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AAK Magazine | December 2010

GreenPalm hits a million

page 7

Comfort ingredient for premium infant formula

page 8

Filling fats for chocolate lovers

page 10-11


AAK Magazine  |  December 2010

From the editor

Add value to infant formula

The winter is coming closer with cold, sunny and fresh weather. We are soon changing page in the calendar, and greet the New Year with hopefully a lot of successful business together with all current and new AAK customers. In this edition of the Global magazine we start to map the different raw materials that are used from around the world, starting with the exotic fats. Akofine is the range of powders products from AAK, gently treated with spray chilling process and free from additives they can be used in different applications, read more on page 12. AAK maintain a leading role at the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) board. This was announced during the eighth annual conference held in Jakarta in the beginning of November. One of the messages in this edition of Global is health. When most of the products are low or non-trans, the next challenge occurs – to lower the saturated fats. The unique lipid knowledge at AAK is used to create structure and a good solution for our customers. In the development work the invaluable sensory laboratory is frequently used with the trained analytical panels. Read more about the R&D work at page 4-6. AAK now launches a new product, Akonino DHA 24, a product with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids containing the omega-3 fatty acid DHA. Akonino DHA24 is a good source of DHA intended for infant formula. To inspire our customers for new and innovative filling fat project we introduce a new marketing concept – The praline box containing recipes and samples of pralines. Finally, we at AAK want to wish all of you a Wonderful Christmas and a Great New year.

GLOBAL AAK Magazine published by AarhusKarlshamn Sweden AB SE-374 82 Karlshamn, Sweden | www.aak.com Editors: Ted Fyke, Bodil Granroth, Henrik Höjland, Lena Ingvarsson, Britha Kruse, Jan-Olof Lidefelt, Johan Malm, Daniel Nilsson, Lena Nilsson, Marcus Persson, Jörgen Thieme, Malin Thors, Maria Wennermark, Annabel Woollen. Contact: Lena Nilsson, e-mail lena.nilsson@aak.com phone +46 454 82 000 Production: www.johnjohns.se Photographs: www.benfoto.se, www.inmagine.com

For more information, contact info@aak.com or visit www.aak.com

The main part of the newly launched infant formula and follow-on formula today contain addition of DHA. Supplementation of standard infant formula can be made with Akonino DHA 24. Babies benefit from an intake of the omega-3 Long Chain PolyUnsaturated Fatty Acids (LC PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) both before and after birth.   Adding DHA to infant formula is one of the approved supplementations, which can be used within EU in infant formula. DHA addition is not compulsory but science shows that it supports optimal development in the baby. Health benefits Studies shows that addition of DHA to the infant formula supports visual, brain and cognitive development. Other benefits which may be influenced by supplementation of DHA are motility development, blood pressure and immune response.   There are studies indicating that babies aged 7 to 12 months also benefit from addition of DHA and therefore DHA supplementation is used in follow-on formula as well Addition of DHA To be able to state the nutrition claim that the formula contains DHA you need to add at least 0.2 %, according to the EU legislation. Both ESPGHAN and the Codex Alimentarius standard recommend a maximum level of 0.5 % of DHA in the formula. 2

  The other main omega-3 LCPUFA is eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and the content of EPA needs to be lower than the DHA level. In order to supplement the infant formula with DHA you also need to add omega-6 LC PUFA. Akonino DHA 24 AAK’s Akonino DHA 24 is a fish oil with a high content of DHA, typical value 24 %. At the same time the EPA level is below 8 %.The sourcing of the fish oil is assured and well documented.   The oil is completely neutral in taste and easy to handle as it is liquid at room temperature.   Akonino DHA 24 is a good source of DHA and fulfils the special criteria set for oils used in infant formula.

High content of DHA Excellent DHA source for infant formula High quality – neutral in taste Easy to handle – liquid at room temperature Documented supply chain


Speciality fats for ice cream Akomix is the product range from AAK, especially developed for ice cream production. Only carefully selected, top quality raw materials are used, to ensure that they meet the demands made on vegetable fats for use in ice cream. From a physical point of view, ice cream is a very complicated product. Selecting the right ingredients is of utmost importance. A part from emulsifiers and stabilizers, the fat plays an important role in helping to achieve the desired eating qualities.   Replacing milk fat by vegetable fats not only reduces costs, it also makes the texture of the ice cream easier to adjust to the demands specified. Vegetable fats have the important advantage over milk fat that they make it possible to balance the content of saturated and polyunsaturated fats in the composition and to reduce the cholesterol level. Health trends A strong health trend which focus on saturated fat levels is running through the whole food industry. At present, ice cream production is based on milk fat or a vegetable alternative, such as coconut oil or Akomix (AAK ice cream product range). Ordinary milk fat contains fairly high levels of saturated fat, around 70 %, and coconut has an even higher level of saturated fat, over 90 %. This should be compared to a saturated fat level of 60 % and less in the Akomix range. Normally, a reduced level of saturated fat means that hardness and the fat’s ability to form a good structure is more difficult. In the Akomix range, by selecting the right fat components, it has been possible to eliminate the risks that somewhat softer fats will create in the end product. Benefits of using Akomix Akomix is customized for ice cream production, and provides end products with different proper-

ties, such as hardness, melt off and creaminess. At the same time, Akomix ensure a better fat composition in the end product and reduce costs compared to using milk fat or coconut oil. Reduce saturated fat In the product development phase it has been relatively easy to reduce the level of saturated fat

Reduce costs Healthier profile Excellent structural properties Creates creamy ice cream with a great taste experience Excellent storage stability

down to 40 % and still retain the desired properties of the ice cream. The step down to 30 %, the level of Akomix LS 30 was far more challenging and required the knowledge of advanced fat technology. The differences in the amount of saturated fat are shown in Figure 1. Akomix has significantly lower levels of saturated fat and considerably higher proportions of mono- and polyunsaturated fat. Neither product does, of course, contain trans fats. Akomix LS range provides the end product with an excellent structure and consistency. From a sensory point of view, we have created a fat which improves the creaminess of ice cream and provides an excellent taste experience. Does this sound interesting?   Then please contact info@aak.com for more information. Figure 1. Fatty acid composition

The functionality of fat in ice cream:

100

Lubricant: The fat acts as a lubricant and must melt properly during eating. Here the proportion of liquid to solid fat is of vital importance to mouth feel. A useful guideline is the SFC (solid fat content) curve, which illustrates the fat’s melting profile. Vegetable fats used in ice cream can be constructed to give the desired SFC curve and melting behavior of the final product.

90 80 70 60 50 40

Structure builder: The texture of an ice cream depends on it’s structure. The fat’s performance during aging, freezing and aeration is very important. Fat crystals make it possible to incorporate air cells to give the desired overrun while at the same time retaining a smooth texture. Flavour carrier: Not only must the fat be of the best quality, it must also have a bland taste that does not mask any added flavours

3

30 20 10 0

Coconut oil

Akomix TS

Akomix LS 40 Akomix LS 30

SAFA – Saturated Fatty Acid MUFA – MonoUnsaturated Fatty Acid PUFA – PolyUnsaturated Fatty Acid


AAK Magazine  |  December 2010

How to reduce saturated fat – A structured approach to food structure Reducing saturated fat levels is a strong trend throughout the food industry driven by health concerns. For food manufacturers a significant reduction in saturated fat with maintained function and texture may be quite a challenge. Fat crystals are formed by saturated fatty acids and the more crystals there are, the greater is the likelyhood to build a strong structure. Texture is also effected by size and shape of crystals and by the polymorphic form of crystalline fat. The combined effect of composition and processing on these parameters will greatly influence the contribution from the fat component to the texture of the final product. There is a lot to consider if the goal is to create cost-effetive food solutions which have a lower saturated fatty acid content but at the same time behave like the conventional solutions/fats that they are designed to replace. It is important that the fats should be produced in such a way that they are capable of resisting oxidation, since the unsaturated fatty acids are more sensitive towards oxidation. A sound knowledge of what it is that influences structure is required in order to create functional food solutions with a low saturated fatty acid content. The structure of a fat is greatly influenced both by its composition and the way it has been processed. Processing and composition There are two ways to influence the texture of a fat system. A fundamental prerequisite is the triglyceride composition of the oil, which controls the composition and the polymorphism of the crystals that are formed, as well as their melting point and their interactions with one another. The processing and storage conditions also control the structure. By modifying the processing conditions we can influence the composition and size of the crystals. This also affects how far from thermodynamic equilibrium the system is. The further from equilibrium it is, the greater is the risk of rearrangement after production. Uncontrolled rearrangement can pose a risk of inconsistent product quality. Though this is not, strictly speaking, nanotechnology, it does begin at nanometre level. A fatty acid is approximately 2 nm long and 0.4 nm wide (length and distance between the fatty acids in a crystal). Composition and processing technique influence the nature of the crystals obtained and it is the micrometre scale that we are talking about here. Triglyceride composition and processing technique also influence the number of crystals obtained and how they grow and interact (micro-scale). Interactions between the crystals and with other ingredients

then influence the way in which we perceive the food in question (macro-scale). This is illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1: What factors influence structure? Triglycerides

Macro Micro

Nano Number of crystals Size distribution Polymorphism

P R O C E S S I N G

Effect of triglycerides The melting point and crystallisation properties are influenced by the type and composition of the fatty acids on the triglycerides. The unsaturated fatty acids have at least one double bond, which makes them less flexible. This means that it becomes more difficult for the unsaturated fatty acids to pack closely together. Saturated fatty acids, on the other hand, are much more flexible and can therefore pack together far more effectively. Consequently triglycerides with more saturated fatty acids have a significantly higher melting point than triglycerides containing unsaturated fatty acids. The rule is that the longer a fatty acid is, the higher its melting point, and the bulkier it is, the lower its melting point. Thus saturated triglycerides that contain lauric acid (C12) have lower melting points than saturated triglycerides that contain palmitic acid (C16 = P). Consequently triglycerides that are made up of unsaturated C18 chains (oleyl = O, linoleic and linolenic) have a much lower melting point than triglycerides made up of saturated C18 chains (stearic acid). The melting point (beta prime) of tripalmitin (PPP) is around 55 °C, compared with 35 °C for PPO, 15 °C for POO and less than 0 °C for triolein (OOO). Thus the type and amount of different triglycerides will influence the amount of solid fat that is obtained for a given total amount of saturated fatty acids.   A fat system that contains one-third saturated fatty acids can be structured in several different ways. If we build three different systems consisting of PPP and OOO, PPO and OOO, and POO, we get: - PPP fat: 1/3 PPP and 2/3 OOO - PPO fat: 1/2 PPO and 1/2 OOO - POO fat: 100 % POO All three of these fat systems now have the same amount of palmitic and oleic acid. In Figure 2 we can see how the solid fat content curve would look at equilibrium. 4

Figure 2: Amount of solid fat content at different temperatures 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Solid fat content (%) POO PPO PPP

0

20

40

60 Temperature (°C)

All three fat systems in the figure has 1/3 saturated fatty acids. The POO has 100 % POO, while PPO consists of ½ PPO and ½ OOO and PPP consists of 1/3 PPP and 2/3 OOO.

These three fat systems have vastly different solid fat content profiles. If we consider only the solid fat content curve (i.e. not the crystallisation rate, structure or tendency for rearrangement), we see that different solutions are to be preferred depending on the application. For example, if we require a product that has the maximum possible amount of solid fat content at refrigerator temperature (5 °C), we will choose the POO fat, which has nearly twice as much solid fat content as the PPO fat. If, on the other hand, we want a fat that has as much structure as possible at room temperature and melts completely in the mouth, we will choose the PPO fat. If the aim is to have as much structure as possible at 40 °C, we will use the PPP fat, which has around 30 %


in solid fat content, whereas the other two fats are liquid. Thus the choice of triglycerides massively influences the amount of solid fat content obtained and is a good starting point when designing new fats with low amounts of saturated fatty acids. A further requirement is that the fats should co-crystallise, so that they form strong structures which are stable when stored. They must also be easy to process and then kinetics are important (for example, POO fats need to be supercooled to low temperatures, since their melting point is so low). Crystal size and crystal form The size of the crystals is very important for the structure. This is because small crystals have a greater total crystal surface area, which binds more liquid oil. Furthermore, the smaller the crystals are, the greater the number of contact points there are between them. It is not only the size of the crystals but also their shape that determines the strength of the resultant structures. Spheres are the form that have the lowest surface area for a particular volume and they therefore bind the least amount of oil and minimise the number of contacts. The crystal form with the lowest melting point, alpha, tends to form spherical crystals. If we compare a fat that is in the alpha form with one that is beta-prime stable, we find that the beta-prime stable system is 3 times harder for the same amount of solid fat content (measured with a penetrometer). This is shown in Figure 3, where the two fats have the same solid fat content and the hardness has been measured after storage for 1 week at 20 °C. The different measurement points are for different cooling temperatures prior to storage. It is not only the shape of the crystals that are important. Also the size matters. Figure 3: Effect of the crystal form on texture The same solid fat content 1,2

Hardness (kg)

1,0 0,8 Beta prime

0,6

Alpha fat

0,4 0,2 0,0

0

10

20

30

Cooling temperature (°C)

  In Figure 4 we have 4 % of two different fully hydrogenated fats mixed with liquid oil (rapeseed oil). The two systems have been cooled in the same way and have the same amount of solid fat content. They also have the same polymorphic form.   In the top fat system (figure 4), large crystals or crystal aggregates are formed, whereas the bottom system consists of small crystals which are indistinguishable with a standard light microscope (the crystals are micrometre sized or smaller). The crystals in the top system are so large that they sediment and even though the lower portion of the tube has a high solid fat

Figure 4: The effect of the crystal size on structure

Figure 5: Phase diagram for PPP, POP and PPO PPP (ß-2)

Co-crystallization

ß-2 + ß’-3 + ß3 ß-2 PPO (ß’-3)

content, everything readily flows if it is turned upside down. The crystals in the lower tube are much smaller and bind oil much more effectively. The contact points between the crystals also become much more numerous. In the bottom tube, a stable gel is formed which can easily be turned upside down without anything happening. This illustrates the important role of small crystals as structurants. Co-crystallisation Solid materials can pack together in different ways. By slightly changing the angles and distances in the crystals we influence the melting point and the way in which the crystals grow. The fit of different triglycerides determines whether or not they are collectively able to form good crystals. If we take palm oil as an example, there are many different triglycerides that have a melting point above 20 °C. Three of the most important are PPP, POP and PPO, all of which crystallise in different ways. PPP is a symmetrical triglyceride and therefore forms beta crystals. All fatty acids are of the same length and therefore have a double-chain-length packing arrangement. Beta double-chain-length packing β-2 is the most effective configuration. Although POP is symmetrical (and forms beta crystals), one fatty acid differs from the others. Consequently it has a triple-chain-length packing arrangement, with the oleic acid forming its own separate layer (sorting by chains). POP therefore forms β-3 crystals at equilibrium. PPO is asymmetrical, forming beta-prime crystals at equilibrium, and also has one fatty acid that differs from the others and thus forms beta prime-3 crystals. All three of these triglycerides will therefore pack together in different ways in order to achieve their most stable state.   Triglycerides that do not co-crystallise forms poorer structures. This is because different crystal forms cannot grow together through their contact points by sintering. Sintering creates strong structures which are stable when stored. When triglycerides that are stable in different crystal forms at equilibrium are cooled together, they can form relatively stable lower-melting crystals. Beta prime-2 is a typical example of such a compromise, whereby it is possible to build systems that are kinetically stable. If the three triglycerides PPP, POP and PPO are mixed in the right proportions, they can co-crystallise and form beta-2 crystals, as shown in Figure 5. 5

POP (ß-3)

  Figure 6 shows the crystallisation rate for two systems with the same solid fat content curve, where one crystallises in β-2 whereas the other does not. The system that does not co-crystallise forms several different types of crystals at equilibrium (see Figure 5). This system therefore (as a compromise) forms beta prime-2 crystals which are kinetically stable. The system that does co-crystallise exhibits much faster crystallisation kinetics, as can be clearly seen below in Figure 6, which shows the solid fat content growth at 10 °C. Furthermore, the beta-2 system forms a much firmer texture, despite having a lower saturated fatty acid content than the beta prime-2 system. Figure 6: Crystallisation kinetics for one beta prime-2 and one beta-2 system 70

Solid fat content %

60 50 40 30 20

Betaprim-2 Beta-2

10 0 0

20

40

60

80

Time (minutes)

Summary Many factors influence the structure of a fat. It is a question of choosing the right triglycerides so as to make optimal use of the saturated fatty acids. If, for example, one is interested in having structure at room temperature, one should not use POO triglycerides, which are liquid at room temperature (a saturated fatty acid is wasted). The system must also be capable of forming small crystals that can bind a lot of liquid oil and form many contact points. If the triglycerides are also able to co-crystallise, they can grow together through their contact points (by sintering) and form strong structures. Co-crystallisation is also good for storage stability and crystallisation rate. Author: Marcus Persson, Ph.D (Tech. Dr.)


AAK Magazine  |  December 2010

Sensory knowledge at AAK There are major advantages in having a trained analytical panel for sensory evaluations. AAK can boast two departments – one located at the factory in Karlshamn (Sweden) and one in Morelia (Mexico). Trained sensory panels are important tools in product and application developments. The usage of sensory analysis are many. At AAK it fulfils several functions and is widely used. Taste assessments take place several times a week.   Within the product development work, sensory profiling is a very useful analytical tool for characterising and quantifying certain changes in attributes sought for in the new product. Its usefulness is exemplified by the case of ice cream, for which sensory analysis is necessary, since we are dealing with characteristics such as creaminess, iciness and melting behaviour in the mouth.   A number of storage stability studies are always in progress and in most cases they concern the products’ oxidative stability and the increasing off-flavour. Sensory analysis The definition of Sensory analysis is “a technique for describing product characteristics with the use of our sense”. It is one of the very best analytical methods available and in most cases we use a technique known as quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). This type of test is based on the usage of replicated sessions, which make it easy to identify significant differences between products and eliminate variations. Figure 1 shows a comparison between two products in which changes are made to certain characteristics. QDA test answers the following questions: 1. Are there differences between the products? 2. What are the differences? 3. How big are the differences? QDA testing is used in the product development work, process development, in-house storage stability tests and customer storage studies.   In discrimination tests, the issue is more often comprehensive and the answer to the question, whether there are any differences between the products or whether they share a common characteristic, then becomes clear-cut. The discrimination tests that we use are duo-trio tests, paired comparison tests and triangle tests. We choose whichever method is best, based on the

Figure 1. The spider chart shows a typical QDA profile for a descriptive test used in the product development work Use: Product development Brittle Thick Snap Melt rapidity

Glossy

Cooling Hard Aroma intensity Tallow Desired change Exisiting product

question to be answered. Discrimination tests are also often used in storage studies and frequently in product comparisons. Training for tasting panels To get a good trained panel for QDA analysis demands a lot of time and commitment from each assessor. AAK is using a six-step program, where assessors are trained to define different 6

strenghts for each characteristic attribute and learn to quantify each one individually. Very often an assessors is involved in several different panels. Different applications The sensory panels at AAK have been trained for many products and end-applications. Besides oils, the panels are tasting various other food products such as ice cream, fillings, chocolate, cheese, margarine, bread, biscuits, and deep-fried products. The department has also the possibility to set up new panels if necessary. Evaluation of sensory data AAK works with a computer-based software system (FIZZ) for the taste sessions and evaluation of all sensory data. This system facilitates evaluation work and minimises errors from the assessors. A further highly significant advantage is the possibility of imposing a time-limit on each attribute- something which is tremendously useful, for example, when tasting ice cream, which has characteristic attributes that change rapidly over time, or when measuring aroma intensity, which tends to fade over time. Our offer to customers Customers are given the opportunity to take part in the AAK Academy, which provides training in sensory analysis and practical training in the tasting of oils, which is one part of the programme. Interested customers are also offered separate lectures and a practical taste session.


GreenPalm hits a million – Milestone for sustainable palm oil programme GreenPalm, the AAK and RSPO founded programme that supports sustainable palm oil production, has reached an important milestone with the trade of its millionth certificate. This represents one million tonnes of sustainable palm oil, with participating palm oil producers.   AAK UK and the RSPO established GreenPalm as a means of giving direct financial support to palm oil producers certified as sustainable by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil. It was a response to international concerns over environmental and social problems created by rapid expansion of the palm oil industry – an incentive for palm oil producers to work sustainably and for palm oil buyers to support their efforts.   The first certificate was traded just two years ago, and since that time the programme has earned support from some of the world’s biggest names in manufacturing and retailing, including Unilever, Carrefour, Marks & Spencer, Cadbury, Danisco, Lidl, Burton’s Foods, Seventh Generation, Findus, Asda, Boots, Tesco and Waitrose.   GreenPalm was devised when it became clear

that businesses would buy sustainable palm oil or palm kernel oil but it was not available in the volumes, fractions or blends they required. In addition, sustainable physical palm oil must be segregated at every stage of its journey, so in a complex, global supply chain – where every party must also be RSPO-certified – this can mean a costly and time-consuming process of change.   The solution was GreenPalm. Producers earn a premium for the certified sustainable palm oil they produce, while manufacturers and retailers buy certificates representing the producer’s output, thereby supporting sustainable palm oil at its source.

AAK maintains leading role at RSPO board Battling invisible dust from the volcanic Mount Murapi, Ian McIntosh, Tim Stephenson and Bob Norman joined 800 other delegates in Jakarta in early November to attend RT8, the eighth annual conference of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). Sustainability plays a key role in AAK’s CSR strategy, and sustainable palm products are increasingly demanded by consumers the world over, including AAK customers. The RSPO brings with it a very positive message about the future of the palm oil industry as a means of feeding the ever increasing world population, without damaging the planet or its people. AAK’s very major role in the RSPO since the start of the organisation is a great example of industry leadership – helping to resolve the many environmental and social issues surrounding the production of palm oil, while positioning AAK at the forefront of this issue.   The RSPO is a multi-stakeholder organisation which promotes the production and use of sustainable palm oil. In its relatively short life (it began in 2003 with both Aarhus United and Karlshamn AB as founder members) the RSPO has certi-

fied an annual (and rapidly growing) volume of 3.2 million tonnes of crude palm oil plantation production as sustainable (about 7 % of world production). 1.5 million tonnes has been traded, including 1.1 million tonnes through GreenPalm. The RSPO is fundamental to AAK’s sustainable sourcing.   Matters addressed during the conference (at which GreenPalm was very prominent) include smallholder certification; trademark and branding; greenhouse gas emissions from palm production; land rights; supply chain options and demand from India and China, amongst many others.   At the General Assembly on the final day of the conference, AAK maintained its ever present seat on the RSPO Executive Board, representing the processors and traders segment, by defeating Cargill by 35 votes to 22, a remarkable endorsement of AAK’s role in the world of sustainable palm oil.

7

“GreenPalm gives all palm oil producers, from major mills to individual smallholders, an incentive to earn more by doing the right thing,” says GreenPalm General Manager Bob Norman.   “This way, producers don’t have to export their material in order to benefit from the growing international demand for sustainable palm oil.   “Through GreenPalm, major corporations are using their buying power to change the industry as a whole, by making sustainable production commercially appealing.   “There is still a long way to go – world palm oil production totals 48 million metric tonnes annually, with RSPO certified sustainable palm oil now totalling almost 3.2 million metric tonnes annually. The GreenPalm milestone of 1.1 million certificates traded was reached over a two year period. However, the proportion of sustainable palm oil is growing all the time, and GreenPalm is playing a vital role in driving positive, longterm change.”


AAK Magazine  |  December 2010

Comfort ingredient for premium infant formula The very best nutrition for the newborn baby is the mother’s milk. Sometimes the mother cannot, or chooses not to, breast feed her baby. In those cases it is important that there is an alternative source of nutrition for the infant that also well covers its needs. The ultimate goal for infant milk formula producers is to present a product as similar as possible to mother’s milk.

Same structure as in mother’s milk Standard vegetable oil

S

U

U Infat is a fat especially developed to be even closer to the fat in mother’s milk than standard vegetable oil blends are. With its unique structure it helps preventing the baby from constipation often associated with formula feeding. It also improves the energy and calcium uptake, making it the first choice product for premium infant milk formula. Mother’s milk composition the golden standard The first step when designing a fat for infant formula is to match the fatty acid profile of mother’s milk. This is achieved by the use of various raw materials. The fatty acid profile differs somewhat between women depending on diet, heritance etc, but one thing is very much conserved and that is the high content of C16 as the main saturated fatty acid in the milk.   Next step is to look at the triglyceride structure, how the fatty acids in the fat are connected to the glycerol backbone of the triglyceride. The structure of the triglyceride is of crucial importance for the babies ability to digest the fat. In mother’s milk fat the important C16 is mainly situated in the middle position of the triglyceride, whereas the unsaturated fatty acids are in the outer positions. In a normal vegetable oil or fat, the structure is opposite, with the C16 in the outer position and the unsaturated in the middle.

The structure is important When the baby eats fat, an enzyme cleaves the outer fatty acids of the triglyceride and they will be digested as free fatty acids. However, if those free fatty acids are made up of C16 as in standard vegetable oil, they cannot be digested as free fatty acids due to their high melting point. To be digested the C16 needs to be in the middle position of the triglyceride, where it will be digested as a monoglyceride. Fat digestion

U Lipase

U

S U

S U

  Free C16 will instead form insoluble soaps with the calcium in the formula and leave the body via the faeces. This will cause problems with hard stools, constipation and also loss of calcium and fatty acid.

8

Mother’s milk fat = Infat

Enzymatic Process

S

S U

S

Saturated Fatty Acid

U

Unsaturated Fatty Acid

In standard vegetable oils the unsaturated fatty acids are mainly situated on the mid-position of the triglyceride and the saturated in the outer positions. This is opposite in mother’s milk. By enzymatic inter-esterification of the vegetable oil, this is changed, making Infat having the same structure as mother’s milk.

Closer to mother’s milk Based on vegetable sources, Infat has a unique structure on triglyceride level that is obtained by an enzymatic inter-esterification process. Because of this structure, an infant formula blend containing Infat is not only composed to have the same fatty acid profile as the fat in mother’s milk, it also has the similar structure on triglyceride level. The infant formula with Infat will be closer to mother’s milk. As shown in several scientific studies, the formula-fed baby will then get a better comfort, have less problems with constipation and also have an enhanced energy and calcium uptake, which is very important in the beginning of a new life. InFat™ is supplied by Advanced Lipids, a joint venture of AAK and Enzymotec.


Be PREPared for more

AAK is proud of its Prep range of high performance oils, for it is the market leading edible oil brand within the UK Foodservice sector. The comprehensive Prep range consists of different oils blended from a variety of oil types including palm, rapeseed, sunflower and blends of these core products. Every oil has been developed with a definitive outcome, be it lower in saturates or trans fatty acids or to have a longer fry life, each one has been specifically designed with the caterer in mind.   Prep is a brand of excellence and its reputation has been built through a long history of reliability, performance, high quality and innovation. It has forty years of knowledge and experience behind it. Prep high performance oil Prep Long Life Oils are not necessarily the cheapest oil on shelf but, due to their excellent fry life, they are certainly the most cost effective, which, combined with effective oil management, can offer the caterer significant cost savings; a message that can often be difficult to communicate. This is why an online cost calculator which invites customers to ‘do the maths’ has been introduced on the new, interactive Prep website, which can be found with a link from www.aak.com. Customers can log on and input their oil consumption, the calculator then averages their oil use and spend and calculates the savings they could be making if they switched from a standard Rapeseed oil to a Prep Long Life Oil; a simple, yet very effective tool.

  The new website is also a place of oil information, where customers can go to if they want educating on anything oil related or help with their frying. Cash and carry sector The presence of Prep in cash and carry’s has never been exemplary in the past, due to this market being driven by price, but with the introduction of the “Prep pallet wraps” this has begun to change. This has been proving a great success so far and gained excellent feedback, a heightened awareness. It is currently featured in the leading UK cash and carry; and is soon to be launched in Germany’s biggest cash and carry. Customer loyalty scheme Foodservice Rewards is helping to drive the brand, as it is an online rewards programme designed specifically for caterers. Customers enter the unique codes found on Prep packaging and get rewarded in points, which they input into their online account, that can then be traded in for a 9

variety of items from red letter days to catering equipment or iPods. Prep supporting sustainable palm GreenPalm is again, another unique selling point for Prep products as it is Europe’s first cooking oil brand to offer a cost effective sustainable solution to its customer base. Marketing for growth Although the Prep range of Oils is the market leading edible oil brand, this cannot be taken for granted. To protect existing business and to grow as a brand, it simply cannot stand still. New initiatives need to be constantly evolving with momentum remaining paramount, something we are very aware of and are certainly achieving through the new marketing material that have been developed.   Prep is the market leading sustainable brand that will provide value for AAK and our customers for many years to come.


AAK Magazine  |  December 2010

Filling fats for chocolate Develop a taste for cost reductions in your chocolate & confectionery product Cut costs while maintaining high product quality Imagine if you could cut production costs by 5 % without compromising quality whatsoever. Illexao SC offers a unique chance to replace up to 5 % cocoa butter in your recipe with no effect whatsoever on the sensory properties of the final product.   The taste, the look and the mouth feel of your chocolate product remain exactly the same as today – so much in fact that we are confident you won’t be able to tell the difference.   The Illexao range also offers solutions for improving heat stability, increasing shelf life as well as for cost-efficient super compounds.   Naturally, all raw materials are grown and gathered under sustainable conditions.

AAK has introduced a new marketing concept aiming to inspire our customers for new and innovative filling fats projects.   If you are a purchaser of chocolate and confectionery fats you probably have already been presented with a praline box from AAK.   The praline box concept presents our extensive range of filling fats. Your challenge as a confectionery manufacturer is to develop the most suitable products for the quality conscious customers. This task requires skill and innovation by the product development department. To provide inspiration for your praline fillings, we have developed an assortment of filling fats recipes – all made with fats from our extensive ranges – the Illexao, Chocofill and Deliar product families.   AAK offers a wide range of fats tailored for specific applications. These fats are all of high and consistent quality with a neutral taste and smell in order to carry the flavours of the chocolate and confectionery products.

  The recipes in the praline boxes are developed by AAK own application experts from our chocolate laboratory and we are ready to sup10

port your development challenges and assist you with our in-depth knowledge of filling fats and consumer trends.


lovers Illexao ER – Makes the rich 70 % dark chocolate soft and smooth with a pleasant melt-down. For increased consumer satisfaction, an indulgent product, premium confectionery and ultimately increased sale.

However, there are other opportunities in our Illexao range to replace cocoa butter in your recipes – in extention to premium fillings, Illexao also applies to moulded chocolate tablets and chocolate coatings (see examples below):

Figure 1: Typical solid fat curves for Illexao ER range ILLEXAO ER 05 ™

90

Solid fat content, %

ILLEXAO™ ER 09 ILLEXAO™ ER 11

Moulded chocolate

60 50 40 30 20 10 20

25

30

35 Temperature, °C

Benefits when adding Illexao ER to dark chocolate products: Pleasantly smooth and creamy mouth-feel Excellent melt-down Excellent flavour release Cost reduction

Why is this an interesting product? A cooling sensation in a chocolate filling provides the product with a distinct freshness. Chocofill TC is a unique filling fat which provides chocolate pralines with a very nice cooling sensation in the mouth (see Figure 2). Figure 2: Typical solid fat curves for Chocofill TC range

90

CHOCOFILL™ TC 47

Solid fat content, %

CHOCOFILL™ TC 90 CHOCOFILL™ TC 70

80

CHOCOFILL™ TC 60

70

Chocolate coatings

CHOCOFILL™ TC 50

60

Std hy filling fat

50 40 30 20 10 0

Chocofill LS …in a chocolate filling for a healtier profile in chocolate products.

ILLEXAO™ CB 25

70

0

Premium fillings

ILLEXAO™ ER 15

80

…for a unique cooling sensation in your chocolate fillings. AAK takes cooling fillings to the next level.

Illexao represents AAK’s range of cocoa butter equivalents. Illexao ER is particularly suitable for repacing cocoa butter in fillings, or to make very hard chocolate slightly softer and faster melting. An interesting product Chocolate with a high content of cocoa enjoys increasing popularity in the premium range in most markets because of its sophisticated taste and healthier profile – eventhough reality proves that many people still prefer milk chocolate. One reason for this preference may be the creamy texture and good melting properties of milk chocolate (see Figure 1) – in fact, you can achieve a more creamy sensation in a dark chocolate with a high content of cocoa by adding 5 % Illexao ER to the total chocolate recipe. At the same time, you will maintain the flavour and healthy profile of a dark chocolate product.

Chocofill TC

Why is this an interesting product? Chocolate is an indulgence product and dark chocolate adds beneficial ingredients to a sweet snack. By combining dark chocolate with the Chocofill LS 40 filling fat the resulting filling will contain 25 % less saturated fatty acids than similar fillings based on standard filling fats, and will achieve a praline product with a fine taste and a nice-melting filling. Benefits when adding Chocofill LS to chocolate fillings: Low amount of saturated fatty acids contributing to the health aspect of the final product. Excellent texture Flexible fat that can be used in a wide range of applications Non-temper – easy to use

20

25

30

35 40 Temperature, °C

  By using Chocofill TC in a filling you achieve a nice, cooling mouth-feel. A mouth-feel equivalent to that of a traditional praline based on cocoa and cream, but with a shelf life matching other chocolate products and with Chocofill TC we can make different flavours in pralines and filled bars. Benefits when adding Chocofill TC to chocolate fillings: Unique, long-lasting cooling effect Excellent melt-down High cocoa butter tolerance Labelling as “vegetable fat” as no hydrogenation is applied during processing Flexible to various kinds of ingredients in the filling Excellent sensory properties

Let AAK application experts inspire you for more interesting filling fats products. 11


AAK Magazine  |  December 2010

Powdered fats The most common ways to handle a hard fat are as blocks or in its melted liquid form. For a lot of applications this works fine. However, there are a number of applications in which this is not the most ideal solution. For example the addition of a small amount of high melting fat to a nut paste, where it is added as a stabilizer to prevent oil separation. Or dry mixes like bakery-premixes or soup and sauce powders where you want to have a homogenous distribution of the fat throughout the mix.   In the first example it is all about the convenience of using powdered fat. It is far more easier and accurate to add the necessary amount of hard fat in powdered form then it is to cut a big block to pieces or even to melt it down. In the second example it is about the ease of processing, by adding the fat as a powder you only need a mixingstep to ensure a homogeneous distribution in your final product.   With the above in mind AAK has started with the development of it’s range of the Akofine powdered fats. Typical for the Akofine range is that all products are based on 100 % fat. No carrier material, and in the majority of products, no additives are used. The powder is produced using a cryogenic process in which the fat is crystallized using liquid nitrogen as a cooling medium. Akofine products have a number of benefits No carrier material, so no additional ingredients in the end product. Contrary to spraydried products the majority of the Akofine products are free of additives (E-numbers). The advantage of the spray chilling process is that the oils are treated gently. They are not subjected to a heat treatment as is the case with spray drying.

Akofine products for a multitude of application: Bakery applications To help increase the shelf life of bread, fat is added to prevent the bread from drying out and becoming hard. Akofine is a convenient way to add fat to the dough, it’s fine particle size makes it very easy to achieve a homogenous distribution in the dough, even at low addition rates.   Akofine is also used for bakery premixes such as powdered breadimprovers and ready (cake) mixes for domestic use. The main reasons here are the ease of addition and the fact that the powdered fat is easily distributed homogenously throughout the product which also keeps its freeflowing characteristics.

Product range Meltingpoint (°C)

Non Hydrogenated

Trans Fatty Acid content

Akofine 876

33

Yes

max 1 %

Encapsulation, dessert premixes

Akofine SP01

45

No

42.5 %

Soups & Sauces, meatproducts / meat replacers

Akofine NTP

51

No

max 1 %

Drymixes, Soups & Sauces

Akofine NH

53

Yes

max 1 %

Soups & Sauces, dry mixes

Akofine K25

55

No

11 %

Breadspreads, nutpastes

Akofine STX

58

Yes

max 1 %

Breadspreads, nutpastes

Akofine P05

60

Yes

max 1 %

Breadimprovers, extruded products

Cessa Powder 60

60

No

max 1 %

Nutpastes, encapsulation

Akofine R

65

No

max 1 %

Liquid margarine, encapsulation

Product

Application examples

Note: Sunflowerlecithin is added to Akofine 876. Akofine SP01 and Akofine K25 are available with and without this addition. Shelflife of product without is shorter.

12

Breadspreads and Nutpastes These products typically contain high amount of liquid oil which is necessary to obtain the desired soft and spreadable consistency. As a result of this high amount of liquid oil these products are vulnerable to oil separation whereby the liquid oil rises to the surface. Addition of small amounts of Akofine will create a crystalline matrix within the product that will entrap the liquid oil and prevent oil separation. Dried foods Dried soups and sauces where the fat is needed to obtain the desired mouth feel and flavor of the reconstituted product. As the finished product needs to remain dry and freeflowing Akofine is the ideal ingredient to add the necessary amount of fat to your dry-mixes. Meat products and meat replacers Here the fat is needed to bind the ingredients together and to enhance the texture and eating characteristics of the finished product. Above is only a selection of applications in which Akofine is used. Others are as source of fat in batters & breadings, in extruded products to control the degree of aeration, for encapsulation of ingredients such as sugar or citric acid etc.


Exotic fats AAK is handling a wide range of raw materials originating from all over the world. In this edition of Global Magasin we start to map where to find the different raw materials. Among the exotic raw materials it is Shea which is a stable crop compared to other exotic raw materials which varies a lot in availability from year to year.

Sal Forests of sal trees are found in two major regions of India, from the Central Belt and along the foothills of the Himalayas up to an altitude of 1700 m. The tree grows to 20-30 m in height and the crown has a diameter of 3-5 m. It starts to flower for the first time after 20-30 years. The fruit develops during a period of eight to ten weeks in March-April. The seed contains 14-16 % oil. The Sal seeds are usually harvested during the months of May and June. The crop size varies a lot from one season to the next.

Shea The shea tree is a wild growing tree only found in a defined belt in West Africa; the Sahel belt south of Sahara. The shea tree is yielding fruits after some 10-15 years. The fruit meat is used for human consumption or as cattle feed. The shea kernel is harvested in May-July and the kernel has a fat content of around 50 %. The size of the harvest varies due to weather impact and the growing cycle of the tree but as the crop is huge the availability is always there.

Mango The mango tree mainly grows in the central areas of India but is also found in Mexico, China, Brazil, Indonesia and Pakistan. However, India is the only country that exports quantities of Mango kernel oil. The trees are deep-routed, grow to about 20-30 m in height, have wide branches and are evergreen. The kernel has a fat content of around 10-15 %. The ango kernels are collected by farmers during the monsoon period, beginning in May/June. The crop size varies from season to season.

Kokum The kokum tree is growing in India; more specifically in the rainforest areas/coastal areas. The tree is difficult to cultivate. The kokum tree is yielding fruits after some 10-15 years and the fruit is harvested in and around May. The seeds in the fruit have a fat content of about 60 %. The yearly production is about 1.000 tons.

13

Illipe The illipe is a wild growing tree found in the low lands of Borneo. The tree is yielding nuts after 12-15 years. The illipenut is harvested in January and the fats content is between 40-60 %. The size of the harvest is varying a lot due to the prevailing climatic cycle and as the tree is very tall and slim it is sensitive to heavy winds and rains.


AAK Magazine  |  December 2010

Non hydrogenated fat with excellent melt-off

Excellent melting behavior Very good whipping properties Non hydrogenated Non trans, TFA < 1% Clean label, declared as vegetable fat Clean and neutral taste

  Besides the melt-off, Akocrem Lux also has very good whipping properties. It can be used for a number of different other applications, for example vanilla custard and ice cream. Akocrem Lux gives the same excellent melt-off as hydrogenated coconut 60

The good melt-off of hydrogenated filling fats has been hard to achieve with non hydrogenated alternatives. With Akocrem Lux AAK has found a solution. Ever since the trans debate started, AAK has been in the forefront of developing trans free, and even non hydrogenated, fats to fulfill the demands from customers and consumers. One of the biggest challenges has been to find a composition with

the very good melting behavior in the mouth that can be achieved with a hydrogenated fat.   For demanding applications, for example in high quality filled biscuits, the melting behavior has a big impact on how the product is perceived. A change in the melting profile of the filling could ruin the consumer preferences of the biscuit. With Akocrem Lux customers can change to a non hydro and non trans solution with maintained product quality.

Solid fat content, %

50

Hy Coconut Akocrem Lux

40 30 20 10 0 20

25

30

35 Temperature, °C

Sustainability in focus AAK has published its first separate report dealing only with CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) issues.

ld AAK in the wor 09 port 20 Sustainability Re

“Our customers and other stakeholders expect us to take responsibility for energy consumption, the environmental and social issues, and show respect for the wider public, our employees and people living in areas in which we operate. We must make an active contribution to the longterm sustainability of the community and work in partnership with our customers to develop better product solutions”, says AAK’s CEO Arne Frank.   AAK has decided to base its work on the principles of United Nations Global Compact. This means that the company embraces and supports a set of core values in areas of human rights, labour standards, the environment and anti-corruption. It also means that AAK is committed to submit annual progress reports to the UN Global Compact.

14

  Reporting on performance is done according to the widely adopted Global Reporting Initiative, GRI. The report contains a detailed GRI report and we plan to continue this type of reporting in coming years. This means that over time the report will give stakeholders a detailed picture of progress made in different areas.   Finally the report contains a more in-depth description on our activities to improve sustainability in our supply of certain raw materials. Palm oil comes from tropical rain forest areas and AAK has been active in the development of RSPO, a multi stakeholder non for profit organisation, with the objective to secure sustainable production of palm oil. Today more than 3 million tons of palm oil comes from certified sustainable plantations. Shea nut oil comes from the savannahs of West Africa and is collected by the local population. Through cooperation with UN Development Programme AAK is working towards improving living conditions in villages involved in the collection of shea nuts.


Antioxidants in infant formula The reference for infant formula is breast milk. In order to mimic breast milk a number of different oils needs to be blended. AAK has a long experience in supplying tailor made oil blends for infant formula, under the Akonino name. In order to maintain the excellent quality of the Akonino product, antioxidants can be added according to customer specification.

Permitted antioxidants in infant nutrition According to EU directive “Food additives permitted in foods for infants 2006/52/EC”, the following most commonly antioxidants are approved to be used in Infant formulae: ascorbylpalmitate, tochopherols, and lecithin. Optimal composition of antioxidants The type and amount of antioxidants added, determine the oxidation stability of the final Akonino product. With the extensive knowledge in fat chemistry the R&D at AAK has conducted trials with different antioxidants, in order to determine the optimal addition of antioxidants.   In the below graph different antioxidants at different levels has been evaluated. PV-development with different antioxidant systems

General function claims are listed under article 13 in the EU regulation for health and nutrition claims (EU 1924/2006). Article 13.1 handles all claims, which do not refer to reduction of disease risk or children’s development and health.

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Antioxidant mixture 1

Antioxidant mixture 4

Antioxidant mixture 2

No addition of antioxidant

9

10 Week

Antioxidant mixture 3

New EU labelling for organic foods As of July 1 2010, it is mandatory to use the new organic logo for pre-packed foods within the EU. Industry is, however, still allowed to use the old logo for a transition period of two years. This logo is compulsory – unlike its predecessors. The main purpose of the new logo is to make it easier for consumers within the EU to recognize organic foodstuffs. The presence of this logo guarantees that the product is organic and meets the EU’s rules and regulations concerning organic status. This means that at least 95 % of the raw materials that are used are of organic origin. Labels that include the new logo should

General function health claims

also state which certification body is involved and the geographical origin of the agricultural raw materials. The designation of origin can be either EU, non-EU or the name of a specific country.   National and own trademark logos can still be used and placed alongside the EU “leaf” logo in order to increase the recognition factor in the national markets. AAK offers a complete range of organic oils and formulated products for a variety of different applications. 15

All Member states in EU submitted claims in this category to the European Commission in 2008 and the total amount of claims was over 44.000. These were concentrated to a list of 4.637 health claims, which are under evaluation by EFSA.   In October this year the third batch of opinions for around 800 of the claims was published. In total EFSA has evaluated nearly 40 % of the claims so far. The latest claims published with positive opinion were mainly related to vitamins and minerals but also dietary fibres, fatty acids, live yoghurt cultures and lactose digestion.   These claims now need to be evaluated by the European Commission, where the advice from EFSA is taken into account, before we get an authorised health claim. There is a new time schedule set for this procedure. The evaluation of the general function health claims will be done in two steps. The first step will contain claims other than botanicals and EFSA’s evaluation of these claims will be finalized in end June 2011 followed by the approval procedure of the European Commission. The second step will be for the botanical claims and EFSA’s evaluation is planned be finalized during 2011.   This means we will be seeing more opinions from EFSA during the coming months but no approval of claims under article 13.1 until autumn next year.


GLOBAL AAK Magazine  |  DECEMBER 2010

Academy seminars

oils and seeds. Following this, a comprehensive case was introduced during Module 2; Trading Academy – a simulation of one year in the company called X, where decisions about when to cover should be taken and a later evaluation of the timing of the coverage were done. The last Module 3; Trading/Risk Management were focusing on different speculation and budget tools for traders to keep in mind when trading with vegetable oils and fats and the message is to keep a high degree of discipline.   AAK invited global customers to discuss the market and to meet other purchasers who are also working under the challenging market conditions. It is a real learning experience.

dairy and margarine industry for example in R&D, Product Development or Market and wishes to increase and develop their knowledge on these subjects. AAK has a excellent understanding of lipid technology and will help to guide you in your search for the best solution for a given end product.   The 2-day seminar is in line with our basic courses and is one of a kind in the market. It includes presentation of vegetable oil in with a health focus which is aimed at creating added value for the end product.   At the latest seminar in October the participants received knowledge about the latest developments within vegetable oil and the latest trends within the European market. The first day the participants are focusing on general fat knowledge, sourcing of raw material as well as processing and handling of vegetable oils. The second day is entirely focusing on dairy and margarine applications where AAK has a broad product portfolio which are aimed at creating added value for the end product.   Many of the participants work in the R&D and Product Development field and find the lectures on functional ingredients in different products, as well as AAK´s alternative products with improved functionality and nutritional profile, particularly interesting. It also facilitates the dialogue between customers and AAK and helps us to create a better work together in the future.

Dairy Fat Alternatives & Functional Ingredients seminar, in Sweden 2010 The seminar is suitable for those working in the

We look forward to seeing you at one of the many different AAK Academy seminars during 2011.

AAK runs its own school – AAK Academy – exclusively only for our customers. The seminars offers a range of courses from basic fat chemistry and technology to special courses with focus on current issues or application areas or raw material. Pricing & Purchasing seminar, in Denmark 2010 This is a one-day seminar that gives our customer´s personal, an unique opportunity to increase their knowledge and learn more about purchasing of vegetable oils and fats, latest seminar held in October at AAK’s site in Aarhus.   Traders from the Sourcing & Trading department in AAK where responsible for the seminar, they held a presentation covering a wide range of topics. The seminar is designed to give a broad insight into the processes and necessary knowledge in relation to the purchasing of vegetable oils and fats. It also gives the participants a view of how the situation on raw material market is at the moment and our estimates/views on the future price trends. A new topic for this year´s seminar was Sustainable Palm Oil since the interest is increasing every year.   The seminar was split into three main modules: Fundamentals-Supply & Demand, Trading Academy and Trading/Risk Management. The fundamental analysis part of the seminar presents an updated overview of the supply and demand situation for

Calendar 2011 AAK Academy Seminars Filling Fats for Chocolate and Confectionery Products Basic Seminar in Vegetable Oils and Fats for the Food Industry Vegetable Oils in Infant Nutrition Cocoa Butter Alternatives for the Chocolate and Confectionery Industry Natural Vegetable Functional Lipids for Beauty and Personal Care Formulations Filling Fats for Chocolate and Confectionery Products Cocoa Butter Alternatives for the Chocolate and Confectionery Industry Dairy Fat Alternatives and Functional Ingredients Exhibitions and other events NCA State of the Industry Conference NIOP Annual Convention In-Cosmetics PMCA Production Conference Great Lakes IFT Supplier’s Night NY IFT Supplier’s Night IFT Annual Meeting and Food Expo AACT Technical Seminar NCA Washington Forum AACC Annual Meeting Food Ingredients Europe Pricing & Purchasing within Vegetable Oils and Fats

Language English Swedish English English English English English English

Date March 16-17 April 12-13 May 18-19 May 25-26 September 20-21 October 4-5 November 2-3 Date not settled

Location Aarhus, Denmark Karlshamn, Sweden Karlshamn, Sweden Aarhus, Denmark Karlshamn, Sweden Aarhus, Denmark Aarhus, Denmark Karlshamn, Sweden

English English English English English English English English English English English English

February 16-19 March 13-15 March 29-31 April 11-13 April 20 May 11 June 11-14 September 19-21 September 21-23 October 16-19 Nov 29-Dec 1 December 1

Miami, FL, USA Scottsdale, AZ, USA Milan, Italy Lancaster, PA, USA Battle Creek, MI, USA Sommerset, NJ, USA New Orleans, LA, USA Lincolnshire, IL, USA Washington D.C., USA Palm Springs, CA, USA Paris, France Paris, France www.aak.com


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