Page 1

柬埔寨

kambodza cambodge camboya

cambodia 2009

Community Phnom Penh

Boeung Kak


e lak

I PP ung boe

kak

ENH

HNOM

2

Helsinki University of Technology Department of Architecture - Urban Planning and Design

City in Crisis 2009: Students

AALTONEN Noora (Ms) FI noora.aaltonen@tkk.fi GOMEZ AGUDELO Laura (Ms) ES lalocalauris@hotmail.com GONDON Claire (Ms) BE clairoune.gon@hotmail.com HARSIA Eveliina (Ms) FI ksharsia@cc.hut.fi HERRADOR Valle (Ms) ES mherrado@cc.hut.fi HOVILA Sisko (Ms) FI hhovila@cc.hut.fi LLEDÓ Elena (Ms) ES zhyma@hotmail.com MATO SABAT Marta (Ms) ES marta.matosabat@epfl.ch NAEDER Alexandre (Mr) FR alexandrenaeder@hotmail.fr SCOTT Peter (Mr) AU peterscott77@hotmail.com SIMON BAULENAS Albert (Mr) ES albertsimon@hotmail.com TOVAR NUEZ Andres (Mr) ES andres.tovarnuez@epfl.ch TRUEMAN Mark (Mr) AU mtrueman@cc.hut.fi VIRKKALA Inari (Ms) FI inari.virkkala@tkk.fi YANG Yue (Ms) CN ydyytt@hotmail.com Teachers

KALANJE, Humphrey (Mr) TAN kalanje@cc.hut.fi KJISIK, Hennu (Mr) FIN hennu.kjisik@h-k.fi PUHAKKA-AUTIO, Auli (Ms) FIN auli.puhakka@tkk.fi VASKO, Veikko (Mr) FIN vasko.architects@co.inet.fi

The blue heart of Phnom Penh, the Boeung Kak lake, is being filled up for commercial purposes. During our two-week workshop with the ngo STT, we tried to come up with alternative strategies. The postcards scattered troughout the book was one of our attempts to try to preserve the lake: as the residents and visitors of Phnom Penh would see the beauty and greatness of the lake, the general public opinion against the filling would be strong enough to stop the disgraceful destruction. if you would like to use them as real postcards, please send us an e-mail and we will be happy to send you the file.


Contents

Land City

Lake

Community 1 Cover hovila 2 Participants 3 Contents 4 Foreword kjisik, kalanje&vasko

Projects

3 archive - projects 2008

6 Intro naeder 8 TranCities aaltonen, hovila, neader 38 Vision Chakhtomuk gomez agudelo, harsia,

124 Some thoughts about development carlos lamuela

orta&Milla Nummikoski

tovar nuez, virkkala

126

66

Bassac milla nummikoski, sinikka wasastjerna, carlos lamuela orta, anni reinikainen, robin massola

trueman

Phom 4 Community mato sabat, simon baulenas,

130

Boeung Kak marcelo gutierrez, monica gassiot

88

136

Trapang Cropignacio atienza, willem anne van bolderen, daniela grotenfelt, mikaela neuvo, alberto quinones

Boeung Kak 4 Corners gondon, herrador, LLEDÓ,

scott, yang

Phnom Penh seen through our eyes

110 Intro aaltonen 111 Squatting 112 Hammocks 114 Donators 116 Streetlife 118 Kids 120 Toilets 122 Nightlife

melian, oliviero piffaretti, eva sollgruber, ilkka törmä

Phnom Penh People

140 Intro aaltonen 141 Lida 142 Taxi Driver 143 Phalla 144 Sokly 146 Nora 148 Phatly 150 Yara 151 Hang 152 Somphors

154 Persons Met 156 Field Trip Programme


Foreword

Hennu Kjisik, Veikko Vasko & Humphrey Kalanje

4

Architects in the wealthy parts of the world have a tendency of being primarily interested in what their more successful counterparts in other wealthy parts of the world are busy with. The professional magazines in Europe, North America and the rich parts of Asia are concentrating on the “wow-factor” and its various manifestations. It is far less common that these publications deal with the everyday problems of the majority of the world’s population. It is partly because of this that the Department of Architecture at Helsinki University of Technology has given courses on development issues since 1993. The approach of the first programme named Interplay of Cultures was to give an introduction to the general development problems of the majority of the world’s people and communities. Its aim was, and still is, to strengthen the global awareness and social conscience of the students, as well as helping to understand the realities of life and conditions of professional work in developing countries of the South. Since these things are notoriously difficult to teach in lecture halls and drawing studios of northern universities, the annual field work period has, since the beginning, been an essential part of the teaching process. In the beginning, in 1994-1997, this was carried out in Senegal to acquaint students with an African context. There our base was Centre Arc in Rufisque, a cultural centre run by Anne Rosenlew-Cremieux. Most projects were theoretical exercises, as has always been the general idea of the course, but some of them led to realisations,

most prominently the “Red House”, the women’s centre in Rufisque (by Saija Hollmén, Jenni Reuter, and Helena Sandman) which has been published in many of the world’s foremost architectural magazines. The new studio course, World Architecture and Planning, started in the autumn of 2000 and adopted the theme of City in Crisis. The objective was to create an understanding of the dynamics of urbanisation and of global issues in urban policies though lectures, seminars and exercises. For the first six years of the new studio a two-week field work period in Benin for a group of 10-15 students of different disciplines and nationalities was organised. The base during the field work was the Finnish cultural centre Villa Karo at Grand Popo. The first field mission in 2001 documented and analyzed the town of Grand Popo and its built environment whereas, the following year, the fishing harbour and the working and living conditions of the fishermen and their families, was chosen as the main subject for study. Later field trips were devoted to the revitalization and urban renewal of the Old Gbecon, the dilapidated colonial commercial centre of Grand Popo, as well as on the creation of a new civic centre or “heart” to serve the daily life of the inhabitants of Grand Popo, in search for identity and new sense of place. The field work during 2004 – 2006 covered housing problems, various urban design issues as well as alternatives for a centre for local women’s associations. One group of students studied tourism, one of the key sectors of development in Grand Popo, and students also studied the conditions of Togolese refugees in Benin at Agamé and produced general improvement ideas for refugee camps. The projects of the previous year were always presented to the representatives of the local community during the following visit. The presentations were usually followed by lively discussions, and the reports as well as CDROM versions of it were handed over to the municipality for their free use. It is important to emphasize that a university is primarily involved in teaching, not the implementation of development projects. However, if viable projects are identified, financing can be sought on the basis of proposals prepared through student work. The Mayor of Grand Popo, Mr Eugène Kpade saw this clearly. In his view our primary interests were: (i) enculturation of our students, (ii) the academic work of a university, and (iii) identification of projects. He pointed out that ideas presented in the students’ projects should be seen as an output which could be used and further developed by the local community; “We need dreams”. After six years in Grand Popo and Benin, it was, however, felt that a change was called for. A total of ten years of going to Africa made us now look east. Helsinki University of Technology, and particularly its Water Laboratory, has had connections with projects in the Mekong delta for some years now. We also found out that one of the alumni of the Interplay of Cultures course, Ms


Sara Hultén, a participant in the very first field trip to Senegal, now ran a busy architectural practice in Phnom Penh. The historical treasures of Cambodia undeniably also played a part in the decision to consider Phnom Penh as the new venue for the studio and thus the first group of students travelled to Cambodia at the end of February 2008. The timing of the trip was excellent. The School of Architecture of the Royal University of Fine Arts (RUFA) was organising a workshop under the theme “Designing with people” together with the very active local nongovernmental organisation STT (Sahmakum Teang Tnaut – Housing Rights Task Force) just as the sixteen students from six different European countries arrived with their teachers. Thus, after the first few days of their stay, the students were already well versed with issues such as eviction threats, informal settlements, marginalised communities, land sharing, serviced-site schemes, relocations and upgrading. All had personally visited examples of sites where the population was living under continuous threat of eviction, as well as relocation sites of all possible categories. The work continued efficiently, largely because of the continuing involvement and help of the staff of the two NGOs, STT and UPDF (Urban Poor Development Fund), and also because of the relentless work of our other collaborators, which made it possible for us to have discussions with such relevant and diverse personalities as the Vice Governor of Phnom Penh (with the unenviable job of being in charge of planning, development and poverty alleviation) and designers working on major private sector development projects. The second field trip to Cambodia in 2009, just as the previous one, started with a visit to the temples of Angkor. In addition we cruised on the Tonlé Sap, visited the floating village of Chong Kneas and the flooded forests around the wonderful village of Kompong Phhluk. Once in Phnom Penh, Khmer Architecture Tours provided us with a great opportunity to get to know the historical sights of Phnom Penh itself, and particularly the work of Vann Molyvann and other pioneers of the golden era of modern Khmer architecture of the 1950s and 1960s. Again in 2009, RUFA and STT responded to our call with another workshop, now concentrating on housing rights and largely focusing on the theme “Save the Lake”. The project which is based on the ongoing filling in of Boeung Kak Lake in the centre of Phnom Penh has become a symbol of many large speculative ventures financed by investors from abroad. These provide an excellent forum for continuous discussion and scope for a multitude of alternative projects which perhaps can address the problems in a manner that is fairer to the ordinary man of the street. The conflict between the need for continuous economic growth and increased competitiveness on the one hand, and the basic needs of the

less privileged on the other, is of course not peculiar to Phnom Penh. The relative accessibility of the authorities in charge, together with the exceptionally active NGOs, makes it, however, at this moment, an ideal venue to study these phenomena which lie in the very centre of the raison d’être of our studio course. We would like to thank everyone who gave us their support during our stay. We do not especially like to single out particular individuals but feel that we have to mention everyone at STT (particularly Meas Kimseng, Hallam Goad and Nora Lindström), and everyone at RUFA. Kong Kosal, Yam Sokly, Somethearith Din as well as Sara and Frida Hultén should be mentioned for all the help and assistance they have given to make our visits such resounding successes. We would like to extend our special appreciation to Mr Mann Chheurn, the Vice Governor of Phnom Penh, who has found the time to talk to us during both our visits, as well as to the newly elected Rector of RUFA, Dr Bong Sovath. A list of persons met is annexed – all those mentioned also deserve our most heartfelt thanks. The time during the field trip is necessarily spent in learning, observing the local realities and collecting information. Meanwhile the subjects are defined and gradually formulated into “real” projects. The actual design work that results in finalised plans and reports is performed in Finland after the field trip and eventually presented, exhibited and published at the Department of Architecture at the end of the spring term, usually around mid-May. This document constitutes the synthesis of the two first years of work in Phnom Penh and is based on certain assumptions. In spite of us having been lucky in finding such excellent collaborators and having been so well received on all levels, we cannot pretend to have had more than a fleeting glimpse of everything that is going on in the city. That is why the ideas and sentiments expressed in this book should also be seen as what they are; learning exercises by western students who, mostly for the first time in their lives, visit the region and touch upon issues that affect the lives of millions of people around the globe. These are “snapshots”, impressions which may contain terminological and other inaccuracies, as well as opinions that do not necessarily reflect the views expressed by our collaborators in Phnom Penh. In order to put our ideas on paper we have had to make certain assumptions. An important one relates to the fate of Boeung Kak Lake. For the purpose of our student projects we have presumed that the process will be reversed and the lake will remain. Even if machines at the moment are working incessantly to fill in the lake, our assumption can be justified on the basis that on the current master plan for the city (“Phnom Penh 2025”), the lake still exists. Helsinki May 2009

5


projects 2009

Introduction Claustrophobic feeling in Tuol Sleng S21

...

Phnom Penh is a mix of urban landscapes with strong

Men and Women as a worker force in Council of Ministry construction site

6

Community frame or no man’s land ?

boeung kak lake house or its remains ...

social realities: Buddhist, Khmer Monarchy, Colonial and those from the Khmer Rouge era. The society is changing fast and seems to want to break with its most recent past and move past its wounds which are still evident in the city fabric. Phnom Penh is being rapidly reconstructed and the people who are in charge seem to have the desire to follow in the footsteps of cities of the Occident world. Their goal seems to be the changing of the urban landscape with the construction of high rise buildings and the adoption of a new architectural vocabulary in opposition to that of the existing city. The city also has to deal with a rapid population growth that expands its borders which then consequently brings up the issue of land use. How to organise the growing city? Phnom Penh is divided between attractive projects funded by local and foreign investments and poor communities living in areas which can be referred to as “communities under threat of unvoluntary relocation”. These communities are entitled to compensation if they agree to move to a specified relocation. However the compensation offered is normally insufficient for families to obtain comparable alternative housing and meet their daily living costs. On the other hand, if they resist, the community can be forcibly evicted, often after being harassed by people who block access to the area and pull down houses. Once they are evicted and relocated, these communities loose a significant part of their past, their history. Access to work opportunities also becomes very limited because of the distance of the new locations to the city. Furthermore, when they are moved, little is done to improve their quality of life or to protect the environment and themselves from all the waste they produce. Housing at the relocation sites is often inadequate with poor infrastructure and a lack of basic amenities such as fresh water. Unvoluntary relocation is part of the problem of security for these communities and reflects on the respect for Cambodian law and Cambodia’s international human rights obligation.


King’s Village: A housing project intended for the “poorest of the poor”, financed by the King himself, finished in 2008, and still awaiting its residents.

On February 2007, the Municipality of Phnom Penh entered into a 99-year lease for US$79 million with a private developer, Shukaku Inc, for 133 hectares which included the Boueng Kak Lake and the surrounding land. The lake is situated in the middle of the city, and according to the developers it will be turned into a “pleasant, trade, and service places for domestic and foreign tourists”. The filling of the lake began in August 2008 and the aim is to reduce the surface area of the lake by 90%. The impact of this will be huge. 4000 families will have to be evicted, leading to the disappearance of vernacular stilt houses, a significant source of living and way of life will be destroyed and the landscape of the city will be greatly transformed. The time we spent in Phnom Penh allowed us to witness these processes of the transformation of the city on the urban scale as well as on the human scale. Of all the different places and communities that we visited there, the future of Boeung Kak Lake became of special interest to us. We asked ourselves, how was it possible to let this thing happen? Because this question was and still is in everyone’s mind, we decided to set up teams which would study deeply other alternatives for the lake which would show that it is possible to have a different future for the lake which is more equitable and sustainable, continuing on the studies made with STT and the local students during our stay. Based on our experiences and observations we chose four topics for further studies: transportation, waste management, water and green areas, and security and human rights. We were of the opinion that these topics have impacts at different scales and on each other. In order to try and address the issues raised before, we decided to divide our project into four scales: Cambodia and the region it is in, Phnom Penh and its surrounding, Boeung Kak Lake as an object in the city and one community on the lake shore. This approach is the framework that led us to focus more on the infrastructure rather than try to provide a more architectural solution. Alexandre Naeder

Boeung kak lake enemy

importance of a glass of water

existing but unused railway system

Is it a place for a horse to eat ?

7


Land City

Lake

Community

8

CA


AMBODIA TRANCITIES NETWORK

NOORA AALTONEN ALEXANDRE NAEDER SISKO HOVILA

9


Cambodia Global group:

Trancities 10South-East Asian co-operation to be updated

The countries on the South East Asian peninsula Thailand, Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam - share a lot in culture and language. Though they share the same history, they were looking at it from different angles. This has had an effect not only their different governmental policies but also on the level of development they have today, which is far from being alike. It is the Cambodia Global Group opinion that help and co-operation in advantaging their various potential and resources should overcome these differencies and other competitive forces. These nations could ease people flows and combine material flows; They could exchange raw materials for refinement and jointly encourage the establishment of industries that are lacking to employ their professionals as well as the rest of the citizens.

Examples of existing International co-operation and friendship associations on the area: - An Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) Consists of 10 different countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. With programs like Trans Asian Railway Network and Asian Highway, it is improving large scale connections inside Southeast Asia and with the rest of the world. It has however been criticized on being big on words but small on actions. (1) - Mekong River Commission (MRC) Comprehends Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Thailand with China and Myanmar being dialogue partners. The MRC works as a natural resource planning advisor to its member governments. A common thread of its work being the facilitation of agreements between the four member countries, carrying out surveys and collecting data of mainly water and related recources.(2) - Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) This programme of subregional economic cooperation was formed 1992 among the same six countries as in the MRC. They have created three “economic corridors” that criss-cross in between cities to lift the rural populations out of poverty, while recognizing the threads for biodiversity and links to natural recources. The GMS works under the Asian Development Bank which is also coordinating, providing loans and cofinancing the GMS projects. WWF is co-operating in some of their programmes as well.(3) - Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam (CLV) Development Triangle A Collaboration Triangle of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam is working on the acceleration of economic growth, poverty reduction, social and cultural progress as the youngest consortium on the area. They seem to be working closely with ASEAN and concider trade and foreign investment to be of great significance. They bring up agriculture and rural development on their 7 point list of concentration areas since “the rate of population in poverty among rural areas is higher than among urban areas in the CLV”.(4) Sources: (1) BBC News 11. Jan 2007 (2) mrcmekong.org (3) Asian Development Bank; adb.org/GMS (4)(5) Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan; mofa.go.jp

Figure 1: ethnic map. countries on the peninsula share a lot in culture and language.


11


“...the they they have today, “...the level levelofofdevelopment development have which tois far which from being alike.” day, is far from being alike.”

Natural resources

tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land textiles and footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber,jewelry, automobiles, computers and electrical appliances

Export

12 Export partners

us 12.6%, japan 11.9%, china 9.7%, singapore 6.3%, hong kong 5.7%, malaysia 5.1% (2007) capital goods, intermediate goods and raw materials, consumer goods, fuels

Import

Import partners

japan 20.3%, china 11.6%, us 6.8%, malaysia 6.2%, uae 4.9%, singapore 4.5%, taiwan 4.1% (2007)

“the nations could “These nation


Inhabitants

Thailand

Cambodia

Vietnam

Laos

63 000 000 6 355 144

14 000 000 1 325 681

84 403 000 3 082 800

6 000 000 287 000

GDP (PPP) millions of USD - per capita

570,1 8700

29, 24 2100

251,8 3000

11,280 1700

Agriculture % Services % Industry %

42,6 37.1 20.2

35 35 30

20,9 38,1 41

51 27 22

in total in capitals

oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential

phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower

timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones

clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear

crude oil, marine products,rice,coffee, rubber,tea,garments, shoes

wood products, coffee, electricity, tin, copper, gold

us 58.1%, germany 7.3%, uk 5.2 %, canada 4.6%, vietnam 4.5% (2007)

us 20.8%, japan 12.5%, australia 7.3%, china 6.9%, singapore 4.5% (2007)

thailand 32.7%, vietnam 14.3%, china 5.9%, south korea 4.8% (2007

petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products

machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer, steel products, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles

machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, consumer goods

thailand 23.1%, vietnam 16.9%, china 15%, hong kong 10.4%, singapore 7.5%, taiwan 7.2%, south korea 4.8% (2007)

china 19.9%, singapore 12.1%, taiwan 11%, japan 9.9%, south korea 8.5%, thailand 6% (2007)

thailand 68.5%, china 9.3%, vietnam 5.5% (2007

13

figure 2: economic figures.

d ease people flows and combine material flows; ns could ease people flows and combine material flows; Figure 2: economic figures.

source: cia - the world fact book


14...they could exchange raw materials for refinement and encourage the establishment of industries that are lacking to employ their citizens.�

Figure 3: cambodias export and import partners resemble that of laos´s and vietnams.


15


Growth of cities is a fact.

16

Figure 4: growth figures. Figure 5: population age and ecuacational figures.

Cities are countries breweries: They tend to have the largest p

they are entertaining and social. All this makes them sig overcome nations in decision making with their influenc


population, most of the infrastructure and industry; gnificant magnets. It is no wonder cities have begun to ce reaching over continents, and even worldwide.

17


Cities are the antennas of a country. Having a constant conne

they also link the rural areas to the larger scale.

18

As cities are very sensitive to changes, they need cooperation in order to be ready to balance with them: For example, social unrest in a city can cause masses of tourists to change their destination to another they might see as “equivalent�.

With the following list of issues in cities in South East Asian Peninsula Cambodia Global group would like to point out that it is not healthy for singe capital to support a whole nation. 1 Land policy: International companies entering cities, winning the competition with individuals and families over plots of land because they are financially stronger 2 Traffic jam of people 3 Lack of infrastructure and social care 4 Increasing need of transportation of food and other sources 5 Uncertainty in the level of mental well-being of people beacuse of stress caused by lack of infrastucture, social care etc.


ection to the outer world and transmitting information,

Figure 7: cities as antennas. maps of planned trans asian highway and railway networks connecting cities.

19

6 Mekong river: Any proposed harnessing of the energy potential of the river needs to be deeply studied and considered by local scientists, with specialists of wide experience from experiments executed elsewhere. No one wants to see the cities (Vientiane, Ho Chi Minh, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap as the biggest ones), nor the rural areas, with the tightest bonds to the backbone of the whole peninsula ending up with the Nile of Egypt -kind of situation.* 7 Global concerns: The cities will have to find original ways for not getting drawn down by global downturns. Working together to avoid, to reduce and to adapt to changes of the climate. (Sea level rise, for instance, would have a straight impact on many of the major cities like

Bangkok, Phnom Penh, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh.(2)) Furthermore, the city with the most well-preserved history bits or the city with a vibrant and original culture life might be some other of the cities in a country, and a totally different one has the biggest harbour, can offer nice housing by the sea with sailor culture and is also where exotic influences overseas will arrive first. However, for the citizens for whom moving to the city is just the less difficult way to get a living, the cities should be able to provide humane conditions. *Egypt is now using 70% of the energy generated with Nile hydropower to produce fertilizers for the decayed soils of the previously fruity river valley.


Instead of adding to the list of nationwide unions we therefore propose

TranCities - A Union of South East Asian Cities which will strengthen cooperation among the cities and contribute to democratic, social, economic and environmentally friendly development. TranCities will also be an investment for the future: Threads can be recognised and avoided if they start working together now. Organization By sharing decision making and subdividing power TranCities will reduce the influence of dictators and prevalence of corruption. TranCities is not, however, merely about good governance but more. Inside TranCities a city from each country would be named as a hub of trade, a hub of history and a hub of nature based on the characteristics and points of strength

TranCities MEKONG RIVER

A network of 17 cities on the South East Asian Peninsula. CHINA

Phnom Pen

1 Capital of Cambodia

VIET NAM

ANMAR

20

Halong Bay

Luang Namtha Chiang Rai

Chiang Mai

Hai Phong

LAOLuang PDR Prabang

Battamban Siem Reap Sihanoukv

2-3

: Form

Vientiane

4 Important port city, plans to start an airport to beco

Savannakhet Hue

THAILAND

5

Nakhon Ratchasima

Bangkok

Siem Reap

Phnom Penh Sihanoukville

:C

6 Leading Eco-tourism city in Laos

CAMBODIA

Battambang

Vientiane Luang Pra

Dalat Ho Chi Minh City

luang nam

7 A center to an ethnicly abundant region of Lao PD

Savannakh

8 One of the biggest port cities along River Mekong

Hanoi - Ha

9-10 Capital of Vietnam - A city next to a world famous Figure 8: culture square, trade square and the nature Belt.

MALAYSIA


that the cities already have. The hubs would then create wider networks: The Trade Square, The Culture Square and The Nature Belt, all linking various cities.

To encourage academic students to go study in a neighbouring country, the existing universities on the peninsula area could unify their administration.

information exchange TranCities will provide a channel to inform people of on-going issues and professionals of various sectors to exchange their experiences and to increase work opportunities. One essential purpose of the Trancities will be to invest on educating youngsters into a Generation of Change and Awareness. TranCities could have a foundation to support establishment of vocational schools and to offer scholarships to enable student exchange. This will be another step towards the goal of education as a right for all citizens in the region.

Proud Cities The purpose is not to make the member cities similar, but by growing the knowledge of the area native to its citizens, strengthen their unique cultures and heritage. TranCities will increase the member cities` international credibility with its transparent policies and visibility in overall to increase tourism. In the future the Union might consider enlargening to encompass more cities in these four countries as well as those of neighbouring countries, like Singapore and Yangon in Myanmar.

nh

Hue

:

: 11 Former capital of Vietnam

ng -

dalat

: 12 Hillstation to the Central Highlands of Vietnam

mer capital of Cambodia - Angkor Wat Temples

ville

: ome countrys busiest airport(4)

mtha

DR

het

Ho Chi Minh City

13

: Biggest city in Vietnam, a center for the Mekong Delta

Bangkok

Capital of Lao PDR

abang

21

14 Capital of Thailand

:

:

Chiang Mai Chiang Rai

15-16 :

Famous nature and adventure travel spots :

ai Phong nature spot, Halong Bay

:

Nakhon Ratchasima

17

:

A center to the culture and ethnic region of Thailand

:


connectin lo tourists

TranCities

educati

Luang Namtha

Luang Prabang

Chiang Rai

Chiang Mai

22

The Cambodia Global group would like to point out the following immediate possibilities: 1 Joint agreenments on land policies(to include those of encompassing forest areas) 2 Improving of transportation routes from city to city 3 Mekong river to be accounted as a route/bridge/source of life 4 Joint happenings 5 Network of knowledge and experience 6 Suburban eco-tourism and agriculture

Vientiane

YANGON

Savanna

Nakhon Ratchasima Bangkok Battambang

Siem Reap

Phnom Penh Sihanoukville

POR

AIR

HIG

BRID

RAI

RAI CON MEK

PRO

Figure 9: mekong basin and planned dams. Figure 10: logistical network zoom - existing, planned (by asean) and proposed (by cambodia global).

SINGAPORE


nnecting ocals, urists, jobs, ucation...

mekong is the only real border MEKONG RIVER to cross CHINA VIET NAM

MYANMAR

HANOI

Hanoi

Halong Bay

Luang Namtha

Hai Phong

Chiang Rai

Hai Phong

LAOLuang PDR Prabang

Vientiane

Chiang Mai

akhet

Halong Bay

Savannakhet

Hue

Hue

THAILAND

Nakhon Ratchasima

Bangkok

CAMBODIA

Battambang Dalat

Siem Reap

Dalat

Phnom Penh Sihanoukville

Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City

RT

RPORT

GHWAY

DGE MISSING

EXISTING DAM

ILWAY

ILWAY PLANNED/UNDER NSTRUCTION KONG RIVER

OPOSED ADDINGS

DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION

MALAYSIA

PLANNED DAM MISSING BRIDGE MEKONG BASIN

23


TranCities

NATURE BELT Protected Areas

Sensitize everyone to Natu Deforestation, pollution, erosion are serious environmental issues. Asian governments have joined forces in order to reduce these problems. One of the answers is the creation of Protected Areas. Forests are shrinking in size due to increasing access to these areas and the expansion of commercial agriculture areas. This environmental awareness started during the 1960s in Thailand and Vietnam and during the 1990s in Cambodia and Laos. Illegal wildlife trade totals billions of dollars a year: Growing demand-porous borders and the lure of big money make it a very lucrative business. The animals involved in the trade end up as trophies or in speciality restaurants or are used in traditional medicines. Many species are disappearing. The problem is exacerbated by Asia’s rising living standards and rapidly growing population. Forests are unguarded banks where everything has a value and everything can be sold.

24

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA CITES is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. First formed in the 1960s, its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention (‘joined’ CITES) are known as Parties. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level. Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam are one of the parties of CITES Sources: www.cites.org


ure issues and Human impact Wildlife Trade

TranCities will work to reduce the trade in wildlife in the region to sustainable levels and will thus provide a framework supporting the organisations dealing with this topic. Every city will be responsible for the protection and maintenance of its Protected Area and control of the flow of people going to visit these natural and sensitive areas.

25


TranCities

Suburban agriculture T TranCities will support the creation of a sustainable

farm network in suburban regions of each city. These networks will feed the citizens of the growing cities with the intention of reducing the need for transportation between the agricultural areas and the consumers. This will also reduce emissions as well. TransCities will provide a framework providing solutions for the preservation, development and management of these agricultural areas beginning with defining a location for these areas around the cities. This kind of land use planning will not only help in protecting forest areas but prevent the spread of new farm lands as well. It will also guarantee that these are established in unpolluted areas.

26

All this will require infrastructure such as: roads, irrigation networks, improved water quality, recycling of regenerated water and establishment of a farmers’ association to manage the areas and to define what will be cultivated and where. Educational programmes will be introduced by the creation of schools teaching efficient production methods that respect the environment and encourage the modernization of farms while respecting traditional ways of farming. Arboretums of traditional varieties of fruits and vegetables will be created. These will be open to the public and serve as information centres.


VIET NAM

MYANMAR

Hanoi

LAOS

Luang Namtha

Halong Bay Hai Phong

Luang Prabang

Chiang Rai

Nature Belt

Chiang Mai

Vientiane

Savannakhet

Hue

THAILAND Nakhon Ratchasima

City Bangkok

Farm

CAMBODIA Battambang

Siem Reap

Phnom Penh

Farms system

Sihanoukville

Dalat Ho Chi Minh City

27 MALAYSIA


TranCities

ECO-Tourism NATURE BELT cities will provide ecotourism models for those who are aware of environmental issues. They will facilitate easy access to trips to national parks and protected landscapes where exceptional biodiversity can be discovered. Tourists will get an exceptional experience by living with locals who will not only welcome these visitors but open their cultures to them. Ecotourism will support the sustainable development of rural areas as well as help conserve the Protected Areas, all of which will be linked to the nearest city.

28


Muang Nale

Muang Sing

Ban Nam Yang

Mae Sa Waterfall National park

MEKONG RIVER

Halong Bay

Luang Namtha

Hai Phong

Chiang Rai

Chiang Mai

Halong Bay

29 Dalat Sihanoukville

Preah Sihanouk “Ream “National Park

Kirirom National Park

Doi Suthep - Pui National Park


Cultural square

Examples of existing International and local happenings on the area:

Culture in the cities

Cambodia - ‘Love and Relationships’: Film festival in Cambodia addresses HIV prevention, Phnom Penh. (1) - Outdoor Film Festival Cambofest, Siem Reap(2) ‘love and relationship’ film festival(1)

wimaya nattakan(4)

international dance and music festival(5)

(6)

Thailand - Wimaya Nattakan Light-andSound Show- Nakhon Ratchasima - International Festival of Dance and Music, Bangkok - International Balloon Festival, Ayothaya - World Comedy Film Festival, Bangkok(3) Vietnam - Wrestling Festival in Lieu Doi, Nam Ha - Lim Festival, Ha Bac. Festival of folk songs (7)

lim festival (8)

wrestling festival(9)

30 Songkran Water Festival(11) A harvest festival(10)

water festival, thailand(12)

childrens festival, cambodia(13)

Tet festival vietnam(14)

Half of the worlds population lives in cities. Cities of today are growing. Many of the cities have good living conditions to offer to millions. How millions of people can live together and feel united? Cities have to be more than just places for everyday obligations. Cities have to have soul.

Laos In Laos, there is a traditional festival or a major holiday almost every month. - Boun Khoun Khao - A harvest festival celebrated at local temples and wats (10) Traditional happenings - Water Festival - Tet Festival - Childrens day - Buffalo racing - Boat Racing festival - The Vixakha Bouxa / The Visakha Bouxa Sources: (1) unesco cambodia (2) blog. openaircinema.us (3) http://www.thailandgrandfestival.com/calendar.asp (4) www.speakingthai.com (5)www.nationmultimedia.com (6) www.thailandworldcomedyfilm.com (7) www.vietventures. com (8) www.angelfire.com/mt/hongnam/ limfestival.html (9) www.asiakingtravel. com/vietnam/Festivals (10) http://exploremekong.org/responsible/laos (11) weirdnews.about.com (12) travel.nytimes. com (13) www.friendsofcch.org (14) www. venuevietnam.com

TranCities

Culture as an amplifying fac


Trancity square - your voice TranCity square is a place of gathering. It is a square of festivals, happenings and markets. TranCity is supporting existing happenings and organizing new international festivals to promote local culture and introduce modern South East Asian artforms to the world. City spots: - People’s Wall- Free art space - Your Voice Square (demonstration square)

Vientiane - luang prabang

Nakhon ratchasima

hue

Battambang - siem reap

Trancity festivals 1. International Movie Festival - The festival would be organised in the cultural capitals but it can travel overseas as well. 2. Dancing on the Street - The festival starts from the TranCity square and afterwards spreads all over the city. Cars have to give in to the dancing people. 3. International Rock/Alternative Music Festival - Promotes young musicians of the area 4. International South East Asian Film Festival 5. Literature Festival - It is promoting young local writers and collecting founds for educating illiterate adults.

ctor between country relationships

31


trancity Wall

greenpix - zero energy media wall in beijing. the led wall is powered by thousands of photovaltaic capture cells.

TranCity walls are elements located in all TranCities They indicate membership. It’s the place where people can feel their abherence to the union. Behind the thought of building common targets of identifying is the will to strengthen the pride of the citizens. Trancity wall is an information forum between the cities. It is a screen wall that uses solar power to get its energy. In every city there is also a camera connected to the wall. The camera enables live connection between the citizens in all the cities. Different municipal servants from TranCities can have seminars there and organise open meetings through the wall. Thanks to the walls people get power to affect the society around.

The zero energy media wall designed and implemented by Simone Giostra & Partners, a New York-based office, with lighting design and façade engineering by Arup in London and Beijing.(1)

32

people’s wall

- Free art space, expressing your toughts Non places - Places of unplanned new activities People’s places

TranCities

Peoples wall is media for expressing yourself. It is for young artrists to have their first exhibition or citizens to express their restlessness, happiness or unhappiness. It is a forum for young, maybe poor, talented people. It is working more on grassroots level than TranCityscreen wall.

source: (1) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1019173/The-largest-LED-screen-world-powered-sun.html (2) pictures from the collage


art matters - Art of survival - cambodia

‘Nasy Radet thinks her talent is natural and may have been inherited from her mother, who is also an artist. However, despite the family lineage, she doesn’t wish to be an artist forever - only as long as she is able to use her artwork to help Cambodia’s rural poor’(1)

‘An ART AUCTION will be held to raise funds for The Rubbish Project’s Queen Naga installation to be built in the Siem Reap River on World Water Day - March 22nd’ (2)

sources: (1 ) phnom penh post article: Cambodian artist creates love and peace ,Thursday, 30 April 2009(2) http://www. therubbishproject.blogspot. com/

33 free art wall

-place for happenings

principal plan for trancity square

Information wall

Trancity square


34 WALL OFFERS - LIVE LECTURES BETWEEN UNIVERCITIES - MEETINGS BETWEEN MUNICIPALITY WORKERS - MOVIE FESTIVALS - DAILY INFORMATION SHARING - VISUAL ART EXHIBITIONS


35


Capital titles have changed owner over history. It might become relevant again in the future - There is a need of a safety net.

TranCities

Luang Namtha Chiang Rai

36

Chiang Mai

Hanoi Luang Prabang

Halong Bay Hai Phong

Vientiane

GULF OF TONKIN Savannakhet

Hue

Nakhon Ratchasima Bangkok Battambang

Siem Reap

Phnom Penh

Dalat Ho Chi Minh City

GULF OF THAILAND Sihanoukville Sources: (1) Population Reference Bureau, www.prb.org (2) Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve, www.tsbr-ed.org (3) www.anna.aero, cambodianonline.net Figure 1: www.lib.utexas.edu, www.reisenett.no/map_collection/asia.html (Indochina Atlas 1970) Figure 3: http://www. traveldir.org/images/world/ world_map_political.jpg Figure 7: United Nations

Figure 10: coast line after a 12 meter sea level rise.


37


PHNOM PEN 38VISION

CHAKHTOMUK

LAURA GOMEZ AGUDELO ANDRÉS TOVAR NUEZ EVELIINA HARSIA INARI VIRKKALA


Land City

NH

Lake

Community

39


PHNOM PENH BASICS Location: 11°33’N 104°55’E Province: Phnom Penh Subdivisions: 7 Kanhs (districts) 76 Sangkat (communes) 637 Phum (villages) Municipality 375 km2 City surface 290 km2 Agriculture 34,7 km2 (1,48 km2 with irrigation)

Population Official (urban)

2008(1)

2004(2)

1998(2)

1,242,241

1,043,000

1,000,000

N.D

54,000

18,000

Estimated population in institutional household/homeless Total estimated

1,325,681

1,097,000

1,018,000

Density

4,571.1 p/km2

3,783 p/km2

N.D

Growth (exponential)

2.82% (1998-2008)

1,26% (1998-2004)

N.D

193,000

N.D

N.D

52,2%

51,8%

N.D

90% male 80% female

n.d

Households

Permanent Semi-PermaneTemporary N.D 5.5 p/house N.D 2004 84,1 7,7 8,2 N.D 91.7% 93.1% 1998 91,4 5,5 3,1

Average household Sex ratio Percentage of female population

40

Literacy rate

Migration Females

Males

Last residence elswhere in Cambodia

97,6

97,3

Whithin the province but ouside the place of Enumeration

45,1

46,6

Elswhere in the District of Enumeration

21,4

20,1

In other districts of the province of enumeration

23,7

26,5

Provinces in cambodia beyond the province of enumeration

52,5

50,7

Last residence outside Cambodia

2,4

2,7

Asia

2,2

2,4

Other

0,2

0,3

376,8

326,4

Number of Migrants (thousand)

 Temporary (8.2%) Semi-Permanent (7.7%)

Permanent (84.1%)

Percentage Distribution of Residential and Partly Residential Building According to Nature of Construction.

1: Cambodian 2008 census preliminary results, Statistics Japan 2-6, Tables 2.2-2.6 2: Cambodia Inter-Censal Population survey 2004 (http://www.phnompenh.gov.kh/english/Departments/D_planning/CIPS.htm)


2004

83,8

12,6

3,3

0,3

2004

 Rent free 3,8%

22,6

11,2

8,4

 4+ Room 3 Room (8.4%) (11,2%)

Other 0,9%

Rented 11,5%

57,8

2 Room (22.6%)

1 Room (57.8%)

    

  

 



  

Owner occupied 83,8%

Piped Water (1 Tube/piped we Protected dug Unprotected d Spring, river, s Bought (6) Other (7)

69,6

1

2,6 2,6 18,7 1,5

4 5 6 7

 

Distribution of Households by rooms occupied (average household 5.5p).

Protected well Unprotected well Spring, river, stream

Percentage Distribution 3,9 2 of Households 1,1 Status of 3 Dweling. by Tenure

Bought (18.7%)

Without toilets Sewage (2) Septic tank (3 Pit Latrine (4) Other (5)

1 2 3 4 5

Pit Latrine (3.5%) Other No toilets (12.9%) Septic Tank

Other 

(25.7%)



Tube/piped well

12,9 57,3 25,7 3,5 0,6





Piped Water (69.6%)





Sewage (57.3%)

 

  



1998 2004

Primary SectorSecondary SecTertiary Sector 10 22,1 67,9 Water Source 5,2 of Drnking 25 69,8

Toilet Facility

The primary sector ( Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing) is rapidly decreasing around Phnom Penh. This is due to the growth of the secondary (mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply and construction) and tertiary sector (hotels and restaurants, transports, business, administration, service  activities). This phenomena is caused by to combined fac Males Females tors: the progressive disappearance of the green areas close 50,2 45,4 55,4 to Phnom Penh because of the city expansion and a rural 0,2892 0,3276 0,2676 exodus attracted 0,6 by the growth of0,6 the last two sectors.

Percentage of employed persons by sector        

Both 1 2 3 24,1 4 18,1232 5 5,4466         6 0,241

 

50 yed

lo

mp

Une

Paid



 

Em

 



50 37,6 11,3 0,5

.1%

e 24

Em

e ploy

56 36,1 6,7 0,6





.12%

r 18

orke nt W

5.4% rker o ily W Fam d i .24% a er 0 h Unp t O

ou

cc nA

Ow

29%

0, yer

plo

19,401 17,4832 7,2698 0,1784

Employment Distribution of Employed Persons by Main Employement Status, Phnom Penh 2004

,2%

   

30,576 19,7106 3,6582     0,3276







male

 female

41


DEVELOPMENT OF PHNOM PENH 1372 Wat Phnom Daun Penh - a hill and a temple built

Historical patternof of Historical pattern Urban growth 1890-1994 1890-1994 Urban growth ~ 1500

1818 Enlargement of the royal court and construction of new water management channels ~ 10.000 inhabitants

1867

1865 Foundation of the new colonial capital 1875 Enlargement of Phnom Penh southwards along the Mekong banks. ~ 30.000 inhabitants

f -1994

Historical pattern of Urban growth1910 1890-1994 1890

1890 Construction of the “modern”colonial city. “Palais” style architecture and urban planning of six ethnical quarters: Quartier européenne, Quartier chinois, Quartiers cambodgiennes I, IIQuartier annamite (Vietnamese), Quartier catholique anciens (Vietnamese, Malay) 1920 -1939 Urban extension westwards and southwards and on the Mekong –TonleSap peninsula. Construction of the second ring dyke in the SW –Extend ~ 100.000 inhabitants 1945 -1953 Urban growth due to colonial industrialisation closing of the second ring dyke in the SW. Folie 11 Folie 11 350.000 inhabitants Analyzing urban> sprawl using multi-temporal and multi-source geospatial data fusion

1937 AK- SEA – 2008 - Hannover AK- SEA – 2008 - Hannover

f -1994 -1994

42

1943 Dr. Mund & v.d. Dunk Dr. Mund & v.d. Dunk

1958

Folie 11 Folie 11

Analyzing urban sprawl using multi-temporal and multi-source geospatial data fusion Analyzing urban sprawl using multi-temporal and multi-source geospatial data fusion

AK- SEA SEA –– 2008 2008 -- Hannover Hannover AK-

Dr. Mund Mund & & v.d. v.d. Dunk Dunk Dr.

Analyzing urban sprawl using multi-temporal and multi-source geospatial data fusion

1954 -1965 Urban enlargement and first (and last) urban planning period of Dr. Vann Molyvann. Internationalism Period. 1966 -1975 Consolidation of Phnom Penh and population growth due to war refugees. ~ 2.000.000 inhabitants 1975 -1979 Khmer RougeFolie Period of Urban destruction Folie 11 11 and evacuation. 50.000 inhabitants

Analyzing urban Analyzing urban sprawl sprawl using using multi-temporal multi-temporal and and multi-source multi-source geospatial geospatial data data fusion fusion

1979 -1989 Civil war and Vietnamese occupation, first steps of urban rehabilitation 1990 -2003 Urban re-growth and extension due to uncontrollable in-migration ~ 1.400.000 inhabitants

1994

1968 Dr. Dr.Mund Mund&&v.d. v.d.Dunk Dunk

Dr. Mund & v.d. Dunk Dr. Mund & v.d. Dunk

four main periods of population growth

1922

Folie Folie11 11 Analyzing Analyzingurban urbansprawl sprawlusing usingmulti-temporal multi-temporaland and multi-source multi-sourcegeospatial geospatialdata datafusion fusion

2004 Master Plan for 2020 of the Phnom Penh Municipality. ~ 2.500.000 inhabitants 2009 Development scenario 2050 proposed by the students of Helsinki University of Technology ~ 3-7.000.000 inhabitants

2020

2050

Picture sources: http://www.slideshare.net/jpmund/analyzing-urbansprawl-using-multi-temporal-and-multi-source-geospatial-data-fusion. Atelier Parisien d’Urbanisme (APUR), Ministère de la Cultrure (1997)


Average density in Phnom Penh 2,986 people/km2

CURRENT DENSITY

Three rural districts: density 1,385 people/km2

Three urban districts: density 23,168 people/km2

Prampir Meakkakra (urban) Chamkir Mon (urban) average density 4,571 p/km2

Reussei Kaev (rural) Tuol Kouk (urban) rural sangkats Doun Penh (urban) 1,385 P/ km2 urbansangats 23,168P/ km2 Mean Cheay (rural) Denkaev (rural) E:\Metropolis- a Measure of 7 world cities_1.doc 7544 - 2/22/2003 12:32 PM

number of pages: 22 - 1,988,608 b

page 3

Figure 1: The spatial structure of 7 cities

Phnom Penh: 1,325,000 people 375m2

43


CURRENT SITUATION VS MASTERPLAN 2020 1:100 000

1km

44

2km

2020: proposed new centres

5km

10km

2009

2010

2015

2020


existing 2009 airport harbour sight housing production commercial agriculture recreation PHNOM PENH DEVELOPMENT TODAY VS. 2020 MASTERPLAN Compared to it’s population, the built urban area of Phnom Penh is relatively small, most of the urban areas can be fitted within a 5km radius. Out of its seven main districts (khans) four central ones are ultimately urban with a density of 23,168 people/km2 while the three rural ones have 1,385 people/km2. However, with the rapidly increasing urban population (10 000 new families per year) urban sprawl is starting to cause a serious problem to the sustainable development of the capital. According to The National Institute of Statistics, by 2020 Phnom Penh would accomodate nearly 2 000 000 inhabitants, from which 100 000 would move to the four central khans and 650 000 to the three rural ones. By 2030, Phnom Penh would have doubled it’s population.

masterplan 2020

Due to bad transportation, livelihood opportunities outside the very core of the city are scarce. In order to be able to live near the work opportunities, people are moving to the inner city and because they are not able to afford the high rents and land prices, they end up in informal settlements, often in un-human conditions. The municipality tries to prevent this by “involuntarily relocations” , which means moving these people to distant relocation sites, scattered randomly several kilometers from the centre.

In wildest estimations the population growth rate of Phnom Penh can be up to 4%. If the urban areas are growing as fast, the whole surface would be swallowed by construction in 23 years.

2025

municipality area 375km2 20% urban 62km2

2009

2030

2032

45


VISIONS

DEVELOPMENT VS. SUSTAINABILITY Before the global recession hit Cambodia in the fall of 2008, land prices in the core of the city were almost as high as in western capitals. This caused speculation and abuse, especially when the government is not the most transparent one (Cambodia is the third most corrupt country in Asia according to a recent survey by Political and Economical Risk Consultancy PERC). Affluent lease agreements on land are often made with no consideration of the original residents nor the environment. Existing height restrictions have contributed to the building up of all open spaces, including parks and lakes. The traditional heigh of buildings in Phnom Penh is 4-5- floors, but various plans for high rise development exist. The municipality of Phnom Penh has tried to develop a master plan as a document to steer the urban development into a more sustainable direction socially and environmentally. The plan proposes four to five satellite towns to cope with the urban sprawl whilst also easing pressure on the core and the open spaces. However, several problems are evident in the plan itself and especially in its implementation. TRANSPORTATION At the moment no public transportation exists in Phnom Penh. The heavy traffic of cars, motorcycles and tuk-tuks cause environmental pollution, makes the city an unpleasant place for the inhabitants and visitors and makes the people unequal while owning or hiring a motorized vehicle is a necessity for moving in the city. Heavy traffic fills up the pedestrian areas and makes it strenuous to move by foot or bicycle. In the masterplan of 2020, a grid-like street network has been planned to access the vast suburban housing areas, forcing the residents to rely on private transport.

46

PRODUCTION - environment The green areas near the city are being turned into housing areas at vast speed. The rivers are being polluted, fishing becomes difficult and dangerous. In the outskirts of the city exist the factories of the cheap labor, as garment industry is one of Cambodia’s main sources of income. Some public waste collection systems exist in the city area but only few in the rural areas. Vast amounts of trash, especially plastic, still end up in the nature. HUMAN RIGHTS

MORE VISiONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHNOM PENH http://www.skyscrapercity.com/ showthread.php?t=648569

Poverty drives people to the main city of Cambodia. When there are no opportunities to increase your standard of living in the countryside, people are driven to cities, especially to their cores. The GDP per capita in Phnom Penh is 1140$, three times the national average. Housing rights are not respected and even though the local people do feel relatively safe, there are still problems with crime.


GREAT PHNOM PENH VISION 2050 In the west we are now starting to wake up to see the unsustainable way of our living. Our cities are built in a very polluting and energy-consuming way, often to foreign ideals regardless of the local climate. Cambodia does not need to repeat the same mistakes! As the expanding city is being built, it still can choose a better model for the growth! The scenario of 2050 will not only consist of the positive characteristics of the 2020 masterplan, but also out of our vision of the possibilities what Phnom Penh could be. What are it’s best characteristics and what could be developed further? What is Phnom Penh’s potential as a sustainanable city? CHAKTOMUKH REVIVED Traditional name for Phnom Penh has been Chaktomukh, city of four faces, coming from the unique situation in the crossing point of the three rivers: Upper and lower Mekong, Tonle Sap and Bassac. The relation between the rivers and the city is unique and shall be utilised better in transportation, recreation, tourism and general image of the city. Phnom Penh swill again reclaim it’s status as “the pearl of Asia”. CRADLE TO CRADLE The city is functioning in a self sufficient way. Most of the needed consumer products are produced within the city limits. All waste is recycled or either used for further

production. Biogas is produced from the waste to function as fuel and gas for the transportation system. EFFECTIVE TRANSPORT Transportation in Phnom Penh is completely carbon free. Public transportation is organized as effective spines and rings of the city. The main stations of the bus system are reachable either by bicycles or by foot and because there are less vehicles on the streets cycling becomes the most popular means of transportation. URBAN SPINES - COMMUNAL VILLAGES The urban structure of the city is based on a system of urban spines and small secondary centres. Urban public centres function as the hearts of the everyday life. Communal decisions are made transparently and democratically in grassroots level. The villages form secondary and tertiary centres inside the city, and the increased values of properties in their cores are being used to fund construction of infrastructure. High densities keep the prices affordable. GREEN CORRIDORS - URBAN AGRICULTURE Between the dense city strips there are parks and green spaces left for cultivation and recreational purposes. Food is produced near the consumers without the costs and pollution caused by transportation.

CHAKTOMUKH VISION 2050

47

MAIN ISSUES

2009

REALISTIC 2020

SCENARIO 2050

IDENTITY

ABU DHABIZATION

ECONOMIC ENGINE

CHAKTOMUKH REVIVED

STRUCTURE

URBAN SPRAWL

URBAN SPINES

URBAN VILLAGES

TRANSPORTATION

POLLUTION,MOTOS, CARS

RAPID BUS TRANSIT

CARBON FREE

PRODUCTION

EXPORT AND IMPORT

NEARBY FOOD PRODUCTION

LOCAL FOOD PRODUCTION

HOUSING

SQUATTING, SPECULATION

PUBLIC HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

WASTE

POOR SYSTEM

ORGANISED COLLECTION

CRADLE TO CRADLE

HUMAN RIGHTS

UNVOLUNTARY RELOCATIONS

HEALTH CARE, EDUCATION

EQUALITY

PRODUCTION

GARMENTS, SERVICES

LOCAL NEEDS

CRADLE TO CRADLE


intercity TRANSPORTATION After the visit to Phnom Penh we realized that the actual organization of the transportation has a lot of potential and can work very well with small changes. There is no intercity bus station and it generates traffic jams. There is a complete railway starting from Phnom Penh going to Sihanoukville and Bangkok but unfortunately it´s not used for public transportation.

48

The main idea of the development of transportation in the city of Phnom Penh is to make a new hub for the transportation, a common station for buses and trains. This station will be in the city center near the lake in order to make the system effective. The buses have a predetermined route to have an access without creating or crossing traffics jams in the center. The second part of the development of transport in Phnom Penh is the introduction of the system of bus rapid transit. The new transportation system will reduce traffic in the city, improve connections between Phnom Penh and other cities, improve quality of life for the citizens and increase possibilities for tourism. Transportation by water is encouraged. There would be a new harbout situated in the crossing of the Mekong and Bassac. Both airport and harbour are effectively linked to the train and bus networks, forming areas for new employment possibilities.


metro khmer

2050: Daily transportation from home to work Rapid bus transportation allows you to change effectively between different bus lines, even if your workplace is on the other side of the town. Cities where BRT has been successfully introduced in comparison with phnom penh

Curitiba is a city situated in the south of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the BRT (bus rapid transport) was successfully first introduced. The population was 500 thousand people in 1943 when the BRT was introduced. The city grew along the way of the buses promoting high density housing areas. The roads combine lanes for buses separated by a gap from the lane of cars. This system reduces the importance of the downtown because the day to day activity is developed also along the bus lines. The result of this system is 30% reduction in the cities fuel use, compared to other similar and only 10% of a person income being dedicated to transportation.

49


brt The bus rapid transit (BRT) system will be used in the present city and will be extended to the surroundings guiding the growth of Phnom Penh. In the downtown there will be streets only for the bus lines enabling the buses to be faster than other motorised vehicles. The buses will start from the city center going radially to the outskirts, making possible the growth of dense communities around the principal lanes and having urban cultivation in between the dense areas.

50

According to year 2000 statistics the traffic in the streets around the central market is low. There is an opportunity to create a pedestrian zone surrounded by large streets that solve the new flow of traffic. This “no cars space� will encourage business growth and improve quality of life.


2010

2020

2050 The BRT is a system of rapid lanes only allowed for buses. There are different lines with junctions and there are several stops where buses run frequently. In the beginning of the BRT it is proposed 3 lines in the city with minivans every 10 minutes. From the heart of the city there will be 2 minivans a day in 8 directions to connect the outskirts to the center. The transportation from the communities to the bus stop will be by motorbike. When the system has settled down (after 5 years) the principal lines of the city will have minivans every 2 minutes and there will be more lines combining lanes for buses with lanes for motorbikes. The outskirts lines will have minivans every hour. In the future the system will be completed having all the necessary lines that the city needs using buses instead of minivans and introducing those minivans to take in the people from residential places to the bus lines. The development of the city will be along the lines with dense housing areas reducing one day travel distances and improve the sustainability of Phnom Penh. The tickets are sold in the entry of the stations; with one ticket it´s possible to do as many transfers as need. Secondary buses take in citizens from neighborhoods to the main lines.

51


comparing transport modes

Paul Barter and Tamin Raad; Taking steps (03/2000)

52

LONDON TRANSPORT FOR LONDON


Vienna VOR

TOKYO TRTA

Mexico City El Sistema de Transporte Colectivo

VIENNA VOR

Barcelona TMB Budapest

subways at scale (large)

BKV BARCELONA

Neil Freeman

TMB

september weather

MEXICO CITY

Seoul EL SISTEMA DE TRANSPORTE COLECTIVO Seoul Metro

25 of 27

subway s see at half

connected places skyscrapers in order brooklyn typology 1 km by density 1 mi traces of new york schools in order Halvimmat le america's first great Suomalainen contextual calendar Varaa lennot comparative timeline www.eticket.fi symbolic alphabet electoral college reform subways at scale national holidays nuclear capable nations Transport A well functioning urbn transportation system can form for Lond last train to clarksville an important part of a city’s identity. very low quality jpegs chicago milexmile

San FranciscoTransportation MUNI/BART

as a part of the identity of a city... London

53

subways at scale (large)

In most of the cities presented here the metro system is supported by secondary bus lines. If the city structure of about Phnom Penh evolves following the main cores,the whole delicious only by the BRT. city could be served effectively flickr

Chicago MOSCOW CTA

MOSKOVSKOE METRO

22 of 27

NEW YORK MTA/PATH

http://www.fakeisthenewreal.org/subway/


chaktomukh

“four faces” of the waters

WATER The climatic water conditions of Phnom Penh are highly dominated by the monsoon season in regards to rainfall. The most significant water areas are the three rivers (Mekong, Tonle Sap, Bassac) that pass the city. There are no significant differences in elevation or orientation in the ground. There are many cultivation areas especially for wetland plants, lakes, irrigation canals and smaller rivers in the area. On the southern and northern sides of the city there are wide wetland areas. Although most of the water areas have been filled, at the time of writing there is still two lakes remaining, Boeung Kak and Tra Bek.

54

1928 Plan of Phnom Penh where formerly existing canals are visible downtown

The most important water structures built by man in Phnom Penh are the canal systems planned in the 1920s and 1930s. The filling of these waterways has lead to contamination of the freshwater areas. There are still several fishing communities in Phnom Penh area. These communities are situated along the rivers, especially Mekong. Due to overfishing in the freshwater estuaries fishing is now forbidden in Cambodia during spawning period. The government has encouraged people to develop fish cultivation on traditional rice areas, since fish farming in Phnom Penh has a very uncertain future due to increasing pollution caused by filling of freshwater areas.

1937 expansion plan of a GARDEN CITY ON THE PENINSULA EAST FROM THE CENTRE

Water supply and drainage systems in Phnom Penh have suffered from war, poor management and lack of maintenance over the past decades. The problem has worsened by the rapid growth of urban population. In the early 1990s only 30% of population of Phnom Penh had running water and the system was corrupt and overpriced. Nowadays the water supply is relatively well organized in the city compared to other Asian cities - 90% of the people living in Phnom Penh have 24h running water. Water supply is organized by PPWSA (Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority), being the only official water operator in the city. Main water sources are the three rivers, wherefrom PPWSA intakes approximately 180000 m³ water daily.


55

analysis of the watershed system

Problems

Solutions

Some private companies that supply water to households are pumping it directly from the rivers and without proper treatment.

Water supplies

There is no treatment for household grey and black waters - they are lead directly into the rivers or lowlying water areas. (However there is wastewater treatment for industrial waters that costs 50-76 US$/m続.) People are cultivating food in the polluted water areas. Interviews in Phnom Penh show that there is no running water or other adequate water supplies in the poorest areas of the city, relocation sites and some district villages. Smelly and dirty open sewers are a health problem

Urban structures have to be designed in the way that everybody has the possibility to live near adequate infrastructure, e.g. no scattered relocation sites around the city area. The capacity of PPWSA has to be increased so that the district areas and villages can have water or introduction of other water bodies on community level. There is a need for affordable water fees that cover maintenance, extensions of water networks and water treatment. In gardens rainwater should be collected and stored in ponds.


Phnom Penh 2050

housing transportation

... waste/recycling

constant structural planning

“THE GREEN LUNGS� less CO2 etc.

WATER+GREEN AREAS

local food produce

public parks

rural areas

WORKS AS BUFFER ZONES FOR FLOODING

self-sufficient agriculture preserving cultivation fields as part of the city

tree cultivation

56

prevents erosion

trees

WATER TREATMENT SANITATION

flowers

right type of sanitation system in different areas

food cultivation

cultivating other than food right next to industrial areas or water treatment plants e.g. palm trees for hotels

new low tech solutions biogas: less firewood needed for cooking

urban agriculture bio-fertilizers in garden city areas

roof teraces water plant cultivation garden cities community cardens traditional housing areas people can grow some oh their own food them selves

education for sustainable practises

advetisement to people why to use this practises

preserving traditional way of living in the city

DRINKING WATER

savings in healthcare

current system made more effective

DECENTRALIZED WASTE WATER TREATMENT

free energy

community projects treatment plants (small biogas for busses


recycled materials: articles for gardening and parks biomimicry e.g. waste from fish cultivation + paper waste => covering textiles for gardens

RECYCLING INDUSTRY savings in waste treatment

compost materials produce mould from organic waste

OPEN CANAL SYSTEM storing rain water

TRANSPORTATION from rural areas into the city

DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS IN DIFFERENT AREAS city

m

build canals in the middle of the big avenues modern open places in dense city structure water basins

garden city areas canal housing modern/traditional housing types dense, small scale community gardens

rural areas natural shape traditional housing types small scale vegetation, fields side canals leed water into the fields

irrigation water for city gardening water for other domestic use water for cultivation

units)

Angkorian tradition

57


Decentralized water treatment

Biological sanitation systems. Different toilet types for different areas.

Households can have their own treatment systems.

Urban communities can be connected to sewers by city subdivisions. waste is treated in treatment or biogas plants.

58

In rural areas and in garden villages biologic treatment systems can be used at a household level.

Large buildings and building complexes can partLY have their own basic treatment systems. OWN SYSTEMS would improve the image of companies, hotels and government but also decrease the water fees.

Villages can have their own treatment unit and sewer system.

biological treatment systems are low-tech, lowcost. local wetland plants can be utilized to harvest nutrients from waste.

Protection of the water resources and ecosystems requires a wastewater treatment system. Central sewer system that collects all wastewater and central wastewater plants are expensive and slow way to solve the problem. The solution needs to be affordable and quick to avoid wider environmental and health problems. The system should be decentralized so that different scale villages, larger settlements and bigger building complexes are able to have their own tailored solution for water treatment. Independent systems could include sewer lines and treatment plants, but there is no requirement for large main sewers that can be problematic in flood areas such as Phnom Penh.

There should be an authority that supervises the treatment of waste water. Punishment/fines for causing pollution should be set for both private households and public sector. Less environmental impact through sewer construction. Treated water could be led directly into a canal system or used for irrigation. Independent communal infrastructure. This would support the local tradition of communities when a community could have its own treatment system. With technical support from NGOs, families and small communities can build their own secondary sewers that are connected to a treatment plant provided by the city.


CANAL SYSTEMs

CANALS AND WATERWAYS 2006 +1920S CANALS

CANALS AND WATER AREAS IN 2020 MASTERPLAN

CHAKTOMUKH AND THE GREEN LUNGS 2050

59


main green areas

60


61


waste now Industry + 2%population2

1100T/day1

Collected from only profitable areas

Certified Emissions Reduction (CER) Climate credits (or carbon credits) issued by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board for emission reductions achieved by CDM projects and verified by a DOE under the rules of the Kyoto Protocol.

~1,176,000 people without waste recolection

Money loss

This credits can be sold directly to any of the Annex 1 countries of the UNFCCC. The realization of the project can be included into the sale negotiation and as part of the payment so that no initial investment is needed.

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Stung Manchey gasifier

Waste route (bus) Municipality of Phnom Penh Urban Area Phnom Penh Waste collection

New Cheung Ek dumpsite/gasifier 6

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1: Svay Lorn, chief of Stung Manchey dumpsite, the Phnom Penh Post the 23rd April 2009 2:Study on the Solid Waste Management in the Municipality of Phnom Penh, JICA March 2005, www.phnompenh.gov. kh/JICA/SWM.htm 1 of 2


Industry

waste 2050

3000T/day

Municipal Network

Urban Population

Sorted out in the origin

Recyclables 1 substation/ district

Gasifier

Agricultural husks Coconut shells Animal litter

Palm oil waste Municipal waste

Packaging waste

Sewage sludge cake

Sterilized clinical waste Sugar cane

Oil filters

Miscanthus Straw

Wood waste Rendered Products

Peri-Urban

communities >300 households

communities Recyclables <300 households 1T gasifier Recyclables

Compost-Methane collector The waste collection system focuses on turning the waste into a trading good. Waste is no longer the final stage of the chain, is just part of the circle. A correct classification right from the origin is fundamental in order to reduce the costs implied in later classification. Some training sessions and information distribution are imperative.

Due to the different realities on the city, different solutions must be adopted, depending on the frame. The Urban fabric is very dense and Derived fuel in some places the access of the trucks is really a problem. In order Leather to reduce cost we propose the use of larger trucks running on methane Tyres that use the bus lanes in order to be able to fit inside the urban fabric. Other Door to door collection is no longer in use. People would have to walk Coal some hundred meters to the waste collection substation by the bus lane. Peat

Here the waste is compressed to reduce the volume to the maximum.

On urban areas the waste would be then collected further processing. Big peri-urban communities (>300 households) would have their own small gasifier for the products mentioned on the list, small peri-urban communities (<300) would produce compost with the biodegradable waste and collect the “naturally” produced methane.

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The gasification process is used to convert solid wastes, including hazardous wastes such as sewage sludge and hospital waste. Biomass materials can be converted into a gaseous fuel which consists of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen. This takes place in a very low-oxygen environment that operates at a very high temperature, converting the organic materials in the feed stock into gas, discharging 10% ash. The gas can be used to power the process, to produce electricity or for fuel, the garbage trucks can run on the garbage they have already collected. The waste becomes a trading good that could be possible to exchange for services, such as electricity, transportation or even as combustible for vehicles.... the garbage trucks could “refill” with the waste they collect.


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2050 2009 airport harbour sight housing production commercial agriculture recreation


Phnom Penh Model 2050

cradle to cradle city 2050 bio gas

TRANSPORTATION

WASTE

Canals can be both used as irrigation for the agriculture but also as means of transportation.

urc l reso es ca

gy olo hn

canals

low-tech te c

recycling

tra d iti o n

lo WATER+GREEN AREAS When the production of food and other items happens near the consumers, less waste is genrated when little packaking is needed.

The composting process generates gases which can be utilised as source of energy for the transportation systems.

HOUSING urban agriculture

When bio-degradable materials are used, most of the waste can be composted to be used again as fertilizers for the agriculture.

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2009 2020 2035 2050 DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUILT URBAN AREAS ALONG THE TRANSPORTATION SPINES

2009: UNCONTROLLED PANCAKE GROWTH IS SWALLOWING ALL POSSIBLE LAND

2050: URBAN VILLAGES: BUILDING IS DENSIER BY THE CORE SPINE AND LAND REMAINS OPEN


BOEUNG BOEUNG KAK 4 CORNERS

66CLAIRE GONDON VALLE HERRADOR ELENA LLEDÓ MARK TRUEMAN Land City

Lake

Community


BOEUNG KAK 67


Road system

Current situation Every morning Phnom Penh experiences classic grid lock at various intersections. Few streets are paved so all the traffic tends to use those few streets, and at intersections where two paved streets intersect; grid lock is a daily occurrence. There are no stop signs in Phnom Penh, and even less expectation that anyone would stop unless they absolutely canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t move; and there are

only a few traffic lights, so the continuously flowing stream of traffic is subject to frequent disruptions.

Primary existing roads _no continuous

Secondary existing roads_dead ends

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The main problem is that the road system is not continuous; full of dead ends and missing links. Furthermore, there is not a clear heirarchy of roads.


‘clarify existing grid’ New primary roads

The proposal We suggest establishing a number of primary roads in key parts of the city, such as areas close to bridges or main intersections. The aim is to connect different points around the lake and the lake as a whole with other places of the city. The main idea is to manage a net of primary roads, connected between them; and at a smaller scale a grid of secondary roads which are sewed together, avoiding dead ends. To relieve traffic to both sides of the lake we propose to open up boulevards to the east side, all of them connected between them by main roads. Whereas to the West we plan to clarify the existing grid and allow traffic to flow properly, when the city gets closer to the lake the grid will open up getting less rigid.

New boulevards

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As a result we would manage to avoid traffic jams, improve connections within and from the lake and keep heavy traffic away from the shore of the lake, giving place to green areas; which definitely are needed around the lake

New west grid

‘giving place to green areas’ Combined map


Bundled infrastructure

The problem

The proposal

A UN study estimates that 5.2 million people, including 4 million children die from diseases caused by contaminated water each year. While over 2.4 billion people which represent 40 % of the Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population lack proper sanitation.

To help with the current demand and future demands of the city we suggest construction of a bundled infrastructure system in conjunction with the upgrading of the major road and transport networks around the lake. The bundling is to accommodate water, sewerage, electrical services, IT and communications. The systems will follow the primary roads; from there the service will be delivered to the secondary streets and will be connected directly to the blocks.

According to the Profiles of Phnom Penh City prepared by the Planning Department of Phnom Penh Municipality just 53,30 % of families in Phnom Phen city has access to drinkable water and 43,7 % are using water from ponds, lakes, rivers, wells or buying the water. Only 75,4% of families have access to latrine usually the most developed and wealthy districts of the city. In order to remedy this problem, many Third World countries have chosen to use dry toilets instead of flush toilets. These are not a solution as dry toilets provide a dwelling with disease carrying insects and must be emptied inside oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own home. Dry toilets cost four to eight times as much as flush toilets, and flush-toilet systems have made waterborne illness virtually nonexistent in the West. We have to keep in mind that water is not a resource that can be used up, as fossil fuels, reusing is only a matter of cleaning. What are needed are better and cheaper sewage treatments. New technologies exist that make installing and operating treatment systems increasingly inexpensive; the cost per household would be less than a quarter of what is paid by North America and Europe. Such as bundling the infrastructure.

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Regarding the electricity services in Phnom Penh around 80,7% of families have electricity services at home, though in some suburban areas it decreases to 67,8%. It is important to make ICT services available, as they are a source of information for future development and education of the population. Its possible in places where other utilities operate, as fibre optic cables can be laid within a gas pipeline as well as within drinking water pipes.

These upgrades are to benefit the existing local community and provide current up to date services to the new development on the site. Furthermore it would also be recommendable to provide sidewalks to the streets and drainage systems to enhance the pedestrian and vehicle safety.

Benefits

- Lower costs for construction if the projects are bundled together and managed by local government. - If services are auctioned out individually a higher quality of work may be carried out by experienced contractors, generally at a higher cost due to less competition. - More clear and safe streets. - Minimize damages to the environment - Accessibility and affordability of ICT and other services

Possible problems

- Flooding may infiltrate water, sewerage and electrical. - There is a high risk of corruption if the all services are carried out by one company, lower costs and quality may result.


Bundled upgrade map

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Bundled section

Storm and main sewer Water main Gas ICT


Transport system Transport analysis

The proposal

““Land-use and transport patterns are but two sides of the same coin. Land-use, desire lines, transport systems and the opportunity cost of land, are all inextricably interconnected.” Charles Correa (The New Landscape)

The existing transport facilities around the Boeung Kak Lake leave a lot to desire; the old train line around the lake is no longer in use and people mainly use bicycles to go from one place to another. We consider it’s essential to establish a hierarchy of transport systems, implemented in succession as the city grows. The new train line will be located slightly further from the lake to establish a new transport area. As a result the train line will not interfere with the city activity.

Are we creating a transport system giving priority to the needs of the poor? Or are we really trying to solve the traffic jams of the higher income earning population? Over the past eighty years we have been building cities for cars much more than for people. Giving priority to people and public spaces and restricting private car use, would allow building sidewalks, bicycle paths, pedestrian streets, greenways and parks.

‘improves the connections within the lake’

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Existing train station

To preserve a cultural tradition which is slowly falling to mechanical power we proposed that the cyclo centre moves to the lake area and establishes itself as the main mode of transport around the lake. With current trends of the city the lake area is the only one that this culture can survive under the pressures of motorised transport. Many of the Third World cities, including Phnom Penh are rapidly emulating the “automobile” society from the West, but without any infrastructure or controls on pollution. We understand how important it is for people to be individually self-sufficient at a city scale, that’s why we support to keep bikes in the city; for which we have provided a green ring that borders the lake. Bicycles play an important role in the transport of developing countries, as it is an energy-saving and pollution free alternative. We also propose boat transport at a small scale which improves the connections within the lakes cultural districts. When it comes to decide the route of the local transport, we have decided to focus on key points in order to create potential growth points around them; taking into account important intersections and the lines that the intercity buses and train follow.


Proposed train station

Proposed network of bike paths

Proposed boat connection

Potential growth points

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Waste management

The Proposal To provide an effective solid waste management system for the long-term a sustainable technical and financial plan using low technology and low cost is required. Public education is an essential part of an integrated solid waste management program to change the attitudes and habits of the residents. It is important for the community to adopt segregation of waste at source, recycling (paper, glass, plastic bottles, metal), reuse, backyard composting and dispose of residual waste in a proper disposal site. Therefore community-based facilities would be established to sort the recyclables, process and transfer to markets, compost the bio-degradable to produce a soil amendment, and also to provide a small area with open topped containers.

74

Solid wastes are collected via two trucks which work in tandem each concentrating on different wastes. The latter is taken to a recycling station for sorting and placed in large bins for temporary storage before being transferred to private recyclers for further processing and re-use. The prevailing practice for collection is through private contracts. For example, a paper company could buy all of the recyclable paper materials. The system creates income opportunities for poor through gardening or handicraft-making. The quantity of solid waste would be reduced to be disposed to dumpsites.


Waste collection points

75

Waste site Phnom Penh


Green areas

Green area analysis

Green Area Proposal

As the existing diagrams show the green belt around the lake is fractured and does not tie the lake and surrounds together. The constant decrease in green areas around Phnom Penh is clearly visible from old planning maps and photographs. Like the lake these areas are venerable to being developed by local communities or are sold off to developers. The existing green areas work well within the city but do not lead anywhere or link with each other.

To provide necessary links between the existing green areas and extend existing green areas to open up vistas. The main idea is to use the lake and its surrounds as the vital link that ties the existing green areas with the proposed ones displayed in the diagrams.

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Confederation de la Russie

The proposal is to open up the west to east link from the Phnom Penh University to the Tonle Sap River, creating a continuous link around the lake by opening up the lake front area. An extension of the main promenade up to the bridge with existing green boulevards meeting additional ones that link directly to the lake.


‘open up vistas’ Proposed network of green paths

‘continuous link around lake’ Proposed connection to green areas

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Existing green areas

Completed green links

‘link directly to the lake’ Existing green roads


Green areas - Canal system

Canal system analysis

Canal system Proposal

The current water situation on the lake is a dyer need of attention, the problems the lake faces is overuse from the local communities and no adequate fresh water intake. These events have lead to the demise of morning glory crops which were still visibly in use in the last decade. This has followed on to the fish farms with the produce now being contaminated and locals regularly becoming ill from eating the fish. This tied in with the recent filling of the lake has almost eradicated any life and use for the water apart from a dumping ground.

The first step would be to stop the infilling of the lake and work with the damage that has been done. The next would be to provide fresh water to the Boeung Kak lake area from the Tonle Sap River, reopen the old canal systems from the 1920â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and provide new covered link to the north of the lake with the upgrade of infrastructure. The system is to benefit the lake by constantly changing flows of water and flushing out the stagnate still water.

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Boeung Kak Lake

The canal system is become a vital architectural element to the urban surrounds. We propose that the canal runs directly through the old train station opening before turning towards the lake. The canal system will provide an important pedestrian and small vessel link to the cultural and arts area of the lake.


‘link to the cultural and arts’ Reopen canal

‘covered link’

Proposed covered canal

79

Canal system 1929

Canal and green links

‘link directly to the lake’ Canal system 1939


Housing finance (Modified from UPDF)

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Who produces the housing?

Ways to reduce housing costs

-“OWNER BUILT” housing--housing as a PROCESS They can control the whole process Allows households to find creative ways of helping pay for their houses This kind of housing represents an extremely delicate expression of poor people´s gradual capacity to climb out of poverty Urgent need to update informal settlements into better-serviced and secure neighbourhoods -GOVERNMENT BUILT housing—as something STATE SUPPLIES -GOVERNMENT BUILT social housing—SUBISIDIZED WELFARE -PRIVATE SECTOR housing—COMMODITY we buy/sell -PRIVATE SECTOR rental housing—housing as a FLEXIBLE OPTION

-MASS producing housing units on a LARGE SCALE Mid or high-rise blocks of apartments--doesn´t fit households because they use their housing for both economic and shelter activities Detached or semi-detached houses—economies of scale, reduce costs by repeating the same standard unit -SELF-BUILDING by people Building flexibly and incrementally, control on expenses -FLEXIBLE building standards Purpose is not to punish households but to improve their housing and make it safer -STANDARDIZED building components This king of mass production of simple building components can also be set up on a smaller scale, within poor communities themselves, by local entrepreneurs, with a little bit of training and technical assistance


STRATEGIES to make sure HOUSING FINANCE REACHES THE POOR Tenant´s affordability -The ability to pay for housing Using percentage of monthly income Subtracting expenditure from their monthly income Letting the household decide -Household´s monthly income Difficult to determine -Housing needs VS. Housing demand We have to look carefully at the figures which describe housing needs, and then try to estimate the likely demands for the different kinds and prices of housing to be produced, so needs can be met!

Why is housing finance so important? -FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN NEED AND RIGHT -HOUSING IS EXPENSIVE -LOANS MAKE SENSE -FINDING A WILLING LENDER “Housing finance is the term for the whole process by which households get loans to buy a house, including all the rules and procedures that go with that process of giving and recovering loans not only to individual households but also to housing developers, based on funds by the lender from the wider financial markets”

Understanding LOAN CONDITIONS -Why can´t poor people borrow money from banks: No regular income No legal title to the property High downpayments—certain part of the total housing is borne by borrowers, poor households don´t have the mean to raise such “downpayments” Small loans are not cost effective for banks

Understanding LOAN REPAYMENT methods This period is usually fixed in the beginning, but the systems which manage their borrowing and repaying MUST involve them centrally in the management. They must also be flexible enough and open enough to allow new strategies for loan repayment which allow poor communities to resolve payment problems---strategies like making bulk loans to community groups instead of individual loans, and letting the group manage the repayment process collectively.

-Community-based self-finance When communities save their money together, and make loans from the collective savings, they are not only building their own financial resource base, but they are developing the collective management skills and financial capacities to manage money as a group. Community member enjoy most of the advantages that informal lenders do, such as closely knowing the situation of the borrower and using social collateral as a mechanism to recover loans. Because they are owned and operated by the poor themselves they are able to eliminate the costs of the formal market and exploitative elements in the informal market. Besides saving for livelihood, emergencies and housing, these savings groups have also strengthened the communities they operate in, by providing people a simple, regular mechanism for building collective management skills, cooperation and mutual assistance, while they build a community´s own finance resource base. -Simplifying the formal sector Minimal paperwork—people may be intimidated by bureaucracy Minimal collateral requirements—This requires the lender to know the borrower—social pressure Ensuring flexibility in repayment—Repayment must be mutually agreeable, on a case-by-case basis Incremental housing financing—Giving series of small, consecutive housing loans—after they would be eligible for taking a larger loan with a longer repayment -Channelling loans through community savings groups A community savings group not only attracts funds for housing finance, but the process of operating a savings and loan process within a poor community develops the collective and individual financial management capacities the poor will need to manage larger housing and land loans later on. Women are especially attracted to savings groups because they provide credit quickly if the household is in crisis, and can provide loan facilities, for example for income-generating activities.

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-Using intermediate institutions to bridge formal and informal finance 1. Increase comfort factor—there is a trusted intermediary 2. Open new markets which so far have been unreachable to finance institutions 3. Tailor loans—adjust systems to make loans more workable for the poor 4. Promote bulk lending 5. Establish revolving funds—it could use long-term, wholesale loans from the finance institutions to revolve in a variety of shorter-term loans to poor households for many purposes-not only housing 6. Introduce subsidies—in order to make the loans more accessible for poor households -Cost-reduction strategies 1. Reducing cost through design Design tight housing layouts Design housing units of smaller size Use community and household labour Use alternative, recycled or cost-saving materials Buy materials collectively Build housing collectively 2. Reducing housing costs through internal crosssubsidies Governments, developers and communities have used

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to finance low-income housing with minimal loans is to cross subsidized the low income housing through profits from the sale of market-rate housing units within the same development 3. Reducing housing costs by building incrementally

8 Ways to develop a better HOUSING FINANCE STRATEGY -1-Make housing finance systems that are NEED-DRIVEN, not supply-driven Meet the reality of the target households -2-Don´t restrict finance mechanisms to housing alone -3-Consider using subsidies as tools to make finance more accessible -4-Support community savings as part of housing finance -5-Keep loan sizes and loan purposes flexible -6-Involve people in every stage of planning a housing finance strategy -7-Minimise rules and procedures and maximise flexibility -8-Explore innovative, community based ways to provide loan security


Building guidelines

Building development requirements Required in most developed cities to regulate the quality of the buildings being erected building guidelines are required in Phnom Penh and in particular the area around the lake to keep the integrity of the urban cityscape. For any new building developments on and around the immediate Boeung Kak Lake area we propose the ground floor of every building be used as a flood zone. This zone is to combat the rising waters in the wet season and to also open up the ground level as in traditional buildings.

Flood zone height Flood zones should be one floor level with a min 3m clearance to the ground. See the building types for the occupancy requirements.

flood zone

Sustainable buildings All new dwellings should conform to sustainable requirements. Shading of windows from direct sunlight, cross flowing ventilation and sun orientated planning should be required.

83

Large Buildings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Commercial The proposed maximum height limit is 25m for large commercial zoning with a maximum of five levels. Each level should have a minimum 3m high floor to ceiling height. The ground floor flood zone can be used for light retail, restaurant and bar use only with small stores which will add character to the streetscape.

Medium Buildings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Commercial and Residential. The proposed maximum height limit is 17m for medium commercial and residential zoning with a maximum of three levels. Each level should have a minimum 3m high floor to ceiling height. The ground floor flood zone should be left for semi private space for residential blocks. While the ground floor of commercial should be used for locally produced products, restaurant or bar use only which add character to the streetscape.

flood zone

Small Buildings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Residential The proposed maximum height limit is 7.5m for small residential detached dwellings with a maximum of one level. The ground floor flood zone should be left for semi private space for residential traditional uses.

flood zone


Boeung Kak 4 Corners The lake areas

Area 2 – Housing Development

The Boeung Kak Lake area can quite naturally be divided up into four areas, or four node points. For the purposes of seeing how the lake can work as one continuous link we would like to show their functions and how they work together.

This area has the highest density and quality of buildings around the lake. We propose that this area be used for medium to high density housing blocks and as a major future growth. There is a possibility for growth of stilt housing blocks out into the lake area to accommodate the increasing population.

The idea of attracting people to the lake area requires this breakdown of intermittent areas that can lead you on a path of travel. Walking and bike paths are the only mode of transport allowed around the lake area with exception to the cultural boat link between Area 1 and Area 3. The node points are to directly link with the existing cities public spaces and important buildings.

Area 3 – Cultural Arts This area is currently alive with backpacker hostels and small bars and restaurants for tourists. There is also a small art community and gallery spaces in the tightly winding streets. The idea is to develop the former train station as an art gallery for local artists and create a fresh approach to the area. We want to create an inspiring blend of medium density housing, tourism and café life to give the focal entry to the city an inviting entrance to the lake.

While areas 1 and 2 are primarily housing they play an important part in the future of the lake and its uses. To prevent further resettling of communities these areas are important for the development and growth of the city.

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‘intermittent areas that can lead you on a path of travel’

02 01

03 04

Area 1 - Cultural heritage

Area 4 – Transition

This area still has existing fish farms and the community living along the train lines. Out of all the areas around the lake this location is the most suitable for keeping the traditional heritage and lifestyle of the Khmer people. We propose a redevelopment of the area by training the local community to build to standards in their traditional style. The further development of stilt housing for fish farming and morning glory cultivation is strongly promoted to preserve this heritage.

The Pagoda is the only real life of this area at present and it is suffocated by poorly planned streets and does not open up to the lake. Nothing should be planned in front of the Pagoda as it should hold presence to the lakes shoreline. This area is where we plan to created the new train station and bus terminal using and extending on the old storage facilities that exist on the site. This new point of transition is to be the link to the city of Phnom Penh from through national and international rail and bus networks.


Development process Three stage process The idea behind the staged process is to work with the political decision to lease the land and to analyse the most important areas for development that can benefit all parties involved. With our proposal we have considered the developer as the major investor and therefore giving them equal priorities along with the existing community. The three stages are devised on what we see as important factors in the development process of the lake, while considering the need for the developer to make profit returns as quickly as possible. The need for upgrading the local infrastructure ben-

efits the newly divided land with new services making it more attractive for potential companies. The canal systems provide the initial phase of developing the lake as the key link to the city. Development of housing areas with local communities can lead into them taking part in the development of green areas around the lake. The main idea is to establish the area and then introduce the tourism drive to an attractive city lake. These stages are just a guide to what the possibilities are and the development of the lake should continue well past the initial stages, the lake are should be constantly changing and growing with the city.

85 Stage 1

Stage 3

Stage 2

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;analyse the most important areas for development â&#x20AC;&#x2122;


General plan The development of the Boeung Kak lake area is shown below with the proposed zoning to be integrated into a vibrant open parkland development. It is to take advantage of the proposed 4 corners and inclusion of local communities in the development of the project.

86

The zoning areas are to be used as a guide for future growth and developer guidelines to protect what is remaining of the lake area. The commercial areas are located on the main roads surrounding the lake for ease of access and as traffic sound protection. The protec-


tion of key buildings and introduction of public spaces are to add a cultural significance for the local communities. In keeping with the idea of open vistas to the lake from promenades the buildings are to frame images of the lake and are not to encroach the site lines, the lake

is to become the key link to the advancing city greater. The general plan is to show the developer and future developments in Phnom Penh how to accommodate a growing city with medium density planning and how to take advantage of the beautiful lake front views.

legend:

87


COMMU NITY 88


U Y

Land City

Lake

Community

PHOM 4 COMMUNITY

MARTA MATO SABAT PETER SCOTT Albert Simon Baulenas YUE YANG

89


CURRENT CONDITIONS The area chosen for planning consists of an informal settlement located on the southern banks of Boueng Kak. Due to the recent sale of this government land and the subsequent filling of the lake this community as well as the many others surrounding the lake are facing the imminent threat of unvoluntary relocation. Whilst some form of compensation is being offered by the company it is not sufficient and cannot offset the costs of a new residence in Phnom Penh. The relocation sites are also inadequate as they are too far POLICEPOLICE removed from the city centre and lack the most basic of infrastructure. It is of our belief that upgrading the existing community and surrounding infrastructure would be far more beneficial to both the inhabitants of the area and the city of Phnom Penh. The central location of the lake and the extended POLICE peninsula of the community offer an excellent opportunity for the inhabitants in the form of tourism. This aspect could be utilised to provide new occupations for the residence of the community and surrounding areas. Awarding each family their right of tenure would encourage growth and development within the community, placing certain planning objectives would ensure an appropriate development strategy and with time create an asset to the whole of Phnom Penh.

90

x1

x1

POLICE POLICE

x1

x8

x 314

x 1727 (5.5/house)

Remaining houses Filled Area

3

5 1

2

PHOM 4 CO MMU NITY

PHNOM PENH

6

4


THE PROBLEMS

1

2

3

4

5

6

PHOM 4 CO MMU NITY

PHNOM PENH

Lack of roads No paved footpaths Poor access to the area No formal urban planning No rubbish collection Poor sanitation system No legal rights of tenure Unsafe public areas No street lighting Neglected part of the city No relation to the lake No water supply No formal source of electricity No storm water drainage No safe areas for children to play No public spaces No community centres No financial help from the government Inadequate health centre No immediate Public Transportation Abandoned buildings Industrial site so close Railroad close to housing Poor water quality in the lake No green areas No potable water Inadequate housing standards Poor air quality Burning rubbish Isolated from the city Unplanned houses No help with building houses Threat of unvoluntary relocation No landscaping Waste left from demolished houses Unsanitary environment No social help form the government No turistic use of the area Inadequate housing conditions Underutilised lands No commercial use of the area Closed to outsiders

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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In order for the community to prosper a number of improvements to the basic infrastructure of the area must be implemented. These physical improvements are drastically needed to improve the health and wellbeing of the inhabitants. It is also important to address certain social issues and to educate the community on the ways to realise and sustain the ideals of the project. Enabling security of tenure is one of the key issues and it must be implemented for the redevelopment to succeed.

PHYSICAL IMPROVEMENT - Clean water supply - Adequate sewage disposal to improve the well-being of the community - Enable street improvments; footpaths and street lighting for security. - Solid waste collection - Formal electricity to homes - Urban growth plan - Community centres - Public and green areas - Emergency access

POLICE

x600

x 3300

92

SOCIAL ISSUES - Provide health centres and education programs - School facilities and teacher training - Cultural focus - Improve social security - Enable security of tenure

POLICE POLICE

PHOM 4 CO MMU NITY

PHNOM PENH

x1

POLICE

INCOME EARNING OPPORTUNITIES - Enable houses to open their own bussiness: cafĂŠs, restaurants, handcraft shop - Possibility to work with turism activities in the area: fishing, hostels

POLICE POLICE

x1

POLICE

x 40

+

POLICE

x3

x1

POLICE

x100

x7


HUMAN RIGHTS

The Right to Adequate Housing (Art.II(1)): 13/12/91 CESCR General Comment 4

Security of Tenure: all persons should posses a degree of security of tenure which guarantees legal protection against unvoluntary relocation, harassment and other threats. Most informal settlements and communities, including those found around Boueng Kak and other areas of Phnom Penh, lack legal security of tenure. State parties should consequently take immediate measures aimed at conferring legal security of tenure upon those persons and households currently lacking such protection. Once parties have security of tenure they are more likely to be granted loans for their homes or business. This, with the knowledge that they and their possessions will be safe, encourages persons to send time and money improving their dwellings and thus the community. Affordability:

personal or family financial cost associated with housing should be at such a level that the attainment and satisfaction of other basic needs are not threatened or compromised. Affordability is an acute problem and a major factor into why so many people cannot access formal housing and are thus forced into informal settlements.

Habitability:

for housing to be considered adequate, it must be habitable. Inhabitants must be ensured adequate space and protection against the cold, damp, heat, rain, wind or other threats to health, structural hazards and disease vectors. Inadequate and deficient housing and living conditions are invariably associated high mortality and morbidity rates.

Accessibility:

housing must be accessible to everyone. Disadvantaged groups such as the elderly, the physically and mentally disabled, HIV-positive individuals, victims of natural disasters, children and other groups should be ensured some degree of priority consideration in housing law and policy to ensure their housing needs are met.

Location: adequate housing must be in a location which allows access to employment options, health-care services, schools, child-care centres and other social facilities. This is true both in large cities and in rural areas where the temporal and financial costs of getting to and from the place of work can place excessive demands upon the budgets of poor households. For this reason it is far more beneficial for this community to upgrade their existing conditions rather than relocating to a site far for Phnom Penh. Similarly, housing should not be built on polluted sites nor in immediate proximity to pollution sources that threaten the right to health of the inhabitants. Culturally Adequate:

a right to reside in housing that is considered culturally adequate. This means that housing programmes and policies must take fully into account the cultural attributes of housing which allow for the full expression of cultural identity. Activities geared towards development or modernisation in the housing sphere should ensure that the cultural dimensions of housing are not sacrificed.

Availability of Services, Materials, Facilities and Infrastructure: Adequate housing requires access to clean and affordable

drinking water, energy for cooking, heating and lighting, sanitation and washing facilities, refuse disposal, site drainage and emergency services. Access to the cities mains water and electricity supplies as well as adequate sanitation and refuse disposal should take priority within this community.

PHOM 4 CO MMU NITY

PHNOM PENH

93


TRANSPORTATION

94


A privileged location (walking distances to major places of interest and basic services: 1350m to bus station, 900m to city hall, 1100m to nearest hospital); yet difficult accessibility: no public transport, surrounded by water on three sides, narrow (1 m) wooden paths. This is the current situation for a community that bases its mobility on bicycles, motorbikes and walking. Some also use tuk-tuks and boats as a means of employment. Our proposal is to improve the access to each point of the community whilst causing minimum impact on the people living there. For this reason, we propose to modify some of the existing paths, changing the material from wood to tiles and widening to 2-3 meters. The width of the major roads should be enough to allow tuk-tuks and emergency services; however cars are prohibited in the area. As proven in other projects, a solid durable street brings security to the inhabitants and will encourage the community to start improving their homes. At the locations where streets end or change direction we have proposed small squares (200-300 sqm) that host parking spaces for tuk-tuks and waste containers. This concentration of the public service functions in certain points allows roadways to be narrow. Where possible, the squares open to the lake on one side, creating small harbors. The squares then become spaces of intensive use and movement of people where shops, restaurants and hotels will develop. We believe that the water transport will became important for the community, both for supplies and people, especially for touristic use. The implementation of the project will be in a number of steps. In the initial stages the objectives are both to create a basic network and to upgrade the existing inhabited areas. While the final stage, consist of the construction of streets in the new housing areas and the implementation of secondary paths. The few dwellings that need to be removed to allow for the upgrading will be placed as close as to the original site as possible.

95


Waste management te management

W ASmanagement TE MANAGMENT Waste

Waste management Aim ofmanagement the waste management : of the waste is : andisRecycle Reduce, Reuse

Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. uce, Reuse _ and Recycle. reducing the waste amount of waste produced Reducing the amount of the waste management iswe : produce educing theAim amount of waste weofproduce _ making the best use of waste is produced making the of what waste iswhat produced aking use of best whatuse waste is produced Aim ofthe thebest waste management is : _ recycling is an integral element ofmanagement any waste Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. is anelement important ofmanagement any waste cycling isRecycling an important of element any waste Reducing thebecause amount of waste webenefit produce management strategy, partly because itthe has strategy, partly it has the of reducing ategy, partly because it has the benefit of reducing the Reduce, Reusemaking and Recycle. the best use ofof what waste is the produced amount of waste requiring disposal. the benefit reducing amount of waste re mount of waste requiring Reducing the amount ofdisposal. waste weelement produceof any waste management Recycling is an important strategy, quiring disposal. partly because it has the benefit of reducing the making the best use of what waste is produced of wasteelement requiringofdisposal. Recycling isamount an important any waste management At present thereit is nothe garbadge within the community. strategy, partly because has benefit service of reducing the amount of waste requiring disposal. Recyclable garbage collection Recyclable garbage collection

existingofcondition of the community The existingThe condition the community There is no garbage service There is no garbage service (wastearound is thrown around or under their houses) (waste The is thrown or of under their houses). existing condition the community There is no garbage service (waste is thrown around or under their houses).

Recyclable garbage collection

The existing condition of the community There is no garbage service (waste is thrown around or under their houses).

Recyclableresidents garbage collection collectwaste recyclable waste CommunityCommunity residents collect recyclable and sale to and sale to garbage collectors. Residents of the community collect recyclagarbage collectors. Community residents collect waste to Collection point near recyclable the ofand thesale community, ble waste and selllocated to collectors. Collection point located near thegarbage entrance ofentrance the community, Recyclable garbage collection garbage collectors. where is accessible by garbage truck. where is accessible garbageare truck. Collectionbypoints located near the enCollection point located near the entrance of the community,

where is accessible garbage truck. trance of the community where it isand accesCommunity residents collectby recyclable waste sale to sible by garbage truck. garbage collectors. Collection point located near the entrance of the community, Unrecyclable garbage (deal with everyday) Unrecyclable garbage (deal with everyday) where is accessible by garbage Unrecyclable garbage truck. (deal with everyday)

Unrecyclable garbage (collected once a day)

Families

Families Population of Waste No. Collector Waste generation Population No. of WasteNo. Collector of Push No. Cartof Push No. ofCart WasteNo. Binof Waste WasteBin generation (Kgs)/ day (Kgs)/ day Families

Population

No. of Waste Collector No. of Push Cart No. of Waste Bin Waste generation (Kgs)/ day

Today 314 1727everyday) day Unrecyclable 314Today garbage 1727 314 (deal with 1727 1 or 2

1 or 2

1 or 2

1

1

1

4

4

4

300 300

300

Future 5200 4 2 12 900 900Future 900 5200 4 2 12 900 900 900 5200 4 2 12 Families Population No. of Waste Collector No. of Push Cart No. of Waste Bin Waste generation (Kgs)/ day

96

ture

Today of 314 1727 Transport Options Options of transports: Options of transports: Options transports: Future

900

1 or 2

1

4

300

4

2

12

900

5200

Options of transports:

Unrecyclable garbage (deal with everyday)

Organic waste produces badwith smells and liquid. Such as: leftovers, vegetables, roots, leaves and some waste water, etc. Unrecyclable garbage (deal everyday) Unrecyclable garbage (deal with everyday) Organic waste (collected once a day) Using kitchen waste for compost pile could minimize the environmental impact and harm to health.

Organic waste produces bad liquid. smells and liquid. Such as: leftovers, roots, leaveswaste and some Organic waste such as leftover food,Such vegetables, roots and leavesvegetables, produce strong liquid. Using Organic waste produces bad smells and as: leftovers, vegetables, roots, leaves andodours some water,waste etc. water, etc. Using kitchen waste for compost pile could minimize the environmental impact and harm to health. kitchen waste for compost could minimise the environmental impact and possible harm to health. Using kitchen waste for compost pile could minimize the environmental impact and harm to health.

PHOM 4 CO MMU NITY

Unrecyclable garbage (deal with everyday)

PHNOM PENH

Organic waste produces bad smells and liquid. Such as: leftovers, vegetables, roots, leaves and some waste water, etc. Using kitchen waste for compost pile could minimize the environmental impact and harm to health.


).

Feces and urine collection and disposal, based on the following points: 1) The data show that normal human urine has no pathogenic micro-organisms, pathogenic micro-organisms. The intestinal Passive ventilation will creative air pressure and generate air flow from inside to the outside. Ventilation will a parasites, mainly in the feces. the waste. 2) Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, more than 80% ofsystem these is nutrients in urine, and the easy to be Rain collection installedfound to collect rain water andform store are them in the water tank hanging above the to absorbed by crop. The water will be reused for flushing and cleaning.

SANITATION

Water used for hand washing will also be collected to the storage water tank for future reuse.

Based on the above, the urine is nutrient-rich and no pathogenic; it can be storage directly, simple mixed with water, timely use; After a long-term storage processing (more than half year) the large harmful feces will become harmless, the processed manure is treated as an excellent soil conditioner used on farmland.

Faecal urine separation technolSustainable design ogy:

Collect rain water

Passive ventilation

Passive ventilation will creative air pressure and generate air flow from inside to the outside. Ventilation will also help to dry

the waste. and disposal, based Faeces and urine collection Store rain water in water tank Rain collection system is installed to collect rain water and Fecal storeurine themseparation in the water tank hanging above the toilets and urinals. on the following points: The water will be reused for flushing and cleaning. 1) Data shows that normal human nobe collected to the storage water tank for future reuse. Water used for hand urine washinghas will also Wash hands pathogenic micro-organisms; the intestinal parasites found mainly in faeces. 2) Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium found in Feces Urine Used for flshing and cleaning urine represents more than 80% of the total nuCollect rain water ventilation trients present in humanPassive waste. In this form it is Half-year self processing, Collect to airtight container easily absorbed by crops. become dry and harmless Fecal urine separation Based on the above, the urine is nutrient-rich and contains no pathogens; it can be stored directly or simply mixed with water for timely use. After long-term storage and processing (more than half year) the untreated faeces becomes harmFeces be usedUrine less, the processed manure can then as

Store rain water in water tank Excellent soil conditioner

Can be used directly

Wash hands

Used on greenspots

Used for flshing and cleaning

an excellent soil conditioner. Half-year self processing, become dry and harmless

Sustainable design Excellent soil conditioner

Collect to airtight container

Can be used directly

Passive ventilation utilises air pressure and the air flow from inside to outside. Adequate ventilation is important to help dry the faecal matter. Used on greenspots The rain collection system harvests water from the roof of the building and stores it in a tank that is installed above the toilet and urinal. This water can be reused for flushing and cleaning. Water used for hand washing can

97

also be collected and stored for future reuse.

WATER Pure water supply In the first stage, a system to purify drinkable water would be established in the community. This system would enable the community to fullfill, by itself and without any specific infrastructure nor skills, their drinkable water needs. A french organization called â&#x20AC;&#x153;1001 Fontaines pour demainâ&#x20AC;?, is working on this systems in Cambodia already. We could propose the same in this community. The system is based on developing a new cheap, self-sufficient and easy to use solution, enabeling communities (schools, health care dispensaries) to independently produce the drinkable water they need using surface water.

Solar Power

(panel 0.5m2 + battery)

UV Tube

A simple solution: UV+Solar system = stainless steel case measuring 1mx1mx25cm containing: - a solar power system - a small pump pushing the water to the treatment station - a set of 5 filters whose role is to eliminate all small particles that could interfer with antibacterial effect of the UV light - a UV tube - an electronic control panel that monitors the station

Small Pomp

Set of 5 filters

Electronic Control Panel


Advantages: Production is approximatively 800 liters/hour. UV treatment of water is highly effective in elminating bacteria. This treatment involves no chemical agents. The distribution of this water is done by plastic bottles of 20 liters each. Bottles are sterilised before reutilisation. UV + Solaire is designed for treating surface water (pond, lake and river). Operation costs are very low: mantainance costs are less than $ 0.70 per processed cubic meter. Along with the benefits of drinking “clean” water comes and “educational” benefit which young people will carry in their lifes. This system also provides self-sufficiency in the community and creates a small bussiness which depends on the production and sale of water. In addition to the economic benefits the operator provides services to the village as: selling and distributing the containers, making sure that there is an adequate supply of water at a low price to be affordable to the villagers but sufficiently high to provide the operator and his family, a source of income.

Rain water harvesting To collect rainwater, the same technique already existing within the community would serve. For houses on the lake, rain water would be collected from the roofs to an outside tank, supported by pillars, behind the house.

GREEN POINTS District Level

98 Central - semiprivate green spot.

place and

Becomes a of exchange entertainment

Comon cultivating land behind

houses on land. Becomes a place of exchange and and self-autonomy

Central - semiprivate green point. Becomes a place of exchange and shade

Wide semi-private green area. Be-

comes a place of exchange and entertainment

House Level Cultivating site

with private floating vegetable gardens. One

familiy that has knowledge in agriculture can take care of the site, and provide himself an income to live, by selling the products or by working for other families

PHOM 4 CO MMU NITY

PHNOM PENH

Private cultivating plot floating

on the water. For families that have agricultural skills, can provide for themselves vegetables or sell them if needed.


GREEN SPOTS Re-Cycling train

Re-use

benches

Turn them into a public space shaded by a central tree

Becomes a place of exchange

Re-use

wagons

Turn them into a mobile garden on the railtracks Possibility to shade some parts more or less

Re-use corrugated iron sheets to make a

container for a vegetable garden. Provides auton-

omy and

may be for sale

Re-use plastic bottles and timber boards to make

flotting dens.

my and

PHOM 4 CO MMU NITY

PHNOM PENH

vegetable

gar-

Provides autonomay be for sale

Re-use plastic bottles and timber boards to make

flotting gardens.

Provides assurance and pleasure

99


Floor ventilation

+

Roof ventilation

+

Sun protection

2000

BATHROOM

KITCHEN

100 Section example

2000

DWELLING EXAMPLE

Ground floor

PFirst Hfloor OM 4 CO MMU NITY

PHNOM PENH


HOUSING GROUP C-2 B-2

storage

toilet

B-1

toilet

toilet

bedroom

restaurant

kitchen

D-1 C-3

bedroom

Shop

coffee

kitchen

bedroom

A-1

C-1

shop

toilet

A-2 workshop

livingroom

toilet

kitchen

kitchen

A-3

terrace

terrace

kitchen

livingroom

livingroom

toilet

kitchen

B-3

bedroom

toilet

kitchen

livingroom

bedroom

PHOM 4 CO MMU NITY

PHNOM PENH

toilet

D-2

bedroom

bedroom

storage

toilet

bedroom

bedroom

101


MASTER PLAN

main commercial axes

main commercial axes housing areas

main commercial axes

main commercial axes

housing areas

housing areas

green areas

green areas

walking/bike paths housing areas

green areas walking/bike paths

green areas walking/bike paths

existing houses relocated houses new houses bussiness houses cultivating areas

102

recycling centre school + health centre

private wooden path main street walking/bike paths

walking/bike paths


103


BUSINESS AND TOURISM

104


Before

105

After


PUBLIC SQUARE

waste container motorbikes parking

tuk-tuks parking

106


107


HOUSING PLAN

108


109


phnom penh seen through our eyes 110

I sit front of my computer, summer is coming to Helsinki, and you don’t need your winter jacket any more. Phnom Penh feels so far away, but talking to a friend from there brings me back to the dusty roads of Phnom Penh. People are crossing the streets among the cars, motos and tuk tuks. -Tuk tuk Lady!? Smiling man is asking by yelling, politely you shake your head and smile. - Moto? is the next question. Moto’s and Tuk tuk’s are filling the streets. There are no pedestrian walk ways; the space is used as parking lots, market places or as living space. Streets are full of garbage, shoes, plastic bags, straws. Everything you can’t recycle is just lying around on the streets; there are kids to play with and animals to eat. We saw different sides of Phnom Penh; relocation sites located far from the centre without any transportation system, relocation sites which were nice and clean but nobody lived there, high class hotels and bars, where you could see that it was the locals doing all the hard work there. You could really feel the desperation of the people around, when you, a twenty something, a western student, knowing nothing, entered the poor areas where people who had lived there for twenty years, were turning to you, seeking for help. My friend is telling that Phnom Penh is getting more and more dangerous, so the desperation increases… But, we still saw lot of smiles among poverty and hope among hopelessness. And yes, we ate spiders. Noora Aaltonen


111


112


113


Why do aid projects always start by d 114 symbols up first? How sincere is our


donators putting their own desire to help?

115


Life is grand when you own your own house - $850,000

116


117

Happy to be home This spacious seven-room, seven-bathroom abode reminds you just how cool living in the tropics can be when you are surrounded by lush trees, drooping vines, and colorful flowers. -www.phnompenhpost.com/postproperty


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119


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121


Phnom Penh -nightlife

122â&#x20AC;&#x153;Phnom Penh is a surprisingly good little party town, offering a dus

from dance clubs and sports bars to neighborhood pubs and upscal is not all that large, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s never more than a five or ten minute ride be bars and nightspots around town allowing you to stroll easily from


sk till dawn nightlife and a variety of places from which to choose - 123 le clubs. Bars and clubs are scattered across the town but as the city etween places, usually less. And there are several little clusters of one to the next.â&#x20AC;? -http://www.canbypublications.com/phnompenh/ppnight.htm


projects 2008

Bassac Boeung Kak Trapeang Crop

124

OUR STAY IN CAMBODIA (March 21st - 30th , 2008) Our group of students from different parts of Europe met in the north of Cambodia on a sunny Thursday afternoon. We got the first impressions of the country on our tuk-tuk trip from Siem Reap International Airport to our hotel: the undeveloped and littered roadsides soon gave way to the city commercial strip, full of traffic and tourist hotels. The cultural immersion continued by having dinner together at a Khmer kitchen. Next morning we went to see the spectacular Angkor Wat and spent the whole day there – it was great to experience the former megacity! We finished that first day having a meeting with the Australian – French group doing archaeological research on the ancient city and this was the usual for the rest of the trip: interesting discoveries and hard work from dusk till dawn. The following day we took a boat on the Ton Le Sap Lake to see some floating villages and Kompong Phluk village – completely amazed again. The dry season let the houses built on stilts floating up above and we were told that the village only street is actually a boat channel in the wet season. The children welcomed us to play with them and we saw how the older ones went to school. In the evening we travelled to Phnom Penh by bus and saw some of the Cambodian countryside on the way. We still did not know, but the feeling we got from the poor rural areas in Cambodia was going to be considered in a very positive way after we visited the communities facing unvoluntary relocation in Phnom Penh and the living conditions on the relocation sites around the capital city. Once in Phnom Penh we took a cyclo tour guided by Cambodian architecture students which was a perfect way to get to know Phnom Penh urban structure and architecture. During the first days in the capital half of us attended the workshop “Smart City: Design with People”, organised by the Royal University of Fine Arts and the NGO Sahmakurn Teang Tnaut. The other half started to work with other local stakeholders and organisations. In the three-day workshop there were visits to communities living in informal settlements, lectures and


a group work with the local students. It was a very good introduction to the situation of the city. After the workshop we started working on our own projects and collecting material for them. Since most of us had never been to an informal settlement it was surprising to see how different the conditions were in each one of them – some were nice and liveable whereas some were completely shocking. The most worrying fact for us was the feeling that the people were not treated according to human rights or to Cambodian laws. In our opinion, corruption and lack of good governance were behind many of the problems we studied. The days went fast, since we were busy all day until it was time to have our evening group meeting, where we shared information and experiences before heading for dinner. One of the most memorable study trips was the one to the Silk Island. We met many interesting people and professionals on the way, and saw a very varying scale of informal settlements. We are very thankful for the experience and for all the help from our local contacts as well! OUR PROJECTS We had been divided into groups before the trip and the groups got to choose their project and site quite freely. Two of the groups started working on the Boeung Kak Lake communities, one with the communities in the Bassac area and one with the Trapeang Crop relocation site, an empty rice field. We continued the work in Finland for two months, and finally sent the plans to the local NGO’s and other contacts. The guiding line for our projects was our believe that Phnom Penh should be developed in a way that both preserves the inherited city character and includes the participation of its inhabitants and their land tenure rights. SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT Phnom Penh, once called ‘the pearl of Indochina’, has some characteristics that make its urban space clearly different from other cities in Asia. To recognize the importance of the local culture means to foster the city identity and make this identity the basis for future urban planning and developments. The ancient temples of Angkor Wat, the French colonial urban planning and the architecture of the first modern architects in the independent Cambodia of 1960s, all form part of the built environment character, central to Cambodian cultural history. The current plans for central Phnom Penh could be described as the ‘Abu Dhabization’ of the city, that is, the imposition of an alien model of climatically inappropriate glass towers and over scaled streets. The possibility

of learning from the mistakes made in other parts of the world when certain patterns of urbanization have been imported is one of the advantages that Cambodia has now, thanks to its late development process. There is presently a big risk that Phnom Penh will be quickly transformed into another Kuala Lumpur, replacing its unique characteristics with an alien model of ‘developed’ city. Our plans aim at pointing out that the same economic profit can be obtained with a urban design that follows the existent city characteristics. The same efficiency can be reached with lower building (mainly 4-7 stories) and using the same block size as in the rest of Phnom Penh. Because of the development process many poor communities are under threat of unvoluntary relocation and a lot of families have already been evicted form their homes. We feel that future development should not ignore these communities, but take them as an active part of the development. We think that this could be realized in a way that ensures the communities right to permanently live in the area or get their part of the future profit as well. In our plans we propose that some communities are given the right to stay where they are by ensuring land tenure and upgrading the existing buildings. The government could also take part in the funding of the upgrading. During our stay in Phnom Penh we realized that one of the most important features in Phnom Penh, its river location, is not fully in use nor enjoyed. We also had the impression that there is a lack of quality public space for the pedestrians of Phnom Penh. The importance of public spaces in Cambodia can be seen in the streets of Phnom Penh where all the interactions happen. In a commercial aspect or just for any kind of citizen daily use, the sidewalks are often extended to the road: parking, benches, businesses, markets... The relation between the outside activity and the shading capacity provided by trees or different kinds of canopies makes the ground floor a real living place somehow characteristic of the city. We argue that it is only for the benefit of Cambodia that its capital’s identity is preserved, since the uniqueness of Phnom Penh is priceless for its citizens and also an asset for international tourism! Carlos Lamuela Orta Milla Nummikoski City in Crisis 2008

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1953 Independence of Cambodia. Public construction boom under King Norodom Sihanouk. First Cambodian modern architects, trained in Paris. Break from French colonial architecture.

1960s The Olympic Village apartments and the National Theater, designed by Vann Molyvann, are constructed at Tonle Bassac riverfront. The area is at the east end of Norodom Sihanouk boulevard, where Molyvann built the Independence Monument in 1962. The water edge was much closer to the buildings than nowadays and it was home to some fl oating houses communities.

1979 With the return of the population to Phnom Penh after the Pol Pot regime, the Olympic Village apartments were occupied by squatters. A number of families moved to the area, drained what was an uninhabitable swamp and filled it with Cambodiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s red soil.

Carlos Lamuela Robin Mazzola Milla Nummikoski Anni Reinikainen Sinikka Wasastjerna

Bassac â&#x20AC;&#x153;...This alternative plan aims at pointing out that the same density (the same economic profit) found in the Canadia Bank plan can be obtained with an urban design that follows the existing city characteristics. The density of the Canadia Bank plan is

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around 1,3. This plan demonstrates that the same efficicency can be reached with lower building (mainly 4-7 stories) and using the same block size as in the rest of Phnom Penh. The total floor area in our plan is 1746645m2, about 250000m2 more than in the Canadia Bank plan. Furthermore, we argue that it is only for the benefit of Cambodia that the identity of its capital is preserved, since the uniqueness of Phnom Penh will be an asset for international tourism...â&#x20AC;?

199 mov are div plo ove liv


90s More people ved to the Bassac ea and the land was vided into smaller ots. At this time er 5000 families ved there.

2000 There was a devastating fire in the area, and tens of thousands of families had to move away after their homes were destroyed.

2001 Part of Van Molyvann´s Olympic Village Apartments were encased in concrete in 2001 to be turned into offi ce space, after being sold in 1996 to a Malaysian developer. The vacant lot opposite to the island tip awaits the construction of the new national assembly. The number of informal settlements in the Bassac riverfront reaches the highest amount.

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2003 Two other communities in the Bassac area were relocated. At least three communities still remain, Dey Krohom, Group 78 and Reah Reay.

2005/2006 Canadia Bank plc (a Cambodian company) leased most of the land (including the Koh Pich island) at the Bassac riverfront for 99 years and created the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Island Cityâ&#x20AC;? urban plan. According to the local NGOs STT (Sahmakun Teang Tnaut) and UPDF (Urban Poor Development Fund), 2000 families have been unvoluntarily moved from the area since this development started. The whole of Koh Pich is now emptied and under construction. Legal battles between the developers and the communities resulted in some compensations being paid. SCALE COMPARISONS

PUBLIC SPACES: THE STREET

Lyon, France

Phnom Penh center

Phnom Penh center Espoo, Finland , Otaniemi, p ,

128 medium density housing


_Bassac Phnom Penh Cambodia _Helsinki University of Technology - Department of Architecture - Urban Planning and Design - World Architecture and Planning - City in Crisis Spring 2008 _C a r l o s L a m u e l a - R o b i n M a z z o l a - M i l l a N u m m i k o s k i - A n n i R e i n i k a i n e n - S i n i k k a W a s a s t j e r n a

built areas

densities

_Bassac Phnom Penh Cambodia

129

_Helsinki University of Technology - Department of Architecture - Urban Planning and Design - World Architecture and Planning - City in Crisis Spring 2008 _C a r l o s L a m u e l a - R o b i n M a z z o l a - M i l l a N u m m i k o s k i - A n n i R e i n i k a i n e n - S i n i k k a W a s a s t j e r n a

bassac area masterplan


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130 strategies, alternatives, future scenarios

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Development suggestion for the Boeung Kak Lake

1. green and blue network / future growth of the city - lake as part of a larger water system - continuity of the green system in the city (2 main axis N-S and W-E) 2. road structure / urban main traffic flows / satellite cities - ring road around the lake / split the main traffic flows in the city when getting out of it by the north-east - spine for the new developing area at the west shore 3. train system - removing the railtrack going up to north - old ending of the system - new housing areas proposed by MPP in the north of the lake where the train runs through. - moving backwards the railway station - releasing southern and western shores, bringing forward the chance to allow the city to enhance its connectivity and opening to the lake

marcelo gutierrez monica gassiot melian oliviero piffaretti eva sollgruber ilkka tÜrmä

4. connectivity / public spaces / relation to the public city - enhancing the relation with the main public and the city - conection Central Market and Watt Phnom 5. kept communities (upgrading) / building on the water - keeping the most settled communities (south-west and north-east areas) - upgrading + integrating them into the city - building on the water as a possible solution in order to gain surface to build, instead of filling up, and re-blocking

- development of ring road lake becomes part of the city

- development of green areas in the city lake becomes the green heart of the city

- changes in the rail system

- consider existing roads around the lake easy exit to new development area

- connection to important urban spaces


green areas

+

business

+

entertainment sphere of action existing communities new development: Typologies studied; residential and commercial new development: 40% residencial, 40%offices, 20%comercial

green connections approach + north-south green corridor (light traffic route) + new traffic connection in the west complements an existing ring road + railway station moved to the west and the dead-end railway track to the north removed: there is a seamless connection to the existing urban fabric and more space for new development without landfilling + good access to the lake from public commercial areas and connection to the important nodes of Phnom Penh, Wat Phnom and the Central Market + communities in the east and on the peninsula preserved + residential and commercial mixed to avoid zoning and segregation + most of the waterfront reserved for the public - most of the residential areas not directly connected to the lake (more difficoult to use for e.g. morning glory cultivation or fishing)

+

business approach + north-south green corridor (light traffic route) + new traffic connection in the west complements an existing ring road + railway station moved to the west and the dead-end railway track to the north removed: there is a seamless co nection to the existing urban fabric and more space for new development without landfilling + good access to the lake from public commercial areas and connection to the important nodes of Phnom Penh, Wat Phnom and the Central Market + communities in the east and on the peninsula preserved + residential and commercial mixed to avoid zoning and segregation + possibility to build commercial or public spaces on the attractive water front. Building on stilts minimizes landfilling - new residential areas somewhat isolated from the existing urban farbric

+

community approach + north-south green corridor (light traffic route) + new traffic connection in the west complements an existing ring road + railway station moved to the west and the dead-end railway track to the north removed: there is a seamless connection to the existing urban fabric and more sopace for new development without landfilling. + strong connections through the existing residential areas in the east and the west + communities in the east and on the peninsula preserved + communities build on silts: less need for landfilling - not much space for new development - intervetion to the existing communities in the east and the west needen to strengthen the connections to the surroundings - access to the lake only through the residential areas

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ROUS REAY

BOEUNG THONG

PHOM 22

PHOM 2 PHOM 6 PHOM 4 CHAM KA CHEK

social structure of the lake communities oragnize themseves to have a stronger voice

μ north eastern communities on land

southern communities on the lake / stilts

132 +

different solutions for kitchen

+ - on water as well as on land. - on water wooden - on land concrete or bricks possible

tilted roof with rain gutter to collect water

selectable items

flexibility - depends of family’s budget - on water as well as on land. - selesctable: - bathroom fittings - on water wooden - kitchen - on land concrete or bricks possible - wall cladding

grill

oven

sink

fridge

ventilation

dishwasher

different combinations are possible depending on thebudget of the people

flexibility measurements:

8m x 4/6 m - depends of family’s budget 32/48 m² - selesctable: - bathroom fittings kitchen room hight: 2.2 m - wall cladding

measurements:

section a 1:100

8m x 4/6 m 32/48 m²

different solutions for bathroom

room hight:

a

2.2 m

different solutions for kitchen

porch

garden

porch

garden

kitchen

bathroom

porch

garden kitchen

bathroom

plants/vegetables

bedroom

bedroom

bedroom

a

a

a bedroom

living

bathroom

bathroom

living

kitchen

bedroom

kitchen

living

garden

porch a one family groundplan 1st floor 1:100

groundplan 2nd floor 1:100

groundplan 2nd floor 1:100

groundplan 2nd floor 1:100

bathroom

storage

kitchen

shop

garden

porch

one family; improved groundplan 1st floor 1:100

porch a

two families groundplan 1st floor 1:100

porch

one family + shop groundplan 1sr floor 1:100


benefits for the owner - Expand roof life by two to three times - Reduce summer air conditioning cost - Storm water management tool - Use dead space as a garden

green roof:

it insulates the building from the sun and creates a natural filter against the pollution

flats or offices

green facade:

flats or offices

the double facade decreases the airconditioning need and “cleans” the polluted air, in the same time people can work with the windows open and walk in the balcony

benefits for the neighbourhood - Reduce storm water runoff - Reduce smog - Reduce noise - Reduce energy demand - Improve air quality - Reduce city “heat island” effect - Improve aesthetics

flats or offices offices or shops

trees:

with the shading created with a row of trees the walk is more confortable and they participate to the air cleaning too

benefits for the environment - Prevent combined sewer overflow - Reduce carbon dioxide impact - Remove nitrogen pollution in rain - Neutralize acid rain effect - Provide habitat for birds and insects

shops

- only on land - concrete columns

ventilation

b garden

garden

bathroom

bathroom

garden

kitchen

bathroom

living bedroom

bedroom

bedroom b

groundplan 3rd floor 1:100

groundplan 3rd floor 1:100

groundplan 3rd floor 1:100

b kitchen

garden

garden

kitchen

garden

kitchen

bathroom

living

living

garden

garden

living

garden

bedroom

b

groundplan 2nd floor 1:100

groundplan 2nd floor 1:100

groundplan 2nd floor 1:100

b bedroom

bathroom

living

storage

kitchen

bedroom

shop

living

porch

porch

garden

bathroom

kitchen garden

porch b

two families groundplan 1st floor 1:100

one famliy + shop groundplan 1st floor 1:100

three families groundplan 1st floor 1:100

different solutions for bathroom

septic tank + planted filter + rainwater collector different solutions for bathroom

septic tank + planted filter + rainwater collector

rainwater collector + collection of compost toilet rainwater collector + collection of compost toilet

If the budget of the family allows it two houses can be combined to one big. - bigger bathrooms possible or bathtub - alternative systems like gray water managment and compost toilets can be implemented - bigger bathrooms possible If the budget of the family allows it twoshower houses - own toilet, can be combined to one big.

- own toilet, shower or bathtub - alternative systems like gray water managment and compost toilets can be implemented

- on stilts - on stilts - totally piped installation - on stilts - on stilts - totally piped installation - grid in the floor for shower - grid in the floor forinshower - own shower and toilet - grid in the floor for shower - grid the floor for shower - own shower and toilet - grey water managment - grey water managment - grey water managment - grey water managment with septicfilter tank and planted filter with septic tank and planted filter with septic tank and planted with septic tank and planted filter - common toilet - common toilet - own toilet (piped) own toilet (piped) - rainwater tank - rainwater tank - rainwater tank - rainwater tank

- alternative toilet solution - alternative toilet solution - -compost toilet compost toilet - -favourable used favourable used onon landland rainwater tank - -rainwater tank

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shop for small activities

tree

park/rain garden/grey water treatment bench

house for reblocked family

compost toilet (possibility with evaporative plant bed for urine) or biogas digester toilet

fountain common toilet for communities on stilts shop for small activities

tree house for reblocked family

compost toilet (possibility with evaporative plant bed for urine) or biogas digester toilet

common toilet for communities on stilts

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136Community Plan Trapeang Crop

ignacio atienza willem anne van bolderen daniela grotenfelt mikaela neuvo alberto quinones


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An idea that would support the community that is now going to be build, is to try to locate other communities with similar interest in the same area. The plans for a single community should take in account growth possibility and connectivity to surrounding housing areas. A cluster of communities could support each other and function as a stronger political actor. A cluster of communities would have more people and thus a bigger influence on the surrounding area and the government. There could be cooperation within agri-culture, economy, child care, education and health care. Every community would have a couple of public spaces. The functions on the public area will be chosen according to the order in which the communities will be built and connected to each other. Every community will thus contribute in creating a well-equipped cluster. Public Space Use in the: - 1st Community (117 families): Market square- Base for the Economy - 2nd Community ( 212 families):SchoolBase for Education - 3rd Community ( 307 families):Sports fieldBase for leisure - 4th Community (402 families):Doctors post - Base for Health care

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Five elements need to be considered separately when founding a sanitation system : • The toilet – there is a wide range of latrines, water closets, urine-diversion toilets, etc, that may be considered, depending on local circumstances. -The toilets need to be safe, attractive to use and the construction and main tenance should be low cost.

• The collection system – septic tanks, pits, vaults, drums, may be appropriate in different environ ments. -There has to be appropriate ventilation and enough space for storage before transportation. • Transportation – large or small sewer systems, motorised, mechanical or manual haulage may need to be considered. - transporting the material away from the community should be done if there is no possibility for treating or reusing the material within the community. - the transportation should be well-organized and well-managed with a few persons hired and responsible for this.

Transportation, waste management and infrastructure • Treatment should –also be vary connected. This wastewater would make theplants system systems from sophisticated treatment and sludge more efficient and economical. The plans for the separate - the treatment can either be managed within the community or at city treat communities must be laid so that other can be attached ment plant on every side. In the illustrations these are referred to as • Use of sanitation products - there a high nutrient and energy producing potential in the urine plug-ins. In isthese and other areas of collaboration theand composted excreta. Biogas can easily be produced and used for lighting or gas Community cookers.Cluster will also offer work for some of the inhabitants. A community cluster also needs a well-functioning governance. The separate communities need to have collaboration meetings at regular intervals and have some common regulations concerning waste management, infrastructure, water treatment etc.


Valle Herrador

140phnom penh people

It is nice to be a tourist in Phnom Penh. People are friendly, food is cheap and even the chaotic traffic doesn´t bother you when you are sitting in a tuk tuk or a cyclo with a local driver. But how is it really to live there? We saw various ways of living, which raised many questions in our minds: What if I would have to live with 28 other families in an abandoned church? Or sleep my nights on the streets of Phnom Penh? What if an unknown developer would have bought my home and I would have to live in a fear that somebody will tear me of my bed in the middle of the night and destroy my home? We interviewed a few of Phnom Penhâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s residents in different situations of life to really understand the city we were there to study. By interviewing the local people we learnt that they are just ordinary people trying to cope with various problems. Teachers, nurses or even policemen might not be able to feel secure about tomorrow in their private lives. But no matter what the conditions are, nothing can stop them from dreaming of a better future. Noora Aaltonen


Favourite / least favourite place in the city Sorya Shopping Centre close to Central Market and its skating rink. She was also fond of reading books, or travel guides, at the library of her language school. The most expensive costs English lessons $10per week Future plans, goals and dreams?

Lida, 15 Sells water Living area: The park on riverside in front of the Royal Palace Family size: Parents, who are not together anymore. She is living in the park with her mother and her father lives in the province.

Besides of learning English and French she would have liked to start learning Dutch as well. Later on she had the dream of becoming a tourist guide in Phnom Penh and see countries around the world. how are the elderly looked after? Lida seemed to be bery close with her mother, even holding her hand for most of the time. safety? most safe and unsafe places on your living area? There is a lot of people sleeping in the park and robberies are common. Lida told us about her friend that just got robbed a few days earlier and lost all his earnings he had got during the previous days.

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Taxi Driver living by the Boeung Kak 5. Daily spend 10 $ 6. Most expensive costs are food and money for his sons to go to school. 7. Living space 4m x 12m on one floor. 6 members in family, four children. They own their own house. 8.He built their house himself. 9.Local materials were used for the house. 10. The house is built out of stone and concrete. Costs approximately 12 000$.

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11. They have private bathroom and kitchen. 12. A house should be easy to live in. He wouldn’t want to change the house but to stay in the same house. 13. They have no organized community in the neighbourhood but some plans to establish one. 14. He works as a taxi driver. He owns his own car. He drives to Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, Thai border or equivalent destination two times a day. He doesn’t speak English so the customers are mostly Cambodian. He finds his customers by the Central Market. He has two free days a week. 15. He is happy with the lake as a living area and says there’s nothing lacking. 16. He feels safe in his house. Outside this area it might feel unsafe. 17. His parents have passed away. 19. He doesn’t consider moving to other areas in the city because he doesn’t have money. He doesn’t have an option. 20. He follows news from TV, he has a mobile phone and reads sometimes newspapers. 21.His dreams are to have enough money for the education of his children and to have a nice life style.


Finishes work at 7pm, average day consists of 60kms of riding. Sleeps near Central market in cyclo Returns home once a month to visit his family on the weekend Favourite / least favourite place in the city?

Phalla, 22

Phalla didn´t really like Phnom Penh due to distance from family. He still preferred the life of a cyclo driver to being a waitor.

around cyclocenter

safety? most safe and unsafe places on your living area?

Cyclo driver lives on the streets Family of 8 (Eldest child). Family located in Kampong Thom Province

The issue of safety was a concern as the amount of traffic is increasing on the roads and the dangers that brings to the riders - They sleep in their cyclos on street corners and sidewalks and occasionally get hit by cars driven by drivers under the influence of alcohol. Increasing numbers of injuries have been seen in the past years due to traffic congestion. Transportation ways that you use?

costs English lessons $30per month Total earnings $60per month, $20 sent home to family and $10 for personal Rent for cyclo is 2000riel per day and total earnings for the day approximately 10000riel (~2,5USD) Future plans, goals and dreams? Phalla started working as a waiter in Siem Reap in 2000 before moving to Phnom Penh in 2002. He currently earns money as a cyclo driver and is learning English to become a guide. Phalla hopes the extra money from being a guide can put him through university to study mechanics, but for the moment the costs of that are too high, $800 per year. His dream is to return to his home town and open a store close to the family house repairing mechanical things. how are the elderly looked after? Phalla mentioned his other siblings caring for the younger ones, while he sent money home to help his family. The topic of family and community was a sensitive one. A typical day/ week? Starts work day at 7am English lessons at ELT private school 11am- 1pm Lunch

Cyclo to transport himself around, live in and for taking tourists around Phnom Penh. He takes a bus to see his family back home. COMMUNITY? The cyclo center has 1335 registered members. Despite the facilities the cyclo center is providing the riders appeared to be using it mostly as a nice base for gathering - the facilities provided by the centre were barely touched on in conversation. The services the centre is offering are e.g. loans for bike rentals and money saving schemes, doctor available 2 days per week, laundry facilities, bike repair facilities, shower facilities, English lessons, vocational and other basic training courses. They also take bookings for longer tours and bigger groups from tourist offices they have contracts with, and deal them forward to the riders. The space they have consists of four rooms in two floors, altogether about a 100sqmeters. By the time of our visit there was about 15 riders hanging around in front and inside the centre.There was a sense of community between the riders and it appeared that the older riders were proud of the young Phalla and his studies. information sharing/access? The center says to be providing livelihood support for the riders, for example in the form of anti-smoking programmes and information on other health related issues. Some of them would have a radio attached to the side of their cyclo, but according to Phalla it´s disliked by the police.

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sokly, 26 Student of Architecture/Tourist Guide

1. Name: YAM Sokly       Age: 26 Occupation: Architecture student and tour guide for Khmer Architecture Tours 2. Favorite place in Phnom Penh: I like every part of Phnom Penh, because i can learn a lot from different area of Phnom Penh, in term of lifestyle, culture, but the most important is that most of the heritage buildings are laid behind the small street of Phnom Penh... 3.How far you travel in a day? How long it is going to take you to go school? It is really depend on how many things that i need to do on the day. Sometimes i travel from the South to North for several times, but sometimes I just stay in a place just to concentrate on my work. Sometime i just stay home for the whole day

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4. a)Water supply: I do not really understand this question. Maybe i got it wrong... You mean whether my house has water supply? The answer is yes, it has. b) Food source: I do not really understand this question. Most of the time i have food outside at the restaurant, whether with friend(s) or alone. but sometime at home if i asked my mum to cook for me. c) Medical treatment: As you know, every Cambodians worry the most is the Medical treatment. Because we do not have a proper medical treatment system as well as lack of well educated doctor(s) and a good government who have enough abilities to help the citizens.. d) Income: For me, i not really have a fix income, due to my thesis, so i need to be free. Then i can concentrate myself more on the work. It can be between USD100 to USD300 a month. e) Education( if some else than architect): Wow, this is the most interesting question from you. I like to learn everything that related to architecture. Even Anthropology, Archaeology, History, or Marketing, Accounting, Tourism..... 5. Daily spend: My daily spending is more on the food, petrol and book. Even thought sometime i meet friend(s) for drink or going some where around Phnom Penh to do more my own research work.. So my spending would be rang in between USD5 to USD40. 6. Most expensive costs: Most expensive costs for me are buying book, food and utilities at home as well as

internet. 7. how big is your house=living space? My house is about 130 square meters. The living room is about 20 square meters. 8. Do you have toilet and kitchen in your house, or running water? Yes i have toilet and kitchen in my house and running water as well. 9. Are you happy to live there where you live now? Yes i am quit happy to live at my house now. Because after i modified the house, it is more lovely to live in now. At least we have more wind inside the house and natural light as well. Especially i have a small attached toilet in my room. So it is very convenience for me. 10.What would you change in the area if could / is the area already good? why? I would like to upgrade my house a bit in term of spaces arrangement. Because one of the room down-stair is not function very well and I have a non-practical kitchen. I need to have a small garden as well inside the house next to my dinning area. 11. Is there anything missing in your living area? Yes it is missing a lot actually, in term of furniture and gardening. But we are not really having a lot of guest, so it is still ok. 12. Where would you move if you had to? if i have a choice, i would love to move to Orousey area. Because over there have more diverse cultural activities and food. Even thought it is not a good place for parking. Still i like that area. 13. Do you feel safe in Phnom Penh? It is quit safe if we know where to drive and how to drive according to the hour that we need to drive. For example some part of Phnom Penh is safer than the other in the day time, but not the night time. 14. are there unsafe areas in PP? PP just like everywhere in the world, it is unsafe if you had a (lot) bad experiences or you been told from your friend(s) about their bad experiences. But i just got robbed as well from a group of two people just two street away from my house recently.


Future 15. Where would you like to live after you graduate? If i have the choice, Singapore will be the best place for me to live. Because i do not want to live in a country that lack of infrastructure, people killing each other everyday just to survive, and/or government is partially heavy corrupted. Maybe one day in the future, my family might faces these results of the activities that they are doing now. So Singapore some how is much better than Cambodia. 16. Do you think there will be work for architects in Phnom Penh? Phnom Penh is a city of emerging recently, even thought the global economic crisis would slowdown the development of the city, some how in the near future, good and well educated architects are needed the most to change the face of the city in a proper way.   17. What is Architects role in future at PP? Architects will be one of the most important figures to change the fact of PP; even thought architects without political involvement would be hard in Cambodia. 18. What do you dream of? What do you want to do when you graduate? I would like to see Cambodia in peace and people could live a proper way (good quality of life). Personally, i dream of being one of the architects that could help people to build low-cost housing and nice buildings as well improve the education system in Cambodia as well. I would like to do more research and share those the results from my research work with the students and the public as well as continue my study abroad.

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nora, 25 NGO Advisor/Journalist

1. Country: Finland I work as a freelance journalist and advisor for sahmakum teang tnaut. im based in PP. 2. Favorite place in Phnom Penh Snowy’s bar in Chroy Changvar (across the Japanese Bridge) or on a cruise on the river. Both places are great at sunset. 3. How far you travel in a day? how long it is going to take you to go work?

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Depends where I work, as I have both an office job and I travel around for interviews. Traffic in PP is generally mayhem, and if it rains streets are sometimes impassable, so travelling times vary a lot.

7. How big is your house=living space? 4 ensuite bedrooms, extra bathroom, massive hall, living room, kitchen and massive balcony. It is quite an unsual space as both appartments in PP tend to be above shophouses, and hence long and narrow. Ours is very spacious. 8. Do you have toilet and kitchen in your house, or running water? yes to all, plus A/C and hot water. 9. Are you happy to live where you live now(area)? Yes, its a very interesting, rather Vietnamese neighbourhood. very local, yet close to services and amenities, as well as more upscale neighbourhoods.

I recently bought a moto (local word for moped), which allows me to get most places with 10-15 minutes. During rush hour when all the big Lexuses and other cars are out it’s anyones guess however.

10. What would you change in the area if could?

4. a) Food source: I eat out a lot, as it can be cheaper than cooking in the house. Korean noodles are my staple food, unfortunately I’m not very keen on white rice!

11. Is there anything missing in your living area? an oven and a comfortable sofa.

b) Medical treatment: High standard medical treatment is available. Medical insurance including med-evac is however essential, as more major health-related problems can’t be dealt with here. Dentists are great and cheap too. c) Income: Highly variable, around $900/month d) Education: MA International RelationsEconomics, MSc Development Studies

13. Do you feel safe in Phnom Pehn? yes 14. are there unsafe areas in PP? none notoriously so.

5. Daily spend around $30, but again, highly variable 6. Most expensive costs Rent at $150/month is my largest single recurring expense, though in comparison (both within PP and abroad) the rent is very very cheap. Most money goes into luxury/non-essential items.

I would make my neighbours stop chopping ice and cutting meat at 4.30am!

12. Where would you move if you had to? To a beautiful colonial building in northern PP

Future 15. Do you see your self staying in Phnom Penh Or somewhere else in Cambodia? Where? Yes, for another year or two, pending work opportunities. SE Asia is a better place to be than Europe at the moment given the global recession


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16. Do you think there will be work for you in Phnom Penh? Yes, for qualified development experts there is likely to be work, however the tourism and service sectors are already suffering. 17. Would you like to raise your family in Phnom Penh? Need a family first, but I don’t see why I wouldn’t.

18. How do you see the future of PP? With current ‘development’, which includes indiscriminate building, no proper urban planning, the filling in of the Boeng Kok lake, evictions of poor urban communities to peripheral ‘camps’ (called relocation sites that have utterly inadequate basic services), the future is bleak. There have been some improvements, e.g. the increase in urban green spaces in terms of parks and some improvements in drainage, but these are marginal considering the general negative and inequitable development.


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Phatly, 44 Tuk-tuk driver Living in Veng Sreng relocation site Family size: 7 (2 sons (21, 8), 2 daughters (25 (married), 17), 1 grand daughter (1)) Spends 40 000R (10$) per day for the whole family including food, water and gas for his tuk-tuk Wife’s job: sewing, earns 2.5$/day The community doesn’t help to find a job. His friends taught him how to drive and bought the tuktuk himself. Now he works as a tuk-tuk driver 4h/day. Has to go to Phnom Penh to get clients, which means he may actually lose money. Services in the community aren’t working as good as expected: black outs happen once in a while and even if the water supply works fine, the water is not really good. He prefers to buy water if possible, but it’s an additional charge he cannot always afford. He buys food from the community or from outside. The community buys it from somebody else and he knows nothing about the community producing its own food D) He keeps his savings at home, just in case he needs them in a hurry. He earns little but spends too much, because family is always sick. He can borrow money from bank or from close friends but in general it’s difficult. E) A school is missing in the community. There is one but it is too small, only few kids can go there. Two of their children (8 and 17) attend Dankal Mkei high school 6km away. They have to bike everyday this distance alone and the parents are afraid something may happen to their child in this long distance. Some children don’t go to school because books and uniform are too expensive.

7. If he had enough money, he would like his kids to go to university, but for the moment he can only plan the future day by day. He cannot plan it beforehand. 8. He built his house himself in 1997, with some help from the community: 200$ and some advice. In the beginning they did not had water or electricity, but the community provided it later on. All house plans are similar within community. 9. He bought himself the material for building it in the market. The house has its own toilet and kitchen. All 7 people of his family live in it. 13. He claimed that nobody cares about the community nowadays. The actual leader doesn’t really care about the community problems and he doesn’t pay any attention to the claims he has been addressed. The former leader used to be really active and the community really worked fine in the first years, but he left when he felt the community wasn’t going to improve any further. There is a meeting place for the community but only 3 or 4 people are allowed to attend (those close to the leader) but they don’t share information or decisions. There is a lack of communication between people in the community and very little (if there’s any) help between the families. No communal way of living.

children (that seemed to play together).

The community is mostly composed by

19. When he moved in Veng Sreng he wanted to live there forever, but now, with the electricity problems it is difficult to stay. He would like to move somewhere where connections with school, hospital and other services are provided and where electricity works well, but he cannot afford any other place. 16. On the safety point of view: before security was bad, now it has improved because the government has put some effort to controls the robberies (police & law). His dream would be to open a garage and repair cars.

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Yara, 23 NGO worker family of 8

Education: University, master degree in international business and Occupation: Banking, working in STT with housing rights and advocacy Living area:

‘‘I dream that in the future Phnom Penh could be a centre of business, tourism and culture where also poor people can live.’’

A village 20 km from the city, in a non-developed area Everyday life: A typical day/ week Yara is working from 8 to 12 and from 14 to 17 at STT. After work she goes home by moto. Home is quite far from the city and the journey takes about 30 min depending on the traffic. Yara spends about 1 dollar in a day. The most expensive things she buys are clothes.

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Yara reads Phnom Penh Post and Cambodian daily and listens Radio Asia. She also likes to watch movies. These are her the main sources to get information from world. Community: There is running water in Yara’s home but she buys her drinking water. She can’t cook the water by gas because the village is far away from the city. There is small market near the village where she buys food. Hospital or nearest medical center is in the city. In the future the village may be more developed because of the factories that are near.

Least favourite places/things in the city?

Yara thinks that her village is nice place to live. There is e.g. football field and a community garden with a pond. Yara enjoys sitting in the garden and talking there with friends.

Big, white houses. Traffic jams.

how are the elderly looked after?

Dreams goals...

There is one 80 year old living in her village. He lives with his family.

In the future, in 20 years, the city of PP has become a centre of business, tourism and culture where also poor people can live in.

Favourite places in the city? River sides. Small places where people live.

She would like to have more trees in the city, especially in the living areas.

She would like to live at the lake with her family and to teach her children to work with people. She wants to live in a community and to have lot of friend around like the Finnish ones…


Hang, 48 Midwife/Fish

cultivator

LIVING BY BOEUNG KAK. Family OF 4.Husband works as a taxi driver. Would like to have a good wife for her teen-aged son.

9. The building materials were local and mostly wood. Toul Kork??? Occupation: Midwife, but she is sick and would stop working if she could afford it. 2. Boeung Kak is her favorite place in the city because it is an easy area to live in.

10. The houses are built side by side to each other, so they might have gotten some help and information about building from the neighbours. The neighbouring houses are also built out of wood. She doesn’t know the total costs of the construction.

3. She goes to work in a hospital near Wat Phnom by her Moto. Time: 10 minutes.

11. They have their private kitchen and bathroom, but not very modern. Supposedly no drainage but everything does directly into Boeung Kak.

4. a)Water supply: in the house

13. They have no organized community in the area.

b) Food source: Market, 15 minutes

15. She feels there is not really anything lacking from the area.

c) Medical treatment: Calmate (?) Hospital, near Wat Phnom d) Income: Near Wat Phnom, 10min. e) Education: so far, Chaktomuk Secondary High School, where his son goes.

16. She feels safe in her house in this area, but she worries about their land. “Land without value is safest.” She has 4 guard dogs in her house and high fence around it. 17. Her parents have passed away.

5. Daily spend 10$.

18. She has good relations to her neighbours.

6. Most expensive costs are rice, water, medical expenses and electricity

19. Her sister lives in Kampong Cham province and if she would not need to work, she could imagine of moving there. She dreams of a big, American style villa. The house would be in one floor with beautiful, varying roof.

7. Their plot is 10,5m x 70m and the house is 8m x 23m. Including the fish cultivation the whole plot is 70 m long. Thereare 20 000 fish in their fish cultivation pond. The house is only one space where the whole family sleeps. 8. They built the house by themselves.

20. She listens to Free Asia Radio and reads newspapers. 21. Her husband would like to keep on cultivating the fish in the Boeung Kak.

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Somphors, 43

Community leader

Somphors, leader of the Reak Reay Community 43 years old, lives with his wife and two daughters (aged 10 and 5)

Sitting in the peaceful surrounds of the garden of his home we were warmly welcomed by the Reak Reay community leader. Though the help of a local RUFA student we were able to have a lengthy conversation with him and one of close friends. Whilst both men were reserved and preferred not to hold eye contact, possibly wary of another group of foreigners asking questions, they were still more than happy to receive us and proved to be an extremely useful source of local knowledge.

Reak Reay Community

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Typical occupation: farmer, fisherman, factory worker, officer, NGO, Government, teacher Family size: small to medium Typical day: most people within the community wake up around 5 or 6 in the morning to go to their various jobs and would return home between 6 and 8 in the evening. Water supply: water is collected from the river next to the community and also collected in large vessels when it rains. Food source: most people within the community buy their food from the markets around Phnom Penh. Education: almost 90% of the children within the community go to school.

How much money would you spend per day? 10,000 to 15,000 Riel per day; mainly for food, some given to the children for school. What are the most expensive costs? Rice and petrol are the most significant expenses. How big is your living space? 10.65 square metres. Did you build your house yourself? No, he employed a group of workers to build his house in 1990.


Where did find material for your house? The material for the construction of the house was sourced locally. Where did you get information on how to plan and build your house? Is this knowledge shared within the community? This house was planned and built to accommodate his modest budget. It is a simple or general style built for living typically of the poor communities. It is not a traditional Khmer house as they are expensive and built for the better quality materials. Where are your bathroom and kitchen facilities? As with the majority of the community his own home has a private bathroom within the house, the kitchen area is also within the house yet the fires used for cooking are kept outside to protect the house from smoke. How would you define acceptable housing? What aspects do you consider most important? If the community has to move they would prefer adequate compensation from the company rather than a house offered to them in a relocation site. The houses offered to them by the company are low standard and far from the city, there value is far bellow that of the land owned by the community. The community would prefer a monetary compensation because they do not all want the same things; some would prefer moving to the countryside and others want to stay close to the city centre. How is your community organized? The community is organised by one person (Heng Somphors) and supported by the SUPF (Solidarity Urban Poor Federation). How would a member on the community find employment? Is this commonly shared information? There are a few organisation that help people with the community to find employment: Ni-Jea-Mo organisation helps girls, single women and widows to study FRAME educates young men on basic mechanics/how to fix motos Is there something lacking from your community? Public electricity and water supply is the most important things missing from the community. How safe do you and your family feel? Where are the safest and most unsafe areas in your community? Mostly they feel safe within the community; however on occasion there are a few thefts and drug related issues

that come from outside the community. The police do not seem to treat these issues seriously and when they are called upon they come, have a look and leave. Nothing ever comes of it. How are the elderly looked after in the community? If they are poor and live alone the community will help to look after them, spare rice or money would be given to them. This is the Khmer tradition. What type of community activities or services are organised in your area? Annually before the New Year they will have a celebration and sometime they will have community meetings where they will discuss how best to develop and protect the community. Are there any similar areas that you would consider moving to? As mentioned they would prefer money from the company rather than a relocation site. If forced to move the community would no longer stay together, some would move to the countryside whilst others would stay within the city. What sources would you most commonly use to get information on the world outside of Asia? He is always listening to radio stations VAO and VOD, as these are one he trusts. Material from the television, newspapers and magazines he is less likely to trust. Future plans, goals and dreams? At the moment people within the community just want a secure home. If they have to leave their current location they want a fair price for their existing home, one that is closer to todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s market prices.

During our interview with Heng Somphors he seemed quite worried about the future of his community; many of his answers came back to the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fear of involuntary relocation and inadequate compensation for relocation. Since this interview his worst fears were realised; on the 15th March 2009 many of the houses in the Reak Reay community were torn down by the developer, Bassac Garden City, and the workers began to fence off the land.

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programme in phnom penh 21. feb - 8. mar 2009

Cambodia 2009 - City in Crisis projects  

Work of the City in Crisis course at Helsinki University of Technology in spring 2009

Cambodia 2009 - City in Crisis projects  

Work of the City in Crisis course at Helsinki University of Technology in spring 2009

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