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CITY IN CRISIS

2010 - 2011 CAMBODIA AALTO UNIVESITY

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AALTO UNIVERSITY - SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Department of Architecture - City in Crisis 2010 / 2011


Students : Teachers :

Helena SANDMAN Aouli PUHAKKA Humphrey KALANJE Taru NISKANEN Ilona MANSIKKA Inari VIRKKALA

Félix BOURGEAU / FR Valérie CINA / S Marie-Astrid CHAVANES / FR Nasstassia FAVALLE/ IT-FI

Mikko JUVONEN / FI Maria KLEMETTI / FI Inka KYTÖ / FI

Maria LUND / NO Fredrik M. ONARHEIM / NO Jens RASMUSSEN / SW Myriam TREIBER / FR


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION CITY IN CRISIS I - AUTUMN 2010

- exercices - content -

CITY IN CRISIS II - SPRING 2011

- about the course -

PREPARATION AND FIELD TRIP - Preliminary Work - Feeling Cambodia -

PROJECTS

- Do it yourself - Route to read - The women’s network - Community center in Oudong -

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THANK YOU : To the NGO STT (Sahmakum Teang Tnaut), for giving us the opportunity to discover Phnom Pen urban context throught the workshop “A city for all� ; To the khmer architect students for working with us. It was a great experience to work together and learn from each others.

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INTRODUCTION City in Crisis is a course given at Department of Architecture of the Aalto University School of Science and Technology since 1993. It was created to make student aware of issues concerning urbnisation in developing countries.

the third world. The students are acquainted to vernacular principle all over the world. Then the aim of the spring semestre is to focus on a specific example. Lectures were given about Cambodia development and issues. At the end of February 2011, we travelled During the 10 first years, the to Cambodia to start an urban design studio was organized in planning project in Phonm Pen, Africa - Rufisque, Benin and Grand capital of the country. Popo in particular. Then from 2008, a group of student has been “The reality of architecture, travelling every year to Cambodia. building and urban planning and design outside Europe, with The course is organized on the cultural understanding as the whole year, and the program point of departure. The historical, is devided between the two socio-economic and cultural semestres. During the automn development of emerging nations period are given tasks and lectures with local vernacular principles.” about development, and issues in 8

– Official course description, [https://noppa.aalto.fi/noppa/ kurssi/a-36.3503/esite], retrieved December, 2011


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CITY IN CRISIS I THE COURSE In the first semestre of the course lectures were organized to make us familiar to issues about development in the third world. It introduced us to other planning problems than found in Europe. Through small tasks during the course, we studied vernacular architecture, different climate zones, globalization, climate change and sustainable development. We also got to know each other as a group to share ideas about these difficult questions that most of us were studying for the first time. We read at least one book each that we presented to each other. One of the books that

inspired us most is “Small Change: About the art of practice and the limit of planning” by Nadeel Hamdi. The author was trying to tackle the development issues through the participativ angle a project can start with. This was a good book to us to understand how important it is to build a project from people’s need and culture, and not from the designer wish.

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EXERCICE I

- Make your international CV and introduce yourself to the class.

EXERCICE II

- Read a book about urban development in southern emisphere and present it to the class.

EXERCICE III

- Learn about vernacular architecture in one of the 7 climates.

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CITY IN CRISIS II PREPARATION FIELD TRIP

AND

The second semestre was focusing on the specific example of cambodian culture and developement. Lectures were about issues that matter in this country : water, history, political system and urban context, previous experiences from the course. This helped us to know more about the country we were soon going to travel to. We left Finland to travel to Cambodia in February 2011. We first spent few days in Siem Reap touristing and discovering the local culture. We visited the Angkor temple which are a strong symbol Cambodian

are hooked on. We visited the Tonle Sap lake and Villages on stilts. The 2nd and 3rd week were spent in Phnom Penh. We worked with local architect students in a workshop called “City For All”. STT (Sahmakum Teang Tnaut) the organizer of the workshop deals as an NGO with urban poor communities. Part of there activities were to make survey about vpoor communities under threat of eviction scattered in the city center. They were advocating to try to make poor people rights to be respected. This workshop was a great experience and our collaboration with local student was a good way to approach the local culture. We were sensibilized to Phnom Pen urban context through lectures by local actors and visits of different places in the city : 12

the Boeung Kak Lake, relocation sites, the new town called Camko City... We met NGO’s and chose main themes they were focusing on to start with our own projects. That’s explaining why the projects developped are so various.


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PRELIMINARY WORK Contemporary Ecological buildings

Fredrik & Jens Examples of successful contemporary ecological buildings in similar climate zones, applied sustainable construction and design principles, ventilation systems etc

Religion and Tradition

Nastassja & Marie-Astrid An introduction to the religions of ancient and todays Cambodia.

Life between buildings and roads

Maria & Maria An introduction to the urban life of Phnom Penh and its suburbs. Also the street life, market places, green spaces and more where discussed.

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Transportations and Traffic

Myriam & Valerie Airports, harbours, roads and other infrastructure where presented and the lack of public transport such as subway or trams where discussed.

Sources of Livelihood

Felix & Inka Informal and formal, legitimate and illegitimate: craft business, small scale industries, farming and urban agriculture, waste recycling, selling goods and services, tourism services, sex industry etc.

Education and health care

Mirja & Mikko There are many problems within Education, health care and social services. Education is not officially compulsory and corruption has reach in to the schooling system. Girls and poor are under represented in the schools.

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FEELING CAMBODIA Félix BOURGEAU /


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DO IT YOURSELF Mikko JUVONEN /

Jens RASMUSSEN / Félix BOURGEAU / Fredrik MARTENS ONARHEIM /

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DO IT YOURSELF

SMALL CHANGE FOR UPGRADING YOUR SURROUNDINGS

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F

33


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“The title, Small Change, captures three important principles that recur throughout: Small Change: “small” because that’s usually how big things starts; “change “, because that’s what development is essentially about; and “small change”, because this can be done without the millions typically spent on programmes and projects.” - Nabeel Hamdi

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MEETING SATREY KLANGSANG

STT (the NGO) arranged a meeting with the community Satrey Klangsang. In this photo Cheav Cheny (the community leader) is showing us the map of the community.

Existing small scale agriculture in the Satrey Klangsang.

Children where playing in the streets during the day and some of them went to school during the evening.

This is one of the houses in poor condition.

The community is constantly growing and upgrading the area is important for them not to be evicted.

Tuk tuk driving is one of the main income sources in Satrey Klangsang.

They were happy and lived in harmony in their community and with their neighbours.

This is the existing community house where they have meetings and evening school. The closest official school is 1,5km away.

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PROBLEMS

1

4

5 7

3

2

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Satrey Klangsang, 1-1000 10m

50m

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1

Waste

Waste that is not collected and recycled for money is thrown in a big pile. Around the pile vegetation is dying and the water becomes polluted from the eduction of the garbage. 2

Roads / Streets

The streets in the community is in quite poor conditions. They consist mostly of compressed earth and sand and are quite narrow at some places. During the rainy period the streets are flooded and muddy. During the dry season the streets become very dusty. 3

Public Space / Private Space

Todays community house is located in a private house. They don’t really have any public space that they share. Therefore there is a potential need for a new community center and also if possible a public square. 4

Contamination

5

Sewage

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Flooding

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Poor people

The lake is contaminated by the factories and human garbage.

There is no sewage system and during the wet season the human waste floods the streets and goes in to the lake.

When the wet season come the lake floods in to half of the village.

Average income in this community is less than $2.50. The biggest expenses they have is food and housing. The most common work is garment worker, tuk tuk driver or morning glory collector.

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ANALYSIS

Accessible by car Accessible by Touktouk Accessible by motorcycle Accessible by walk

Main roads Narrow roads

Traffic

Accessibility

The village is connected to the Phnom Penh city center (5km away) by Highway 5, which is between the community and the river in the east. From the paved highway, the streets that are within the village consists mostly of compressed earth and sand. The streets are quite narrow at some places.

Map shows which areas of the village are accessible by walk, motorcycle, tuk tuk and car. Most of the area is accessible by as much as a tuktuk, but mostly the streets are to narrow for a car, and only the northern area is suited for cars.

OUTPUT: which roads to upgrade

OUTPUT: where to place public functions which can demand cars; like market. 40


Lake Agriculture (morning glory)

Lake in rain season Lake in dry season

Flooding

Agriculture

The map shows flooding during wet season and dry season. Half the village is flooded during wet season, and houses are to some extent filled with water from the lake.

Map shows where the community harvest vegetables like morning glory today. We can also see there are some open lots on the map that are not in use today.

OUTPUT: some remedy is needed

OUTPUT: demand and potential for small scale agriculture

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DISCUSSION What are our motives?

Why participatory planning?

Why this project?

During the study year on city crisis we have learned about giving something of our little knowledge to those who due to poorness or otherwise poor conditions do not possess the same possibilities as we in the industrialized Europe.

Working in foreign countries and cultures we should really be able to adapt ourselves to the local conditions and learn by listening and respecting the local users and their needs and wishes.

We are working with real people in a real community and trying to offer them keys to improve their own environment and conditions. Visiting the site and meeting the community leader and the residents gave us a lot of information about their life, problems and wishes. This is how the project really got started.

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NEVER SAY CAN’T “If you find yourself saying “can’t” you are probably on the wrong path. You are looking at the problem the wrong way. You need to turn it all upside down and look at it all from a different angle, a different point of view- maybe not your own. This is where participation counts.” - Nabeel Hamdi, Small Change

How to continue with the project in Finland?

Can we really help?

We had a site, problems and analysis. A lot of information had to be assumed and estimated from photographs or memories. We started finding solutions for the problems, several options usually. Since we had merely no connection to the people of the community or even the NGO, we lost the participatory sense of planning. With several upgrade solutions on hand, having weak data of the local situation and no discussion with the locals we started feeling like typical western planners who push their own opinions and visions abroad.

We finally found a way of bringing the participatory part back to the project and also a way that wouldn’t bind the work only on this project. This is where we introduce the open-source manual for communal and housing upgrades with simple and well-tried design solutions to inspire people to upgrade their conditions themselves with cheap, simple to use solutions. The manual contains 5 main categories with design solutions from sewer systems to planting a mango tree and blank formulas for the users to write down their solutions. The main idea 43

is to give a push for spreading knowl edge inside the community, between the community and even further, to motivate people to help themselves.


New water level Lake Overflow ditch Tonle sap river

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FLOODING

This community is heavily effected by the raise of the water level during wet season. The flooding is a source for many of the problems in this area. The water flows into the existing pit toilets and floods the sewer into the streets and homes. The water also destroys the streets every year, and fills them with pieces of concrete, litter and other waste. One of the biggest problems when taking on such a problem is the amount of assumptions we have to make to find a solution. By analysing the topography on site and

using the photos we took there, we realized that the river east of the site is on a considerably lower point than the lake, and by that making it possible to lead unwanted water from the lake into the river by using a overflow ditch or pipe. The map shows the ditch as a dotted line, and as we can see, this operation can be done without demolishing any houses. The deepest point of the ditch would be under Highway 5, where it could be in a pipe three meters under ground. The problem with this is that we would have to as-

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sume that the lake is isolated, and not connected to other lakes. The line on the lake shows where the new water level can be with the overflow ditch system. This system is something the whole village would be interested in, and could help bring the community together.


Road to upgrade Other roads

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ROADS

View of upgraded street

One of the main problems the community presented to us is the quality of the roads. To remedy the issue of mud and dust we suggest upgrading the roads that are marked on the map in the community. These roads are the most central roads, and they connect most of the houses, while opening for a good circulation within the community. Some of the outlined roads and are also suited for other infrastructural upgrades like sewer etc. This makes the operation of upgrading the roads and sewer simultaneously easier and cheaper. While remaking the

surface of the road, we should also think of how the roads can lead the rain water from the urban area. The area is quite dense, and with a new non-absorbing road material, there are not many places in the village that can soak up the surface water. Our suggestion is therefore to lead the water, using the roads, into the lake. There are different options on how to do this; a higher point in the middle, so leading the water in drains on the side of the road. This could provide water for plants under long eves. The other option is a lower point in the

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middle, so leading the water either on the surface, or under the surface combined with the sewer system. The illustrations show the options with a lower point in the middle of the road. The upgrading of the roads could be something the whole village would be interested in, and could help bring the “rich” and “poor” in the community together.


Bamboo and reeds (grey water filter) Lake Sewage pipe Treatment tank

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SEWER

Gas release

Gas release

SEPTIC TANK

ANAEROBIC FILTER

Inlet

Outlet

Scum Liquid Sludge

Anaerobic sewer system

The non existing sewer system in the area is also on the community’s top to-do list. By looking into different systems, such as pit toilets, closed flush-toilet systems, etc, we concluded that several alternatives could be possible in this case, and that it has to depend on available budget, and participation from the end users. Our choice would be a closed anaerobic system. This system includes a new sewer line through the main roads, and it would be smart to install this system while upgrading the roads. The closed sewer line ends up in a series of chambers that processes

the feces so the end products are effective fertilizer for small scale agriculture and bio-gas that can be used for cooking or street lights etc. These products can be used in the public space for a community kitchen and to light up the place. This, and the fact that everyone in the village would be interested in having a clean and nonsmelling system can strengthen the community feeling of the area.

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AGRICULTURE Food market

Food

Labour

Food Organic waste Manure

Food

Faeces Organic waste Food

Gas Sludge + Leaves

Sludge

Self sufficiency of the community

Some of the community members is actually picking the “morning glory” from the lake to sell them. This plant grows up easily on this contaminated lake, it doesn’t need any help. The idea is to give them the opportunity to be more self sufficient by creating small scale agriculture in the village. In this example a swamp area on the North-East of the community is filled by the earth of the Northern part of the lake. This creates some place for

a vegetable garden and a deeper lake to open a fish farm. The old pig factory is reopened as a pig and chicken farm for the community. Those animals helps the inhabitants to be more self sufficient in different ways, they eat the organic waste (85%), they produce food (eggs, meat, fish) and they help to create fertilizer. The Northern part of the vegetable garden is considered as the community garden owned and maintained

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by all. The southern part is divided in small family plots that can be rented by anyone from the “village”. The vegetable and meat that is produced by the community can be sold on the market (public space) to the rest of the village.


Plan for new public building, 1:500

5m

25m

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COMMUNITY CENTER

Location for the new public building

We have made a proposal for how the community can build a new building and where they should place it. This building should include public functions like a communal kitchen, public toilets, recycling center, street lights, general shading and protection from rain. The biogas from the new sewer system provides energy for the kitchen and the streetlights. This could would also be a practical place to eventually have the market selling local products.

View from south of the new public space

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ROUTE TO READ Valérie CINA / Marie-Astrid CHAVANES /

Maria KLEMETTI /

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ROUTE

TO

READ

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Analyses

Phnom Penh is divided into 8 Khans (Khmer term for district). Toul Kork is one of the four inner Khans. 58


This area is mainly inhabited by the upper class with huge gated houses. There is also Middle class, with denser housing often mixed with shops. Poor communities are settled in unused, unplanned leftovers. The traffic is greatly influenced by the housing distribution: quiet street in the rich area, heavy traffic with lots of movement next to industries, shops, universities. There are really few mainly pedestrians street: along the railway lines, because quite narrow and unpaved.

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The number of lacks is shrinking, and lots of them have already been filled up. But they are still mainly connected to each other. So the flooding management is dependent on the whole network. Otherwise, the planned body of water are limited to restricted-access space.

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Really few public spaces or green spaces - or even public shaded spot - are accessible and in good conditions. Most of the maintained green spaces have a restricted access. The open green spaces are usually not accessible because unplanned, not intended to be a public green space.

Lots of schools and universities are established there, mainly private and enclosed. OfďŹ cial departments and ministries are settled there, as well as some public facilities, like hospitals, or temple.

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The different types of zones are separated from each other, most of the spaces in the city have a limited access. In the area is lots of diversity spaces, but no connection and physical passage between the diverse parts. There is a huge lack of public spaces.


Ownership

System

Fixed Installations [People go to] Time

Simple tools [Go to the people]

Action

Project

System to adapt to specific communities’ needs

COMMUNTIY

Site observations Education => Impulse

Parallel educational system

=

Route to Read Attract / Gather

SIMPLE TOOLS

FIXED INSTALLATIONS

OBJECTS + ACTIVITIES

SPACES + ACTIVITIES

Self-made neighborhood

NGO CIC

/ water pollution / waste management / lack of education / mismanaged land ressources

Autonomy

OWNERSHIP

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Education is lacking in Cambodia; or rather, what is lacking is an egalitarian system, where everybody could access education regularly, and not only the richer part of the population. ROUTE TO READ would like to implement a parallel method to the existing educational system, to give a chance to everyone to access education, education through reading. Using the concept of conducive learning, we create activities and spaces integrated in the city to make reading part of the everyday life of the people. Simple tools can be used to attract people, find their interests and spread knowledge.


The stops along the route are divided in two types of installations: Mobile installations, which would provide small changes in people’s everyday life with simple tools: for example, a literacy bamboo train or a Bookmobile. Fixed installations, which would improve the city: for example, public spots and park, library, literacy bar

OBJECTS

SIMPLE TOOLS

Bamboo train

- Story-telling - Puppet Show - Role play - Small theatre -...

The Bookmobile

SPACES Moto’s stop

A variety of literacy activities with different methods of communication could be organized in the different stops: reading session, play role, mobile theatre, puppet show, workshops, film projection,… with the simple tools or in the fixed installations. The activities are selected to captivate them by choosing their interests and the communication mean that they like. The target group of this parallel educational system is children as well as adults. While it is easy to catch

ACTIVITIES involve children, make them listen AND participate.

Public Park

FIXED INSTALLATIONS

ACTIVITIES Bench • Tree • Panel

- Informal meeting point - Communication interface (panel)

Main Pavillion Reading Pavillions Exhibition Pavillion • Recycling point • Hammock • Panels, blackboards, TV screen...

- Events : teaching sessions, small educative show, exhibitions, outdoor cinema, plays,... - Recycling system : teaching sessions, pratical applications,...

Reading room Peaceful inner courtyard Cafeteria Storyteller meeting point and supplies

- Read a book - Meet people - Children games

• • •

Home Library

• • • •

Literacy bar

• •

Bar Bookshelves

the interest of children, for adults on the other hand, the knowledge should result in practical applications. 62

- Read and drink - Cultural events : small concerts, plays...


The first stage of the project is to go to the people, find their needs and interests, and help them solve the problems. In following steps, the goal is to transfer the responsibility to the community; that they take possession and integrate the system to improve their everyday life. PP city

- Bar attendant [Literary bar] - Bar attendant [Home Library] - Handicraft workers [Pavillion] - Gardeners [planting trees, park maintenance]

Local workers

$

NGO’s

1 unemployed community member NGO workers

replaced by

- Library supervisor [+ opening of the Info point / maintenance] - Street storyteller [+ changing panels / maintenance] - Bamboo storyteller - Extra-workers for extra-activities [cinema,...] - Recycling and Compost supervisor

OR

Workers turnover once a month, 1 unemployed person per concerned community

Time

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In practice, one aspect is that the NGO workers will progressively hire in need community members to replace them and to take themselves in hand the system. The proposed activities can then generate new jobs and sources of livelihood for the concerned communities. The whole project is based on simple solutions; no need for hightech, books and literacy activities will be the means to spread knowledge among the communities. The fixed installations should also be as simple as possible, or even removable, temporary, and as cheap as possible, because no support form the municipality can be expected. Nevertheless some solutions are ideally designed if supported by the city with permanent and long-term installations.


ROUTE

TO

READ The key point of this program is to use their own traditions, the common Cambodian means to develop awareness. This will also contribute to help the local economy by building with their techniques. But the other aspect of using common customs is to show them existing potential of their country, and to keep their own characteristics. This is an attempt to show them that their traditions, climate culture have a great potential in planning that is visible but not enough and truly used. As said, lots of schools and universities are established in the area. We can take the opportunity to integrate and make them take part in the project. We would like to reap the beneďŹ ces of this proximity to spread their knowledge and not restrain it the walls of their buildings.

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This ROUTE TO READ can be compared to furniture, which can be used in different places and contexts. The Northern part of Toul Kork is then a “testing ground� to try this new system of paraeducation.

* )Names of Schools

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The Bookmobile his own jingle to inform people of his arrival. And we can often see them waiting for customers in a shaded street corner. The Bookmobile could drive through the city and stops next to communities to tell-story. But simple tools are not only about storytelling, it could also be role game, puppet show,‌ to make the people participate as well. As people are greatly interested in English, session can be organized in this language or any other. (Universities can help, take part for this)

The Bookmobile is another simple tool that can be used without huge means or investments. This transportation mean is also greatly common in Phnom Penh: tuk-tuks are

the taxi-public transport, and small moving sellers are carrying their merchandise with carts, or with customized bicycle or motorbike. Each of these street vendors has 66


Im

pr

Battambang NORTH

Sihanoukville SOUTH

ov

em

en

to

fB

oo

km

ob

ile

st

op

s

Route of the Bookmobile

In a first stage, the stops of the Bookmobile will be fitted out with a bench, a tree, and a panel, to provide the city with shaded places. The panel becomes an interface to spread knowledge, or to communicate events, workshops, etc or information within the community.

And as the stops will change from year to year, this concept becomes an “excuse” to improve the streets, with resting shaded spots. The stops could also become with time an informal meeting point that the communities could use freely to gather, even if the Bookmobile is not running. 67


The Bamboo Train Bamboo Train Stops

The bamboo trains, called "Norry" from the French word for lorry, are a quite common transportation mean in Cambodia. This is a mix between Khmer ingenuity and necessity, to respond to the lack of use of the tracks. Indeed, the service between Phnom Penh to Battambang has been reduced from daily to weekly service due to the lack of funds to maintain the tracks and rolling stock. And the service runs by the Government is often less reliable, slow and delayed due to frequent derailments and breakdowns. The network was originally built by the French, but the Khmer Rouge shut it down completely, that is the reason why it was largely abandoned afterwards. Some portions have been rebuild by that time. With little traffic using the rail lines,

Battambang NORTH

Battambang NORTH

Sihanoukville SOUTH

Sihanoukville SOUTH

individuals run their own private 'bamboo trains' to carry passengers and freight, like motorcycles or rice. There are even recognized – but unofficial – bamboo train "stations". Simple construction and light weight is an important requirement if two meet on the line or if a “real” train is coming on the other 68

direction, to remove it quickly from the track. It can be disassembled in seconds: 2 persons take off the frame; one removes the engine and then the two axles and wheels.


The construction is really simple, and it takes around four days to build one: bamboo slats overlaying a steel frame resting on wheels and axles from military tanks. At the beginning they were propelled by hand using punt poles, but now bamboo trains have a small motorcycle engines with belt drive direct to the rear axle. The speed can go up to 40km/h or more.

This ingenious transportation mean can fit perfectly to meet the need of a story-teller in the communities along the railway lines in Phnom Penh. It is also important, as said, to use the Cambodian custom to

settle this parallel educational program. The “tool” is then locally produced and understood. And it is a simple mean to show the existing potential of their own habits. 69


The Park

The main Park is the central gathering point of the project. It has now a strategic situation in the city: surrounded by two big public universities on the left and right side, a hospital for children in front of the main side with middle class housing in the surroundings, and poor communities from the railway line,

Evolution of the park

2000

2005 70


not far from rich housing and pri- The area is huge (approx. vate schools. It is then a good op- 24’700m2). The division of the portunity to mix all kind of people space is thus important. and to make them all commit.

The park now

This park is now an enclosed neglected unmanaged area. Thanks to its strategic situation, this project wishes to open it, to give a public park to the city, and at the scale of the city.

First of all, the general topography of the existing site is left in its existing shape. However, a more secure delimitation of the ooding area is deďŹ ned. The reason why is the will to use the assets of the landscape,

A view from entrance to the park

2007

Now 71

and to prove that their existing areas have already a potential that just needs to be improved. Another reason is the simplicity required to keep it cheap and reasonable.


The space is then already divided by the water. Two thresholds are planned with two different means to attract people further inside the park:

Gardens Gardens Main pavillion Main pavillion Gardening Gardening education education Recycling Recycling point point InformationInformation Compost Compost Outdoor cinema Outdoor cinema

Planted trees Planted trees

Stage

Stage

Small business Smallwith business with valuable articles valuable articles

Shadows Shadows

The threshold near the Confederation de la Russie is seen as the Hammocks Hammocks main entrance. It aims at attracting Pleasant place Pleasant place for reading for reading students from the universities nearby, and inhabitants from the neighborhoods, or any other citizens to have a look in the park, to draw their attention, and give a glimpse of what is going on inside. That is the reason why a perspective foWater during Water during cuses on the main pavilion. And art dry season dry season Water during Water during expo pavilion and ower pots arewet season wet season placed in this entrance part. The threshold next to the poor communities along the railway lines has a totally different role: the facilities there should answer their everyday needs. That is why the recycling point, and the garden modules are there.

Access to Place where Place to drop where to drop Access to trashes trashes the park the park

Pavillion Pavillion for reading for reading

Hammocks Hammocks Bridge

Bridge Pavillion Pavillion for reading for reading Shadows before Shadows treesbefore are big trees enough are big enough to shadow to shadow Pleasant place Pleasant place for reading for reading

Exhibition Exhibition building building 60

60 40

Art and other Artexhibitions and other exhibitions

20 40 20 10 5 0 10 5 0Co-operation Co-operation with schools with around schools around

Concept to the park 72


The Main Pavillion

A light structure An open space that can become a small stage or a meeting point Open towards the park A closed room for NGO’s material Exterior wall used as a screen for projection

The focus point is the space between these two thresholds, with the main info pavilion. It becomes an outdoor meeting place for gatherings, film projections, workshops,… Besides, small reading pavilion and hammocks are distributed in the whole area. Principle model A view to the pavillion 73


Plan of the Park 74


Different density of vegetation will also contribute to the division of the space. It will then provides visible or shaded area, protected or isolated from the rest of the park and from the surrounding buildings. The vegetation helps then to create different types of space.

New houses Recycling Point Gardens Remarquable tree Main Pavillion Fruit trees Trees along the main axis

Ideally the park should remain open, even at night. The long sides are left enclosed, but the three entrances in the short sides should stay open. The fact that the entrances in the park are well defined makes it easy to close the park at night in case of problems. The lightning system is provided by the gardens’ modules. Most of these modules serve as gardens and flower pots, and some are small furniture and light.

Vegetation of middle hight Wetland Reading pavillion Meadow Exhibition Pavillion High vegetation

75


IDEAL SCENARIO

TEMPORARY SCENARIO Two scenarios are planned – ideal and temporary – according the authorization and decision of the municipality.

The use of land will come and go according to the season, as well as the appearance of the park. The same happens for the people that come and go according to the performance, the activities. Lot of space is required for big events. A variety of activities will be organised in the park, by NGO’s or by the communities themselves: recycling workshops, education course, gardening session, outdoor cinema, performances, plays, etc. This park and the other stops is also an attempt to increase pedestrian transportation around those places. 76


Reading Pavillions

A light structure A roof providing shade A ďŹ xed wall (can be designed as a shelf possibly closed at night) Raised to protect from oading

77


Waste Management

The waste management is an important system put in place in the main park, to make the people aware of the importance and advantage of living in a clean environment. The aim is to improve the ground and water quality. This is one aspect of the ecological sustainability. The other is the will to increase the green spaces in the city, with public park, bookmobile stops and mobile gardens in the communities. The main advantage with the recycling point and the gardens grow thanks to the compost is the money and the food that they could earn with it. This generates a new source of livelihood. Besides practical applications, activities and teaching session are organised in the main pavilion to raise this awareness.

Organic waste

Inorganic waste

COMPOST

$

78

REUSE

RECYCLING

Handicrafts

Resold

$

$

Non-reusable waste

DISPOSAL


Gardens

79

A garden module system


References “Adopt a Kiosk”

Donkey Mobile Library

Brittish Telecom, Red Phone Boxes recycled into a Library

Ethiopia Reads, Ethiopia

Bryant Park

New York City, USA

80


Cut. Join. Play. MasStudio

Open Air Library

Madgeburg, Germany KARO Architecten 2009

Parc des Rives

Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland Localarchitecture 2007

81


*)Names of Schools 82


83


84


SAFTY FIRST ! - THE WOMEN’S NETWORK Myriam TREIBER / Maria LUND /

Inka KYTÖ /

Nasstassia FAVALLEv /

85


wmn

THE WOMEN’S NETWORK 86


THE PROJECT This project is based on research led on Phnom Penh networks for Women, health and security facilities and sex workers

THE TRIP During the stay in Phnom Penh, we went to meet communities led by womens, sex workers in the street and the NGO’s leaders. The program was build around their concerns

Prostitution exsists EVERYWHERE IN THE WORLD, and is one of the worlds oldest profession. Both the sex workers and the urban poors are extremly STIGMATIZED in the world societies. This project WILL NOT TRY TO LEGALIZE NOR MAKE ANY JUDGEMENT on the urban poor sex workers way of making a living. IT IS A PROJECT AIMED TO SUPPORT THEM AND RESPECT THEM. 87


NGOs:

UPWD WNU

Urban Poor Women Development Womens Network for unity

88


THE MATERIAL The analysis is mainly based on the two following sources : Urban Poor Settlements : The 8 Khan Survey 2009 - Maps showing the location of urban poor settlements, statistics. Sex Workers living and working places : Interviews Some other research have been made on internet.

89


DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF SEX WORKERS

Sex workers from Phnom Penh. Their relatives does not “know” what they do for a living.

Some sex workers comes in to Phnom Penh, from the provinces, just for some days to earn some money before they go back home.

Imigrants from the different provinces around Phnom Penh. Comes to the city to work at a bar or as a construction worker etc.

The needs are more or less the same

SAFETY HEALTHCARE HELP LEGAL RIGHTS

RESPECT CHILD CARE FINANCIAL SUPPORT SAFETY HEALTHCARE HELP RESPECT

SAFETY RESPECT

90


“woman on a bench” Comes from Kompong Cham Gets around 2.50 USD - rest is spent on the guest house or condoms. Difficult for her to pay rent, so she doesn`t have a place to live that`s why she accepts to trade sex for a night at the guest house and a small amount of money.

“ 3 girls waiting” Doesn`t want to take the condoms. Talk about the arrests. Taken to Prey Speu, and tried to escape.

Mars Meas - 28 years old Comes from the Province. Has lived in Phnom Penh for 15 years. She has been a sex worker for 3 years. Before she used to help her mother back home. Her “clients” are Cambodians at all ages. She is constantly afraid. She lives in the Tuol Kork area. She has been arrested 4 times. 91


SW-- FEARS - THREATS MAP

ANTI-TRAFFICKING LAW POLICE

GANGSTERS

ROBBERY

POVERTY

RAPES ARRESTS

CUSTOMERS HIV

STDs

92


UPW-- NEEDS MAP

healthcare income

healthcare

knowledge

food

food income

education dignity

training

empowering

dignity

empowering education legal rights

network

safety

shelter knowledge

network

training 93

legal rights


SW-- NEEDS MAP

respect

training

training

respect

education

education acceptance

acceptance

safety net

network

network ďŹ nancial support

ďŹ nancial support

help

child-care

housing

help

safety

housing child-care

safety net

condoms

condoms legal rights

healthcare

shelter healthcare safety legal rights

shelter

94


COMBINATION OF SEX WORKERS & URBAN POOR WOMEN

respect

dignity empowering

acceptance

knowledge legal rights education

income

food

training housing help shelter

child care

95

safety


AIM CREATE A NEW NETWORK FOR URBAN POOR WOMEN AND SEX WORKERS

96


ANALYSES !

307

Our main focus for this project has been the whole of Phnom Penh

RUSS EYKEO

S EN S O K

DOUN PENH

TOUL KORK 7 MAKARA

CHAMKARMON

DANGKOR MEANCHEY

97

PHNOM PENH


HOSPITALS

POLICE STATIONS

One of the biggest hospitals of Phnom From the information we found Penh is Kantha Bophal, in the east of the in internet, there are 3 main poBoeungkak lake, and it is free for every- lice stations in Phnom Penh. one. Two of them are situated in the north of Many other hospitals and smaller clinics the city, one in the west side and the other are spread in the whole area of Phnom one in the east side of the Boeungkak lake. Penh.

98

SCHOOLS

We can ďŹ nd schools, from primary school to high school, mostly not free, in dierent neighbors of the city. The main universities are RUFA (Royal University of Fine Arts) near the National Museum, and the campus university in Khan Toulkok which includes the Institute of Foreign languages, the Institute of Technology and the Royal University.


LINES BETWEEN EXSISTING DROP IN CENTRES

EXSISTING DROP IN CENTRES

The Drop In Centres are situated mostly around the Boeungkak lake and they don’t cover at all the south of Phnom Penh. A fourth Drop In Centres is isolated in the north-west of the city, and it is 7km far from the lake. 99


SIZE OF URBAN POOR COMMUNITIES AND AMOUNT OF WOMEN.

100


TRAFFIC-MAP OF WHERE THE TRAFFIC-MAP OF WHERE THE TRAFFIC-MAP OF WHERE THE SW LIVE AND WORK TO THE SW WORK TO HEALTH CARE SW LIVE TO HEALTH CARE EXISTING DROP IN CENTRES FACILITIES FACILITIES

The SW in the north of Phnom Penh can The distances between the Hospitals and The distances between the Hospitals and reach a Drop In Centre in a short distance the working areas for SW go from 200m the residential areas for SW go from 110m (about 200m), but those who are in the to 1970m. to 1980m. south-east of the city have to travel at least 5km to reach the nearest Drop In Centre.

101


RESULT THE SAFETY ROUTE “THE SECRET MAP OF PHNOM PENH” DROP IN CENTRES

102


THE SAFETY ROUTE

HANOI

There are two types of Route, one which is in a human scale and can be crossed by walking because it is located only in the city centre, and the other one which reaches the Poor Communities that live far from the city centre and can be travelled by car or the caravan of the WoMen’s Network.

NATIONAL ROAD (5)

The Safety Route is a road which connects the drop-in centres and creates a safe path for the Sex Workers, the Urban Poor Women and all the Poor Communities of Phnom Penh that pass through the Route. It is a safe path for everyone. TUMNUP PAYAP

355

NESE JAPA GE BRID

WAT

HQ

UAY

(1)

273

SISO

K

289

13

MONIVON BLVD (93)

G

287

MOA CHROU

A KROM

BLVD 154

CHAO

51

NORODOM

7 18

NATIONAL

ROAD 1

NATIONA L HIGHWAY

3

CHOAM

294

155

H ET M

ON

IR

MEANS OF SAFETY

OL AP TH AK 71) YO MAR (2 KH UMIN O PH

BL VD

(2

17

)

143

288

BLVD (41)

MAO TSE (245)

SOTHEAROS BLVD (3)

TOUNG BLVD

KAMPUCHE (128)

RUSSIAN BLVD (110)

W oM

en

`s

N etw

or k

Light, people, urban furnitures, communication means can enhance the security of a street.

103

0 1 2 3

4

5

10

20 Km


THE SECRET MAP OF PNOM PENH The Secret Map will be a map which will show the places throughout Phnom Penh where the Urban Poor Women and the Sex Workers can meet each other. It can be a cafè or a resturant, a drop in centre etc, where they know they can go and meet others in the same situation as themselves. A place they can go and talk and be understood and respected. The maps will be handed out at the drop in centres.

The secret map is available in internet, on the webpages of WoMen´s Network. It includes a general part, visible for everybody and also a secret part, visible only for Network members with special code. Because map is in virtual format, it can be changed when needed (for example if a location of a drop-in stop has been changed etc.). Map can also be printed.

104


WOMEN NETWORK VERSION

TOURIST VERSION

The secret part is meant for sex workers and urban poor women. This map shows the locations of drop-in centers and safety route. This secret part of the map can be accessed only with a special code given for Network members.

One map is mainly for tourists. This map shows the locations of main tourist attractions and also the locations of specific cafĂŠs and shops run by the network. 105


DROP IN CENTRES The Drop In Centres is a place you can come to get first aid, take a shower or just meet people. There are a variety of these centres, they can be mobile, modular/ movable, or placed in an exsisting buidling.

FUNCTIONS OF THE DROP IN CENTRE : First Aid Basic medical treatment Information center: HIV/AIDS STD Legal Right “Safety First” - Hospital, Eduactional center & Shelter WoMen`s Network - “The Secret Map” Registration Office: Their where-abouts, contact info Arrests Abuse Rapes Robbery Concerns

106


Resting / sleeping

Medicines / first aid

Eating /

meeting / rest

Drinks / Food Condom / Hygienic First aid

Sanitation

Kitchen

WMN

Drop In Centre in a caravan A movable Drop In Centre which can drive out to the outskirts of Phnom Penh.

Resting / sleeping

Medicines / first aid

Eating /

meeting / rest

Drinks / Food Condom / Hygienic First aid

Sanitation

Kitchen

WMN

Drop In Centre in a tuk-tuk A small Drop In Centre in a tuk-tuk. Offers basic medical treatment and hygenical articles Mobile drop-in centre 107


108


COMMUNITY CENTER IN OUDONG Fredrik MARTENS ONARHEIM / PUBLIC BUILDING DESIGN PROJECT During the trip to Cambodia, Four students were both involved the City in Crisis course and in the Public Building Design Project. The two courses were complementary and applied to Phnom Pen urban context. The Public Building Course wa taught by Saija Holmen and Helena Sandman. Here is the example of a project by Fredik Martens Onarheim. 109


laos

thailand

THE LANDSCAPES

THE SITE

“scattered” fruit trees

CAMBODIA

well

site for market

INITIAL THOUGHTS After visiting the site, and starting work it, i set my self some goals for the comm center, and marked some important pl the site. Loosening up the rigid appear the site, provide shade through structu vegetation, and trying to offer places o character (public/private), and making manoeuvre between them were my ma initially.

oudong

dense eucalyptus “forest”

phnom penh vietnam

Half of village is surrounded by eucalyptus trees

site for community center site with exsisting water tower and piles of soil block

50km

“scattered” fruit trees

should be emphasized as “main entran -the first one arrives to -next to market place -leads directly to community center well as a public space, emphasize

more public part of the site given close tions and “main entrance street”.

well water tower

more rigid and formal panorama of the site from the water tower. The only tree inside the village is in the middle of the site

important area where community cent the well and market place.

need to define streets, and protect bac

THE STRUCTURE

site plan 1:500

can be a more private part of the site. w etc?

THE CONCEPTS they inhabitants of the village produce soil block to build their own houses the back yard of one of the houses. people in the village with recources spend them on making shade

DRAINAGE as this climate has a distinct wet season, drainage of the site is necessary. There is no excessive flooding in the village, but when it rains a lot, mud is formed. Arrows show where water is led away.

SPIRAL the structure spirals from the public entrance to the village to the private toilets and water functions of the community center

corrugated iron bamboo 70mm straw mat bamboo 2x 90mm

bamboo 2x90mm soil block WATER COLLECTION water is not provided by the municipality, so collecting what one can is importantthe big roof collects water from a big area, and leads it to the private water-part of the structure, where it can be used for steel detail washing hands, dishes, clothes etc.

the streets in the village are scarce, and have no vegetation as is now.

110

concrete foundation rammed earth

WIND main wind direction is south/ All brick walls potentially bloc the wind is perforated, and w a controlled breeze through t whole site.


site plan 1:500

can be a more private part of the site. wash areas etc?

THE CONCEPTS

n houses

DRAINAGE as this climate has a distinct wet season, drainage of the site is necessary. There is no excessive flooding in the village, but when it rains a lot, mud is formed. Arrows show where water is led away.

SPIRAL the structure spirals from the public entrance to the village to the private toilets and water functions of the community center

WATER COLLECTION water is not provided by the municipality, so collecting what one can is importantthe big roof collects water from a big area, and leads it to the private water-part of the structure, where it can be used for washing hands, dishes, clothes etc.

WIND main wind direction is south/north. All brick walls potentially blocking the wind is perforated, and will let a controlled breeze through the whole site.

dense but m

ow.

with exsisting water tower and piles of soil block

THE LANDSCAPES a

a very important part of the process when designing a community center in such a village is to take care of the lanscape, here represented by where trees are planted.

“scattered” fruit trees

A loose approach to planting trees in the normal streets between the houses breaks up the rigidness. Having a more rigid and formal approach when planting trees on the street leading from the main entrance to the village to the community center implies this is a more public space.

dense eucalyptus “forest”

Fruit trees planted on streets provide fruit as well as shade. The slender and high eucalyptus trees create mental walls and beutiful rooms.

“scattered” fruit trees

more rigid and formal

e village is in the middle of the site

THE STRUCTURE

111


the muwhat one roof collects nd leads art of the e used for lothes etc.

INITIAL THOUGHTS After visiting the site, and starting working on it, i set my self some goals for the community center, and marked some important places on the site. Loosening up the rigid appearance of the site, provide shade through structure and vegetation, and trying to offer places of different character (public/private), and making it easy to manoeuvre between them were my main goals initially. well

should be emphasized as “main entrance” -the first one arrives to -next to market place -leads directly to community center chicken house

well as a public space, emphasize b

more public part of the site given closeby functions and “main entrance street”.

c

important area where community center meets the well and market place. need to define streets, and protect backyards can be a more private part of the site. wash areas etc?

open structure for market etc

open community room storage

kitchen

WIND main wind direction is south/north. All brick walls potentially blocking the wind is perforated, and will let a controlled breeze through the whole site. dense but maneuverable forest

a

a

a very important part of the process when designing a community center in such a village is to take care of the lanscape, here represented by where trees are planted. A loose approach to planting trees in the normal streets between the houses breaks up the rigidness. Having a more rigid and formal approach when planting trees on the street leading from the main entrance to the village to the community center implies this is a more public space.

library

study room

water room

rainwater drying clothes water tower

well

Fruit trees planted on streets provide fruit as well as shade. The slender and high eucalyptus trees create mental walls and beutiful rooms.

b

c

plan 1:100

112 COMMUNITY CENTER IN OUDONG


the angles of the roofs leads lead movement and eyes of people, as well as air and daylight.

the thick forest west of the community center protects the back yards of the houses behind. Even though the forest seem thick, it is important it is possible to walk through it

the small and intimate courtyard that is created by the structure in the most private part of the center. this is where community members can wash and dry their clothes

section c-c 1:50 the rythm of the bamboo structure, here seen on the north wall of the community center, leads the movement, and introduces a human scale to the big wall section b-b 1:50

the bracing of the slender bamboo structure creates a wavelike image, and leads you in towards the more private parts of the area, while at the same time creats a very open room

the forest and the soil block wall stops the movement before the private houses, and leads you to the left, towards the library and water house.

here seen from the northern well, the community center is very open, even though it creates well protected areas. 4

section a-a 1:50

the bracing of the slender bamboo structure creates a wavelike image, and leads you in towards the more private parts of the area, while at the same time creats a very open room

the angles of the roofs leads lead movement and eyes of people, as well as air and daylight.

113


s

s

114


hen a here d.

library

study room

water room

he eaks and on nce r

rainwater the thick forest west of the community center protects the back yards of the houses behind. Even though the forest seem thick, it is important it is possible to walk through it

drying clothes water tower

well

ruit

nd

the rythm of the bamboo structure, here seen on the north wall of the community center, leads the movement, and introduces a human scale to the big wall

b

section a-a 1:50

c

plan 1:100

COMMUNITY CENTER IN OUDONG

the angles of the roofs leads lead movement and eyes of people, as well as air and daylight.

A community center for 50 families in oudong, 40km northwest of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The needs are very simple; a place for up to 30 persons to gather with protection from the sun and the rain, as well as a small lockable area for valuables.

the small and intimate courtyard that is created by the structure in the most private part of the center. this is where community members can wash and dry their clothes

the community center connects the surrounding streets, and it leads people through a sequence of spaces with different character, from the public market place, to the private water area in the south.

bam-

y

t at-

section b-b 1:50 our-

Fredrik M. Onarheim, 211187

1

2 the bracing of the slender bamboo structure creates a wavelike image, and leads you in towards the more private parts of the area, while at the same time creats a very open room

115


116


117


118


Cambodia 2011 - City in Crisis Projects  

Presenting the work of the City in Crisis course at Aalto university in spring 2011.

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