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The Magazine of Leica Geosystems Geosystems

2 CEO Message During the past year, Leica Geosystems has brought more new products to market than ever before. In fact, during the current year, over half of our sales will come from products that are less than a year old. This is a level of innovation that none of our competitors can match. Leica Geosystems can certainly stand in front of our customers and be proud of what we have to offer. This was the case during ISPRS Congress held in July in Istanbul where we showcased our current instruments and solutions.

In February, Leica Geosystems launched the first universal TPS and GPS system, the Leica System 1200. Customers who have purchased these instruments are already experiencing

Contact You can find Leica Geosystems at numerous exhibitions, congresses and roadshows in your region. In addition, you can find information and documentation on our national websites or on Here you will also find previous Reporter issues in different languages. Please visit us.

a 25% growth in productivity. You can read about some of these success stories in this issue of the Reporter. In Portugal, the use of Leica SPIDER software along with the GPS1200 is taking over the management of the Portuguese National GPS Network (page 15). In the UK, South Downs Survey is using TPS1200 for survey in harsh quarry environments and were able to complete the work in half the expected time (page 24). In Denmark, Surveyors Tvilum Landinspektørfirma have purchased both the TPS1200 and the GPS1200 and they are meeting increased demands for efficiency and flexibility (page 26).

Our focus still very much remains on providing our customers with not only the latest technological advances in our products, but also the best support and service in our industry, and ensuring that we are accessible to our customers wherever they are in the world.

In Russia we opened a new sales office to be closer to our customers and in Belgium, we


took over the distribution from an earlier partner to better service the market in this region. In Eastern Europe, we strengthened our distribution network to explore opportunities in

Published by: Leica Geosystems AG CH-9435 Heerbrugg CEO Hans Hess

infrastructure development and we opened a new development center in Shanghai in

Editorial Office: Leica Geosystems AG, CH-9435 Heerbrugg, Switzerland Fax +41 71 726 5043 Email:

acquisition of Tritronics in Australia. Since then we have formed a new Leica Technology

Editors: Teresa Belcher (Bt); Fritz Staudacher (Stfi); Desktop and Publishing: Teresa Belcher, Niklaus Frei, Regina Hösli

provides an overview of this business and the direction in which we are heading. Stay

Production details: The Reporter is published in English, German, French and Spanish, four times a year. Reprints and translations, including excerpts, are subject to the Editor's prior permission in writing.

order to localize and customize our offering for China. Nearly a year has passed since the

Center in Brisbane, Australia and have strengthened our product offering in machine automation and mining. The review of our mine-production technology (page 8-10)

tuned because there are many more exciting products yet to come to market in the next 12 months.

I can confidently say that we are certainly seeing the fruits of our investments, and will continue to grow from strength to strength as we progress through this year.

The publication is printed on chlorine-free paper made by environmentally compatible processes. © Leica Geosystems AG, Heerbrugg, August 2004, Printed in Switzerland Editorial deadline for next issue: 30 September, 2004

Hans Hess CEO Leica Geosystems




“The BigDig” mines savings from highdefinition surveying


Palaeontologists model the Original Tyrannosaurus rex with Leica LR200 Laser Radar Scanners

Leica Geosystems builds strengths in mineproduction technology 4 Palaeontologists model the Original Tyrannosaurus rex with Leica LR200 Laser Radar Scanners 6 “The BigDig” mines savings from high-definition surveying 8 Leica Geosystems builds strengths in mineproduction technology


11 A masterpiece of the Viennese Art Nouveau are restored - the Ohmannsche Wienfluss buildings at the municipal park

From Austria to Australia GPS Spider nets the world

12 From Austria to Australia GPS Spider nets the world 15 Leica GPS SPIDER takes over management of the Portuguese National GPS Network


Taking preventative measures against West Nile Virus in California with the help of remotesensing software

18 Taking preventative measures against West Nile Virus in California with the help of remote-sensing software


World's largest Diamond Mine enlists Javelin to do the job


Tvilum Landinspektørfirma invests in System 1200


Emerging technology unveils castle's past

20 World's largest Diamond Mine enlists Javelin to do the job 22 News in Brief 24 One man, one instrument = increased productivity: System 1200 exceeds all expectations in stock survey 26 Tvilum Landinspektørfirma invests in System 1200 29 Emerging technology unveils castle's past


4 Palaeontology

Palaeontologists model the Original Tyrannosaurus rex with Leica LR200 Laser Radar Scanners

(Above): The T. rex skeleton scanned resides in the Dinosaur Hall at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA. It was the actual evidence -"Type Specimen" - used by Henry Fairfield Osborn to first classify the world's most popular dinosaur species in 1905. This original skeleton was discovered in the Montana Badlands by the famous dinosaur hunter Barnum Brown. Today, the dinosaur is estimated to be worth over 50 million dollars

(Below): The museum will pose two Tyrannosaurus rex fossils, including the actual type skeleton, battling over an Edmontosaurus

High-tech laser radar scanners from Leica Geosystems have been used to produce the most complete digital model to date of the massive dinosaur, Tyrannosaurus rex. In order to demonstrate the current state-of-the-art Coherent Laser Radar (CLR) technology, a team of metrology experts from Leica Geosystems, MAGLEV, Inc. (McKeesport, PA), and MetricVision, in association with the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (Pittsburgh, PA), used two Leica LR200 Laser Radars to scan every inch and surface of the world's most famous dinosaur that resides in the Museum's Dinosaur Hall. Collection of 3D data sets The pair of networked LR200 coherent Laser radars were placed upon six-foot towers and navigated around the perimeter of the historic skeleton in order to collect accurate 3D data sets, otherwise known as point clouds. The gathered point clouds were then used to measure and build a 3D

computer solid model - an exact digital prototype of the 17-foot tall dinosaur, and the most accurate and comprehensive set of measurements taken of a dinosaur of T. rex's scale. The Leica LR200 is the ideal measurement device for precisely measuring large objects with scan rates up to 1000 points per second at volumes up to 48 cubic

Palaeontology meters with accuracy up to 20 microns. The instrument is the first non-contact measurement device to combine radar, laser and 3D software technologies. Other supporters of the project included measurement specialists from ATT Metrology Services®, New River Kinematics® with Spatial Analyzer™, the operating software and Unigraphics® for their surfacing software, Imageware™. The team of engineers and scientists donated the entire digital library of T. rex data to the Carnegie Museum of Natural History for use in future research and artefact conservation. Modelling with a digital replica

"Using a direct measurement instrument, we are capturing very high precision T. rex surface data, in contrast to less accurate artistic methods - the laser radar has enabled us to acquire accuracy up to 250 microns," Steve Hand, an expert metrologist at MAGLEV, Inc. and project manager, said. "Using the resultant 3D computer model, Carnegie palaeontologists will be able to take T. rex apart in sections, even vertebrae by vertebrae, to re-position the dinosaur." "But the benefits of the scan do not stop here. The precise model will serve as the foundation for scientific analysis, comparisons to other fossils, and more." The T. Rex walks again

Palaeontologists now believe the Tyrannosaurus species carried its tail high in the air. The museum will therefore pose two Tyrannosaurus rex fossils, including the actual type skeleton, battling over an Edmontosaurus (see sketch left), thus setting the stage for an investigation into carnivorous dinosaur behaviour. With an exact computer digital replica, the museum will be able to easily model the 3D skeleton in different configurations, choose the most appealing positions, and then design the required support. This high precision data can also be used further down the road for scientific analysis of the fossilized bones.

The story, however, did not end there. Extrude Hone Corporation's ProMetal Division, took the scanned data and replicated the famous T. rex in solid metal. This was created by 3D Printing – a process that manufactures highly accurate and complex metal, ceramic, or metal ceramic composites from three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) models. The partnership proved that science and technology combined with a little imagination - can help museums preserve and promote one of the earth's most valued artefacts. This

About MAGLEV, Inc. Incorporated in 1990, MAGLEV's mission is to create an integrated Pennsylvania Industry/Government partnership and implement manufacturing, construction, and deployment of a Transrapid International magnetically levitated high-speed transportation system beginning in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. "Based on the same level of precision, we will use the laser radar technology to build highly accurate guideway beams for high-speed magnetically levitating trains," Steve Hand said. The company acquired their coherent laser scanner through a contract with the Office of Naval Research for a study of weld distortion in steel beams for shipbuilding applications. The collaborative endeavour between MAGLEV and U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR) provides the research and testing groundwork to perform weld distortion analysis for the manufacture of highly accurate large steel curved beams using the LR200 laser radar. For more information, visit demonstration of accuracy in measurement, scanning capability and rapid manufacture will not only help revolutionize the field of palaeontology, but it will benefit generations of dinosaur lovers for many years to come.

(Right): The LR200 coherent Laser radars had to be placed on towers in order to navigate around the skeleton (Below left): The Laser radars produce accurate 3D data set known as point clouds (Below): The gathered point clouds were then used to measure and build a 3D computer solid model


6 Road construction & tunnelling

"The BigDig" mines savings from high-definition surveying

Boston's massive BigDig project has taken advantage of numerous technology innovations during its 15-year life. The latest technology success story is the project's use of Leica Geosystems' highdefinition surveying (laser scanning) systems.

(Above): Portal clearances were checked along full width of the roadway (Below): Scan data were used for annotating photo of tunnel portal clearance

The Massachusetts Turnpike Authority's Central Artery/ Tunnel Project (or "The BigDig" as it is commonly known) is the largest, most complex, and technologicallychallenging highway project ever attempted in American history ( The $15 billion project will dramatically reduce downtown traffic congestion and improve the quality of life in

one of America's oldest and most congested cities. The BigDig is also a geometrically-complex project that lends itself well to laser scanning. Project Agency bought two scanners The Federal Highway Administration recommended to the Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) authority that they investigate the use of laser scanning on the project. In 2001, BSC/Cullinan, a subcontractor dedicated exclusively to provide surveying services for CA/T, investigated the potential benefits of applying laser scanning for contractually required "closeout" as-builts of the project's many complex intersections, roadways, bridges, tunnels, and support infrastructure. Closeout as-builts are final records of what was actually built on the project (as opposed to

design drawings). The investigation found that laser scanning (or high-definition surveying, as it is now called) could save $2 million compared to traditional methods. Based on these projected savings and BSC/Cullinan's subsequent detailed analysis of all available laser scanning hardware and software solutions on the market, the Central Artery/Tunnel agency soon acquired from Leica Geosystems two Cyrax 2500 laser scanners, Cyclone software, and classroom training for BSC/Cullinan staff. Multiple uses Although the laser scanning systems were acquired for the purpose of capturing and delivering closeout drawings, they were not used for this right away. Instead, as the project's construction engineers (or “resident engineers”) became aware of the systems' capabilities, BSC/Cullinan quickly began to receive requests to use the scanners on “critical path” surveys that risked delaying scheduled road and tunnel openings.

Road construction & tunnelling One of the most compelling needs was to accelerate the surveying of new road paving. Contractors had to determine if any areas of the road surface, which was applied in layers, required more paving material or if any areas required the most recent layer to be ground down to meet specs. For one such "roadway finish survey" - a section of I-93 - three conventional survey crews were scheduled to take three weeks to survey 3.5 lanemiles. When the project's resident engineer learned about the speed of laser scanning, he secured the subcontractor's laser scanning services. The result: fieldwork was completed in just three days with one scanner crew! Another early BigDig application was BSC/Cullinan's surveying of "portal clearances" to determine minimum distances from the road surface to the tunnel opening. The benefit of laser scanning is that capturing complete data provided a higher confidence level as to where the absolute minimum clearance existed. A conventional survey would only have obtained clearances where shots were taken or where height poles were placed. This would not necessarily have determined the minimum. Yet another BSC/Cullinan use of high-definition surveying was for geometric quality checks of a large, complex air intake structure. The goal was to ensure that key elements of the structure had been constructed within their geometric specifications. High-definition surveying was a big winner from a cost/productivity standpoint. The tall structure required only three days of laser scanning compared to an estimated three weeks had the as-built surveys been done traditionally. In addition, data capture was done remotely with scanning. This represented a safety advantage over

traditional methods that would have required surveyors to climb on the structure to achieve measurements with the necessary accuracy. Taking advantage of the technology At the height of scanning activity, from November 2002 through to February 2004, both of BSC/Cullinan's Cyrax 2500's were used five days per week, sometimes on double shifts. Overall, BSC/Cullinan's main client, Bechtel/Parsons Brinkerhoff, was very happy with the results and continuously sought ways to take further advantage of the technology. Other local subcontractors in the Boston area, including Meridian Associates, Inc. and Digital Geographic Technologies (DGT), have also provided Cyrax-based laser scanning services to various portions of the BigDig project, also with great success. Meridian Associates, for example, scanned hundreds of overhead girders in a 5,000' tunnel section in just five nights, saving an estimated 75 nights of traditional surveying in the tunnel; this also saved their client up to $100,000 in fees for additional lane closure services. New HDS3000 Scanner for Project Recently, the Central Artery/ Tunnel authority ordered and BSC/Cullinan took delivery of Leica Geosystems' new HDS3000 laser scanner as a third unit in their fleet of scanners for the BigDig. This acquisition was based on BSC/Cullinan's analysis of productivity gains for the HDS3000 (up to 50%) versus a Cyrax 2500 for the type of work needed. The new HDS3000 scanner has already been used on projects for the BigDig. BSC/ Cullinan has reported publicly that the scanner is living up to their expectations in terms of significant productivity gains.

(Above): Plan view deliverable of pavement QA was created in Cyclone from scan data

(Below): Laser scan of complex air intake structure

(Below): High-definition survey of recently paved roadway within tunnel


8 Machine Automation

Leica Geosystems builds strengths in mine-production technology shifting that technology and know-how into the construction industry." GPS-based navigation solutions The integrated solutions offered by the previous Tritronics business incorporate a range of technologies such as high precision GPS-based navigation solutions for drills and dozers, high-speed wireless infrastructure (telemetry technologies), and internet based remote monitoring and configuration. The main product lines include:

(Above): An Operator receiving real time feedback from the Series 3 9000 Dragline monitor

(Below): A Dispatcher using the GPS-based FMS system to locate and report on any of the machines on the mine

It is nearly a year since Leica Geosystems joined forces with Australian mine-production technology company, Tritronics (Australia) Pty Ltd. The acquisition reinforced the commitment by Leica Geosystems to leverage its current mining segment product offering and strengthen its overall portfolio with complimentary solutions for production monitoring, machine automation and site management for mining and construction.

"Leica Geosystems took us over with two goals in mind - one to have a bigger presence in the mining market and the other was that we had a range of core technologies such as telemetry real time systems, data systems and they wanted to leverage these into their construction business," Geoff Baldwin, Vice President of Machine Automation and previous Managing Director of Tritronics said. "Leica Geosystems also has a bigger vision to combine both mining and construction product developed together and use the strengths of both to increase our presence in the market. There has already been a substantial move towards

* FMS (Fleet Monitoring System) FMS is a real-time fleetmonitoring system especially designed for open cut mining. FMS uses the latest satellite positioning system - DGPS - to identify each vehicle and its location on site - from draglines, haul trucks, loaders, shovels, dozers, and borehole drills. This is incorporated with a powerful Window-driven reporting and analysis software and reliable radio telemetry. The system gives accurate productions statistics, vital signs monitoring and real-time date capture so that informed production decisions can be made. * DrillNav Plus DrillNav Plus is a robust, easy-to-use blast hole Drill Navigation System, using advanced RTK GPS technology. Mines can design drill patterns in the office and download them to the drill or the operator can layout standard patterns onboard the drill. As the drill navigates around the pattern, the map moves on the operator's display. The

Machine Automation operator can thus see the coordinate of each hole to be drilled as well as the location of previously drilled holes. * Dragline Monitor The 9000 series 3 dragline performance monitor is the world's most advanced dragline monitor, providing mine managers not only with the ability to manage operator feedback and production, but also with the opportunity to gain quantitative feedback on future initiatives. * ShovelPro™ ShovelPro™ Is a highlydeveloped monitoring system which provides real-time feedback to the operator of the electric shovel. It can calculate production rates, current dipper weight, and what quantities required to load the haul truck to its target weight, offering satellite guidance for product quality control. * Dozer 2000T The Dozer 2000 combines a Machine Guidance GPS receiver with CAD software, to allow determination of the exact position of the vehicle in "real time". A screen display in the cab clearly indicates the position of the earth moving machine relative to the desired "design" surface, enabling the operator to move left or right, and to cut and fill accordingly. Fully integrated systems All systems are fully integrated with the Tritronics' FMS. Due to the large volumes of data required for maps and GPS satellite corrections, spread spectrum radio systems are supported as well as UHF. This allows a single radio infrastructure for machine monitoring at most mines. "As a global company with an extensive range of mine monitoring information technologies and construc-

tion machine guidance systems, Leica Geosystems is uniquely positioned to provide customers with integrated systems to improve the productivity of mine and construction sites. Most sites use machines from a variety of manufacturers. Being independent from specific machine manufacturers allows us to focus on site solutions regardless of the various machines," Martin Nix, Senior Vice President Business Unit Engineering, Surveying & Engineering Division said. "As it stands today, few companies have such a range of mining and construction machine guidance and monitoring solutions as Leica Geosystems. This positions us strongly in what promises to be a rapidly growing market."

(Above): Dozer 2000 - the position of the earth moving machine relative to the desired "design" surface is displayed to the Dozer operator

And indeed, mines including Tarong, Drayton, Syferfontein, Howick, Newlands, Black Thunder,

About Leica Geosystems Pty Ltd Leica Geosystems Pty Ltd, located in Brisbane, Australia is now the core of a 'Leica Technology Centre' (LTC) for mining and technology along with LTCs in Heerbrugg and Grand Rapids. This location will be predominantly Research & Development, together with sales and support. Tritronics was established in 1975 working in the automotive industry and moved to mining in 1978. They were the pioneers of the first computer driven coal wash plant annunciator in 1979 which was the start of the microprocessor age in the world, the first dragline monitoring in 1988, and, in conjunction with Rio Tinto, developed first fleet system in 1995. Since then Tritronics became a world leader in the design, development and installation of mine machine monitoring and information systems. Prior to the 13 October 2003 takeover, it was a second biggest machine monitoring company in mining in the world.


10 Machine Automation Cordero and all of BHP's Australian coal mines, all rely on Leica Geosystems / Tritronics machine information systems to help them make informed decisions and productivity improvements. Direct product marketing

The Dragline monitor enables mine managers to handle dragline operator feedback and productivity

With DrillNav Plus, mines can design drill patterns in the office and download them to the drill where the operator follows the coordinate of each hole to be drilled

A significant development in the industry, particularly in the United States, is the move to the direct marketing of products to the customer, rather than through dealers. "This initiative has been taken because most systems need to be heavily customised and tailored to meet the needs of the client," Geoff Baldwin said. "This is different to the traditional Leica Geosystems business model. The need for this individual customisation requires a big change in how we market our products." Ian Rogers, Manager of Business Development Mining said: "Now with the combined strength and experience of both Tritronics and Leica Geosystems, we intend to push our mining products into bigger markets - China, Russia, India, and Africa, followed closely by Chile. Simultaneously, we are going to expand our construction industry by improving the construction product offering." Martin Nix added: "The mining industry is a prime example of an industry where technological innovation brings significant benefits, which in turn has created strong demand for site productivity monitoring solutions which includes machine automation and guidance systems." To address the growing demand in this, and similar engineering-oriented areas, a new business unit Engineering Business Unit has been established within the Surveying & Engineer-

ing division. The division also extended its reach into the growing mining segment with the acquisition of Tritronics' mining business, which has been fully integrated and is now an integral part of the recentlyformed business unit. Bt


A masterpiece of the Viennese Art Nouveau are restored - the Ohmannsche Wienfluss buildings at the municipal park The restoration and rehabilitation of the Wienflussportals is currently taking place in the historical municipal park of Vienna, under the guidance of architect Manfred Wehdorn, an expert in the protection of historical monuments. In this section of the Wienfluss (pictured left) is the opening of an underground canal, from which the open riverbed begins its flow through the park. The charming Art Nouveau ensemble with columns, pavilions and water terraces were designed between 1903-1906 by architects Josef Hackhofer and Friedrich Ohmann. During the general restoration of the monuments, the Leica DISTOTM hand lasermeter from Leica Geosysetms is used for a variety of tasks. Not only does it enable the measurement of the curvature of the river, but also allows easy measurement of the distances of the 'Kollonaden' (column rows between the pavilions), and for various tasks such as the erection of scaffolding in and around the pavilions. According to architect Thomas Cortolezis, the hand-held Leica DISTOTM also proves to be the ideal tool for the reflectorless measuring of areas, stucco etc, at exact millimeter accuracy within fractions of a second.

Dietmar Kremmel


12 Networked Reference Stations

From Austria to Australia - G

Continuous control of M7 road project The construction of the 40km M7 will provide the crucial link between the M2, M4 and M5 motorways of Western Sydney, Australia. Work started on the 1.5 billion dollar road project in June 2003, with plans to open the road by 2007. To maintain the tight schedule, a network of GPS reference stations were installed from the onset to provide continuous and validated control for the duration of the project.

(Below): The Hoxton Park section of the Westlink M7 project

Abigroup Leighton Joint Venture (ALJV) formed an alliance with Leica's Australia distributor, C. R. Kennedy & Company Pty Ltd, for them to provide the survey equipment for the project. C. R. Kennedy supplied a network of reference stations to provide control and a number of TPS1100 total stations and SR530 GPS survey rovers. It was essential that all the survey equipment used on the project was running TP Stakeout, the powerful road surveying software developed in Australia, and

Innovative projects in Australia and Austria are making use of Leica GPS Spider software to fully automate operation of GPS reference stations. In the first project presented, Spider controls a network of GPS reference stations and in the other it monitors a dangerous rockfall area. The purpose of these projects is quite different, nevertheless Spider, together with customized solutions by Leica Geosystems have fulfilled and exceeded the customer's expectations. Permanent GPS reference stations increasingly complement, and even begun to replace, traditional first order geodetic networks. In addition to delivering data for

now licensed to Leica Geosystems. The M7 is the biggest urban road project in Australia, containing 146 and 38 over- and underpasses. C. R. Kennedy provided four SR530 GPS systems for the reference network. The SR530 was installed so that it could also be used as a field reference or rover later on as the requirements of the project change. Each SR530 was installed as a semi-permanent base station, enabling easy relocation as site offices are re-established along the job, and AT503 antennas were used to provide effective multipath mitigation and good positioning. Checking the stability of RTK base stations Each base station was required to provide real-time corrections to the rovers on site and to log data for verification purposes. These data needed to be checked on a daily basis to make sure there was no movement of any of the reference stations. This is particularly important on the site as the reference stations are not permanent setups and are located within the working

area close to machinery and earthworks. C. R. Kennedy conducted extensive tests along the length of the job to identify what would be required to saturate the working area with real-time radio corrections. It was crucial to fully test the radios to ensure that there are no physical barriers that may impede the propagation of the signal and that there are no sources of radio noise in the area that may cause signal interference on the chosen frequencies. Radio licenses were obtained for two UHF frequencies running at 2 watts. Two Pacific Crest UHF radios were connected to each base transmitting on the two frequencies, with the transmit times staggered using time slicing so that the frequencies did not interfere with the neighbouring base station. Installation of the reference stations was completed using Spider software from Leica Geosystems. Spider allows full remote control of the reference stations, enabling the survey manager to configure and run each reference station from the main site office. Due to the non-permanent location of

Networked Reference Stations

GPS Spider nets the world nationwide RTK (real time kinematic) services and post processing users, GPS reference stations allow fully automated monitoring of man-made or natural structures and the establishment of semi-permanent, local RTK services for big construction projects. In that respect, permanent reference stations form an infrastructure that can be used by many different user groups, and thus become even more economic. As an example for such projects, two innovative installations are presented which feature the Leica GPS Spider software that have been in operation since Autumn 2003.

the reference stations, wavecom GSM phones were used to communicate with each reference. This also enables the survey manager to 'dial up' the reference station from any phone-line to establish communication, change settings and to manually download static data. A routine was setup within Spider to download the static data every four hours for archive and verification. Podium software, an autoprocessing software from Leica Geosystems that uses the powerful SKI-pro processing engine, was used to automatically process baselines from the downloaded data and to email the survey manager with a report of the baseline results. Podium working with Spider ensures the survey manager is fully informed and in communication with the reference station control 24 hours a day. Podium serves as an example of how quick project-specific solutions can be implemented, and is thus able to further broaden the field of application for the GPS Spider software. Jane Cooke

(Above): GPS Spider installations available on the web: check

(Below): The"Eiblschrofen" rock fall shortly after the collapse

A rockfall with severe consequences On the morning of 7 July 1999, the 'Eiblschrofen', a rockface above the scenic town of Schwaz in Austria, experienced significant geological movement, causing huge boulders to crash down into the valley. Parts of the town had to be evacuated due to the considerable danger for the inhabitants and immediately following the evacuation, an intensive monitoring system was established in order to assess the ongoing movements of the rockfall area. The local surveying company Weiser-Kandler was given the task for daily measurements. For this demanding project, WeiserKandler, a company which has a long tradition in monitoring and engineering geodesy, teamed up with Vermessung OPH (ObexPfeifer-Haas). OPH has been using Leica GPS for many years and is one of the pioneers of GPS surveying in the mountains of western Austria. During the initial phase of the project, all measurements were repeated on a daily basis. Weiser-Kandler focused on terrestrial measurements using the TCA1800, whereas OPH concentrated

on the control of the reference frame using SR530s and SKI-Pro. Immediate measures After some time, when a noticeable decrease in the movements was detected, a huge dam was erected to provide future protection to the inhabitants who were then allowed to return to their houses. The tension further relaxed, and the measurement interval was reduced to four months. In the summer of 2003, it was decided to review the monitoring program to get a clearer picture of the still ongoing, creeping movements of the "Eiblschrofen".


14 Networked Reference Stations

(Above): Permanent GPS station with Wireless-LAN antenna after completion

As part of this project, Weiser-Kandler and OPH developed a concept for a continuous GPS monitoring system. Permanent GPS monitoring of the "Eiblschrofen" The large size of the deformation area, as well as dense vegetation and difficult terrain did not allow monitoring using total stations. Consequently, the surveying companies and

(Below): Erwin Truttmann (Rost) and Christoph Kandler, Manager of Weiser-Kandler, installing the GPS antennas. Despite the dense vegetation that formed significant obstructions for GPS signals, Leica SmartTrack technology provided the high accuracy data needed for monitoring applications.

their client, the town of Schwaz, agreed to establish a pure GPS monitoring network, which would run continuously, providing 24/7 coverage of deformation control. To solve this application challenge, two solutions were examined: Leica's GeoMoS monitoring platform, or a combination of GPS Spider with SKI-Pro scripting. After discussions, GPS Spider with SKI-Pro scripting was chosen, one reason being that it was clear from the very beginning that the system would remain a GPS-only setup meaning that the sophisticated GPS-TPS combination that GeoMoS allows was not needed. On the other hand, short baselines and long processing intervals allowed the usage of single-frequency sensors. In addition, there were only limited requirements for analysis tools, which favoured the customized SKI-Pro scripting solution. The final setup consisted of Leica GPS Spider software controlling SR510 sensors for the monitored points, as well as an RS500 on the control point. The communication between the PC in the

data center and the reference stations, uses the latest WirelessLAN technology over a distance of a few kilometres. Spider automatically downloads raw measurement data files from the sensor every twelve hours, and archives them to the processing PC. The GPS processing is completed by SKI-Pro and steered by the VisualBasic application "Podium". Podium makes use of SKI-Pro's scripting capability and automatically imports the data into SKIPro, controls the processing and exports the data to customized ASCII files. Furthermore, it shows both graphically and numerically the recorded movements and informs via email if any threshold is exceeded. The system went operational in November 2003, and since then, has been providing seamless deformation data, which is vital for a comprehensive analysis of the geological processes. "The first results fully meet our high requirements," said Martin Obex, Manager of OPH. Furthermore, an additional use of the station as RTK base station equipped with the dual-frequency and RTK-enabled RS500 is planned. After attaching a proper communication device such as a modem to the reference station, and using Spider, the sensor can be remotely configured to send RTK corrections by the press of a button. Both surveying companies have used Leica Geosystems' products for years, and have worked closely together with Leica's Austrian partner Rost. "In addition to the outstanding product quality, the highly professional support from Leica has allowed us to lead this innovative project to a full success," said Christoph Kandler, Manager of Weiser-Kandler. Lienhart Troyer

Networked Reference Stations (Left): Monitoring with GPS Spider, SKI-Pro and Podium

Leica GPS SPIDER takes over management of the Portuguese National GPS Network The Portuguese Geographic Institute (IGP) -, has chosen Leica Geosystems' GPS SPIDER Software to manage the National GPS Network in Portugal (ReNEP/GPS). IGP has not only purchased five remote licenses of GPS SPIDER Software, but have also placed an order for an additional four RS500 GPS receivers in order to completely upgrade the hardware equipment of the existing Network. At present, eight units are permanently in operation throughout the country, delivering data and services for post processing users. Currently, the Network has the capability to log GPS raw data, 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, and this data is available free of charge from the IGP website. However, the infrastructure installed is already capable of broadcasting DGPS and RTK as soon as IGP needs real-time data. GPS reference stations allow fully automated monitoring of man-made or natural structures and establishment of semi-permanent, local RTK services for big construction projects. "Permanent reference stations form an infrastructure, which can be used by many different user groups," Helena Ribeiro, ReNEP/GPS Manager of IGP said. "We are confident that Leica Geosystems' reference station

solution will provide us with an accurate system that will increase productivity, and provide a reliable network for all these users." The Portuguese ReNEP/GPS Network currently includes Leica Geosystems' receivers that are working for the EUREF Permanent GPS Network in Europe and the International GPS Service (IGS) GPS Networks. The permanent tracking stations involved in these networks provide Global Positioning System (GPS) orbits, tracking data, and other high-quality GPS data and data products online in near real-time to Local, Regional and International Data Centres. The Portuguese GPS Network is expected to keep growing in the near future in order to cover the major areas of Portugal. "We are very pleased to collaborate with IGP in this national project," said JoĂŤl VanCranenbroeck, Business Development Manager for GNSS Reference Stations and Structural Monitoring with Leica Geosystems. "It confirms Leica's ability to provide not just the best equipment but also the best overall solution for reference station Bt networks."


LEICA Machine Automation


A diverse range of systems for monitoring the position and production performance of machinery in mines and construction sites.

Geospatial imaging software for remote sensing image processing for GIS applications and 2D+3D GIS models.



Professional data capturing in your hand. Small and precise GPS data mapper for GIS and mapping.

Builder Total Stations with unique operation-philosophy especially suited for customers working on construction site.


LEICA GPS Reference Networks

Rotating laser level with many advantages for the construction site.

Multi-purpose networked frameworks that deliver enhanced GPS positioning data across large sites and territories.

LEICA DISTO™ 5th Generation


Precise laser distancers reducing time and costs. Up to 200m.

of digital photogrammetry products that empowers users to transform raw imagery into reliable data layers required for all digital mapping, GIS analysis and 3D visualization.

150 Million years ago, herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs walked on a beach here next to the sea, which today is a rock platform located in the Jura mountains near Courtedoux in the Swiss Canton of Jura. These extraordinary tracks have been documented for the first time with High-Definition Surveying laser scanning technology from Leica Geosystems. Each of the points forming this picture - known as a point cloud - are recorded in all three directions to millmetre accuracy. This 3D image of the footprint will allow further analysis and will answer many more questions about life at this time. Scientists can already recognise the claw imprint of a theropod dinosaur, visible in the rear of this image. Scan: Terra Data / Leica Geosystems

Leading the way LEICA SYSTEM 1200 The world’s first universal surveying system. GPS and TPS working together with uniform software, identical controls, and a common database.

LEICA LTD800 The All-In-One Solution with the new "Walk-Around-CMM" based on the fastest and most accurate tracker in the world.

LEICA ADS40 Airborne digital sensor with unique features for 3D data acquisition in GIS and mapping.

LEICA HDS™ 2500/3000/4500 High-Definition Surveying product family with Cyclone™ and CloudWorks™ software.

Powerful partners providing high productivity. Leica Geosystems are leading the way with the most complete range of technologies and solutions in the industry. Leica Geosystems provides the most comprehensive program of products and systems for capturing, modelling and presenting spatial reality world-wide in the fields of surveying, mapping, metrology and monitoring. As a customer you are able to take advantage of the easy integration of data and the extension of the value chain into new growing areas. Leica Geosystems develops, markets and supports modern systems for land and cadastral surveying, environmental analysis, civil and mechanical engineering, building and construction, machine automation,

monitoring, GIS creation and industrial measurement. Visit our website or contact us or a Leica Geosystems representative directly to learn more about these new possibilities.



18 Remote sensing

Battling West Nile Virus with Remote Sensing (Right): The Risk Map depicts high-risk areas in red. These are mosquito breeding areas that are located close to denselypopulated areas, including hospitals, retirement centers and horse facilities. It appears that such areas required a more aggressive stance in reducing mosquitoes, especially if WNV becomes active in the region.

Who hasn’t been bitten by pesky mosquitoes while outside enjoying a nice day? However, what if, as a result of mosquito bites, you experienced symptoms such as nausea or fever, or even worse, paralysis or death? That certainly changes this from a normal everyday to anything but! When the West Nile Virus (WNV) found its way to North America in 1999 via mosquitoes, the public became concerned about the suddenly-harmful consequences a mosquito bite may carry. In the five years since its arrival, nearly every state has reported the presence of the virus. In California, the Monterey County Health Department took proactive steps to address the threat of West Nile to its community.

Mosquitoes are the most common carriers of the disease and have been known to infect birds, horses and humans. People over 55 years of age are considered to be at highest risk of contracting the virus, as their immune systems are weaker. Because Monterey County is one of California’s largest retirement communities with a high percentage of senior residents, the county needed to be especially attentive to this virus.

Project goals Realizing NASA was doing similar work on the East Coast, the department contacted NASA’s research center and in 2003 received a grant from NASA to conduct its own project. The project’s main goals were to identify mosquito habitats that can transmit WNV; correlate the habitat with the county’s vulnerable population; and create a risk map to help decision-makers effectively combat WNV. Four students from NASA’s DEVELOP Program conducted research and analysis for the project.

Vector maps and dynamic GIS The project was divided into two phases: in Phase I, the vector maps were created and in Phase II, a dynamic GIS was implemented for virus incident and response tracking. Initially, the areas at highest risk of being infiltrated by the virus had to be identified. This was done by mapping the disease carrier’s breeding source and adult habitat areas in correlation with county population. Landsat 7 ETM+ images of the county were acquired. With Leica

Geosystems’ ERDAS IMAGINE® V8.6 software, supervised and unsupervised classification of vegetation and urban areas were run to identify potential mosquito habitat. Additionally, the students used IMAGINE Spectral Analysis tools for model building and radiometric correction of the studied areas. The vegetation classification was put into a vector coverage to integrate with other data layers within the ESRI ArcGIS environment. Overlay analysis was conducted to produce three specific layers that targeted the problem. These layers mapped: • Mosquito breeding source areas • Adult mosquito habitat areas • High-risk mosquito source and habitat areas Identifying high risk areas The three mosquito species most likely to carry the virus were identified. The students queried the specific traits and habitats of these

Remote sensing species and received distinct outputs, such as specific fly-zones, for each mosquito species. From this information, two maps were created: the Mosquito Vector Risk Map for Monterey County and the West Nile Virus Surveillance Risk Map for Monterey County. The Risk Map depicts high risk areas in red. These are mosquito breeding areas that are located close to densely-populated areas, including hospitals, retirement centers and horse facilities. It appears that such areas required a more aggressive stance in reducing mosquitoes, especially if WNV becomes active in the region. The Surveillance Risk Map shows potential entry points of the virus (near wetlands and mixed forest lands). It also identifies the most high risk mosquito sources and habitats, as well as existing and proposed sentinel flock and mosquito traps.

policy and management decision-makers." The map outputs of Phase I provided a baseline assessment of the county’s vulnerability to WNV. This allowed the county to take educated surveillance measures to determine where our limited resources would have the greatest effect. The data is being used by the Northern Salinas Valley Mosquito Abatement District and the County of Monterey. These maps also provided the data necessary for Phase II, the creation of a dynamic GIS used for incident and response tracking. This is being done by the county health department’s Environmental Health Division. The division is responsible for investigating and mitigating mosquito activity complaints in Monterey County not covered by the NMCMAD. Adaptable methodology

Fly through model: educating the public Within IMAGINE VirtualGIS, a fly-through of the county which implements the findings of this project was created. The fly-through model has served as an excellent public education and information tool. It has been very effective in driving home the message to the public that the county is doing everything possible to prepare for possible outbreak of this disease and that citizens must do their part by taking responsibility of their own property. "The final outputs of this project have helped identify at-risk communities, enhance virus planning and prevention planning and inform land developers seeking building permits become aware of what areas are more at risk," said Darryl Tyler, GIS Analyst, Monterey County IT Department. "These maps are also helping influence virus

Remote sensing and GIS technology were highly valuable to Monterey County in taking pro-active steps to protect its citizens from

the invasion of the West Nile Virus. Furthermore, since the methodology of this project is adaptable to any arbovirus such as a mosquito, tick or flea, it can be repeated as needed. Other government organizations are taking notice of the effectiveness of this project and are considering using the methodology for their own purposes. "This project was key in helping decision-makers understand that remote sensing technology is capable of much more than providing nice photos," said Tyler. "They realized that remote sensing proved to be a highly-effective tool for assessing current and future diseases." Ian Anderson

(Above): Mosquitoes are the most common carriers of West Nile Virus and have been known to infect birds, horses and humans (Image courtesy of the Division of Communicable Disease Control Sacramento, CA)

(Below): The Surveillance Risk Map shows potential entry points of the virus (near wetlands and mixed forest lands). It also identifies the most high risk mosquito sources and habitats, as well as existing and proposed sentinel flock and mosquito traps.


20 Mining

World's largest Diamond Mine enlists Javelin to do the job Argyle Diamond Mine, the largest single producer of diamonds in the world, have purchased five Javelin Dual Grade lasers from Leica Geosystems for grading applications in their open cut mines.

(Below): Argyle Mining Surveyor Andrew Payne makes adjustments to the Javelin that is mounted on a moveable laser tower

Purchased through Precision Laser Systems, Leica's authorised distributor and service center for construction industry lasers and machine control in Western Australia, the instruments will be used for pit control and controlling the desired level in the open cut mine. "Originally, we introduced Argyle to the Javelin in October 2002 when we gave them an instrument on trial -

they purchased this first instrument just over a year ago and the other four in February 2004," Barry Ireland, Managing Director of Precision Laser Systems said. "Their decision was based on their requirement for a quality product with unique features that other instruments on the market don't have." The Javelin series of lasers are the finest Grade Control lasers. They are extremely robust and waterproof in order to protect their internal components, and enabling their use in extreme environments. Additionally, the Javelins have a height of instrument alert, wind sensitivity settings, and an easy grade swap capability that further enhances their usefulness and productivity. Being dual grade, they can be tilted to measure slopes of up to 20% in either axis. Large and small increments of grade can be entered directly into the Javelin. The Javelin is particularly an excellent product for using in mining and civil works, especially due to its large working diameter of 900 metres.

Level control of mining benches The Javelins were bought to compliment the existing laser levels for level control of mining benches, both level and on grade. They are all working simultaneously in one large pit and are attached to moveable laser towers so that they can be towed around the site. The different ore bodies are initially detected prior to excavation so that the miners know which mining routes to follow. "We tend to use the Javelins more for grade applications (ramps, drainage etc), as we find them more accurate than our existing lasers," Andrew Payne, Mining Surveyor at Argyle Diamond Mine said. "The Javelins have the ability to adjust to grades up to 20% whilst our existing lasers are only good for 10%." In extreme environments, they keep working and working Andrew Payne said that one of the main reasons for choosing the Javelin to do the job was their robustness. "The conditions that we put them under are very extreme. We have from time

Mining to time had in excess of 6 or 7 inches of rain in a day, and it doesn't seem to worry them. We also have days of over 40 degrees Celsius in heat, and they keep on working and working." Dual axis laser makes work easier Previously, the mine had always had at least one dual axis laser on site, with the remaining lasers being single grade lasers. The five new instruments were purchased because of their ability to turn grades up to 20%. "Having dual axis capability has made our work a lot easier," Andrew Payne said. "We have some benches that have two grades running across them. Without a dual axis laser, these benches would have to be checked manually by a survey crew, which is time consuming and unproductive. Once the Javelins are set up, they take over all of the surveyors work." The Javelins are based on total station technology, being easy-to-use with a large keypad and features easy switching between manual and automatic mode. They can also be combined with GPS systems to provide the ultimate in 3D control.

Argyle Diamond Mine, Western Australia The Argyle Diamond Mine, located in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, 550 km south-west of Darwin, has been operating since 1983. Each year some 80 million tonnes of material is extracted from which approximately 30 million carats of diamonds are produced. The mine runs as a conventional open-pit mine where both lamproite ore and waste rock are drilled and blasted before being loaded out in a shovel-and-truck operation. Ore in the pit is broken by the use of explosives with each blast hole liberating about 3000 tonnes of rock. Alluvial mining involves the mining of ancient creek beds where diamonds have been washed down over millions of years. The AK1 open pit is 2 kilometres long, 1 kilometre wide and covers an area of almost 300 hectares. The Kimberley diamond region consists of a central core of a thick series of nearly flat-lying sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited between 1.6 and 1.9 billion years ago. These rocks form the Kimberley Plateau. When geologists discovered diamonds in the Kimberley region in 1979, the discovery was unique as it was the first time that a commercial diamond occurrence had been identified that was not hosted in the traditional diamond-bearing ore, known as kimberlite. Instead, the diamonds were found to be in olivine lamproite ore from which diamonds had been eroded to form placer deposits nearby. Argyle is operated by the Argyle Diamond Mines Joint venture, which has been wholly owned by Rio Tinto since 2002.

"We find these instruments very easy-to-use, and I have found that, compared to other similar instruments, the TCRA1105's were very good value for money. All of the theodolites and the On-site surveying javelins require very little training in order to begin The Argyle mine also has two using them, and in fact, TCRA1105, two TCA1100's as most new surveyors on the well as theodolites on site. site have already used them Leica Geosystems' Australian so training is kept to a miniDistributors, C.R. Kennedy & mum." Company Pty Ltd are the suppliers of these surveying "The purchase of four units instruments. "The shows the mine's confiTCRA1105's certainly have dence in the product," Jeff measurable benefits, Hugo, Machine Control especially the ability for mak- Manager at Precision Laser ing reflectorless Systems said. "In addition, it observations," said Andrew is such an easy instrument Payne. "I would estimate that to use, there is nothing they save us around 20% of complicated about it and our time compared with non- workers are able to operate reflectorless instruments. it with confidence after only They also give us the ability 30 minutes of use." to survey where we couldn't otherwise due to safety concerns."

Peace of mind In conclusion, Andrew Payne said: "Ultimately, the thing that we like about the Javelins is peace of mind knowing that the lasers are doing an accurate job." Precision Lasers are currently in communication with other Rio Tinto mines regarding the use of Javelins and are also investigating opportunities with other machine control products. In addition, they are working together with CR Kennedy to promote product solutions such as the Gradestar GPS system. "The success of the Javelins paves the way for more Leica products to be introduced not only to this mine, but also to provide a successful example for others to follow," Jeff Hugo Bt said.

(Below): The Javelin series of lasers are ideal for use in extreme environments


22 News in Brief

Laser Measurement Technology helps track origins of Universe Leica Geosystems, has played a vital role in ensuring the successful commissioning of a major South African research project the largest ever single telescope in the southern hemisphere. The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), which is currently being constructed at the South African Astronomical Observatory's Sutherland site in northern Cape Province by an international consortium, will be able to record distant stars, galaxies and quasars a billion times too faint to be seen with the naked eye objects that would otherwise be as faint as a candle flame on the moon. The Leica Laser Tracker system was brought to Sutherland to perform delicate precision measurements on the telescope itself. As it was necessary to mount the Leica tracker laterally directly on the space frames holding the mirrors, special mounting brackets were constructed. With the computers some five metres below, this configuration worked extremely well resulting in accurate measurements of the telescope's tracker movements. The results were essential for successful calibration of the SALT tracker, and the Leica system is expected to be used again to perform further critical measurements. The telescope, which is being built with the assistance of partners from Germany, Poland, the US, New Zealand and the UK, is due to be commissioned in 2005. It will have a hexagonal mirror array spanning 11 metres and will be capable of gathering more than 20 times as much light as the largest existing African telescopes. The SALT project will provide a first-class facility for fundamental research in Africa, capable of tackling fundamental unsolved questions ranging from the age of the universe when the first stars were formed to the nature of the worlds that orbit other suns. It will strengthen ties with researchers around the world, and provide fresh opportunities for young scientists and engineers in a stimulating hightechnology environment.

Showcase of new solutions The ISPRS Congress of the International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing took place in Istanbul, Turkey from 19 - 23 July 2004. The Congress was rated as the most important meeting worldwide for presenting and discussing new issues and research projects carried out by universities in photogrammetry, mapping, remote sensing, GIS, surveying and in other related fields. For many specialists of these fields, the congress also provided the opportunity to present new projects and applications to the international community. The associated exhibition was the largest showcase of new solutions developed by the industry. As the "Partners in Productivity" Leica Geosystems was there to present the most modern and most comprehensive programme in our industry, all in the one location. Leica Geosystems GIS & Mapping provides a range of hardware and software that power the Geospatial Imaging Chain™ - the definitive industry workflow of capturing, referencing, mapping, analyzing and presenting geospatial information. Visitors to Leica's exhibition booth were presented with the Leica ADS40 Airborne Digital Sensor; the Leica ALS50 Airborne Laser Scanner; the comprehensive ERDAS IMAGINE® toolbox of software; the seamlessly-integrated suite of digital photogrammetry software Leica Photogrammetry Suite; the ArcGIS-compatible software ArcGIS Extensions Stereo Analyst and Image Analysis; and the brand new Digital Scanning Workstation Leica DSW700. Visitors also saw the world's first universal survey system Leica System 1200, developed by the S&E Division from the ground up and launched on the market this spring. The Leica System 1200 enables the combined use of both terrestrial and satellite-based sensors with consistent operation and data management, and the possibility of graphic display directly in the field. Visitors also showed great interest in the Leica GS20 Professional Data Mapper, the Leica GRX1200 Pro receivers and the Leica Spider reference network and CORS software. The new HDS™ 3000 scanning system was also on show. It provides highlyaccurate and detailed information for complex sites and structures, such as production facilities, steel structures, bridges and buildings.

News in Brief

TPS400 used for Landscaping in Japan CSS Gijyutsu Kaihatsu (CSS), Japan, is a well-known landscape garden designer and system provider for landscape gardeners. The company designs plans for big gardens and parks with their CAD system, transfers the data to its PDA and finally stakes out the design as planned. They are using a Leica TPS400 Total Station for their stake-out work and analytical measurements because of its flexible data format, high measurement speed and accuracy. Before CSS purchased a LEICA TPS400, they used Sokkia total stations for their field measurement work. Their CAD system called "Rakuraku CAD (easy CAD)" and their PDA called "Omakase-kun Pro (Reliable friend Pro)" have been developed on the assumption that they are used with Sokkia total stations. When CSS were introduced to the LEICA TPS400 total station, they were very impressed by the unique instrument features, particularly the flexible, userdefinable data exchange format and the high measurement speed and accuracy. These features led them to the decision to install the TPS400 into their system in December 2002. The data from CSS's systems can be used in the TPS400 without difficulties thanks to the customized format. This simplifies stakeout in the field of the design data stored in the PDA, and also the upload of field data needed for revision of an old blueprint. In addition, with TPS400 the surveyors can do their field measurement jobs much faster and more conveniently than before due to the instruments' high measuring speed and the extended reflectorless measurement option up to 170 metres. CSS is very pleased with the TPS400 total station because the instrument is very reliable and simple to use. As a system provider, CSS is always motivated to provide the best solution to customers. The TPS400 total station is fast, reliable and flexible, perfectly suited for the requirements by landscape gardeners.

Astrophotography - unusual use of a Leica TC600 On 8 June 2004, a transit of Venus occurred. This rare event was snapped through a sun filter lens attached to a Leica TC600 total station. In astronomical terms, a transit occurs whenever a small astronomical object passes in front of a larger one. During a transit of Venus, the planet Venus passes directly between the Earth and the Sun. Unlike a solar eclipse where the Moon blocks out the light of the Sun, during the transit of Venus, observers watching see a small circular silhouette creeping across the face of the Sun. This process took six hours and was visible to watchers throughout the world, and was just big enough to be seen with the unaided eye through a solar filter. The last occasion on which a transit of Venus happened was 1882, over a century ago. A transit of Venus is extremely rare and occurs at most, twice a century. Venus orbits the Sun just over three times in the time it takes the Earth to orbit twice. This means that Venus passes between the Earth and the Sun roughly once every nineteen months. An actual transit of Venus is rare however, because Venus and the Earth orbit the Sun at a slight angle to each other, and so when watched from the Earth, Venus usually appears to pass above or below the Sun, rather than crossing it. The above image was snapped at 3.30pm (Australian Eastern Standard time) on 8 June 2004, by Greg Crispo from the surveying offices of H. Ramsay and Co. located in Harris Park, Sydney, Australia. The crosshairs of the total station's viewfinder are visible and Venus can be seen at the top of the sun's image.


24 Surveying

One man, one instrument = increased productivity: System 1200 exceeds all expectations in stock survey

(Above): The TPS1200 allowed remote measurement, particularly of quarry faces.

Following the purchase of Leica's new TPS1200 system, surveyor Simon Briggs from South Downs Surveys used the system to undertake a stock survey in Gloucestershire. The Leica instrument not only enabled the survey to be undertaken by one person, it was also completed within half the expected time, providing excellent productivity gains. Established in early 2004, South Downs Surveys offers a full consultative service that includes land and measured building surveys at all scales, volumetric analysis, 3D visualisations and inshore hydrographic surveys. The focus is on the use of robotic (laser equipped) total stations and GPS to deliver accurate results quickly and safely. Flexible, one-person mode South Downs Surveys required a system which included one-person operation and with a reflectorless laser with a range of 250m or more. This would enable the flexibility of working in one person mode (where appropriate and safe), and

also allow the remote measurement, particularly of quarry faces. Productivity was important, with a requirement for high speed data capture and rapid setups and traversing. The equipment also had to be robust and rugged to withstand the harsh conditions in quarries. "A careful evaluation was carried out prior to purchase, based on the critical need (for a newly emerging practice) to deliver high productivity, backed up with a strong support network," Proprietor Simon Briggs said. "Health and Safety concerns were also paramount in our decision and the inclusion of the long range laser into the TPS1200 series, facilitating

reflectorless measurement to potentially hazardous areas, is critical to a lot of the work that South Downs Surveys is commissioned to undertake." A TCRP1203 R300, oneperson system was supplied and following a couple of hours of training, the instrument was ready to use. Productivity improved from day one "Even though I hadn't used a Leica total station for five years, I was able to effectively use the instrument on the day after it was delivered," Simon Briggs said. "The instrument has exceeded all of my expectations - I anticipated a steep


learning curve, which simply did not happen and so productivity was up from day one - not only in the field, but also office where the data dropped easily into the processing software." The survey work involved the measurement of 112,000 tonnes of stock in 14 piles and required a six station traverse due to the difficult layout of the stocking areas. 1200 detail points were taken with approximately 5% of these in reflectorless mode. The instrument allowed the work to be completed within a day whereas the estimate, based on previous experience, allowed for two. Enormous savings "This provides South Downs Surveys with enormous savings," Simon Briggs said. "The job was undertaken in one day with

one man. Once on site, quick setups and traversing were required and the Leica TPS1200 enabled this with no compensator calibration necessary and the use of flexible types of targets for traversing." Simon Briggs was also impressed with the extended laser range, which is ideal in a quarrying environment where range is crucial to reduce the number of set-ups and enable the surveyors to keep the instrument high up and back away from danger. "Allied to GPS, it becomes a very powerful tool," Simon Briggs said. "And of course, we are benefiting from the use of the red dot in building surveys." "What I was most impressed with was the productivity gains resulting from use of the equipment to be able to use the instrument effectively the day after it was delivered and

efficiently import the data into our processing software seamlessly. In addition, Leica Geosystems has provided excellent after sales service - they are extremely responsive to requests, and have provided excellent technical support." Bt

(Left): The equipment also had to be robust and rugged to withstand the harsh conditions in quarries.


26 Surveying

Tvilum Landinspektørfirma invests in System 1200

(Above): Tvilum has conducted a number of measurements in the baroque garden at Frederiksborg Castle.

(Below): Børge Tvilum, owner of Tvilum Landinspektørfirma.

Increased demands on efficiency and flexibility. That is the main reason why Tvilum Landinspektørfirma - one of Denmark's leading companies of chartered surveyors - has chosen to invest in three total stations and four GPSs from Leica Geosystems' new System 1200 range. In future, the company expects to be using Leica as a total supplier of measuring equipment. A glance through the portfolio of assignments that Tvilum Landinspektørfirma has behind it will quickly confirm that this is a high-calibre company of chartered surveyors. The portfolio includes the measurement and plotting out of Terminal 3 at Copenhagen Airport, Parken and

Østerbro Stadion at Københavns Idrætspark, Fisketorvet by Kalvebod Brygge, the new opera house on Holmen, DR BYEN - Danish Radio's new radio house in Ørestaden, Kronborg Castle and the baroque garden at Frederiksborg Castle. The list of major technical and surveying assignments is a long one, spanning a large number of different kinds of tasks. The company was founded in 1984, and currently employs 30 people at offices in Hillerød, Kastrup and Frederiksværk. "Our business strategy is to compete on quality and service. This means that at all times we are very aware of our quality assurance, in terms of both work

methods and the precision and performance of our instruments. Leica has always delivered engineering of the highest quality, and now we feel that the software in their total stations and GPSs has also reached a corresponding level. There are also a number of functions that will improve the efficiency of our work processes without compromising on quality," said Børge Tvilum, owner of Tvilum Landinspektørfirma. Reflectorless measurement One of the functions of great significance in Tvilum's choice of the Leica TPS1200 total station is the facility to perform laserbased, reflectorless measurement of distances above 500 metres.

Surveying Reflectorless measurement makes it far easier for Tvilum's employees to measure particularly inaccessible points. The laser in the Leica TPS1200 also has a small footprint, which increases the level of precision. "You might say that reflectorless measurement enables us to perform certain kinds of difficult tasks more quickly. And, as it's our time that we sell, a reduction in time consumption is a competitive advantage. One example might be if we had to measure points on a high façade. It's difficult to place a prism 15 metres up a façade that has neither windows nor other openings. Now we can do it from ground level without risking life and limb," said Jesper Holm, surveyor and Technical Manager at Tvilum. All prisms can be used With the Leica TPS1200, Tvilum's employees now have greater flexibility in their choice of which prisms they want to use when measuring. Before the System 1200, the company used auto-tracking technology, which meant that only certain active prisms could be used with certain instruments. But the new Leica instruments have changed all that. Now all the intelligence is in the actual total station, which needs nothing more from the prism than a reflection of the signal transmitted. "We can now choose any prism, because all passive prisms can be used. On screen in the new total stations you can see a small icon at all times, showing which prism and thus which addition constant you have decided to use. This means one less potential source of error," explained Jesper Holm.

One man - one task Another important feature of Tvilum's new Leica instruments is that they are more suitable for one-man operation than the instruments that the company previously owned. This means that in many instances Tvilum only needs to staff assignments with one single employee. Search functions such as PowerSearch and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) ensure that the Leica TPS1200 can find the prism or prisms that have been established in the measurement area. "Obviously we prefer to send out only one man if possible. But then we have to be totally certain that he can actually do the job on his own. Otherwise the expected saving can quickly turn into an extra cost. This level of safety is reinforced with the functions in the new instruments," said Børge Tvilum. The automatic search functions can also be an advantage in connection with measurements in poor light conditions or fog. For example, Tvilum has conducted a number of measurements in and

around Kronborg Castle, including the catacombs under the castle itself, where the poor light conditions could easily cause problems. But the new total stations make light work of this, as they can find the prisms themselves easily, regardless of the light conditions.

“Leica actually performed a real assignment for us, giving us the opportunity to acquire a lot of knowledge from the sidelines.” Børge Tvilum Owner of Tvilum

User-friendliness is the way forward The software in Tvilum's new total stations and GPSs has been developed with a view to logical, uniform operation. This means that you can transfer a large amount of your knowledge of the total station over to the GPS, and vice versa. In Jesper Holm's view, this will create a better learning curve for employees during the conversion process to the new instruments. This is true of both newly-qualified employees and those with several years' experience. "It's clear that uniform interfaces are an advantage for new employees, who can settle into their jobs more quickly if the GPS and total station share a lot of logic and functionality. But I actually believe that it's an even bigger advantage for employees with several

(Bottom): Surveyor and Technical Manager of Tvilum, Jesper Holm says that reflectorless measurement enables them to perform certain kinds of difficult tasks more quickly.


28 Surveying Contents years' experience. After all, they're having to wave goodbye to a number of habits and routines. The quicker and easier it is for them to use the new instruments' functions, the quicker they'll accept them," said Jesper Holm. The close integration between total stations and GPSs also means that it is less complicated to switch between the two types of

(Above): When surveyors from Tvilum have been out in the field and more work has to be done using the data collected, the company can also benefit from the Leica instruments’ facilities for userconfigured data export. This means that in many cases a work process can be saved, as the data not have to undergo conversion between instrument and CAD program.

instruments during measurement. So no matter what kind of obstacles Tvilum's surveyors encounter when they arrive at a measurement area, they will be better equipped to do the job quickly and efficiently. The right format When surveyors from Tvilum have been out in the field and more work has to be done using the data collected, the company can also benefit from the Leica instruments' facilities for user-configured data export. This means that in many cases a work process can be saved, as the data does not have to undergo conversion between instrument and CAD program.

"It's practical that the data is entered in the right format from the outset. In our company we mainly use Microstation, and when we come back to base, the data can be sent to the next stage in the process right away. This creates a simple, smooth work process, in which the instruments are adapted to our needs rather than the other way round," said Jesper Holm.

Instruments with a birth certificate As an element of their thorough quality assurance process, Tvilum asked for individual "birth certificates" for their new Leica instruments. This means that each instrument has undergone a particularly comprehensive production test and thus been certified according to precision requirements that are even stricter than Leica's standard specifications. This covers both angle and distance measurement. When pre-qualifying for major technical assignments, Tvilum can thus attach documentary material that provides the person inviting tenders with a high degree of reassurance that the company

satisfies the specified quality requirements. Good service is a high priority Besides the instruments' function and quality, the underlying service is an important factor in Tvilum's choice of instrument supplier. Here too, Børge Tvilum and Jesper Holm are extremely satisfied with their choice of Leica. "We've quite simply had brilliant service. Leica are really willing to help us get started quickly. We noticed this first a few months ago, when we bought a laser scanner together with Landinspektørfirmaet Vektor. It was a major investment and a new kind of instrument, so we needed help to integrate it into our business, and we got that help. Leica actually performed a real assignment for us, giving us the opportunity to acquire a lot of knowledge from the sidelines. I feel that Leica has a great understanding of its role as a supplier of complex hi-tech products, and they don't just leave a box on the table and disappear. They've helped us a lot in creating added value with the new laser scanner, and if we need similar help with the new total stations and GPSs I don't doubt for a second that we'll get it," said Børge Tvilum. Jesper Andersen

Contents Archaeology

Emerging technology unveils castle's past

The full range of Leica Geosystems' instruments - GS20, TPS, GPS, HDS as well as ERDAS software - are currently being used by a group of archaeology students to uncover the past of Tutbury Castle. The castle, located in the heart of England, dates back to 1070 when it was built for one of William the Conqueror's Barons. The excavations of the tower ramparts and medieval walls are being carried out by a group of 20 students from The University of Birmingham, under the guidance of Archaeologist / Research Fellow at the university's Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity, Glynn Barratt. Survey of castle interior The group have used GPS System 500 to create a control framework for all subsequent recording work at the castle and TCR 300 and 1100 total stations to perform detailed earthwork and building surveys. A GPS base station was erected high upon the Motte of the castle with this position subsequently corrected to Ordnance Survey grid using RINEX data for post processing. From these control points and other ground control points (GCPs), an ERDAS ortho-rectifcation of the castle will ultimately be created. High-definition laser scanning using both HDS 2500 and 3000 instruments is also being employed to record the fabric of the castle providing a fully 3D point cloud model of the ruins. In order to record the wider landscape, aerial photogrammetry techniques are being employed, supported by Leica's GS20 professional data mapper that is being used to provide control points for aerial photo rectification and for the rapid recording of earthworks and surface find sites.

In addition, a geophysical survey of the inner ward of the castle has been undertaken. The inner ward is one of three defensive enclosures, or baileys, making the castle one of the most substantial medieval strongholds in the area. Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) geophysical techniques have been applied, so far only to the inner of the three enclosures. Resitivity involves passing current through the earth and measuring the changes in resistance that relate to buried archaeological structures in the first metre beneath the surface. GPR sends a powerful radar beam into the earth, recording features, in this case up to a depth of 3 metres and in 3-D. The data collected using these two complimentary techniques is collected in the same spatial framework using grids positioned by either GPS or Total Station. Once the data is processed it allows the archaeologists to visualise and map what lies beneath the surface. Initial results, according to Glynn Barratt, indicate that the inner ward of the castle once contained a complex of buildings, which are revealed in the geophysics as a series of

(Above): A view of the south range of buildings showing the Motte in the top right-hand corner

responses suggesting the presence of rubble platforms and surviving walling. "This indicates that the interior of the castle once may have contained a complexity of buildings which are now buried beneath the current ground surface. A letter from Mary Queen of Scots written during her imprisonment at the castle, describes the inner ward as a shamble of closely spaced buildings with narrow streets and foul smelling drains. The initial findings from the geophysics tend to support this description," he said. Archaeological evidence of castle occupations In the centre of the grounds lie ruins of a late 12th Century Chapel. The existing gate-

(Below): Archaeologist Glynn Barratt with the excavation site of the tower ramparts in the background


30 Archeology

(Above): Clearly evident from aerial photographs, one can see the undulations of a medieval field system and water meadows (castle grounds can be seen in the bottom right-hand corner) (Below): Leica's GS20 provides control points for aerial photo rectification and for the rapid recording of earthworks and surface find sites

house of the castle is dated from the early 14th century and the south tower ramparts were built from 1442-50. In the excavations, post-medieval walls are present and several layers of deep clay, pebble, charcoal, and flint reveal earlier occupations. The presence of worked flints indicate that the site was also used in the prehistoric period and it is possible that an iron-age settlement may have originally occupied the site followed by an early Anglo-Saxon borough. Because of its prominent position, the site offered many generations not only a strategic location for settlement but also for defence. On top of the Motte, stands an 18th century folly, however it is suspected that an original Norman shell keep, perhaps originally built in wood and later in stone, originally stood at this position. Tradition says that a 'ubliert', a subterranean chamber often used to incarcerate

"Leica's instruments provide a vital link to the investigations to piece together the parts of this 21st century Sherlock Holmes mystery.� Lesley Smith Castle Curator

(Below): High-definition laser scanning using both HDS 2500 and 3000 instruments records the fabric of the castle and provides a fully 3D point cloud model of the ruins

prisoners, lies inside the Motte. A legend has it that this is full of bodies from a massacre that occurred at the castle. Glynn however was keen to explain that todate there is no archaeological evidence to support this theory, though future seasons work may explore the archaeology of the Motte. This first year's investigations are seen as a pilot for a large ongoing project and it is intended that further seasons of investigations will further explore the archaeological potential of the site. The Castle Curator, Lesley Smith

and the owners, The Duchy of Lancaster, are enthusiastic for the study to continue and the researchers to have full access to the castle and its records. Emerging technologies used to recreate the past Glynn Barratt said that Leica's instruments are enabling a much more complete and easier survey of the entire site. "We are using new emerging technologies to tell story of this castle and ultimately recreate it," he said. "Eventually, we will be able to virtually reconstruct walls and building and hope to provide an interactive display on-site. This type of recording and display has great potential for the entire cultural history in the UK, and if proven here, could become a range of integrated techniques which will be used in the investigation of major historic sites nationwide." "Leica's instruments make these tasks so much easier," Glynn Barratt said. "In the past we had to use a tape measure, optical square or perhaps a microptic alidade and plane table. The integration of this suite of current survey tools creates enormous scope and potential for the non-destructive investigation and recording of archaeological sites." The GS20 in particular gives users the capability to walk around a landscape and map features on the fly, particularly important being the capability to actually see the recorded information graphically as the survey takes place. "We can also record much more associated detail, such as the diversity and maturity of tree species or concentrations of specific flora and fauna. This enables gathering of not only archaeological information, but environmental data as well, towards a more complete understanding of the

Archeology management requirements of a site such as Tutbury Castle," he said. Mapping surrounding features with GS20 Glynn Barratt is also looking off-site for evident of earlier periods of occupation. Standing on top of the Motte, and even more clearly evident from aerial photographs, one can see the undulations of a medieval field system and water meadows between the castle and the river Dove to the north of the castle - the powerplant of the whole economy at that time. Other off-site earthworks which have been recorded using the GS20 may represent part of an iron age settlement, later incorporated into the boundary which marked the extent of a former park or town boundary associated with the creation of the castle. Each of these features is being recorded using the GS20, with points being entered into the computer for comparison with the Ordnance Survey map using ESRI Arc GIS software. Mark Kinsey, a post graduate student at Birmingham, is using this technique to investigate the relationship of the town of Tutbury to the castle. This will also involve the local community and school who will assist with this part of the work. The ease of use of the GS20 allows this technology to be easily assimilated by those participating in the work.

projects such as bread-making using original medieval barley in a charcoal oven," said castle curator Lesley Smith. "Much to my delight, I have also been informed that an ancient rose has also been discovered - one that that was thought to be previously extinct. Perhaps we may be able to use these things from the past to create ancient perfume from the roses that we can smell and ancient bread from the barley that we can taste." Supporting academic programs "Leica has always been prepared to support programs and give time to the academic sector. We have always been happy with the quality of the instruments, but fundamentally, it is the relationship that we have with the Leica sales and support people that we value." "There is significant potential for these investigations to develop into an outreach program, encouraging the schools and community of Tutbury to become more involved in their history," Glynn Barratt said. "Since this is a Motte and Triple-Bailey castle, there are also the other two baileys that could be studied in later years. Overall this project has the potential to make a major contribution to an understanding of the economy and structure of society of this part of England through a major part of the medieval period." Bt

Recreating History at Tutbury Castle – a vision The vision of castle curator Lesley Smith is to recreate history and make it live again. “We want to bring history to life here make the walls rise, generate the smell of wood smoke, and bake fresh bread.” Indeed already, in the five years since the former PR consultant became curator of the castle, visitor numbers have increased from 8,000 a year to a massive 110,000. This has been achieved by her enormous drive, energy and enthusiasm, and the desire to give visitors a taste of the real thing. On regular occasions, Lesley will don the costume of Mary Queen of Scots or Elizabeth I, giving visitors a complete historical review of the castle from the point of view of her chosen character. She is also convinced that people need to be able to touch and feel history, and so has collected artefacts and furniture from these times that visitors can actually touch. Adding various television appearances to that, it is clear why she has been so successful in her quest. Lesley hopes that the survey work undertaken may eventually lead to a computer-generated 3D recreation of the castle. “At the press of a button, we could make the walls rise.” “Leica's instruments provide a vital link to the investigations to piece together the parts of this 21st century Sherlock Holmes mystery,” Lesley Smith said. “The castle has an extremely full history - we want to know more about why Kings and Queens chose to live here.” She goes on to list former inhabitants of the castle spanning from the Kingdom of Offa, to Maid Marion, John of Gaunt, and Mary Queen of Scots. “The ancestors of most of the royal people in Europe were at some time living or visiting this castle,” she adds. “There must have also been significant lives lost on this site with two great sieges and much evidence of weaponry,” Lesley said. “If the remains of people are found, we want to mark the ground and show our respect.”

Ancient plant species uncovered Additional investigations by botanists have also revealed in the 35 acres of steep slopes surrounding the castle, an ancient thicket of blackthorns and elderberries as well as rare winterflowering barley. "This is wonderful as it opens up further opportunities for

(Above): Elizabeth I (Castle Curator Lesley Smith) examines the GS20 that is used to map points in the castle grounds and surrounds


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51 The Magazine of Leica Geosystems Geosystems