pre-defined break lines in the post-processing phase.
Post processing The difference between ordinary surveying and modern laser scanning is that the survey sites physically have to be tided up before scanning to miminimize “garbage points” that have to be edited out of the point cloud afterwards. When a scene is scanned, “everything” gets measured, so the scene should be nice and clean. On the other hand the area often has lots of scrap, scaffolding, lifts and machinery from the building process. This can of course be tided up, but normally there is no time for this. Another aspect in editing is the concrete surface, if it is irregular it is quite difficult to decide which points to remove and which to leave in. All of this is a part of the rough editing of the point cloud. After surveying, the workflow continues with Leica Cyclone semi automatic editing tools like “Region grow – Smooth surface”, manual fencing around unwanted points and of course the brilliant “Limit box”. All of the redundant points are placed in their own layers instead of being deleted. This gives the operator a second chance to retrieve them if too many points were removed from the point cloud. About the author: Frode Edvardsen is a MSc of Geomatics at Skanska Norge AS survey department.
The Bjørvika Tunnel Length: 675 m Width: 30-40 m Average depth: 15 m Weight: 37’000 tons per element Concrete: 90’000 m³ total Equipment used Scanner: Leica HDS3000, Leica ScanStation 2 Field laptop: Panasonic Toughbook CF-19 Software: Leica Cyclone Scan/Register/Model Totalstation: Leica TCRP1203
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 33
Training & Service in Guatemala by Agnes Zeiner
A comprehensive Peace Accord, signed on 29 December 1996, ended 36 years of civil conflict in the Central American State of Guatemala. The Accord’s land-related commitments included establishing a cadastral-based land registry. The “Guatemala Cadastre Project” fully relies on Leica Geosystems’ products – and the ongoing support of the Guatemalan distribution partner Precision, S.A. The promise of peace has provided Guatemalan society with a point of convergence, opening spaces for the Government of Guatemala to pursue fiscal, institutional and legislative reforms. The “Guatemala Cadastre Project” is a mixed credit program between the Swiss and Guatemalan Governments, and has been instrumental in the implementation of Land Reform projects, of which several subprojects are now in execution. After purchasing Leica Geosystems’ total stations and GPS instruments in 2002 (see Reporter 48), the National Geografic Institute (IGN) and the Registro
34 | Reporter
de Informacion Catastral (RIC) now again rely on Leica Geosystems’ instruments. Alfredo Bran, CEO of Precision, S.A., Leica Geosystems distribution partner in Guatemala: “The project contains different groups of instruments from Leica Geosystems, such as total stations, GPS/GNSS instruments, levels and photogrammetric solutions. Now the Guatemalan Government has decided to install 14 Leica GNSS Reference Stations to cover the entire Guatemalan territory and lead the country towards the future of geoinformation.” The project includes a school for training in the next two years. Technicians from the Registro de Informacion Catastral and the National Geografic Institute have already been and will be trained in the future by Leica Geosystems and BSF Swissphoto AG. This is an essential part of the project. Another reason for the success is that Precision S.A. could guarantee ongoing support, including a complete, certified workshop with all the special tools and spare parts. Alfredo Bran: "Our customers do not have to wait long for the service and repairs of their instruments. That is what has made us the market leader in Guatemala for the past 40 years.”
Terrain Measurement in Japan A big Aerial Laser Measurement project, which measured about a quarter of the whole country (100'000 km²), took place in Japan from 2005 to 2007. Asia Air Survey took part in this project and was responsible for one fifth of the specified area. To complete and manage the large volume of measurements effectively, the company decided to rely on Leica Geosystems technology for the first time and to be the first to use a Leica ALS50-II in Japan.
Mountain ridges are shown in white and valleys in black. Red density depends on slope; gentle slopes are represented in light red while steep ones are shown in dark red. Red is used since it is the clearest color from an ergonomic standpoint. In Japan, data captured by aerial laser measurement systems contribute mainly to disaster prevention.
Amongst the terrain scanned was the Sameura Dam in Kochi, one of the most important dams in Japan, which often has drought problems. This impressive Red Relief Image Map (RRIM) was generated using a visualization technology developed and patented by Asia Air Survey. Terrains such as mountain ridges and valleys are clearly visible despite the lake being surrounded by forest.. The image clearly shows the advantages of this new technology: Terrain is represented in 3D. The image does not depend on the source of light and there are no resulting shadow areas. Hence the image can be viewed from all directions without the possibility of a relief reversal.
Accuracy for the Agriculture Industry Leica mojoRTK revolutionizes the agricultural industry with a new auto-steer system that provides repeatable 5 cm RTK accuracy with 99 % reliability. It is packaged in a console that is easy to use and installed in about an hour into the tractor’s radio slot. mojoRTK provides an affordable solution for farmers who need to see repeatability pass to pass and year to year. “We have virtually eliminated cab clutter and developed a true plug-and-play solution that allows farmers to install the console in their tractor quickly and easily,” says Mario Hutter, European business manager for Leica Geosystems’ Agriculture Division. “The complete mojoRTK system also comes with a cordless base station which can be mobile or fixed.”
settings the farmer sees in the cab. Technicians can even adjust settings remotely to fix set-up problems or train users.
Plus, with Virtual Wrench™, the agriculture industry’s first remote service and diagnostic tool, support technicians can view the same console screens and
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 35
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