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Beat Migration Bloom on Chocolate Products by Optimizing Your Process Reprint from The Manufacturing Confectioner May 2010


Beat Migration Bloom by Optimizing Your Process A new look at the tempering process to reduce migration bloom in chocolate products. Bjarne Juul AAK

ntensive research has shown a significant

I

BACKGROUND

correlation between process parameters and

Cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalents

the speed of migration bloom development.

(cbes) are polymorphic fats (Figure 1). Their

  It seems that the temperature used for most

solid stability increases with increasing melt-

temper tests in the world is too low and actually

ing temperature, but Form V is actually stable

guides chocolate manufacturers to produce

enough in practice for chocolate production

slightly undertempered chocolate.

and is easy to make and has a perfect melting

  The cooling of chocolate and particularly

point.

chocolate shells is too severe, causing too high

  Chocolate prefers to crystallize in Forms III

cooling rates, which probably affect the ratio of

and IV, but by using tempering equipment to

Form IV and Form V polymorphs in the final

make the right combination of time, shear and

chocolate product.

cooling conditions for a certain fat phase com-

  The subsequent transformation, from Form

position, it is possible to make seeds in Form V

IV to Form V, accelerated by the migrating oils

in a partly melted chocolate dispersion.

from fillings, speeds up the bloom-develop-

  Different types of tempering equipment or

ment process.

seed techniques have been developed.

  It is found that if this transformation takes

Polymorphs of Cocoa Butter

place at a temperature above room temperature, a type of heat treatment or “aftertempering” occurs, and the development of migration bloom can be delayed significantly.   This heat treatment is application- and recipe-dependent and the total treatment is a multiple of time and temperature.

Bjarne Juul is senior technology specialist at AAK. He started there in 1991.

Form I II III IV V VI

Melting point °C 17.3 23.3 25.5 27.5 33.8 36.5

Systematic Nomenclature γ α β’2 β’1 β2 β1

Figure 1

Reprint from The Manufacturing Confectioner • May 2010

1


Beat Migration Bloom by Optimizing Your Process It appears that the process is the major part of many migration bloom problems and this opinion is supported by different investigations.

A typical well-tempered chocolate contains ap-

Tri-unsaturated tri-acylglycerols (TAGs) such as

proximately 2 to 4 percent Form V seed crys-

1-oleoyl-2-oleoyl3-oleoyl-glycerol (OOO) accel-

tals when leaving the tempering unit; the Form

erate the transformation from Form V to Form

V crystals just survive because of their higher

VI and it is very likely that the same will happen

melting point in this specific fat phase.

with the Form IV to Form V transformation.

  An exception is a new technique that seeds

  The tri-unsaturated TAG, OOO, is the major

with approximately 0.5 percent Form VI crys-

TAG in many nuts, e.g., hazelnut, almond and

tals, which ensures Form V crystallization in the

peanut, and all are frequently used in many

remaining 99.5 percent cocoa butter and is sta-

fillings in large amounts and migration bloom

ble enough to induce crystallization at a slightly

is often seen in this kind of application. In this

higher temperature.

paper, the focus is on the tempering test, tem-

  The purpose of all tempering techniques is

pering and the production cooling, especially

basically to start and ensure the Form V crys-

for shell cooling.

tallization in a chocolate. If a chocolate is not seeded correctly with sufficient Form V crystals,

TEMPERING

the chocolate will crystallize in a lower form fol-

The traditional way of tempering is a process

lowed by transformation, resulting in problems

where all the chocolate is cooled to a tempera-

such as poor contraction and bloom.

ture where the fat phase starts crystallizing in a

  Even producing a well-tempered (Form V)

mixture of Forms III, IV and V. This process is

chocolate does not guarantee that the rest of

based on the possibility of remelting all Form

the chocolate will crystallize in the same poly-

III and Form IV crystals in a following reheating

morphic form. The outcome is highly depend-

zone.Then, by testing the tempering curve on

ent on process cooling and heat treatments.

a standard instrument, it should be possible to

Too fast a cooling will favor Form IV crystalliza-

determine the tempering conditions of the final

tion even if the tempering has created perfect

chocolate.

Form V seeds. Too much heat treatment will

  It is quite easy to evaluate the slope of a tem-

melt the seed.

pering curve but not as easy to evaluate the

  The application has a significant influence

plateau level or inflection point of the curve.

upon bloom. For applications with only one fat

It is found that the plateau is correlated to

phase, such as solid bars or solid pralines, it is

the crystal stability and bloom stability of the

not very critical, whereas for applications with

chocolate.A lower crystallization plateau pro-

more than one fat phase, like filled bars and

duces less stable crystals and a less bloom-

pralines, it is much more critical and much

resistant chocolate. The target for the inflection

more difficult to understand.

plateau must therefore be as high as possible

  Applications containing more than one fat

for a certain chocolate composition.

phase constitute perhaps 90 percent of all

  It is well known that the fat phase composi-

bloom problems and for that reason it is the

tion affects the inflection point level. More milk

most important problem to solve.

fat in a recipe, for example, produces a lower

  It appears that the process is the major part

inflection point. This fact does not directly influ-

of many migration bloom problems and this

ence the purity of Form V seed crystals because

opinion is supported by different investigations.

it is possible to adjust for it. But when tempering

2 May 2010 • Reprint from The Manufacturing Confectioner


Beat Migration Bloom by Optimizing Your Process equipment is unable to make the high inflection

evaluated. After the tempering test is finished,

level or there is ignorance about how important

the different chocolates are kept for 10 minutes

it is or how to change it, then it is much worse

at 15°C and refined on a grater and weighed

and more difficult to change.

into dsc (differential scanning calorimeter) cups and melted using the following program

COOLING FOR TEMPER TESTERS AND SHELL COOLING Nearly all tempermeters use a cooling tempera-

on a Mettler Toledo DSC 823: The temperature regime is 2 min. at 15°C and then 15°C to 60°C at +5°C/min.

ture somewhere between +7° and +10°C even

Figure 4 shows the correlation between the dsc

though cocoa butter prefers gentle cooling to

peak values for the melting curves and the cool-

ensure Form V crystallization. Years ago an ice-

ing temperature on the Exotherm equipment.

and-water bath was used; this was even further

  It seems that the higher the cooling tempera-

away from “perfect” chocolate cooling.

ture, the higher the peak value, which indicates

  Tests carried out in our pilot laboratory on a

a purer Form V crystallization.

Increasing the cooling temperature increases the inflection point of the chocolate. That indicates that more stable crystals are produced at higher cooling temperatures.

dark chocolate using a standard tempermeter have shown a clear correlation between the

Cooling and Temper Curve Slopes

chosen cooling temperature on the temperme-

The influence of cooling temperature on the slope of temper curves

ter and the inflection point level and slope for a certain chocolate (Figure 2). ing temperature in the tempermeter increases so does the slope.   For example, the 17°C cooling temper ature gives a slope of +0.41, an indication of undertemper, that there is an insufficient quantity of

Temperature curve slope

  From Figure 2 it can be seen that as the cool-

0.6

and slightly less heat in the heating zones of

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 7

Form V seed. To correct this, slightly lower cooling temperatures in the crystallization zones

0.5

9

11

13

15

17

19

Cooling temperature °C

Figure 2

the temperering unit are needed.   Figure 3 shows the correlation between the inflection point for the same chocolate as used

Correlation of Inflection Point on Optimized Temper Unit 26.5

now the tempering unit has been optimized

26

(see above) for each of the four cooling temperatures on the tempermeter.   It seems that increasing the cooling temperature increases the inflection point of the chocolate.That indicates that more stable crystals are

Inflection point °C

in Figure 2 and the cooling temperature, but

25.5 25 24.5 24 23.5

produced at higher cooling temperatures.

7

11

13

15

17

19

Cooling temperature °C

  In Figure 4 the well-tempered chocolate from the above tempering-test measurements is

9

Figure 3

Reprint from The Manufacturing Confectioner • May 2010

3


Beat Migration Bloom by Optimizing Your Process Why do these special heat or cooling treatments sometimes improve bloom stability in filled products? In general, it is a question of compensating for some defects in the basic production.

  Figure 2 shows that when making a temper

perature. Smaller amounts of Form IV crystals

test at a low cooling temperature the same

in mixtures with a lot of Form V will probably

chocolate would be undertempered if it had

make the chocolate unstable, too, but how

been measured at a higher cooling tempera-

much probably depends on the ratio between

ture, which actually is more similar to the tem-

the two polymorphs and the above-mentioned

perature used in production lines.

factors. Nobody knows how much Form IV

  The lower the cooling temperature, the lower

“contamination” you can have in a chocolate

the inflection point, see Figure 3.The only ex-

without influencing contraction, gloss, etc.

planation for this kind of lower inflection point

  Figure 5 shows a well-tempered dark choco-

for the same chocolate and lower values for

late cooled on a dsc with three different cooling

dsc peak (Figure 4) must be the different ratio

rates.

between Forms IV and V in the final chocolate

  The chocolate is tempered on a 50 kg three-

samples. The more the cooling, the more Form

zone tempering unit and a small sample is

IV crystals are generated in the final chocolate.

weighed into preheated dsc cups and placed in

  Pure Form IV crystals are very unstable and

the dsc equipment. The samples are stored for

for that reason they will quickly transform into

2 minutes at 28°C and then cooled with three

Form V depending on fat composition and tem-

different rates to 15°C, kept at 15°C for 10 minutes and then remelted at 5°C/min from 15°C

Peak values

DSC Peak Values

to 60°C. The different values for the melting

Peak value

33.5 33.4 33.3 33.2 33.1 33.0 32.9 32.8 32.7 32.6 32.5

Linear (Peak value)

peaks are shown in Figure 5.   These results show the same tendency as

y = 0.0622x = 32.17 R² = 0.92

seen from the results mentioned in Figures 3 and 4. The faster the cooling, the lower the peak value and the wider the melting curves.

7

9

11 13 15 17 Cooling temperature °C

19

SPECIAL HEAT OR COOLING TREATMENT Individual companies sometimes use different

Figure 4

types of special treatment to optimize bloom

Cooling Rates vs. Melting Peak Values Cooling Rates 28°C –> 15°C Rate 0.3°C/min 10 min at 15°C 15°C –> 60°C with 5°C/min 28°C –> 15°C Rate 0.5°C/min 10 min at 15°C 15°C –> 60°C with 5°C/min 28°C –> 15°C Rate 1.5°C/min 10 min at 15°C 15°C –> 60°C with 5°C/min

Peak value °C melting curve 32.3

Figure 5

4 May 2010 • Reprint from The Manufacturing Confectioner

stability. Some store in cool conditions for a week or more, others store in hot conditions for a few days up to one week.   Why do these special heat treatments or

32.0

special cooling treatments sometimes improve bloom stability in filled products? And why is this effect different from application to applica-

31.6

tion and time to time?   In general, it is a question of compensating for some defects in the basic production. It seems that a heat treatment compensates for


Beat Migration Bloom by Optimizing Your Process a tempering with some amount of Form III/IV

  The following example shows the effect of

formation and/or too fast a cooling of the choco-

heat treatment on milk chocolate with whole

late where some Form III/IV formation happens

nuts.

afterwards. While alternatively a special “after”

  A milk chocolate is well tempered and mixed

cooling compensates for too high a production

with 10 percent whole hazelnuts.

speed and for that reason an insufficient remov-

  The mixture is deposited into 100 g moulds

al of crystallization heat from the product before

and cooled in a three-zone cooling tunnel (at

packing and an insufficient structure building

12°C, 10°C, 14°C) for 30 minutes, 10 minutes

in the filling. Often product is stored in rooms

in each zone.

held at 12°C to 16°C. During this special cool-

  After cooling, all the tablets are stored for one

ing the TAG composition in fillings and shells

day at 20°C and then divided into four batches:

has found its optimum network structure.

• one batch is kept at 20°C for one week

  Migration speed will be minimized and

• one batch is kept at 23°C for one week

therefore the migration-induced bloom will be

• one batch is kept at 25°C for one week

reduced. Again it is a compensation for insuf-

• one batch is kept at 28°C for one week

ficient cooling time in the production line and it

After one week all tablets are placed in a 20°C

actually takes much longer to remove all crys-

isothermal cabinet for bloom evaluation. Re-

tallization heat from a filling if it is in the center

sults from the bloom evaluation are found in

of a pallet and the risk of migration-induced

Figure 6.

bloom is higher than if the product had been

  Figures 7 and 8 show the difference between

cooled correctly at the start.

heat treatment and no heat treatment. The only

Bloom Evaluation Results

Weeks before visible migration bloom Special storage around nuts 1 week at 20°C, reference 29 1 week at 23°C 45 1 week at 25°C > 52 1 week at 28°C > 52 Figure 6

production difference between the two tablets is the one-week heat treatment. An analysis of the TAG composition of the chocolate at a distance of 0.5 mm from the nuts does not show a significant difference in the TAG composition. For both cases, migration of triunsaturated TAG (OOO) has taken place, but with two different bloom results.

Chocolate without Heat Treatment

Chocolate with Heat Treatment

One week at 20°C followed by 29 weeks at 20°C

One week at 28°C followed by 52 weeks at 20°C

Figure 7

It takes much longer to remove all crystallization heat from a filling if it is in the center of a pallet and the risk of migrationinduced bloom is higher than if the product had been cooled correctly at the start.

Figure 8

Reprint from The Manufacturing Confectioner • May 2010

5


Beat Migration Bloom by Optimizing Your Process Heat treatment at 28°C for one week purifies the polymorphism and at the same time inhibits visual bloom development for 12 months despite the oil migration.

  Dsc performed on the chocolate at a distance

a real production line (Figure 9), which is one

of 0.5mm from the nuts shows a 0.6°C higher

example among many.

melting peak value in the chocolate which is

  The application is a standard praline bar

heat treated at 28°C compared with the 20°C

with a soft “bloom-critical” filling inside and a

“heat-treated” chocolate, and exactly the same

dark chocolate shell.All the praline bars were

difference is found 10mm from a nut surface

produced one week before the test was start-

for both.

ed and all pralines were glossy and free from

  It seems that heat treatment at 28°C for one

any bloom. The pralines were divided into two

week purifies the polymorphism and at the

batches and unwrapped.

same time inhibits visual bloom development

• Reference batch is kept for 24 h at 20°C be-

for 12 months despite the oil migration. This

fore it is stored in 15°C and 23°C isothermal

suggests that either the tempering or the cool-

bloom test cabinets

ing or both favored Form IV crystallization that

• Test batch is kept for 24 h at 25°C before it

was expressed as bloom in the non-heat-treat-

is stored in 15°C and 23°C isothermal bloom

ed samples.

test cabinets

  It shows how important it is to control crystal

Other examples are tests made where some

development and ensure crystal stability to re-

FrozenCone (FCT) shells are heat treated be-

tard bloom development.

fore the filling is deposited.

  A theory could be that if this transformation

  Some dark praline shells are made on FCT

happens fully above the solidification point of

pilot equipment. Cooling is 3 seconds at 15°C

Form IV for this chocolate’s particular TAG com-

and the shell thickness is 1.5mm.Afterwards all

position, no visual bloom is developed and all

shells are cooled for 20 minutes at 12°C and

Form IV crystals are moved to Form V without

then divided into two batches.

bloom development. However, if this transfor-

Batch 1, reference

mation happens at a lower temperature, below

• Shells are filled with a nougat filling with high

the Form IV solidification temperature, larger

amounts of hazelnut paste

bloom crystals will appear.

• Cooled for 15 min at 12°C

  One week at 28°C has speeded up the mi-

• Backed off and then cooled at 12°C for 30

gration to an equilibrium state and no essential

min.

Form IV-to-V transformations happen after the

Batch 2, test samples

one week and therefore no bloom develops.

• Shells are stored for 30 min at 30°C

  Of course, bloom will reappear when the

• Filled with nougat filling with high amounts of

Form V-to-VI transformation starts, but that

hazelnut paste

takes much longer and is therefore not the big-

• Cooled for 15 min at 12°C

gest problem for producers of filled products.

• Backed off and then cooled at 12°C for 30

  The above theory explains the results from

min

Results from Heat-treated Filled Praline Bars 15°C isothermal cabinet 23°C isothermal cabinet Figure 9

6 May 2010 • Reprint from The Manufacturing Confectioner

Batch 1, Reference 20°C for 24 hrs 7 weeks, strong bloom 9 weeks, strong bloom

Batch 2, Test Samples 25°C for 24 hrs > 25 weeks, no bloom > 25 weeks, no bloom


Beat Migration Bloom by Optimizing Your Process The above two examples show how two dif-

microwaves early in the production process but

ferent heat treatments at different production

very difficult to control.

stages are able to compensate for some pro-

  The optimal energy level and time is a ques-

duction “fault.”

tion of recipes, applications and fat composi-

  The first examples (Figure 9) show that even

tions.

a one-week-old product is still able to be “repaired” by heat treatment, probably by a Form

SUMMARY

V purification. It is the same phenomenon as

No two cases are the same with respect to mi-

seen in the earlier example (Figure 6) with ha-

gration bloom development.The application is

zelnuts in milk chocolate where migration hap-

too complex, therefore, it is important to look

pens but there is no visible bloom.

at all factors influencing migration bloom de-

  The example in Figure 10 is slightly more

velopment before changing recipe, application

complicated with two variants in the trial—the

and process parameters, for example.

heat treatment and the storage time of the shell

  The above examples show that the process is

before filling.

a major factor as regards fast migration bloom

  Dsc analyses show that the dsc melting peak

in chocolate products.

and end set of the shell increase around 0.3°C

  A nonoptimal tempering process combined

when the shell is heat treated as mentioned for

with a too high cooling rate favor a final crystal-

batch 2, but only between a third to a half of

lization mix of Form IV and Form V and that

this increase in peak/end set value is caused

is probably the most common reason for fast

by the extra 30 minutes’ storage time. The re-

migration bloom.The transformation of some fat

mainder is due to the higher temperature (heat

from Form IV to Form V together with oil migra-

treatment) applied.

tion seems to have a larger influence on the de-

  The conclusion is that this 30-minute pe-

velopment of migration bloom than expected.

riod at 30°C makes a significant difference to

Even though a chocolate shows a well-temper-

the shelf life, caused by some changes in the

ed curve, it does not guarantee the production

shell, maybe purification of Form V crystals in

of Form V seeds.The effect of heat treatments

the chocolate shells (which is supported by

shows that the chocolate is not perfectly tem-

the slightly higher dsc peak values) and/or a

pered and it is possible to purify the crystal pol-

type of aftertempering with longer residence

ymorphism even in a well-tempered chocolate

times.

shell, adding more bloom stability as a result.

  Tests have been done using microwaves as

It’s also important to realize that changing the

a fast online heat treatment method instead of

fat composition of a filling recipe will not solve

using longer times in heat cabinets. It is pos-

this process problem but only help to delay it.

sible to find the correct combination of energy

  The objective is always to start with perfect

and time to delay bloom development by using

tempering at the highest inflection point level

A nonoptimal tempering process combined with a too high cooling rate favor a final crystallization mix of Form IV and Form V, probably the most common reason for fast migration bloom.

Results from Heat-treated FCT Shells—Filled Praline Shells 20°C isothermal cabinet 23°C isothermal cabinet

Batch 1, Reference 9 weeks, strong bloom 7 weeks, strong bloom

Batch 2, Test Samples > 25 weeks, no bloom 25 weeks, strong bloom

Figure 10

Reprint from The Manufacturing Confectioner • May 2010

7


Beat Migration Bloom by Optimizing Your Process A nonoptimal tempering process combined with a too high cooling rate favor a final crystallization mix of Form IV and Form V, probably the most common reason for fast migration bloom.

followed by a gentle shell cooling, which seems

polymorphism, followed by an extremely cold

to be a chocolate cooling rate of around -0.3°C/

filling-cooling zone, perhaps freezing zone, to

min, as shown in Figures 3 and 5.

ensure a high degree of network structure and

  This very low cooling rate is of course expect-

small crystals, and finally a short reheating

ed to be more important at the start of cool-

zone to remove any possible condensate on the

ing rather than later on and it will depend very

product.

much on air velocity, crystallization heat from

  Before doing that we have to carry out more

center, shell thickness, size of application, etc.

studies to test a lot of different applications, fat

After that it is more a question of application,

compositions and other variables to find the

the fat composition of the filling and optimal

correct cooling condition for a certain applica-

storage.The less”optimized” a chocolate is in

tion.

its crystallization progress, the more sensitive it is to incorrect process parameters.

REFERENCES

  This paper indicates that a cooling rate in a

- AAK pilot laboratory, Aarhus, Denmark

well-tempered chocolate shell should be at a

- Beckett, Steve. Industrial Chocolate Manu-

maximum of -0.5°C/min to ensure a sufficiently

facture and Use, Second Edition, pp 186,

pure Form V crystallization with a high degree

191.

of bloom stability.

- Minifie, Bernard W. Chocolate, Cocoa and

  At the same time, it is important to make sure

Confectionery: Science and Technology.

that the tempering process is producing very

Third Edition. Page 212.

pure Form V seeds to ensure a very high inflec-

- Smith, Kevin, Geoff Talbot. Food Chemistry.

tion point measured at a production-realistic

- Timms, Ralph E., PhD. The Manufacturing

cooling temperature.

Confectioner, June 2002.

  A perfect cooling tunnel for the future could

- Ziegleder, G, Dr. Dr.–Ing habil. Frauenhofer

be a tunnel which starts with a traditional gentle

Institut, ZDS Fat Bloom Symposium, May

shell-cooling zone, followed by a short heating

16 –17, 2000.

zone (perhaps micro waves), which purifies the

8 May 2010 • Reprint from The Manufacturing Confectioner


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