MATHEMATICS IN ANCIENT INDIA

I

ndian mathematicians since the Sulbasutras which were appendices giving ancient period have contributed to rules for constructing altars. They give the growth of modern mathematics. geometrical information however it was Indus valley civilization holds the meant only for the religious purposes. distinction of being the first to develop Baudhayana (about 800 BC), Manava mathematics. Much research still is to be (about750 BC), Apastamba (about 600 done to know the full extent of their BC) and Katyayana (about 200 BC) achievement composed main s. They Sulbasutras. adopted a These were Aryabhata's work contained summery of uniform scholars and Jaina mathematics and astronomy. He system of priest and not replaced the older theory of demons Rahu weights and mathematicians measures in modern and Ketu with new theory of eclipses. He suggesting sense of the also introduced trigonometry to make his that they term. Around astronomical calculations based on the belong to the middle of Greek epicycle theory. two series the third both being century BC the decimal in Brahmi nature numerals multiplied and divided in two giving began to appear. These were the earliest ratios of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 etc.A numerals which after certain changes number of scales for measuring the length developed into modern numerals used were discovered during the excavations. A today. decimal scale known as 'Indus Inch' based Around 6th century BC the development of on a unit of measurement of 1.32 inches new religions like Buddhism and Jainism (3.35 cm) has been discovered. Another saw more development in mathematics. scale, a The main topics were theory of numbers, ARYABHATTA bronze rod arithmetical operations, geometry, and was operations with fractions, simple discovered equations, cubic equations, quartic marked 0.367 equations and other permutations and inches. The combinations. Jaina mathematicians measurement developed a theory of infinite containing of buildings different levels of infinity, a primitive revealed that understanding of indices and some notion these scales of logarithms to base 2.Astronomy became were used the base for developing mathematics with great because it required correct information accuracy. The about the planets and other heavenly earliest bodies. Religion also played a major role as literary accurate calendars were required to be records Vedas made to observe the religious ceremonies at had the correct time. Mathematics remained an