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LIVE . WORK . PLAY . Mixed Use Development for Millennials Sanjay Lake, Mayur Vihar, Delhi Guides : Prof. Rahoul B. Singh Prof. Moti Bahri Studio Director : Prof. Jaya Kumar Aakash Jain A/2664/2014 School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi


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Guides Prof. Rahoul B. Singh Prof. Moti Bahri Studio Director Prof. Jaya Kumar Author Aakash Jain aakashjaindesigns.com architectaakashjain@gmail.com

June 2019 School of Planning and Architecture New Delhi


Declaration The thesis titled “Live, Work, Play - Mixed Use Development for Millennials”, a requisite of the Bachelors Program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi – 110002, was completed by the undersigned in January – May 2019. The supervisors were Prof. Ar. Rahoul B. Singh and Prof. Ar. Moti Bahri. The undersigned hereby declares that this is his/her original work and has not been plagiarized in part or full from any source. Furthermore this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other University.

Aakash Jain A/2664/2014 School of Planning and Architecture New Delhi


Certificate 2nd June 2019 We certify that the Thesis titled “Live, Work, Play - Mixed Use Development for Millennials”, by Aakash Jain, roll no A/2664/2014 was guided by us in January – May 2019 and placed in front of the Jury by the candidate on 16 – 17th May 2019. On completion of the report in all respects, including the last chapter, by the candidate and based on the declaration by the candidate hereinabove, we forward the report to the Department to be placed in the library of the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

_________________________ Prof. Ar. Rahoul B. Singh

____________________ Prof. Ar. Moti Bahri


Acknowledgement I would like to thank everyone who has contributed in making this possible. I extend my sincere gratitude towards the faculty and staff of School of Planning and Architecture, especially my guides Prof. Rahoul B. Singh and Prof. Moti Bahri and my coordinator Prof. Jaya Kumar. I also extend my gratitude towards all the teachers that have taught me in my past and helped me get to where I am today. Two very important people who made this possible are my mother, for her constant and unconditional support, belief and encouragement, and Diksha Khanna for always supporting me. A big thank you to the people, friends, and family of Batch of 2019 of School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, for making these five years memorable.

Thank you. Aakash Jain


To my mother


Note for the Reader This thesis is a result of months of hard work and perseverance. As a fellow architect/architecture enthusiast/a fellow student of architecture, possibly from this same great institution, I request you to treat the book with respect. If you wish to use certain parts for photographic reference, the complete thesis is available online, I request you to use that. Now, how to read this book and make the most of it? To literally make the most of it you could read the full thing but we both know you are not going to. To understand this fully (almost) in the least effort possible do the following. Understand the premises of this thesis and WHY was this done or why was this project chosen. The intent was create a mixed used urban scale project because that’s where my interest lied. From there the wish was to explore a “new” kind of mixed use in order to understand the kind of buildings we may see coming up in the future. The millennial movement in the year this thesis is written in took the world by storm with various companies and businesses including building projects appeal towards and specifically advertise to the millennials, claiming to fully understand the needs of this generation and being the best solution/product for them. In my opinion there was a need to do some research into what this generation really wanted and to distinguish actual suitable designs from mere marketing schemes. Also as a helpful tip of advice, having a defined user group like this gives the project a sense of directionality and an important design directive which guides many design decisions you make. Now, being a resident of Delhi I also believe that as a city we are moving towards mixed use developments and thus there is a need for successful examples and prototypes of this. TOD as a concept is new to Delhi and a robust mixed use is currently limited to TOD projects. Although its benefits are a matter of debate among architects, planners and policy makers especially in a city like Delhi, I believed it to add another dimension of complexity for the project. This project is intended as a prototype of mixed use as well as a project of millennials. The idea is that this project should be “replicable” and should be able to get built in various parts of the city, in various sites having various contexts, sizes and scales.


After having understood this, go through the literature review while having in mind that its intent is to establish the need for the project and how it is the best solution for the millennials. Go through the building program just to understand the broad percentages of various uses provided. After this see the design portfolio and understand how the design tries to embody everything the thesis talks about. To understand the design better, see it along with the summary of the thesis. After this to read the jury comments to get another perspective on the design and understand what kinds of questions this raises, and subsequently what the defense was. I hope this is an enriching and educating experience of value to you. If it is, I would consider this thesis to be a success. Feel free to ask questions or give feedback. Aakash Jain aakashjaindesigns.com architectaakashjain@gmail.com


Summary The thesis explores the way millennials use architecture at a larger urban level. It studies the type of buildings and space configurations millennials would like to inhabit, whilst clearly differentiating this from other building typologies. A use-interlinked mixed development was understood as the answer to millennials needs. The central thesis was to explore a more unified, mixed and interlinked architectural solution to TOD based ‘mixed used’ development. I firmly believe that certain paradigms are possible – rather than simply earmarking separate buildings for different land uses. I wanted to explore a vertical mix in the entire project. I was not looking at buildings as individual ‘towers’ but the whole system of horizontal and vertical and a symbiotic interlinked ‘whole’. This would make the mix richer and more workable. World-over high rise towers have mixed use with different cores feeding different land uses. (Petronas KL, Burj Khalifa, etc.) These buildings recognize the extra circulation area and the other advantages outweigh the inefficiency. Transit oriented development was used as a means of facilitating the mix of uses while integrating major hubs of public transport to put minimum pressure on the environment. In a city like Delhi with its rampant traffic and pollution problems, TOD is a potential way forward. The Design consists of 4 kinds of uses – Residential, Commercial, Retail and Social Infrastructure. Residential use is zoned in the upper floors of the development and in other strategically located zones, where the views to the lake could be maximized, noise could be reduced and achieving privacy was easier. As a response to TOD and to activate paths of movement and circulation, Retail activates are concentrated on the lower 3-4 floors of the development. The offices are placed above retail and in other semi-private locations. The intersection between the commercial and the residential is marked by the placement of Social Infrastructure levels. These have various functions which facilitate the living of the people such as departmental stores, gym, spa, banks and day care. The activities are mixed in terms of being private to the residents, being private to the office workers, or being shared by the offices and the residences. In order to resolve the circulation, the system used is such hat the Lower Ground Floor is predominantly a vehicular circulation floor and the Upper Ground Floor is for pedestrian circulation, which comes down to the sidewalk level in places where pedestrians would get onto the upper ground floor plaza. The separation of the two types of circulation using levels gives the benefit of all areas and building cores being accessible by both, however the two never cross each others paths, leading to a safer, smoother and more efficient functioning. The basement also provides a vehicular thoroughfare to reduce the load on the site corner junctions.


सारांश थीिसस एक बड़े शहरी र पर सह ा ी उपयोग वा ु कला की खोज करता है । यह इमारतों और अं त र िव ास के कार का अ यन करता है सह ा ी िनवािसयों के िलए करना चाहते ह, जबिक यह प से अ भवन टाइिपंग से अलग है । सह ा यों की ज रतों के जवाब के प म एक उपयोग-पर र िमि त िवकास को समझा गया था। क ीय थीिसस टीओडी आधा रत ‘िमि त उपयोग’ के िवकास के िलए एक अिधक एकीकृत, िमि त और पर र सं बंिधत वा ु समाधान का पता लगाने के िलए थी। मे रा ढ़ िव ास है िक कुछ ितमान सं भव ह - न िक केवल अलग-अलग भूिम उपयोग के िलए अलग-अलग भवनों को िचि त करने के िलए। म पू री प रयोजना म एक ऊ ाधर िम ण का पता लगाना चाहता था। म इमारतों को गत 'टावरों' के प म नही ं दे ख रहा था, लेिकन ैितज और ऊ ाधर की पू री णाली और एक सहजीवी पर र पू ण '।' यह िम ण को अिधक समृ और अिधक उपयोगी बना दे गा। िव भर म उ वृ वाले टावरों ने िविभ भूिम उपयोगों को खलाने वाले िविभ कोर के साथ िमि त उपयोग िकया है । (पेटोनास केएल, बु ज खलीफा, आिद) ये इमारत अित र सं चलन े को पहचानती ह और अ लाभ अ मता को दू र करती ह। पारगमन उ ु ख िवकास का उपयोग पयावरण पर ू नतम दबाव डालने के िलए सावजिनक प रवहन के मुख क ों को एकीकृत करते ए उपयोग के िम ण को सु िवधाजनक बनाने के साधन के प म िकया गया था। िद ी जैसे शहर म अपने बड़े पैमाने पर यातायात और दू षण की सम ाओं के साथ, TOD एक सं भािवत रा ा है । िडज़ाइन म 4 कार के उपयोग शािमल ह - आवासीय, वािण क, खु दरा और सामािजक अवसं रचना। आवासीय उपयोग िवकास की ऊपरी मंिजलों म और अ रणनीितक प से थत े ों म िकया जाता है , जहां झील के ों को अिधकतम िकया जा सकता है , शोर कम िकया जा सकता है और गोपनीयता ा करना आसान था। टीओडी की िति या और आं दोलन और सं चलन के माग को सि य करने के िलए, खु दरा गितिविधयां िवकास के िनचले 3-4 तल पर कि त ह। कायालयों को खु दरा और अ अध-िनजी थानों पर रखा गया है । वािण क और आवासीय के बीच के अं तर को सामािजक अवसं रचना रों के ेसमट ारा िचि त िकया जाता है । इनम िविभ काय ह जो लोगों के रहने की सु िवधा दान करते ह जैसे िडपाटमटल ोर, िजम, ा, बक और डे केयर। गितिविधयों को िनवािसयों के िनजी होने , कायालय के कमचा रयों के िनजी होने , या कायालयों और िनवासों ारा साझा िकए जाने के सं दभ म िमि त िकया जाता है । प रसंचरण को हल करने के िलए, िस म का उपयोग िकया जाता है ऐसी टोपी लोअर ाउं ड ोर मु प से एक वाहन प रसं चरण ोर है और ऊपरी ाउं ड ोर पैदल या ी प रसं चरण के िलए है , जो उन थानों पर फुटपाथ के र तक नीचे आता है जहां पै दल या ी ऊपरी जमीन पर िमलगे । तल का मै दान। रों का उपयोग करके दो कार के सं चलन को अलग करने से सभी े ों और दोनों के ारा सु लभ होने वाले कोर का लाभ िमलता है , हालां िक दोनों कभी भी एक-दू सरे के रा ों को पार नही ं करते ह, िजससे एक सु रि त और अिधक कुशल काय होता है । बे समट भी साइट के कोने जं नों पर लोड को कम करने के िलए एक वाहन दान करता है ।


Introduction

10

Research

14

Case Studies

49

Site Information

78

Table of Contents


Program

88

Technology

95

Design Development

101

Design Portfolio

78

Table of Contents


LIST OF FIGURES Fig 01: The different generations: https://home.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/uk/pdf/2017/04/Meet-the-Millennials-Secured.pdf Fig 02: : Meet the Millennials: https://home.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/uk/pdf/2017/04/Meet-the-Millennials-Secured.pdf Figu03: The Collective, London: https://www.theguardian.com/money/2016/apr/27/corporate-answer-to-flatsharing-london-collective Fig 04: How Millenials Live: http://cbre.vo.llnwd.net/grgservices/secure/Millennials%20Live%20Work%20Play%20Report%20Figures.pdf?e=1556576142&h=a8c4a10521ea6d cb2afacdbc03835d27 Fig 05: Sacrifices for a better office environment: http://cbre.vo.llnwd.net/grgservices/secure/Millennials%20Live%20Work%20Play%20Report%20Figures.pdf?e=1556576142&h=a8c4a10521ea6d cb2afacdbc03835d27 Fig 06: Work amenity provision and influence : https://www.cbre.co.in/es-es/research-reports/Asia-Pacific-Major-Report---The-future-ofcorporate-real-estate-How-technology-will-shape-the-next-decade-March-2017 Fig 07: Extremely or very important when considering job: https://www.cbre.co.in/es-es/research-reports/Asia-Pacific-Major-Report---The-futureof-corporate-real-estate-How-technology-will-shape-the-next-decade-March-2017 Fig 08: How Millennials Work: http://cbre.vo.llnwd.net/grgservices/secure/Millennials%20Live%20Work%20Play%20Report%20Figures.pdf?e=1556576142&h=a8c4a10521ea6d cb2afacdbc03835d27 Fig 09 : Millenials’ Delivery Method Preferences : https://www.cbre.co.in/en/research-reports/India-Major-Report---Challenges-to-Opportunities--August-2018 Fig 10 : How Much of Your Disposable Income is Spent On?: https://home.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/uk/pdf/2017/04/Meet-the-MillennialsSecured.pdf Fig 11 : How Millenials Play: http://cbre.vo.llnwd.net/grgservices/secure/Millennials%20Live%20Work%20Play%20Report%20Figures.pdf?e=1556576142&h=a8c4a10521ea6d cb2afacdbc03835d27 Fig 12 : Flexibility in Workspace: ?: https://home.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/uk/pdf/2017/04/Meet-the-Millennials-Secured.pdf Fig 13: Total Size of Flexible Space and % of Overall Market in Asia Pacific: https://www.cbre.co.in/en/research-reports/India-Major-Report--Challenges-to-Opportunities---August-2018 Fig 14: Technology shaping the future: https://home.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/uk/pdf/2017/04/Meet-the-Millennials-Secured.pdf Fig 15: Vertical and Horizontal Mixed Use Development: http://www.placemakers.com/2013/04/04/mixed-up-on-mixed-use/ Fig 16: Transit Oriented Development: https://www.wricitieshub.org/sites/default/files/Delhi%20TOD%20Policy%20Manual_0.pdf Fig 17: Applying TOD Regulations: https://www.wricitieshub.org/sites/default/files/Delhi%20TOD%20Policy%20Manual_0.pdf


Introduction


Prologue What is Mixed Use Development? As the name suggests, it is a combination of multiple, distinct yet symbiotic functions are placed in physical proximity to each other. The idea stems out of the concept that doing this would reduce the load transport puts on land, infrastructure and resources. To facilitate this all project components should be inter connected by pedestrian links although this integration can take multiple physical forms. Projects can be mixed horizontally or vertically. Horizontal mixing includes older downtowns where all kinds of land uses occur within close proximity. Who are Millenials? Millennials, or members of Generation Y (also known as Gen Y) were born between 1982 and 2000, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. The Millennial generation makes up the fastest growing segment of the population. They currently comprise 30% of Indian workforce , and are set to represent an astounding 50% of the global workforce by 2020. They bring wants and needs which differ greatly to those that came before them. They represent a new era of talent, an army of creative, tech-savvy optimists who are redefining the world we live in. Need for Mixed Use Development? Mixing land uses is a simple and straightforward notion that is rooted in the way people have traditionally lived in communities. Work, recreation, shopping – these used to be within a convenient walk or bicycle ride away. Children were able to walk to and from school, and play in the community park. Over the past fifty years, a car culture has emerged and changed the way places are designed and built. This new culture has changed the way we live and respond on a daily basis. We are now rediscovering the value of the mixed-use neighborhood for a variety of reasons. For one thing, the suburban pattern of development did not serve everyone well. Mixed use development encourages people to have a work life balance, specially craved by Millenials, since it reduces distances between housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and other amenities and destinations, leading to more ‘me’ time.


Objectives How does Mixed Use Development function? What makes a project or a neighbourhood mixed-use, well designed and pedestrian friendly? What are the land uses? Mixed use areas combine residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or industrial uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated. These uses were historically mixed, but the separation of land uses was designed during a time when industrial land uses were noxious. To protect people from environmental contamination, residential areas were protected from the infiltration of such industrial or commercial activity. How are the land uses mixed and worked out?  Vertical mixing: Mixing of project components into a single mixed-use building  Central public space: Carefully positioning the land use and the components around the central public spaces  Pedestrian friendly pathways: Interconnection of project components and land use by pedestrian links What makes mixed use neighbourhood pedestrian friendly? Pedestrian pathways link useful destinations and the connectivity is finely grained, meaning you can easily get from one place to another and the walking environment is pleasant and safe. Successful mixed use developments have a diversity of uses and provide opportunities for casual social interaction. Principles of Mixed Use Development • Allow for a more balanced mix of uses that include retail, offices, commercial services, housing and civic uses to create economic and social vitality • Encouraging the linking of trips as well as shortening trip distances • Promote the development of affordable housing • Include amenities and attractions that cannot be included in single purpose projects Transit-oriented development- A Mixed Use Development Transit-oriented development, often referred to as TOD, is a type of urban development that maximizes the amount of residential, business and leisure space within walking distance of public transport. A TOD neighborhood typically has a center with a transit station surrounded by relatively high density development with progressively decreasing development spreading outward from the center.


Research Proposition TOD offers a great opportunity for the creation of an urban realm that is knit together by public spaces. TOD Is the creation of a compact mixed use residential and commercial area which is designed to maximize access to public transport and encourage the pedestrian trend. This allows for various components: housing, office, retail, and other amenities integrated into a walkable environment. This allows for a reduction in travel time which is a big concern for the Millenials residing in metropolitan cities Features of transit-oriented development include: • Walkable design with pedestrian as the highest priority • The transit station or stop featuring as the most prominent part of the area • Public zone around the transit station which forms an activity fueled center • The regional node consists of a mixture of uses in close proximity (office, residential,, retail, civic)

What might a successful mixed dwelling development for millennials look like? Can it become a prototype for the city?

Need for Study TOD offers a higher quality of life with better places to live, work and play at one place and provides greater mobility with the ease of moving around. The centralized location, along with the walkability and the accessibility of retail, restaurants and entertainment-driven concepts attracts people, specially Millenials, as they have everything at their footstep. Millennial homebuyers comprise a large portion of demand for mixed-use development projects. Along with every residential product type a person could need, mixed-use developments essentially provide a deeper sense of community. Millenials are looking for wok-life integration, and value autonomy and independence quite highly. They desire to work outside the confinement of a 9-5 work schedule, in a more different and flexible environment. Millenials are also spending their leisure time differently than previous generations. They are spending more time eating out and shopping in retail centers. Creating a highly connected and experience driven environment allows retailers to maximize millennial spend.


Research


01 WHO ARE MILLENNIALS ? Born between 1980 and 1995, millennials have come of age during a rapid period of technological advances and political change. They are the first generation of digital natives, with access to all the information they need at the press of a button or swipe of a screen. However, they also reached adulthood under the shadow of the global financial crisis. These moments will have shaped their attitudes and priorities, their outlook and the way they act. Typically viewed as the generation who want it all, and want it now, millennials have been described as ambitious and self-confident with high expectations. They are, after all, one of the best educated generations in history.

Source: Author

Born between 1980 1995

IMPATIENT

OUTSPOKEN

TECH SAVVY Source: KPMG


THE MYTHICAL MILLENNIAL Using certain assumptions stemming out of common beliefs, we imagine a “mythical millennial” with a certain thinking and behavioral pattern. The idea is to compare him with the actual findings of the research on millennials.

WORK Feels entitled to rapid career progression and frequent increases in salary. Is a job-hopper who works to live, with no loyalty to an employer. Expects to be always digitally connected, blurring work/life distinctions. Is a collaborative worker both in terms of workplace and working style. Is a city slicker who doesn’t want to commute, preferring to live and work in the centre of the city.

LIVE Delays moving out of the family home for as long as possible. Returns to live with parents after university. Rents in order to facilitate a highly mobile lifestyle, with no desire for the responsibility of owning a home. Is not saving for the long term. When buying a property, is dependent on the ‘bank of mum and dad.’

PLAY Is a digital native whose smartphone is the nerve centre for all interaction with products – a means of selection, purchase and fulfilment. Expects the e-commerce revolution to continue, with all retail activity eventually taking place online. Is debt-laden and lacks the means to buy anything other than discounted products and fast fashion. Often prefers to spend their free time and money on products and experiences.


HOW MILLENNIALS LIVE While baby boomers spend an inordinate amount of time discussing how much the value of their house has risen, millennials, who are at the other end of the spectrum, probably spend just as much time discussing how house prices are rising more and more out of their reach. This lack of access to home ownership is creating a generation of renters, and stay-at-homers reliant on mum and dad. Today’s millennials are waiting longer to leave the family home and in many cases returning home even after they had previously left. Even more young people are renting, with seemingly little hope of ever getting onto the property ladder, particularly were it not for support from the ‘bank of mum and dad’. Is this ‘Mythical Millennial’ the reality in metropolitan India?


Why did you move out of the family home?

Why are you unlikely to buy a property in the future?

When you move out, where will you go?


Millennials’ Current Living Status

Millennials’ Intentions to Buy

Median Housing Price to Annual Household Income Ratio in Major Asian Pacific Cities


Renting vs Buying and Why? One might assume that if millennials can afford a rental payment, they can also cut some costs to afford a monthly mortgage payment. Of course, it is not that easy. The main road block for millennials becoming home owners is funding the initial deposit. In respect to renting vs. buying, the drivers and factors at play are not dissimilar to the ones for global millennials. For Indian millennials without external support to fund a deposit, buying a property appears so unachievable that even making lifestyle sacrifices does not appear to be a realistic means to fulfil their home ownership aspirations. In this context, like other millennials around the world, they instead prioritize their quality of life. Additionally, 96% agree that to buy a property in the current market, one must compromise on location. The concept of location is not only wrapped up in considerations of lifestyle and amenities but also mobility. A survey indicated that the majority of

millennials prefer to commute no more than 30 minutes one way. Since nearly all Indian millennial agree that they must compromise on location, and considering most of them work in a business districts, the cost and added effort of a longer commute time makes owning a home that may be more affordable in a more remote location less attractive. This suggests that for many millennials, the decision to rent is more attractive not only because of financial feasibility but also because it allows one to maintain a lifestyle that is characteristic to living in a central location with ample amenities. It is not that the decision to rent is preferable, it is that the cost of purchasing a house is not only unaffordable but also means sacrificing important aspects of a lifestyle. This clearly shows a disconnect between high home ownership aspirations, and financial and lifestyle realities that will play out as millennials age.


Communal Living, Private Renting Student accommodation at university is not what it once was. Private sector halls of residences are now often new-build, modern, clean, efficient, accessible and with all of today’s modern conveniences: technology, broadband, shared social areas. The industry and sector have transitioned into this new standard of living for students and it is now a highly sought-after and investable sector. Students and millennials that have recently graduated and moved on from this modern type of tenure may find the transition into the traditionally fragmented, largely second hand, private rented sector a difficult one. This, together with a desire for convenient and flexible living has led some developers to a new style of development in the private rented sector. ‘The Collective’ in Old Oak Common, London, is an example of student accommodation-style living, billed as a ‘co-living’ space with little hassle. The idea is that while you rent your own type of space (bedroom, bathroom, private or shared kitchen), there

Figure: The Collective, London (Source: The Guardian)

are large communal areas dotted around the 500+ unit scheme including large dining areas, cinema rooms, terraces, quiet areas, library, for everyone’s use. The all-inclusive rental rate covers rent, bills, cleaners, wireless broadband, management. The idea is to bring together a collection of individuals looking to create their own community in a flexible and hassle-free way.


Workplace Environment is Important Workplace environment is perceived as a key consideration in choosing between employers when millennials are considering a new job. And there is agreement from millennials that the office environment is important with 88% agreeing that good employers put a lot of thought in the office environment and 95% indicated that good design and layout of an office have a positive impact on the staff that work there.

Where do they work?


Building Wellness Building Wellness is commonly used to describe an ecosystem created by a building which supports the health and wellbeing of the occupiers inside.


Is it All About Online? Millennials are the first truly digital natives. They grew up with technology, rather than having to adapt to it. One aspect where this evident is the ways in which they shop. Contrary to expectations, however, the millennials we surveyed are not doing most of their shopping online. Instead, they go online primarily to research products, with the added mobility of smartphones giving them the power to search for products, compare prices and read reviews wherever they may be.

Millennials use the internet primarily to research products, a physical store is still the preferred means of shopping. Making purchases in a physical store is still the preferred means of shopping for the millennial generation and this position is unlikely to change dramatically in the near future. Why? Simply put, because millennials, like previous generations, are social creatures. They like to shop in person with friends, family, or others. Though we expected to find that the convenience of online shopping would predict a significant rise in that activity among the group, the average expected increase in the next three years is only six to nine percentage points,.


Millennial Spending Habits There is significant difference in spending habits between millennials who live at home and those who do not, clearly reflecting the nature of their habitation. Those still living at the family home spend less on food and household goods and save a lot more, often with the aim of buying their own home. Clearly, those that have a home will be saving less as paying down the mortgage represents a form of saving but, significantly, those that rent are also not saving much. The lack of savings by renters, either through choice, but more likely necessity (given overall expenditure patterns), puts the realization of their high aspirations for home ownership into serious doubt

Millennials 1990-2000

Millennials 1980-1990

Indian Non Millennials


Millennial Spending Habits There is significant difference in spending habits between millennials who live at home and those who do not, clearly reflecting the nature of their habitation. Those still living at the family home spend less on food and household goods and save a lot more, often with the aim of buying their own home. Clearly, those that have a home will be saving less as paying down the mortgage represents a form of saving but, significantly, those that rent are also not saving much. The lack of savings by renters, either through choice, but more likely necessity (given overall expenditure patterns), puts the realization of their high aspirations for home ownership into serious doubt

Millennials use the internet primarily to research products, a physical store is still the preferred means of shopping.


02 FLEXIBILITY IN WORKSPACE With looming business and economic uncertainty, employers and employees are constantly evolving workplace strategies by stress testing “Core + Flexi” space combinations. Companies continue to implement workplace strategies within their corporate office by providing various types of spaces. However, several of them have also tilted towards using third-party flexible spaces recently. In fact, flexible spaces originated as a shared service for start-ups, but began to be utilized by larger/established corporates to improve the agility of their portfolios amid a volatile business environment. With the recent wave of rapid expansion, flexible spaces account for about 1.7% of the total office stock in APAC currently. Bangalore and Delhi-NCR were the largest markets for flexible spaces in India, with a combined share of almost 55%.

5%

7%

8% 22%

3% 25%

15 million ft²

30%

flexible space stock in India

Delhi-NCR

Bangalore

Mumbai

Hyderabad

Chennai

Pune

Kolkata

41% Business centres

32% Co-working spaces

PwC's "NextGen: A Global Generational Study" found that Millennials have a new approach to workplace productivity and flexibility. This generation does not believe that productivity should be "measured by the number of hours worked at the office" but rather "by the output of the work performed. A happier workforce leads to higher productivity levels, so with a stronger focus on staff wellbeing, businesses realize that flexibility in workspace can be the key to unlocking a positive and productive workplace. Millennials seek work opportunities with flexibility, which is often viewed as a perk. The future of work is shifting towards alternative schedules that allow employees to focus on their priorities, which in this case is a healthy lifestyle and more time for family and friends. According to a new study by Bentley University, 77% of Millennials say that flexible work hours would make the workplace more productive for people their age. Here are four key reasons why Millennials insist that flex-work hours happen sooner rather than later.

Work-Family Balance

27% Hybrid spaces

Disappearing Corporate Office

Continuing Skills Education Increase in Productivity


02 FLEXIBILITY IN WORKSPACE Three key areas for consideration when companies design their high performance workplaces: Balancing “Me” and “We” spaces: A major focus of the high performance workplace is providing a range of different workspaces to balance the “Me” (focused, solo and quiet work) and “We” (collaborative and often noisy work) within the same office, and for people to choose the workspace depending on the tasks they need to do. The “Me-We” balance also ensures workspaces are provided for both introverts and extroverts. The next generation workplace should provide a range of space options for employees to choose from, depending on whether they want to work alone or in collaboration. Designing an inclusive workplace: Companies’ workforces are increasingly diverse in terms of age, gender and ethnicity. A welldesigned high performance work environment can easily take into consideration all aspects of employee diversity including their needs and aspirations and therefore be more inclusive than traditional office solutions. In addition to providing a diversity of settings, a high performance workplace should include ergonomic design such as height-adjustable workstations (ideally with a sit to stand range) and ergonomic chairs; provide amenities such as daycare facilities; showers and changing rooms for staff who cycle to the office; and factor in wellness by ensuring their workplaces provide features to promote

physical health, such as natural light, temperature and indoor air and water quality, but also mental wellbeing, such as space choices to reduce stress. Connecting the workplace with its surroundings: The adoption of mobile working means the quality of the space outside a building is becoming more important than ever. When a building does not have sufficient internal common area to accommodate amenities, external locations can be used to house facilities catering to staff and help build a sense of community. Examples include outdoor furniture and dedicated areas for events, games and performances, which can be linked to other amenities such as F&B, gyms and entertainment areas. Combining internal and external place making can create a complete experience for employees and help attract and retain staff. Relatively straightforward measures include making better use of common areas at the building entrance.


02 FLEXIBILITY IN WORKSPACE As technology advances to provide even more opportunities for remote and flexible working, it’s fair to say that the traditional nine to five workday will quickly be a thing of the past. Instead, the most forwardthinking organizations will be those that implement simple, costeffective tools that can support employees to achieve a work-life balance and collaborate with colleagues effectively. By deploying simple cloud-based technology that allows employees to sign in to work – at their place of business or remotely via a mobile application or management portal – companies can see real-time updates of the location and status of staff. This approach provides solid foundations for collaboration as colleagues can see where a member of staff is located and if they are contactable – fuelling productivity. Furthermore, with an evidence base of the number of hours worked, employees can see an accurate record as well as entitlement to flexible hours. This visibility of working hours also supports the work-life balance craved by Millennials, as the technology not only shows when colleagues are working but crucially, when they are not. Millennials now form one-fourth of the working population of India. Globally, they are expected to account for 75% of the workforce by 2025. Their preferences would have a lasting impact on the workplace environment. In India, Millennials consider the overall ‘workplace experience’ as a determining factor for accepting a place of employment; they were willing to go the extra mile or even take a pay cut for a better work environment

Compared to respondents in other regions, Asia Pacific Millennials are less satisfied with their current office design. About 60% rated their office design and layout as ‘good’ which is significantly lower than in other regions. The results underline the importance of a high quality office environment in attracting millennial employees. More than 70% of respondents said they believe that employers should put more thought into their working environment and that good office design can have a positive impact on staff.

71% are willing to give up other benefits for a better office environment

22% Would move to a less attractive working location

10% Would give up some progression and promotion

21% Would travel further

21% Would move to a similar but less well known company

9%

Would accept a modest pay cut

Millennials’ willingness to give up other benefits for a better workspace environment


TOTAL SIZE OF FLEXIBLE SPACE AND % OF OVERALL MARKET IN ASIA PACIFIC

Source: CBRE Research 2018


03 HOW WILL TECHNOLOGY SHAPE THE FUTURE Technology affects every single aspect of human life; it is ubiquitous and influences us personally and professionally. Technology is driving rapid change in the business environment and compressing the lifecycle of companies and, in some cases, entire industries. The world during the Millennials’ youth was defined by downsizing, dotcom startups, diversity, 9/11 and terrorism. Technology entails not only the World Wide Web, but also being “connected” 24/7. Gen-Ys are strongly materialistic, believing “I’ve always had it.” Their attitude about life is pragmatic, and the underlying question for them is, “What actually works?” Virtual hangout spaces, biometric security and robotic companions are among the innovations poised to become part of our lives.

Digital assistants will become part of the furniture Smart speakers enjoyed a bumper year in 2017, with products that integrate Amazon's Alexa and Google's Assistant seeing a dramatic surge in sales. Assistants will also break out of speaker format, and be incorporated into other everyday products – cars, mirrors, shower heads – as we become more used to using speech commands, and the computers become better at identifying individual voices.

5G will enable much faster connectivity Introduced in 2017, 5th generation mobile networks and wireless systems (5G) will start to proliferate and make their way into homes and smartphones towards the end of 2018. The improved capacity will also enable the connection of more nodes and sensors across cities to make them smarter, and bring down the latency of data transfer to almost zero, crucial for systems like self-driving vehicles.

Biometrics will help keep our personal property safe Anything that needs to be kept secure, from possessions in a locker to data on a computer, will be accessible through one of several bodyactivated systems. Biometrics will also help to customise our environments, particularly facial recognition.

Artificial intelligence will try to gain our trust As digital systems take on more and more of our tasks, they will learn more about us and our habits. This will allow the development of better predictive algorithms to cater to our tastes, which could be used by anyone from retailers and entertainment services to accountants.


03 HOW WILL TECHNOLOGY SHAPE THE FUTURE Cities will take smart infrastructure to another level For the first time, CES has a dedicated area for products and services based around the concept of smart cities. This will showcase how connected technologies will continue to influence urban environments – from crowd-sourced figures about parking availability, to street lamps that can detect the depth of snow on roads. In the US, these technologies are predicted to develop around mobility and transportation, while in Europe the focus will lean more towards energy consumption. In both cases, they will involve linking and sharing data between various city grids and infrastructures, combined with information from smartphone users who will become "integral nodes on smart city networks". Smart technologies that combine digital connectivity with intelligent processing are already starting to revolutionise the way societies across the world design, create and use infrastructure. Smart cities and grids are taking a pivotal role in a vast array of infrastructure-related activities, ranging from managing carbon impacts to controlling devices and facilities in homes and business premises. Adoption of Electric Vehicles Forecast shows sales of electric vehicles (EVs) increasing from a record 1.1 million worldwide in 2017, to 11 million in 2025 and then surging to 30 million in 2030 as they become cheaper to make than internal combustion engine (ICE) cars. Electrified buses and cars will displace a combined 7.3 million barrels per day of transportation fuel in 2040.

Source: KPMG

The Internet of Things (IoT) The IoT is a fast-expanding network of digitally-connected objects — devices, vehicles and more — embedded with sensors and intelligent computing capabilities, while the Industrial IoT (IIoT) is a subset used in the manufacturing and industrial sectors. Closely linked with the rise of smart cities and grids, both the IoT and IIoT open the way to a future where a vast array of sensor data and analytics-driven intelligence is available seamlessly in real time, creating many impacts for the infrastructure sector. These range from the rapid build-out of high-speed national communications infrastructure systems to underpin the IoT, to the need for buildings and transport hubs to be designed from ground-up to exploit IoT connectivity, intelligence and insight.


04 MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT Introduction A mixed-use development is a real estate development with planned integration of a combination of retail, office, residential, hotel, recreation or other functions. It is pedestrian-oriented and contains elements of a live-work-play environment. It maximizes space usage, has amenities and architectural expression and tends to mitigate traffic and sprawl

Features of horizontal mixed-use development: • Consists of single-use buildings within a mixed-use zoning district • Integrated uses that are walkable and within a given neighborhood Housing

Housing

Mixed use can be either horizontal or vertical, or a combination of both. In a horizontal mix, each building would occupy its own envelope and would be spread across the site. Such developments require very large areas of land. With the growing population and less availability of land, vertical mixed use development is more practical. Features of vertical mixed-use development: • Combines different uses within the same building • Provides for more public uses on the lower floor such as retail shops, restaurants, of commercial businesses • Provides for more private uses on the upper floors such as residential units, hotel rooms, or office space.

Horizontal Mixed Use Development

Working

Working

Housing

Vertical Mixed Use Development

Office Retail Retail

Office Retail

Parking Source: Placemakers.com


Principles of mixed-use development • Allow for a more balanced and integrated mix of uses that include retail, offices, commercial services, housing and civic uses to create economic and social vitality • Provide options for commercial opportunities by designing flexibility into the initial building to allow for subsequent reuse options • Promotes the development of affordable housing • Includes amenities and attractions that cannot be included in single purpose projects, such as public realm that can capitalize on the synergy of diverse uses Benefits of mixed-use development • Greater housing variety and density • Increased accessibility and walkability via transit, resulting in reduced transportation costs and environmental damage • Convenience of live-work-play options in a single location • Stronger neighborhood character • More flexibility to adapt to changing needs, thus increasing the building’s long-term life cycle

Need for mixed use development Mixed-use developments embrace a challenge in terms of effective land use, specially in dense, supply-constrained urban markets. These create small cities within the larger city environment. Not only does this encourage more compact stacking and conserve open space but they create walkable environments that infuse new life into communities. Consumers today demand convenience. Millennials are moving to live in mixed-use developments in an upscale environment. They want to step outside their homes and be within walking distance to their work place, coffee shops, restaurants, fitness facilities, grocery and spa options. The goal is to provide a walkable area with all the ingredients for a convenient and healthy lifestyle. Mixed-use creates new communities and energizes old by adding apartments, hotels, fitness centers and offices – all at one place

https://www.metrocommercial.com/news/mixed-usedevelopments-a-look-at-whats-driving-this-trend/


05 TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT Introduction Transit Oriented Development, often referred to as TOD, is essentially any development, macro or micro, that is focused around a transit node, and facilitates complete ease of access to the transit facility, inducing people to prefer to walk or use public transportation over personal modes of transport. It results in the creation of compact, walkable and liveable communities with easy access to amenities and is centred around high quality mass transit stations. It offers a great opportunity for the creation of an urban realm that is knit together by public spaces. TOD is the creation of a compact mixed-use development combining both residential and commercial areas, which is designed to maximize access to public transport and encourage the pedestrian trend. This allows for various components – housing, office, retail, and other amenities, all integrated in a walkable environment. This mode of development is designed to reduced traffic congestion. It reduces the travelling time. TOD is the key for low-carbon and compact development with mixed land uses and allows for optimized development along a transit corridor. It strategically increases densities and places high-rises along the transit corridors to accommodate a wide variety of uses.

Influence Zone Demarcation - Delhi


Case 1 – Applying TOD regulation on minimum 1 Ha. land

Case 2 – Applying TOD regulation on min 3000 sqm, land belonging to MRTS/Government Agencies


Landuse Mix In all integrated schemes, a minimum of 30% of overall FAR shall be mandatory for Residential use, a minimum 5% of FAR for commercial use and minimum 10% of FAR for community facilities. At least 50% of the total FAR shall be as per ZDP use Residential Land Use

Industrial Land Use

Commercial Land Use

Mixed Land Use


Principles of transit oriented development Quality Public Transit Public transit is strongly linked to urban development. High quality, convenient transport depends on dense and connected neighborhoods. The goal of a transport system is to connect a high number of riders with the city in a comfortable, efficient and affordable way.

Active Transport The interests of pedestrians and cyclists should be at the heart of urban planning. Decision making should shift residents, particularly car users, to active transport. It is important to build this and encourage non-motorized transport holistically.

Mixed-Use Neighborhoods with efficient Buildings A mixture of land uses enhances the local economy by densifying and diversifying the design of the community. Mixed-use neighborhoods favor short trips by foot or bike. Similarly, buildings should minimize how much energy and water they consume and require for building and maintenance

Neighborhood Centres and Vibrant Ground Floors A built environment with adequate public space promotes social interaction between residents. Sustainable urban communities must be sufficiently dense and contain a variety of uses that are complementary to residential life. Public spaces should be connected to the urban transport network and serve as vibrant, human-centered places of activity.

Car Use Management Car use and parking policies play an important role in creating a safe, human-oriented urban environment.

Public Spaces The purpose of public space is not only to enhance public life and social interaction, but also to provide a safe environment for pedestrians and cyclists. Public space is a place to encounter, exchange, and circulation within a community.


Influence Zone Demarcation - Delhi Influence Zone along MRTS corridor is developed to bring a sizable population into the MRTS Corridor while at the same time provide facilities and employment opportunities that would improve their quality of life. The concept of TOD shall be adopted for development within the Influence Zone, such that maximum number of people can live, work or find means of recreation within walking / cycling distance of the MRTS corridors / stations.


Parking space for different models of travel in relation to ECS

1 ECS

0.25 ECS

0.1 ECS

3.5 ECS

3.5 ECS

23 sq.m.

5.75 sq.m.

2.3 sq.m.

80.5 sq.m.

80.5 sq.m.

Distribution by mode per 1 ECS / 100 sq. m of built up area within TOD Zone

The above figures are indicative and may be customized on case to case basis. However minimum proportion of cycle parking in mandatory.


Case Studies


01 Hudson Yards, New York City Owners Related Companies Oxford Properties

Construction Tishman Construction Tutor Perini

Architects & Designers KPF (Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates) David Childs/ SOM (Skidmore, Owings and Merrill) Elkus Manfredi Architects Diller Scofidio + Renfro David Rockwell Foster + Partners Nelson, Byrd, Woltz (NBW) Heatherwick Studio Gensler Ismael Leyva Architects Ingrao Inc.

Engineers Arup AECOM Jaros Baum & Bolles (JB&B) Thornton Tomasetti Langan Engineering & Environmental Services

Hudson yards text LKEHRO2RNLK2NR [3IR[ P3R 3 I3HROIJ3R


OFFICE

WESTERN YARD

RETAIL

RESIDENTIAL

EASTERN YARD

Office

2,000,000

10 Hudson Yards

1,800,000

Retail Pavilion

Residential

4,000,000

30 Hudson Yards

2,600,000

Retail

100,000

50 Hudson Yards

2,900,000

School

120,000

55 Hudson Yards

1,300,000

Hotel Residential The Shed

The Shops & Restaurants

1,000,000*

6 , 2 2 0 , 0 0 0 SF

OPEN SPACE: 14 ACRES

TOTAL: 1 8 , 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 GSF; 2 8 ACRES

50,000 220,000 1,870,000 200,000 1 1 , 9 4 0 , 0 0 0 SF

HOTEL


THE FUTURE OF NEW YORK SHOPPING IN 7 STORIES

30 Hudson Yards

Empire State Building 30 Hudson Yards

10 Hudson Yards

10 Hudson Yards The Shops & Restaurants at Hudson Yards

Whitney Museum 15 Hudson Yards High Line

No. 7 Subway Station

55 Hudson Yards

35 Hudson Yards

Vessel S E W N

Public Square and Gardens Glass Wall

1. THE CENTER OF IT ALL With the High Line landing at its doorstep and the 7 train terminating there, all paths lead to the retail at Hudson Yards, the hub of New York’s next great neighborhood— itself a nexus of culture, commerce and activity. One path even runs through it: an interior boulevard that continues rather than interrupts the city grid.

Neiman Marcus Dining

Neiman Marcus

Retail

Dining Terrace

4. AN EXTENSION OF CHELSEA

5. GAMUT OF GRAZING

The design aesthetic honors the industrial past of the lower West Side. Specifically, steel and dark wood are featured prominently to reference the railyards that once dominated the area and High Line. Natural stone floors and exposed support structures contribute to the rough-hewn, urban elegance of this vertical neighborhood.

Celebrity chefs—including Thomas Keller, Costas Spiliadis and José Andrés—will present new fine-dining concepts and outdoor terraces. (Hudson River views come at no extra cost.) Elsewhere, casual bites will abound, including a European-style food hall and assorted pop-up “streetside” cafes and wine bars throughout the marketplace.

High Line

2. OUTSIDE IN A James Carpenter-designed glass wall fronting the soaring 65-foot-high Great Room is a block-long lens onto the lush Public Square and Gardens beyond the main entrance. Landscaped rooftop terraces (by Thomas Woltz, creator of the public spaces) and variable lighting that mimics the setting sun further blur the line between inside and out.

3. MILE OF MERCHANDISE Non-linear pedestrian circulation and distinct shopping “districts” make each visit to this collection of 100-plus stores (720,000 leasable sq. ft. all told) like a stroll of discovery. Think Soho and Madison Avenue, only climate controlled and weather proofed. And all of it, anchored (from the top!) by Neiman Marcus in the penthouse.

6. STAYING POWER 15 Hudson Yards

Southwest Atrium

Northeast Atrium

Great Room

The Shed

No. 7 Subway Connection

A cogeneration plant will provide energy not only to the building but to the Hudson Yards campus too. If the city’s grid goes down, this neighborhood keeps operating. Similarly, waste heat will generate hot and chilled water, guaranteeing a maximally efficient and sustainable development.

Vessel

50 Hudson Yards No. 7 Subway Station 35 Hudson Yards

Hudson Park & Boulevard

7. SETTING SIGHTS HIGH 55 Hudson Yards

Public Square and Gardens

Thomas Heatherwick’s monumental and climbable urban landmark— Vessel —is steps away, and the building offers direct access to the observation deck at 30 Hudson Yards—the tallest outdoor viewing platform in the western hemisphere. Changing how people see the city, The Shops & Restaurants at Hudson Yards will change what people see too.


THE PUBLIC SQUARE AND GARDENS – THE SMARTEST PARK IN TOWN

THE SMARTEST SOIL IN TOWN

New York’s next elevated park growing over the Yards

PLANTS, TREES, BIRDS AND BEES Across the 5 acres, visitors will encounter over 28,000 plants, including a forest of more than 200 mature trees. Like New Yorkers, our plants will be diverse in species and range in size. The large trees and expansive perennial gardens will be home to migratory birds and pollinators. Wildflowers such as Echinacea, Monarda, and Rudbeckia will attract bees, butterflies and hummingbirds, while fruiting trees and shrubs including Serviceberry, Spicebush and Winterberry will attract birds such as Warblers, Sparrows and American Redstarts to Hudson Yards.

NEW YORK’S “OTHER” ELEVATED PARK Built over the rail yards with jet engines, super chilled roots, a forest of trees and smart soil, the Hudson Yards Public Square and Gardens will be a park unlike any other in New York. A sophisticated layer cake of utilities and materials are being employed between the Platform and the Plaza to allow for the lush plantings above. An expansive WiFi system throughout the plaza will ensure that we are a hot spot in more ways than one. 30 HUDSON YARDS

10HUDSON YARDS

15HUDSON YARDS

Migratory birds 28,000 plants

With a soil depth of 18 inches for plants and only 4 feet for large trees, admittedly we are shallow, but self-aware and over-compensating for it. The soils have been specially designed to provide effective drainage and nutrients for the plants and ensure our roots can run wide, if not deep. Where trees are planted in paving, a specially engineered "soil sandwich" of sand, gravel and concrete slab will protect the roots while allowing them to expand. The sophisticated layering of this system includes provisions for aeration, irrigation, drainage, root development and ongoing control of nutrients, including specially designed soil chemistry and soil biology.

Heat from train yard

OUR ROOTS ARE COOL, OUR PLANTS ARE PAMPERED

Long Island Rail Road train storage yards Plenum space

Stormwater storage tank Sand based structural soils

The heat from the train yard below can reach up to 150 degrees, too hot for our city trees. Therefore, AC is in order to keep the roots of our trees and plants healthy. A sophisticated network of tubing is being embedded within the concrete slab to circulate cooling liquids that maintain optimal conditions for our plant's roots. This cooling system will protect the roots, from the train heat below and summer heat above, and ensure that the plants and trees at Hudson Yards will be the most pampered in New York City.

WE HAVE BIG FANS, LITERALLY! A ventilation system powered by fans, usually found in jet engines, will remove the heat generated from the train equipment below by covering the rail yards. Consisting of 15 large fans, this ventilation system supplies fresh air at 45 MPH to the track level.

THE SHOPS & RESTAURANTS AT HUDSON YARDS

Area of enlargement

35HUDSON YARDS NO. 7SUBWAY STATION 34TH STREET

Cooling liquid

200+ trees

Drainage HIGH LINE

Concrete cooling slab

55 HUDSON YARDS

DEEP SUPPORT FROM BELOW The entire 10 acre platform is held up by hundreds of caissons installed between the tracks to support the platform. These structures vary in diameter from 1' to 5'-6" and each one is drilled deep into the bedrock beneath the tracks, averaging over 40' below the surface. The caissons are effectively underground concrete columns with steel bars inside of them shaped like cages with even more steel inside. The caisson locations have been carefully planned to provide the maximum support for the buildings above while avoiding conflicts with the existing tracks and utilities below.

RAIN, RAIN, (DON’T) GO AWAY!

Bedrock Cassion

Amtrak/New Jersey Transit Hudson Tunnel

Every drop of rainwater that falls on Hudson Yards will be collected into a 60,000 gallon tank and used for irrigating our plants and trees. This collection saves space in the NYC sewer system and helps keep the Hudson River clean. We also save 6.5 megawatt hours of energy and offset 5 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) every year by collecting our own water. That GHG savings, combined with the savings from diverting the water from NYC treatment plants, is equivalent to the carbon output over 4 acres of forest!

Stormwater storage tank


THE TOP OF 30 HUDSON YARDS When Hudson Yards’ tallest tower opens in 2019, an observation deck accessible from the 100th floor will be the highest manmade outdoor viewing area in the western hemisphere—and the fifth highest in the world.

COMMUNING IN THE CLOUDS A unique event space will be housed on the 101st floor of the tower. The 10,000-square-foot bar, restaurant and staging area will be programmed by renowned hospitality group rhubarb, its first venture outside of London.

PRACTICE RUN

HEAVY LIFT

The deck was fully assembled in Italy before it was broken down again into its constituent sections for the boat trip to New York City.

The sections vary in size from 35,000 pounds to 102,000 pounds. Put together, the deck will weigh 765,000 pounds. The weight of the sections and height of the construction require two cranes to be used in tandem to lift each piece into place.

JIGSAW PUZZLE IN THE SKY The observation deck is made up of 15 primary sections comprised of steel and glass, which will be bolted together and anchored to the east and south sides of the building. The result: a 7,500-square-foot outdoor viewing area more than 1,100 feet above the ground.

BIRD’S-EYE VIEW A window in the floor will provide a breathtaking perspective of the neighborhood below.

WIDE-ANGLE LENS An angled glass wall, nine feet tall, will encircle the deck, providing unparalleled vistas of the New York skyline—and dramatic sunsets to the west.

GLOBAL EFFORT With steel fabricated in Italy, structural glass made in Germany and clad in Italy, and granite paver stones quarried in Virginia and cut and finished in Quebec, the construction of the observation deck is an international endeavor.


UNDERSTANDING THE “PLATFORM”

“PODIUM” STRUCTURE: UPPER TRUSSES

To complete Hudson Yards, two “platforms” must be constructed to bridge over 30 active Long Island Rail Road train tracks. Finished buildings will extend through the platform and rise above, with caissons drilled deep into bedrock between the rail lines to support the structures.

Tall trusses support hung sections of this building, which connects 10 Hudson Yards and 30 Hudson Yards, and will house a collection of shops and restaurants on multiple floors.

30 HUDSON YARDS Columns and other support structures land between the rail lines—and are placed to avoid underground utilities—while trusses suppo�tin� the towe��s south fa�e span the tracks.

“PODIUM” BASE STRUCTURE

STRUCTURE OVER THE YARDS

Location and construction of columns supporting this building—home to a collection of shops and restaurants on its lower floors—must be coordinated with tunnels, tracks and LIRR facilities, which will remain active through construction.

Trusses must bridge over this narrow section of the rail yard.

BUILDABLE AREAS

HIGH LINE ABOVE SITE: 33,000 SF (0.75 ACRES) 11TH AVENUE

EASTERN RAIL YARD PLATFORM

Due to the location of tracks, underground tunnels and utilities, only 38% of the site can be used to support structures.

30TH STREET

33RD STREET 10TH AVENUE

10 HUDSON YARDS FOUNDATION SYSTEM: DRILLED CAISSONS

LONG ISLAND RAILROAD TRACKS: 23,000 SF (5.5 ACRES) 42% OF SITE

This tower is the only building being constructed completely on terra firma—and not on the platform.

NO. 7 TRAIN STATION 34TH STREET

HUDSON RIVER

UNDERGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE

NORTH RIVER TUNNELS

15 HUDSON YARDS WESTERN PLATFORM

EMPIRE LINE TUNNEL FUTURE GATEWAY TUNNELS

35 HUDSON YARDS

30 HUDSON YARDS 10 HUDSON YARDS

HUDSON YARDS

PODIUM

HIGH LINE EASTERN PLATFORM


02 The High Line at Hudson Yards, New York City

Architect Location Area Project Year

Diller Scofidio + Renfro Hudson Yards, New York City, USA 3.75 km² 2009


Hudson yards text LKEHRO2RNLK2NR [3IR[ P3R 3 I3HROIJ3R


Peel Up Typology

Green : Paved Ratio


03 Cyber Hub, Gurgaon


Context and Activity


Movement System


04 Marine Gateway, Vancouver


Context and Connectivity


Movement and Landscape


Architectural Details


05 Aarhus Waterfront Development, Denmark Architect Location Area Project Year

BIG Store Torv 3, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark 100000 sq. m. 2017


“By designing the public space as the first step, the masterplan carefully mixes public programs with private residences, creating a new dynamic urban area where public and private realms converge,� (Ingels,2017). Inferences: The Public space here has two access points to land, thus the space becomes a connector. The meandering path adds to various view points being developed. The proposal also contains private spaces tucked in below the main public space. With the help of courtyards there is a threshold between the private and public spaces.


06 Habitat 67, Montreal

Architect Location Area Project Year

Moshe Safdie Av Pierre-Dupuy, MontrĂŠal, QC H3C 3R6, Canada 22160 sq. m. 1967


Habitat 67, designed by the Israeli-Canadian architect Moshe Safdie as the Canadian Pavilion for the World Exposition of 1967, was originally intended as an experimental solution for high-quality housing in dense urban environments. Safdie explored the possibilities of prefabricated modular units to reduce housing costs and allow for a new housing typology that could integrate the qualities of a suburban home into an urban high-rise.

“Habitat ‘67 is really two ideas in one. One is about prefabrication, and the other is about rethinking apartment-building design in the new paradigm.” Moshe Safdie

The prefabrication process of the 90-ton boxes took place onsite. The basic modular shape was molded in a reinforced steel cage, which measured 38 x 17 feet. Once cured, the concrete box was transferred to an assembly line for the insertion of electrical and mechanical systems, as well as insulation and windows. To finalize the production, modular kitchens and bathrooms were installed, and finally a crane lifted each unit to its designated position. Safdie was able to break the traditional form of orthogonal high rises, locating each box a step back from its immediate neighbor. This ingenious method provided each apartment with a roof garden, a constant flow of fresh air and a maximum of natural light: qualities which were unprecedented for a twelve story apartment complex. Habitat 67 thus pioneered the integration of two housing typologies— the suburban garden home and the economical high-rise apartment building.


Site Information


Location Located at the edge of Sanjay Lake in East Delhi is a parcel of land measuring 10.26 hectares. The catchment area of this land includes Noida (~20 minutes), which is one of the leading hubs for multinationals and an area with a high concentration of permanent and travelling millennials. The proposed pink line of the Delhi Metro runs north-south to bifurcate the site into two parts. The metro station forms part of the vicinity as well. The site lies northsouth with the lake and the regularized colony of Trilokpuri on the west and the DDA housing of Mayur Vihar Phase II beyond. The Sanjay Lake makes this development a destination, and the surrounding high and medium density housing pockets makes it a high density gateway of the neighborhood. In keeping with the vision of transit oriented development and the site’s location in the urban extension housing and allied social infrastructure shall form a significant component of the development


Program


01 OVERVIEW Land Area

Total Area of Land Area of Phase 1

Development Control

Ground Coverage FAR Maximum Permissible Built-Up Area Mandatory Greens Area available for Development

Proposed Uses

24.1 acres 15.5 Acres 62,725 sq. m. 40% 400 2,50,900 sq. m. 10,000 sq. m. 52,725 sq. m.

Offices @ 45%

1,12,500 sq. m.

Residences @ 35%

87,500 sq. m.

Retail @ 13%

32,500 sq. m.

Social Infrastructure @ 7%

17, 500 sq. m.

Distribution of Total FAR

7% 35%

45%

13%

Offices

Retail & Entertainment

Housing

Social Infrastructure


Site Plan


02 DETAILED AREA PROGRAM No. A 1.0

Facility

Unit Area

Unit Nos.

Offices @ 45% of total FAR Office Area: Publically owned Office space;

1200

10

12000

Office space;

600

20

12000

Office space;

300

40

12000

TOTAL OF 1.0 2.0

Total Carpet Area

36000

Office Area: Owned by Government Office space;

1200

6

7200

Office space;

600

20

12000

Office space;

300

36

10800

TOTAL OF 1.0

30000

3.0

Hospitality

3.1

Restaurant with 75 covers

250

2

500

3.2

Restaurant with 120 covers

350

1

350

3.3

Food Courts

1000

2

2000

3.4

Small Coffee shops, Ice-cream parlors, bakeries, take-aways

20

4

80

3.5

Stand-alone food kiosks with outdoor open to sky seating

10

8

80

TOTAL OF 3.0 4.0

Office support

4.1

Bank

4.2

3010

100

1

100

Bank extension counters/ sub-city centres

30

2

60

4.3

Stationery shops

15

4

60

4.4

Courier Services

15

2

30


No. A

Facility

Unit Area

Unit Nos.

Total Carpet Area

Offices @ 45% of total FAR

4.5

Mobile sales/ repair/service outlets

15

2

30

4.8

Transportation service

15

2

30

4.9

Crèche - attached to an exclusive secure open space of 350 sqm.

120

2

240

TOTAL OF 4.0

670

5.0

Administrative and Management Support

5.1

General Manager with PA and waiting area

24

1

24

5.2

Associate Managers: Sales, Operations and Maintenance

10

2

20

5.3

General office pool

20

1

20

5.4

Maintenance and House-keeping

20

1

20

5.5

Security

24

1

24

5.6

Emergency medical aid

25

1

25

5.7

Staff Lockers

25

1

25

5.8

Staff Cafeteria

50

1

50

TOTAL OF 5.0

233

6.0

Services

6.1

Transformer, Electrical room & generator

6.2

Mechanical Services: pump room, water storage, waste water treatment

6.3

HVAC

6.4

Garbage collection and disposal

100

6.5

Miscellaneous

200

3500 750 4000

TOTAL OF 6.0

CARPET AREA GRAND TOTAL

8550

78463


No. A

Facility

Unit Area

Unit Nos.

Total Carpet Area

Offices @ 45% of total FAR Add @ 40% for walls, toilets, pantries, tea-coffee vending machines, lobbies and circulation systems, janitor cupboard and stores, emergency exits, server rooms, switch rooms, electrical and mechanical support areas on retail floors

31385.2

PLINTH AREA OF OFFICES

109848.2 say 1,12,500 sq. m.

B

Retail and Entertainment @ 13% of total FAR

1.0

Retail

1.1

Departmental Store

1500

1

1500

1.2

Anchor/Brand Stores - Large

1000

3

3000

1.3

Anchor/Brand Stores - Medium

600

6

3600

1.4

Book CafĂŠ with author's corner, reading rooms and cafĂŠ

200

1

200

1.5

Anchor/Brand/Boutique Stores

200

8

1600

1.6

Large Shops

60

30

1800

1.7

Medium Shops

40

30

1200

1.8

Small Shops

25

40

1000

TOTAL OF 1.0

13900

2.0

Hospitality

2.1

Restaurant with 75 covers

250

4

1000

2.2

Restaurant with 120 covers

350

2

700

2.4

Food Courts

100

1

1500

2.5

Large scale Coffee shops, Ice-cream parlors, bakeries

50

4

200


No. B

Facility

Unit Area

Unit Nos.

Total Carpet Area

Retail and Entertainment @ 13% of total FAR

2.6

Small Coffee shops, Ice-cream parlors, bakeries, take-aways

25

4

100

2.7

Stand-alone food kiosks

10

20

200

TOTAL OF 2.0

3.0

Entertainment

3.1

Gym

3.2

3700

100

3

300

Maintenance and House-keeping

50

1

50

3.3

Security

50

2

100

3.4

Laundromats & Laundry facility

40

2

80

TOTAL OF 3.0

530

4.0

Services

4.1

Transformer, Electrical room & generator

4.2

Mechanical Services: pump room, water storage, waste water treatment

2000

4.3

HVAC

1000

4.4

Garbage collection and disposal

100

4.5

Miscellaneous

200

750

TOTAL OF 4.0

CARPET AREA GRAND TOTAL Add @ 50% for walls, toilets, pantries, tea-coffee vending machines, small kiosks (less than 6 sqm) lobbies and circulation systems, janitor cupboard and stores, emergency exits, server rooms, switch rooms, electrical and mechanical support areas on retail floors

PLINTH AREA OF RETAIL AND ENTERTAINMENT

4050

22180 8872

31052 say 32,500 sqm


No.

Facility

Unit Area

Unit Nos.

Total Carpet Area

C

Housing @ 35% of total FAR

1

Housing unit type A

20500

2

Housing unit type B

40000

CARPET AREA GRAND TOTAL

60500

25000

Add @ 40% for walls, public areas and circulation systems

PLINTH AREA OF HOUSING

85,500 say 87,500 sqm

D

Social Infrastructure @ 7% of total FAR

1

Crèche cum school

1

3500

3

Club house cum Sports Centre

1

4000

4

Polyclinic

1

5000

5

Old age home

1

5000

PLINTH AREA OF SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Permissible parking in TOD projects is 1.33 ECS per 100 sq. m. of built up area. Total Number of ECS = (62725 / 100) x 1.33 Total Number of ECS = 834 ECS

17,500 sqm


Technology


01 STRUCTURE Columns

Steel Joist and Concrete Composite

Beams

ISMB 450

Floor Slabs

EPS Concrete Deck Flooring

Structural Core

Concrete, central

Faรงade

Tinted Glass with optimum VLT and U value

Horizontal Fins

Wooden

Vertical Fins

Wooden The fins have varying depths and opening sizes with respect to the orientation

Panels

UPC, mix of openable and fixed


03 WATER SUPPLY AND TREATMENT Grey water collected from wash basins in offices

Gravity cold water storage tank in intermediate plant rooms Gravity feed to appliances

Grey water storage tank in intermediate plant rooms Grey water gravity

supply to toilets for WC flushing Grey water collected from showers and wash basins in residential block

Solar thermal panels utilize solar energy to generate hot water

Rainwater harvested at roof Foul drainage discharge to the sewer network Rainwater top-up tower plant Cooling tower mains cold water supply

Cold water pumped to intermediate plant room tanks

Central grey water storage tank. Grey water pumped to toilets for WC flushing

Central rainwater storage tank


04 CONSUMPTION CALCULATIONS WATER CONSUMPTION CALCULATION

RAINWATER HARVESTING CALCULATION

Total Occupants = Total Built-Up Area / Avg. Occupant Load Total Occupants = 280000 / 15 = 18600 pax

Total Area for Rainwater Harvesting = 50000 sq. m. Annual Rainfall = 750 mm Coefficient of Surface Runoff = 0.85

Total Consumption Daily = 18600 x 45 Total Consumption Daily = 837000 litre Total Consumption Daily = 837 kl

Volume of Rainwater Harvested Annually = Area x Coefficient x Rainfall Volume of Rainwater Harvested Annually = 50000 x 0.85 x 0.75 Volume of Rainwater Harvested Annually = 31875 cu. m.

For overhead water tank, NBC recommends capacity of 50% of daily peak demand.

SOLAR CALCULATIONS

Volume = 0.5 x 837000 = 418.5 cu. m.

Latitude of the Site = 28.4 Tilt Angle = 0.76 x Latitude + 3.1 Tilt Angle = 24.68 ยบ

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT CALCULATIONS

Size of Solar Panel = 1x2m Size of Module = 1x4m Optimum Area of Module after Tilting = 3.6 sq.m.

Total Raw Water Demand = 837000 litre Estimated Sewage Produced = 80% Sewage Produced = 0.8 x 837000 Sewage Produced = 669600 litre Sewage Produced = 667 cm. m. Space Required for STP of Depth 4m = 667 / 4 Space Required for STP of Depth 4m = 167 sq. m.

Area of Solar Panel Installation = 24000 sq.m. Area Lost in Circulation = 30% = 7200 sq.m. No. of Modules = Area / Size of Module No. of Modules = 16800 / 3.6 = 4667 Capacity of Each Module (in ideal conditions) = 0.5 kWh Total Energy Generation Possible = 0.5 x 4667 Total Energy Generation Possible = 233.5 kWh


Design Development


Vertical or Horizontal Mixed Use Development? Vertically mixed use developments are more suitable for town centers and major transport corridors, where there is a demand for street-front retail and commercial activities. It is a system of decentralization of amenities, such that a larger number of uses and facilities are available in smaller and localized areas. Reasons for choosing Vertical Mixed Use are: • Activation of the street edge through ground floor retail and commercial uses • Upper story residential units benefit from improved privacy, access to sunlight and views, whilst also providing passive surveillance of public spaces • An increased demand for local services • Easy access to local employment opportunities • Since commercial and residential tenants occupy one building, resources such as energy, trash disposal, and sewage can be used more efficiently • Reduces long-term maintenance costs over individual buildings, since services can be shared through residential and commercial spaces • Assists to diversify risk, support the lack of urban lands to develop, an alternative development model to address high cost of available sites, and for suburbs, to bring vitality to places where otherwise, activity has been drawn out • Encourages the efficient use of land through diversification of uses • Maximizes space usage, provides amenities and architectural expression, and mitigates traffic and sprawl • Provide environmental benefits: Offices produce a lot of heat and that can be used to create energy for the residential element or the hotel


01 EDGE DEVELOPMENT

Building on edge as a response to TOD to define and activate the edge

Pushing parts of the building back to create a stepping-up effect in massing and to provide open areas to people of the settlement opposite to the site.

Relocation of mass to continue the step-up typology

Provide urban opening for access into the site and for visual connect. Opening lead to public gardens and to the lake.


02 TOWER DEVELOPMENT

STACK

EXTEND

SHIFT


03 SITE MASSING

1.

Building on edge as a response to TOD to define and activate the edges. Site boundaries used as lines of alignment for the building blocks.

2. Pushing parts of the building blocks back into the site to make the edge lighter. Higher heights at the site center and lower towards the edges.


3. Orthogonal arrangement of blocks with smaller blocks used to define the open areas.

4 Open areas defined by building masses. Gradation in sizes of open areas to demarcate different areas for different uses. .


5. Existing roads of the settlement opposite the site are used as visual ques to open up the building mass along those paths. It would also encourage pedestrian connectivity. Different open spaces are also connected.

6. Relocation of mass to provide larger urban opening in building mass, ad to create step-down terraces.


7. Adding towers in interior parts of the site to have a gradation in building heights from the edge to the interior of the site.

8 .

Apply “stack shift� to towers to distinguish between the upper and lower parts of the tower and to give terraces.


04 UNIT DISTRIBUTION Retail Placed on lowermost floors to activate the lower floors and streets as public areas and encourage pedestrian movement. Since the people to area ratio is maximum, placing them on lower floors means lesser energy is consumed in transporting people. Residences Located on uppermost floors as the higher elevations provide privacy and are the best refuge points while the rest of the site, greens, landscape and the lake is in prospect. Offices Above retail floors as mid rise buildings, they are well connected to public open areas and lower floors for recreation. The placement makes them less private than residences but more private than retail. People to area ratio is more than residences but less than retail. Social Social infrastructure is placed on intermediate floors as break out spaces of transition, especially between offices and residences. They are interconnected in parts across levels to encourage simultaneous vertical and horizontal movement of people.


05 RESULTANT MASSING


Design Portfolio


View video walkthrough online:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gd49cRYW6s8


Model Images


3D Printed Model Millennial Selfie Culture


Jury Comments The jury discussed about Millennial needs and how I arrived at mixed use as an answer. I supported the argument by the various statistics of millennial behavior in the way they live, work and play, as mentioned in the literature review of this report, which were suggestive of a use-interlinked mixed development. Question was raised regarding the choice of vertical mixed use instead of a more efficient horizontal mixed use. The defense was that the central thesis was to explore a more unified, mixed and interlinked architectural solution to TOD based ‘mixed used’ development. I firmly believe that certain paradigms are possible – rather than simply earmarking separate buildings for different land uses. I wanted to explore a vertical mix in the entire project. I was not looking at buildings as individual ‘towers’ but the whole system of horizontal and vertical and a symbiotic interlinked ‘whole’. This would make the mix richer and more workable. World-over high rise towers have mixed use with different cores feeding different land uses. (Petronas KL, Burj Khalifa, etc.) These buildings recognize the extra circulation area and the other advantages outweigh the inefficiency. The Jury asked about the response to TOD and how various circulation systems were managed. I explained the movement system I had with the Lower Ground Floor being a predominantly vehicular circulation floor and Upper Ground Floor for pedestrian circulation, which comes down to the sidewalk level in places where pedestrians would get onto the plaza. The slopes and levels were managed to be accessible by all. The separation of the two types of circulation using levels gave the benefit of all areas being accessible by both, however the two never cross each others paths, leading to a safer, smoother and more efficient functioning. The design of plaza and the road network was kept such that the distance of travel is kept minimum and the circulation happens at the first safe point of contact between the user and the destination. Retail activities are provided along these paths of circulation to activate the movement and provide a vibrant public-to-building interface.


References Goldman Sachs- Millennial Infographics: https://www.goldmansachs.com/insights/archive/millennials/ KMPG- Meet the Millenials: https://home.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/uk/pdf/2017/04/Meet-the-Millennials-Secured.pdf Delhi TOD Policy Manual : https://www.wricitieshub.org/sites/default/files/Delhi%20TOD%20Policy%20Manual_0.pdf CBRE: https://www.cbre.co.in/es-es/research-reports/Asia-Pacific-Major-Report---The-future-of-corporate-real-estate-How-technology-will-shapethe-next-decade-March-2017 https://www.cbre.co.in/en/research-reports/India-Major-Report---Challenges-to-Opportunities---August-2018 NBM&CW: https://www.nbmcw.com/report/construction-infra-industry/30552-why-mixed-use-developments.html University of Canterbury: https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10092/15417/BRANZ_Final%20Report%20LR%200481.pdf?sequence=2 World Bank: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/transport/publication/transforming-the-urban-space-through-transit-oriented-developmentthe-3v-approach Delhi Masterpllan.com: http://delhi-masterplan.com/dda-issues-clarifications-transit-oriented-development-regulations/ Auckland Design Manual: https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1C1CAFA_enGB660GB660&ei=M2_HXNznBdeA9QPAtqWoBA&q=mixed+use+development+reports+%2B+ve rtical&oq=mixed+use+development+reports+%2B+vertical&gs_l=psy-ab.3..33i22i29i30.7298.10855..11061...0.0..0.229.1892.0j10j1....2..0....1..gwswiz.......0i71j0i22i30j0i333.wgUmaeCx_4w ADP: https://www.adp.com/spark/articles/2018/10/workplace-flexibility-for-millennials-appealing-to-a-valuable-new-generation.aspx

Profile for Aakash Jain

LIVE. WORK. PLAY. - Mixed Use Development for Millennials  

Location: Sanjay Lake, New Delhi

LIVE. WORK. PLAY. - Mixed Use Development for Millennials  

Location: Sanjay Lake, New Delhi

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