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First published 2012

© Saudi Students Clubs in the UK and Ireland 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means – electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise – without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. International Standard Book Number (ISBN): Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: Printed in the United Kingdom First Printing: October 2012

All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. New Riders Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty of fitness is implied. The information is provided on an ―as is‖ basis. The author and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the CD or programs accompanying it.

Author Saudi Students Clubs in the UK and Ireland Publisher Saudi Scientific International Conference (SIC) ISBN-10: 0956904505 ISBN-13: 978-0956904508


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CUSTODIAN OF THE TWO HOLY MOSQUES - KING ABDULLAH BIN ABDULAZIZ AL SAUD

VICE-CUSTODIAN OF THE TWO HOLY MOSQUES -THE CROWN PRINCE SALMAN BIN ABDULAZIZ AL SAUD

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HRH Prince Mohammed bin Nawaf - Saudi Ambassador to the United Kingdom

Dr. Khalid Al-Ankary - Minister of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

Dr Faisal Almohana Abalkhail - Saudi Arabian Cultural AttachĂŠ

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INTRUDACTION King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) is delighted and honored to be the sponsor of the 6th Saudi International Conference at Brunel University. I extend my warmest welcome to the hundreds of Saudi students attending this prestigious event. The students represent various academic specializations, and the Conference offers them a unique and valuable opportunity for professional growth. The Conference has successfully become a springboard forum for recognizing and building upon the scientific, social, business and technological achievements of Saudi students. The subject matters in the papers and poster sessions reflect the diversity of the student authors, and reflect that this conference is modeled after professional academic conferences. I would like to share with the Conference that this year we are celebrating the golden jubilee of the establishment of KFUPM in 1963. KFUPM is a prominent University in the Middle East with international repute providing access to higher education that embraces academics, research and community service. Our excellence in science, engineering and business programs has always been associated with strong contributions to society and industry. These programs are accredited by international boards such as ABET and AACSB. Research has always been a critical part of KFUPM mission. The University is known for its leadership in industrially sponsored research in addition to academic research. Community service is a key part of the University’s outreach. Based on its academic and research achievements, KFUPM received good ranking by ARWU as one of the best 200 universities around the world in Engineering, Technology and Computer Sciences. Also, the University ranked 55th among universities in the world for 2011 in the number of issued patents at the U.S. Patent Office. While we are proud of our past and the many accomplishments in the areas of academic performance, research achievements, and community involvement over the last 50 years, we are also focused on our future. The continuing support of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques and H.R.H. the Crown Prince is gratefully acknowledged. We also thank H.R.H. Prince Mohammad bin Nawaf bin Abdulaziz, the Saudi Ambassador to the UK and Ireland, and to H.E. Dr. Khalid M. Al-Ankari, Minister of Higher Education, for their continuous encouragement and valuable advice. Finally, I would like to thank all of the members of Conference committees, the speakers and other participants for their excellent contributions. Khaled Saleh Al-Sultan Rector, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

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President of the Saudi Students' Clubs in the UK & Ireland

Vice-President of the Saudi Students' Clubs in the UK & Ireland

Vice-President For women Affairs

Director of Financial Affairs

Director of Educational Centers

Director of Activities

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SIC-2012 International Peer Review Committee“with special thanks and appreciation” NAME Dr Aiman El-Maleh Dr Sayed-Ahmed Said Dr Lahouari Ghouti Dr Ammar Kurdi Dr Robert Opoku Prof Nouar A Tabet Dr Mohamed Deriche Dr Mohammed Alshayeb Dr Saleh Duffuaa Prof. Ibrahim ELAMIN Dr Sabria Salama Jawhar Dr Hamza Gulman Dr Abdullah Alaraj Dr Abdulrazaq Aljazairi Dr Hemad Yasaei Prof Michael Wright Dr Cherry Kilbride Dr Gareth Dale Dr John Hunter Dr Tilal Eldabi Dr Jurgita Malinauskaite Dr Marvin Schiller Dr Atul Mishra Dr Ahmed Meliebary Dr Ahmed El-Masry Dr Reem Omar El-Gendi Dr Salman M. Al-Saad Dr Ibrahim Elbeltagi Dr Abdulbari Altamni Dr Gamal A El-Hiti Dr Belal Ismail Ibrahim DR Abdallah Namoun MR Salim Aissat Dr Amira Shaheen Prof. Adel Sharif Prof. Daniel C. Neagu Dr Abdulhadi Eidaroos

SPECIALITY ICT MECH/ENG ENG/ARC ACCOUNT MARKETTING PHYS/ENG ELE/ ENG ENG/ARC COM/ ENG ELE/ ENG Linguistics MECH/ENG ICS PHARM BILOGY SOCIAL SCI HEALTH/RES Politics Social Sciences ICS Law Social Sciences Business Linguistics ACC /Finance MEDICI Humanities Business Law CHEMISTRY MEDICINE ICT Acca/Finance Social Sciences Chemical Eng. Computing Usability,e.gov

UNIVERSITY KFUPM KFUPM KFUPM KFUPM KFUPM KFUPM KFUPM KFUPM KFUPM KFUPM King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences SA/MAKKAH Qassim University ,SA/ALQASEEM King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center Brunel University Brunel University Brunel University Brunel University Brunel University Brunel University Brunel University Brunel University Business School, Plymouth University The University of Nottingham Business School, Plymouth University Leeds Dental Institute, Leeds University School of Oriental and African Studies SOAS Business School, Plymouth University LAW, University of London, SOAS Cardiff University, School of Chemistry Rotherham District Hospital, UK/LEEDS Business School University of Manchester The Open University An Najah University Universty of Surrey University of Bradford University of Umm Al-Qura

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The 6th Saudi Scientific International Conference Committees Organizing committee Bader Al Saud Chair Executive committee Fawaz Al Hakami Head Zaid Al Tuirgi Assistant Mohammed Abutaleb Assistant Women Cultural Event committee Dr. Hanan Sultan Head Areeb Al Owisheq Assistant Eiman Elgibreen Assistant Faten Filimban Assistant Wafa Alshangiti Assistant Aisha Assiri Member Maha Assiri Member Amira Alghamdi Member Abir Alateeg Member Reem Alsaban Member Latifa Althefare Member Miral Alghatani Member Rawa Almakky Member Ebtihal Alfarraj Member Nouf Alnassar Member Ahd Aljarf Member Hayathem Alhasher Member Scientific committee Ibrahim Al-Masari Head Dr.Abdulhadi Al-Eidaroos

Papers officer

Dr.Abeer AL-Mouallad

Posters and Awards officer

Malak Abunar

Assistant

Eiman Sayedalamin Almami

Assistant

Ahmed Suhail Ajina Ali Ahmed Albayomi Saad Mohammad Dehlawi Talal A. Almaghrabi Dr.AbdallahAdlan

Saleh Alghamdi Ibrahim Alotaibi

Assistant Assistant Assistant Director of Scientific Associations Head of Applied Sciences Head of Education and Linguistics Assistant Head of Medical Sciences Head Of Business And Economics

Mohammed Abutaleb

Head of Health and Social Science

GhadaAngawi

RagadAllwihan Abdullah Mattar Saleh Bukhari

Head of Information and Communication Technology (Ict) Head of Politics and Law Head of Tourism, Aviation and Transportation

Sultan Alotaibi

Head of Engineering and Architecture

Mohammed YousefShagroon Eng. Fahd A. Banakhr Mohammed Alnuwairan Mona Alfedily Ali Alreian TurkiAbdulaati ZyadAlzaydi MishariAlshalhoub Ibrahim Alghamdi SamiaAlmehmadi

Representative Representative Representative Representative Representative Representative Representative Representative Representative Representative

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Abdullah Al Ashikh Representative Abdulrahman Albeladi Representative Faisal Alsuiadi Representative FatenAlzaidi Representative MahaHalabi Representative Dr. Taghreed Al-Saraj Representative Saud Alsalahi Representative Naif N. Alhazmi Representative Ali M. Dubai Representative Ali Albarrati Representative AfnanAlkathiri Representative Rafah A. Owais Representative Ali Albayomi Representative Mashael S. Alfaifi Representative Amal Hassanien Representative AhadAlJurf Representative MaramAlZaidi Representative Tahani Alrahbeni Representative Finance and Media committee Razan Baker Head Nuha Alharbi Assistant Najat Al-Saied Assistant Training and Programmes committee Saeed Al-Amoudy Head Bander Alousaimi Assistant AbdulAziz Alturki Saudi exhibition Saeed Al-Qarni Saudi exhibition Executive Secretariat committee Mohammed Mokalbesh Head I.T. & Technical support committee Abdulrahman Hariri Head Tarteel Justaniah Assistant Dana AlQudah Assistant Accommodation and Transportation committee Mohammed Al-Qarni Head Khalid Algassim Assistant Emad Alrefai Assistant Ahmed Alzahrani Member Mohammed Alharbi Member Abdulrahman Alharbi Member Yahya Alshammari Member Ahmed Majrashi Member Fayez Almuhammadi Member Ali Alharbi Member Abdullah Alsakran Member Dhari Alharbi Member Hospitality and Facilities committee Mohammed Alsaaq Head Hassan Alshahrani Member Rashed Alghamdi Assistant Feras Bakhash Assistant Ryan Aldaaffa Member Muhannad Alalwan Member Marketing and Protocol committee Dhafer Alhalafi Head Mohammad Alhalafi Assistant Fahd Bakoban Assistant Registration and Reception committee Mazin Al-Zaidi Head Ibrahim Alotaibi Assistant Maram Al-Zaidi Assistant Khalid Al-Ghamdi Member Bjad ALmoraibadh Member Abdullah Alnefie Member

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Yousef Alotaibi Meshaal Almalki Amjad Alfudail Abdulrahman Alsamiri Bander Alzaidi Ahd Aljarf Somyah Kahtani Faten Alzaidi Ejalal Jalal Olfat Mirza Ibtehal Alansari Haia Alzaidi

Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member

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Applied Sciences: Papers

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Abstract no. 15: Design and Manufacturing of Remote Control for Child Viewing Using Children’s Inspiration Rafat Saleh Madani The recruitment of children‘s imagination in the development of new product design is an interesting source of new ideas in product development, including products for children. Our study is related to the design and manufacture of a prototype of a remote control that controls television viewing content for children to protect them from inappropriate content, control viewing time and keep them at a safe distance from the television screen. For security this remote control is activated by a fingerprint recognition system. Research was carried out to understand children and their television viewing habits, this was instrumental in the development of design ideas. In particular the design was influenced by input from parents and children and the relationship between the functionality and the use of the remote control, producing a finger-shaped design inspired by fingerprint recognition and the action of pointing at the television. The project considered 4D elements such as interface design, mood lighting and sounds and 3D representations using Solid Works were produced showing various colour schemes. Prototype models were produced using SLA (stereolithography) and FDM (fused deposit modelling) techniques allowing for ergonomic testing and visualisation

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Abstract no.24: An Evaluation of Thematic Analysis (TA): its Features, Concepts, Processes and Validation. An inductive & detective approached in interpretive research Alhojailan, Mohammed Ibrahim Supervisors: Prof. Bernd Carsten Stahl Mr. Ralph Birkenhead The literature that pertains to thematic analysis (TA) shows that inconsistent descriptions and ambiguous issues exist with respect to the concepts, procedures, validations and interpretations that are used by researchers. This paper aims to provide a critical overview of the main differences between three types of qualitative data analysis i.e. grounded theory analysis, hermeneutics analysis and thematic analysis. The analytical methodology used in this paper is content analysis (Neuendorf 2012). Moreover, this paper will discuss TA in terms of its utility, features, characteristics, including a description of the main steps involved in content analysis [process] by following the model of Miles & Huberman (1994) by discussing theme validation procedures. It has been found that a thematic analysis approach is very suitable when researchers seek to interpret different individuals‘ points of view. This methodology is of primary benefit when inductive and deductive approaches are adopted. Finally, researchers used TA to link diverse concepts and opinions derived from data that is collected from different individuals. KEYWORDS Interpretivism, qualitative data analysis, thematic analysis, grounded theory analysis, hermeneutics analysis, validation.

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Abstract no. 41: Detection of Mycoplasma in Desert Surface Soils and a Range of Environmental Samples Using the EZ-PCR test Reda Amasha and Milton Wainwright Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield The aim of this work described here was to determine if Mycoplasma species can be isolated from various desert surface soils, rock samples and other environmental samples. In this study, environmental samples were tested for the presence of Mycoplasma using an EZ-PCR Mycoplasma Test Kit (Geneflow Limited, Cat No.20-700-20). Mycoplasma sp. were isolated from a soil associated with moss (Polytrichum commune) and from a local garden soil, but not from any of the desert soils, volcanic ash, desert varnish, rock samples and agricultural soils.

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Abstract no.48: Life Cycle Assessment of Solid Waste Landfilling Options with Regard To Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Makkah City, Saudi Arabia K. A. Alkhuzai, J. R. Barton School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds Life cycle assessment methodology was applied in order to determine the optimum landfilling system for solid waste management for Makkah, Saudi Arabia. An environmentally friendly system of solid waste management is highly recommended in Makkah, since the collected waste is dumped in an unregulated site that has no liner, no gas collection and no leachate treatment systems. Therefore, three different sanitary landfill scenarios were developed as alternatives to the present case of open dumping: sanitary landfill without either flaring or electricity production; gas capture with flaring only; and gas capture with 70% electricity production and 30% flaring. EASEWASTE software was used as an LCA tool to find out the minimum emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) based on input-output flow. The highest impact in terms of GHG emissions was from using a landfill without either gas flaring or electricity production, which is worse than the current situation. Landfill with 70% electricity production from the collected gas was the best option. Scavenging activities were assumed at 20% of the total waste generated. This model was compared to a scenario in which no recyclables were scavenged, and scavenging was thus shown to have positive impacts on all suggested scenarios. In both scenarios, landfill with 70% energy production was the optimum disposal system for Makkah.

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Abstract no. 88: Numerical Analysis of Flow Structure inside a Single Cylinder IC Engine Saud binjuwair1, Salah Ibrahim1, Graham Wigley1 and Graham Pitcher2 1: Faculty of Engineering, Loughborough University 2: Advanced Concepts, Lotus Engineering, Norwich, UK The in-cylinder flow of internal combustion (IC) engines, formed during the intake stroke, is one of the most important factors that affect the quality of airfuel mixture and combustion. In this paper, a numerical study has been carried out to examine the structure of the flow field inside a single cylinder engine under steady state conditions utilizing the finite-volume CFD package, STAR CCM+. The Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model, RSTM, is used to simulate the turbulent flow structure .The three-dimensional numerical study has been conducted on a single cylinder Lotus engine with a pent-roof type head for a number of fixed valve lifts (2mm, 5mm, 8mm) at two pressure drops 250mm and 635mm of H2O that is equivalent to engine speeds of 2500 and 4000RPM respectively. The generated mesh is a polyhedral type that holds nearly 3.7 million grid points. The nature of the flow structure together with discussions on the influence of the pressure drop and valve lift parameters on the flow structures are presented and discussed. Calculated results for the mean and fluctuating velocities are validated against previously published experimental data (Picton, 2006) from Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements on the same engine cylinder.

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Abstract no.97: Video Sequence Alignment with Spatio-temporal Representation Manal Alghamdi and Yoshihiko Gotoh Department of Computer Science University of Sheffield Analysing video streams is a fundamental task in many applications. It demands the extraction of different levels of feature that represent the events. This paper investigates video searching and retrieval task and it centres around the issues combined with this task. Some of these issues relate to finding a good representation for the video content and to defining the similarity concept between two representations. The presented paper involves an outline of video sequence alignment application and a space-time extension of the 2D Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), originally applied to the volumetric images in 2D. This extension proved its ability to represent the space-time events in the video and is well suited to classifying the human actions. An experiment was conducted for the action recognition task using different datasets and, compared to the other approaches, the presented approach among the state- of-the-art.

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Abstract no.104: Concentration-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients of tert-Butylferrocene within Dodecyltrimethylammonium Chloride/Brine Liquid Crystals Amal Ahmad Altalhi, Jay D Wadhawan The title lyotropic liquid crystal is examined as a framework to investigate long-range charge transfer, using tert-butylferrocene (tBuFc) as model hydrophobic system. It is found that the apparent one-dimensional diffusion coefficient depends on the tBuFc loading. It is suggested that an efficient relay mechanism for electron transfer is through the partitioning of the oxidised form between the two subphases, with inter-pseudophase reaction.

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Abstract no.106: Wastewater as a Photoelectrochemical Fuel Source: Light-to-Electrical Energy Conversion with Organochloride Remediation Amal Ahmad Altalhi, Jay D Wadhawan A photogalvanic cell that employs 2,4-dichlorophenol as a fuel source, an N-substituted phenothiazine as light harvester, and sacrificial zinc anode is presented, and shown to afford a ca. 4% light-to-electrical power conversion efficiency in violet light.

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Abstract no.144: Security of Data Transmission over A Multichannel Wireless Network Aliaa Mahfooz Alabdali*, Lilia Georgieva , Greg Michaelson MACS, Heriot-Watt University, UK, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS This paper proposes a modelling and verification approach for data transmission over a multichannel wireless local area network (WLAN) instead of the normal methodology which depends on data transmission over a single channel wireless local area network (WLAN) that could not achieve security. We develop a methodology to guarantee secure message exchange on a multichannel WLAN which uses a changeable array and indices, instead of the message itself so that we can avoid both passive and active MitM attacks. The system could provide security on data transition by testing its process using simulation techniques. The model system depends on cryptography. The model consists of three systems: (i) for the sender to analyse a message into an array of letters and indices with encoding indices , (ii) for the server to decode indices and re-encode indices using the receiver‘s private code, and (iii) for the receiver to decode indices and match letters with indices to get the original message. We assume that there is just one MitM between two hosts transmitting an email message over two wireless channels.

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Abstract no.202: Performance Comparison of OpenMP and MPI for Concordance Benchmark Malak Aljabri, Phil Trinder Of the parallel programming models available OpenMP is the de facto standard for shared memory and MPI the standard for distributed memory systems. This paper presents a performance comparison of MPI and OpenMP and their toolsets using a concordance benchmark. We present the development of a sequential concordance benchmark. Initial MPI and OpenMP versions are developed, resolving problems such as finding sequences across worker boundaries and load balancing. The initial versions are profiled and benchmarked on a multicore architecture using appropriate toolsets. Several means to reduce overheads are investigated to develop tuned parallel versions of the concordance benchmark. A performance comparison of the OpenMP and MPI concordance benchmarks on an 8 core architecture shows that OpenMP delivers better performance than MPI, e.g. a speedup of 5.3 compared with 2.6 for MPI, reflecting the lower communication costs. A programmability investigation shows that the effort required to develop and tune the OpenMP version is less than that required for MPI, as a direct benefit of the shared memory model.

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Abstract no.232: Study of the Influence of Cellulose in the Formation of Silver Nanoparticles Nadiyah saad alahmadi, Stephen M. Kelly Spherical silver nanostructures were synthesised in aqueous media over cellulose paper, a porous and environmentally friendly porous support. Our aim is to synthesise silver nanoparticles with controlled morphology and size and use them in a water purification system. The general method of synthesis is based on attaching Ag+ ions in the cellulose substrate then reducing these ions with sodium borohydride a strong reducing agent. Different reaction conditions were investigated, for example precursor‘s concentration and use of a surfactant. The silver/cellulose nanocomposite was characterised quantitatively and qualitatively with different analytical techniques. Silver nanoparticles appear as face-centred cubic (fcc) crystals of pure metallic silver. The quantity of silver nanoparticles is proportional to the concentration of silver ions in the precursor‘s solution. Surfactant (in the form of dissolved cellulose) has a nonnegligible impact: our investigations show that the presence of a surfactant enhances the amount of silver nanoparticles immobilised in the samples. Moreover, it does not change the morphology of silver nanoparticles, even though it helps keep these nanoparticles dispersed.

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Abstract no.256: γ-ray spectroscopy of Si, CdTe and CZT detectors using 59.5 keV 241Am source A. Alruhaili1, P. J. Sellin, A. Lohstroh1, P. Veeramani1, S. Kazemi Physics department, University of Surrey CdTe and CZT detectors have wide band gap energies and high Z which make them Suitable choices for γ- ray spectroscopy. In comparison to Si detectors, CdTe and CZT detectors are combining the advantages of high quantum efficiency and reasonable energy resolution. The motivation of this work is to investigate the performance characteristics of CdTe and CZT detectors, under 59.5 keV photon irradiation, in comparison to a Si detector by conducting spectroscopic measurements on four planar semiconductor detectors, namely two different types of CdTe detectors (Ohmic and Schottky contacts), a CZT and a Si detector. The Si detector shows the best energy resolution among the tested detectors at the same field strength. However, its quantum efficiency is below that of CdTe and CZT detectors. CdTe detectors are considered better choices for high γ- ray detection efficiency due to the higher atomic weight. However, their energy resolutions are not as good as for Si detector due to incomplete whole collection which causes a tail in the lower energy side of the spectra. The CdTe (Ohmic type) detector is limited by leakage currents which add more noise to the spectra and subsequently degrade the energy resolutions especially at higher voltages. However, the Schottky contact CdTe detector shows better energy resolutions in comparison with the Ohmic type due to the improvement in its leakage current.

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Abstract no. 262: Overview of the design of GUMSMP: a Multilevel Parallel Haskell Implementation Malak Aljabri, Phil Trinder, and Hans-Wolfgang Loidl Heriot-Watt University Multi and many core architectures are now becoming the dominant hardware platforms, enabling multiple tasks to be computed faster than they could be on single core machines. Moreover, the current trends of high performance platforms are multi-level with clusters of multicores. This is turning parallel programming into a main stream rather than a niche technology. Parallel programming is difficult, error-prone due to having to consider all possible coordination aspects of a computation. We present the design of the new multi-level parallel Haskell implementation, GUMSMP, to better exploit a cluster of multicore architectures, thus efficiently combine distributed memory parallelism over the cluster with optimised shared memory parallelism on the multicore nodes. Moreover, it relieves the programmer from the burden of managing parallelism which is controlled implicitly by the language implementation.

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Abstract no. 263: Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of Mercury Telluride Quantum Dots A. A. Al-Otaifya, S. V. Kershawb and D.J. Binksa aThe Photon Science Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester bDepartment of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong Mercury telluride quantum dots have several potential applications of their infra-red optical properties, including use as emitters at telecommunications wavelengths and as the absorbing species in photodetectors and photovoltaic devices. In particular, the absorption edge of these quantum dots can be sizetuned across the near-infrared, enabling the efficient exploitation of the solar spectrum. In this study, ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate exciton dynamics and interactions in mercury telluride quantum dots. We show that the observed exciton decay transients are not due to the formation of multi-excitons, either by a quantum dot absorbing more than one photon per pump pulse or by the carrier multiplication effect, We also show that the formation of trions as a result of long-lived surface trapping does not make a significant contribution to the decay transient either, and instead attribute our observations to direct surface-trapping.

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Abstract no. 299: It Project Devolopments and Risk System Strategies Using IBM’s DRiMaP Model: a Case Study Mohammad Z. Alem, Hussain Zedan Software Technology Research Laboratory, De Montfort University The risk involved with globalization and other market issues are making the risk management an important area in IT organization. However, most of the multinational IT companies, i.e. International Business Machines (IBM), are considering the biggest problem associated to the distributive nature of the working culture across the globe. IBM has its outlets across the globe, however, where various people of different culture work on a single IT project. Due to these differences in culture, which underscore different sources of risk, IBM introduced its own approach using Distributed Risk Management Process (DRiMaP) model to mitigate risk based on its priority. In spite of precaution or measure, i.e. risk management models, yet there are still issues, not solved, in large IT projects. Hence, this research would test IBM‘s DRiMaP process keenly so as to develop a new and dynamic approach which extends the current model to handle the distributive nature of the organizational large IT projects and to mitigate the risk evolved therein.

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Abstract no. 347: E-Loyalty with the presence of multimodal metaphors YUSEF M. ALZAHRANI AND DIMITRIOS I. RIGAS Department of Media Technology University of De Montfort P09052604@myemail.dmu.ac.uk The paper purposes to evaluate the role of multimodal interaction metaphors in E-CLMS which carries with it a number of issues like combining the loyalty and mass customisation during transferring information overload in a structured manner. Since the effects of multimodal interaction on the loyalty of customers have been addressed to a negligible extent by the researchers, the paper aims to conduct experimentation to determine such effects on the customer loyalty. The experiment accomplishes the task empirically by taking into account the ECKMS with a combination of text and graphic using the multimodal. The interfaces of text and graphic are evaluated on the basis of two groups of users (a single group has n=25) with user loyalty factor equalized to four. The obtained results showed that the use of audio-visual metaphors results in more loyalty users.

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Abstract no. 390: Impact of home environment on Saudi Arabian children living in the UK Abeer Abdulaziz Alawad An environment, its form and use, clearly have a significant impact on its occupants. This research considers the power of visual images and how they can be utilised in the home environment. The environment affects people‘s experiences, the way they learn or don‘t learn. It can also impinge on people‘s feelings and how people integrate, communicate and relate to each other within their surroundings. Saudi Arabia is a big country with a mixture of culture heritage in different regions but there is a common cultural heritage. For example, all Saudi citizens share the love of the two holy cities Makah and Almadena. Additionally, the national flag and photos of the King and Crown Prince can be classed as common symbols representing the country. These national emblems have great significance for Saudi Arabia and its residents. With increased governmental support a huge number of scholarship holders have been granted the opportunity to complete their graduate and post graduate in different western countries, there are many Saudi families and children currently living in the UK. It is important to ensure the Saudi community, living in the UK, especially children, are aware of their collective identity and share their parents‘ love of Saudi Arabia. The concept of a collective identity refers to a set of individuals' sense of belonging to the group or collective. For the individual, the identity derived from the collective shapes a part of his or her personal identity. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible benefits of using Saudi Arabian symbols and images in the home to remind children of their home country as they view the designs throughout the day. The contribution to new knowledge will be in the development of advice for all people in the Saudi community living in the UK and possibly any other country. Further research into this area could inform governments and future events within the UK targeting the Saudi community.

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Abstract no. 427: Dust Growth in Magnetised Plasma Sheaths M. B. Alharbi, D. A. Diver The evolution and character of plasma dust has wide-ranging im- plications for astrophysics and laboratory plasmas, including plasma processes and fusion devices. The local electromagnetic _elds can inuence the condi- tions for dust growth, leading in some cases to naturally occurring prolate- spheroidal dust shapes. In this paper we will present results for dust growth by ion accretion, under the combined inuence of an applied magnetic _eld and the evolving electrostatic _eld arising from the charged grain. Simulations of ion trajectories through a magnetised plasma sheath will demonstrate the inhomogeneity of mass loading on an isolated grain surface. The e_ect of grain shielding by orbiting particles will be taken into account in our simulations.

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Abstract no. 493: Evaluation of the EKF-SLAM and Fast SLAM Algorithms Faisal ALrebeish, Dr.Rustam Stolkin School of Computer Science University of Birmingham Simultaneous localization and Mapping (SLAM) which is also referred to as Concurrent Localization and Mapping (CLM) is a fundamental problem in the field of mobile robotics and it has been the focus of many researchers in recent years. The SLAM problem requires a mobile robot to start from an unknown location in an unknown environment, to build a map of that environment using observations of the world around it using onboard sensors, and simultaneously localize itself with respect to that map. This paper describes an experimental study to evaluate and compare the localization performance of two of the most commonly used SLAM algorithms, the Fast SLAM and EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) SLAM. We use ground truthed empirical experiments, with controlled sensor noise and other parameters of several different magnitudes, to provide experimental evidence that both of the algorithms show robustness in estimating the position of the robot under high level of measurement noise. However, we demonstrate that the Fast SLAM outperforms the EKF-SLAM in term of localizationaccuracy.

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Abstract no.529: Quantification of Inorganic Nitrogen in North Wales Soil Samples Abdulaziz AlMulla Supervisor: Dr. Murphy, L. Bangor University Nitrogen is one of the most common elements constituting 78.08% of the atmosphere. The formation of nitrite, nitrate and ammonium is an essential part of the nitrogen cycle that operates between the atmosphere, soils, and water. However, and at high concentrations can cause many adverse health effects in human such as methemoglobinemia in infants and stomach problems in adults. This aim of this project was to determine , and in soil samples collected at specific depths at different local farms. The concentration of was relatively higher than the concentration of in both soil samples as a result of being rapidly oxidised to as a result of is the stable phase of nitrogen. In the present study, the concentration of in site 1 soil was 16.81 ± 0.07 mg/kg, where was 84.21 ± 0.53 mg/kg and was 2.16 ± 0.15 mg/kg at 0-15 cm.

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Abstract no.711: Intra rater reliabilityof joint angles of the lower limb during stance phase of gait in healthy subjects using siliconCOACH. Salem Alatawi Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Tabuk University, Saudi Arabia. Objective: Measurements of human movement and gait analysis have less popularity in the clinical practice, therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the intra-rater reliability, within day and between days, of SiliconCOACH in measuring hip, knee, and ankle joint angles at initial contact(IC), loading response(LR) and toe off (TO) phases during walking. Methodology: Twenty healthy subjects were asked to walk along a 10meter walkway at their self-selected speed . A digital video-camera was placed 5 meters away on a tripod perpendicular to the walkway. Retro-reflective markers were placed on the subject's right-side lower limb. The video-recording was imported into SiliconCOACH professional movement-analysis software to calculate the hip, knee and ankle angles during initial contact (IC) , loading response (LR) and toe off (TO) phases. Result: ICC's, SEMs and 95% limits of agreements (LOA) for the hip, knee and ankle joint angles respectively calculated during the three phases of stance. The ICCs were all above 0.85 indicating excellent reliability. The SEM scores were small and varied from 0.13˚to 1.82˚. The 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were between + 5.90º and – 4.10º Conclusion: SiliconCOACH has been shown to be a reliable measure of the hip, knee and ankle joint angles. It is relatively inexpensive, non-invasive and straightforward to use in clinical settings.

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Health & Social Studies Papers:

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Abstract no. 53: Translation and psychometric properties of an Arabic version of The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) in Saudi Arabia. Mansour Al-Yami The University of Sheffield The aim of this study was to translate the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) from English into Arabic and to examine the psychometric properties of the translated version. The OCQ has been widely validated and used in different cultures, but currently there is no evaluated Arabic version. A survey design incorporating a translated version of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used and the data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. Result indicated that two different factors were underlying Arabic participants responses to the Arabic version of the OCQ items and that these factors were highly internally consistent. This paper conclude that the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire has a twofactor structure and that an Arabic version of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire could applied in studies of organizational commitment in Arabic populations.

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Abstract no. 170: A Perception Assessment Survey of Water Pipe Smoking Among Students In Manchester and A Review of Its Health Impacts Sultan Abdulelah Kotby School of Environment and Life Sciences University Of Salford The main objective of the study was to collect data in form of a survey, which provided a perception on the awareness of water pipe smoking amongst students of Manchester universities. As well as reviewing water pipe health, environment impacts and government policies, also reviewing water pipe smoking with comparison to cigarette smoking. Some researchers claim that the longer the duration of a water pipe session the more you are exposed to heavier yield of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Therefore one session is equal to 100 cigarettes or more, which leads to cancer. Other researchers criticise the methodology used and all evidence is based on one measurement source. The study took place in Greater Manchester assessing students from Salford University, Manchester University and Manchester Metropolitan University. Where questionnaires were distributed out to students. 300 quantitative questionnaires were given out to universities in Greater Manchester area, only 203 were returned, 15 did not know the concept of water pipe, 188 was the total number of candidates valid to assess. Results shows 45% of all candidates believe that water pipe is more harmful than cigarettes. The majority of students responded, that neither a good brand of charcoals nor tobacco can reduce the harm of water pipe smoking. 74% of respondents believe it is harmful to share a water pipe. 80% of candidates believed water pipe smoking makes the human body more susceptible to cancer. Health impact from Water pipe smoking urges to conduct clear clinical trials which have standardised methodology and longitudinal research evidence. Also triangulation is suggested to cross check the reliability and validity of findings. It is recommended to get permission to create awareness campaigns in schools and universities to spread information on water pipe smoking health facts and effects. pg. 36


Abstract no. 282: The Determining Roles of Food Rheology and Oral Pressure in Triggering a Swallow Woroud Abdulrahman Alsanei, Jianshe Chen School of Food Science and Nutrition, The University of Leeds Bolus swallowing could be a difficult task or hazardous to some disadvantaged populations (Dysphagia, Swallowing disorders or Difficulty swallowing), such as elderly, infant babies, hospital patients, causing choking or even suffocation. Providing quality foods which are not only tasty and nutritious but also safe to consume is essential for the wellbeing of these populations. A main challenge to food manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries in developing such food is that the determining criteria in triggering bolus swallowing are still little known. The rheological properties of a food bolus (in particular the shear viscosity) are believed to be the main determining factors in swallowing initiation and bolus flow along oropharyngeal and oesophageal tract. Main aims of this work were (1) to test the hypothesis that rheological properties of food boluses are the key determining factors for an ease swallowing; and (2) to investigate the possible correlations between bolus properties and subjects‘ physiological capability in creating oral pressure.

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Abstract no.350: The effect of the current Youtube shows production boom on the Saudi society Rasha Saifuddin Leicester Universities An observational movement in Saudi Arabia of using new media especially Youtube. There are many programs focusing on cultural aspects and wrong traditions in the society in terms of develop our society. Nowadays, youtube is dealing with culture and social issue, in order to facing this important issue I will do this project to analyze it. The questions I consider about is that 1- Do this programs have mirrored the society or not? 2- To What extent this programs have accepted and reacting by saudi citizens? 3- What kind of content include in the programs If this way of coverage the issues is suitable for them in terms of showing real cultural attitude? Other angle of my research is that what is driving the current boom producing youtube shows, is the reason of express their opinion or to find out new way to entertain the viewers or highlight the social problems in term of developing the society.

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Abstract no. 402: ACCULTURATION OF KASP’S HOLDERS IN BRITAIN AND ITS ROLE IN THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Bedour A. Abouammoh Department of Professional Communication, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, England This paper presents the role of acculturation and adaptation to social and learning environment of foreign students in the host countries to their education achievements. It also investigates problems facing students studying abroad concerning differences in social behaviours and academic practices at home and in host countries. It is believed that enlightened students of major differences between these cultures and necessary expectation of social norms for the host culture would participate in their smoother adjustment of various aspects of life. Social adaptation with knowledge and awareness is associated positively to student success in his/her academic life and minimize homesickness, drop-out, and cultured cloning instances. Keyword:Adaptation, social behaviour, Saudi students, studying abroad.

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Abstract no. 408: Cultural Competence and Patient-Centered Care for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Cross-Cultural Medical Settings Noura A. Abouam Ministry of Health, MPH School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield This paper describes the rationale of studying cross-cultural medical interaction. The concept of cultural competence and patient centeredness and the significance of applying them when caring for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are presented. A specific focus is directed to the situation in Saudi Arabia where 80% of physicians are expatriates. A review of previous publications on barriers and challenges to medical communication from the perspective of both expatriate physicians and their patients is presented. The paper suggests research studies to promote effective interaction in crosscultural medical settings to improve quality of type 2 diabetes mellitus care in Saudi Arabia.

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Abstract no.421: Daily Air Pollution Levels and Asthma; Exploring the Influence of Time-Activity Patterns on Exposure in Al Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia 1 Mr Salem AlBalawi , Prof. Tanja Pless-Mulloli1, Dr. Anil Namdeo2 & Dr. Susan Hodgson3 1 Institute of Health & Society, Medical School, Newcastle University, UK 2 Transport Operations Research Group, Newcastle University, UK 3 MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, UK Air pollution is a risk factor for adverse health effects, for example many studies have shown a link between air pollution exposure and hospital admissions for asthma. Many epidemiological studies have used outdoor concentrations to estimate human exposure. Personal exposure monitoring has become available over recent years thus allowing more precise exposure estimation covering both outdoor and indoor exposures but so far there is no such evidence from Saudi Arabia. This study will assess the link between exposure to air pollution and asthma hospital visits in the industrial city of Al Jubail and will identify factors that influence personal exposure.

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Abstract no.507: Children's Rights in Saudi Arabia Ejalal Jalal University of Leicester Phd In Child & Adolescent Mental Health The aim: The present paper will mainly focus On the exploration literature about children‘s rights in Islamic cultural specifically, Saudi Arabia, and critically appraise the cultural and legal evidence for and against the use of physical punishment. Method: I focused on the available evidence in the electronic research engine (Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Google scholar). The research terms were physical punishment or corporal punishment or physical abuse, and children/child, and disciplinary practices, Saudi culture or Islamic culture or Arab countries. Results: Few Studies were found on examining the cultural impact on the use of the corporal or physical punishment (Alyahri and Goodman 2008, Abolfotouh et al. 2009). These Studies are the most appropriate studies, and neighbouring country to Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: Physical Punishment still remains as an acceptable method of disciplinary practice in Saudi Arabia. This Could be due to the lack of awareness of alternative disciplinary methods among families, the educational level of the family, and Saudi‘s Cultural and traditional norms.

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Medical Sciences Papers:

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Abstract no.10: The anchorage potential of functional appliances: A multicenter randomized, comparative, retrolective study Dr Safa Jambi, Kevin O‘Brien The School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester Background and objectives: The control of anchorage is integral to successful orthodontic treatment. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of functional appliances on tooth position in the preparation of anchorage and the extraction decision. Methods: This was a multicenter randomized, comparative, retrolective study with two parallel groups. There were 36 patients in the Twin Block group and 47 patients in the Herbst group. Data for tooth movement was collected from 3D models in three stages of treatment; pretreatment, post-functional and post-treatment. The factors that influence their decision to extract teeth at the end of a first phase of functional appliance treatment were also evaluated. Results: Fixed and removable functional appliances are equally effective in anchorage preparation. The type of functional appliance and time spent in Phase I treatment influenced the amount of lower incisor proclination. Conclusions: Functional appliances reduce the anchorage requirements of a case primarily by reduction of the overjet, both fixed and removable functional appliances are equally effective in obtaining this. However, fixed functional appliances result in greater lower incisor proclination than removable functional appliances. Moreover the amount of time spent in the functional appliance phase results in an increased degree of lower incisor proclination. The type of functional appliance (removable or fixed) does not influence the extraction decision, however, the change in lower incisor proclination and the amount of residual crowding following functional appliance treatment are related to an increased chance of extractions being prescribed.

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Abstract no. 22: Tackling the problem of blood culture contamination (BCC) in an intensive care unit (ICU) using an educational intervention. Yaser M. Alahmadi,1 Mamoon A. Aldeyab,1 Fidelma A. Magee,2 Michael G. Scott,2 Mary P. Kearney,2 , Ronnie Bailie,2 James C. McElnay1 1 Clinical and Practice Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Queen‘s 2 Contamination of blood cultures is a common problem. False-positive blood cultures have been associated with unnecessary antibiotic use, additional laboratory tests and increased length of hospital stay thus incurring significant additional hospital costs and exposing the patient to unnecessary treatments and unnecessarily prolonged hospital stay. 1,2,3 According to the standards of the American Society for Microbiology, the rate of contamination of blood cultures should not exceed 3%.4

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Abstract no. 62: Evaluation of Accuracy and Precision of Two Devices for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Hala Almadani, Basmah Badughaish, Alaa Almadhari, Khawlah Aldulaijan Supervisor: Taghreed Alghamdi Department of Medical Laboratory Technology College of Applied Medical Sciences University of Dammam Background: Continuous monitoring of blood glucose level is a key element in the management of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, assessment of the reliability of commercially available self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) devices is of extreme importance. We aimed to evaluate two popular SMBG devices by comparing its accuracy and precision with a laboratory reference system. Methods: ACCU-CHEK 速 Active (Roche) and HEA-220 Blood Glucose Monitor (Omron) were compared to glucose hexokinase assay on Dimension 速 chemistry analyzer, using capillary blood and sera from 38 patients. Glucometer accuracy was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis, and Passing-Bablock regression. Intra-assay glucometer precision was examined by 10 consecutive measurements at two glucose levels. Results: More than 95% of measurements on both devices were within mean 賊 1.96 SD of Bland-Altman plots. Passing-Bablock analyses revealed that there were no significant deviations from linearity for both glucometers compared to the reference system. Results for intra-assay precision were: CV for ACCU-CHEK at two glucose levels: 3.6% and 1.3%, and for Omron: 2.3% and 4.3%. Conclusions: Both glucometers had an acceptable accuracy and precision that met the NCCLS/ISO and FDA guidelines. However, both didn't meet ADA guidelines. ACCU-CHEK 速 Active glucometer performed better than OMRON HEA-220. Abbreviations: NCCLS; National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, ISO; International Organization for Standardization, FDA; Food and Drug Administration, ADA; American Diabetes Association.

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Abstract no. 92: DNA binding studies of fluorinated active compounds Mariam Mojally, Dr. George Weaver, Dr. Paul Lucas Department of chemistry Leicestershire University Fluorinated heterocyclic compounds have drug like properties and possess a valuable biological activity due to their rigid chemical structures and the high solubility profile. Novel fluorinated heterocyclic active compounds have been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of perfluorinated compounds such as pentafluoropyridine, hexafluorobenzene and pentafluorotoluene with carbazole or 1-bromo-2-naphthol. Their interaction with DNA was investigated by thermal melting studies via U.V. absorption at 260 nm using Calf thymus DNA double strand during gradual increasing in the temperature from 50 % to 100 %. 1-bromonaphth-2-yl tetrafluoropyrid-4-yl ether showed very high activity and bind to DNA more than other compounds possibly by intercalation.

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Abstract no. 105: Risk Factors for Overweight Status in Adolescent Girls in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia Elham Al-Jaaly, BA (Cl.Nutr); MSc (HN); MPH, PhD (IHD); RD Centre for International Health and Development, ICH, UCL There are growing concerns about increasing levels of obesity in adolescents in Saudi Arabia. To address the problem requires an understanding of the determinants. The objective of the study was to quantify the problem of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to explore the determinants, with a view to informing policy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among girls aged 13 to 18 in Jeddah. Height and weight measurements were taken and girls completed a questionnaire, which explored a range of nutrition-related issues. A total of 1519 female adolescents participated in the study, 24% were overweight or obese and 14% were underweight. This is the first Saudi study to use a theoretical framework to investigate comprehensively factors that might have an effect on adolescentsâ€&#x; eating behaviours and overweight status.

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Abstract no. 148: An fMRI Investigation of the Role of the Basal Ganglia in Cognitive Function T. S. Abualaita, S. T. Francisb, c, and S. R. Jacksona, d a School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, UK b School of Physics, University of Nottingham, UK c Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, UK d Body and Brain Centre, University of Nottingham, UK The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of highly interconnected nuclei that located deeply at the base of the cerebral cortex. They participate in multiple circuits or 'loops' with cognitive and motor areas of the cerebral cortex. The role of the basal ganglia has primarily been thought to be involved in motor control and learning. A number of brain imaging studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved not only in motor tasks but also in cognitive functions, such as planning, attention, and mental imagery. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of the basal ganglia in cognitive control by examining its involvement in Go/Wait task utilizing ultra-high field (7 Tesla) fMRI with higher spatial resolution and BOLD contrast. Eleven right-handed healthy subjects with no history of neurological disorders were scanned while they performed a Go/Wait interference task. Significant activation that related to response withholding more than immediate responding (Wait vs Go) was found in a network of brain areas involving bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyrus, and right insula lobe. Interestingly, significant activation was also found in right thalamus and left putamen. Furthermore, significant activation that is related to immediate responding (Go vs Wait) was found in bilateral caudate nucleus, bilateral cerebellum. These findings suggest that the basal ganglia have a critical role in cognitive interference processing and action selection during Go/Wait task.

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Abstract no. 178: Investigating the role of IREB2 genetic variants in susceptibility to COPD Aiman Abdulrahim Alsaegh, Tamar Guetta-Baranes, Noor Kalsheker, Sally Chappell The IREB2 gene encodes the iron-binding protein 2 (IRP2), which is a major regulator of iron homeostasis. In a previous report, we observed significant associations of seven IREB2 genetic variants (6 intronic and 1 in exon 21) with increased risk of COPD in a large case-control study. Subsequent In-silico analysis showed that two of these intronic SNPs (rs2656069 and rs10851906) were in tight linkage disequilibrium (r2=0.99) with a promoter SNP (rs2656070) which is predicted to disrupt the binding of two transcription factors (SP-1 and AP-1). The IREB2 regulatory elements have not been previously characterized. This report aimed to identify the IREB2 promoter region and to evaluate whether the promoter polymorphism has potential functional consequences on IREB2 expression. To test the effect of the promoter SNP on transcriptional activity, two fragments were amplified and cloned from genomic DNA corresponding to homozygotes for each allele of rs2656070. The first fragment contained 1.08 kb of sequence upstream of the IREB2 transcription start site. The second fragment spans 413bp of the 5‘ region predicted to harbor regulatory elements by bioinformatics analysis. Both fragments were inserted upstream of the luciferase reporter gene in the pGL3Basic vector and then transfected into the A549 cell line. Our results show a significant promoter activity equating to a mean 101-fold and 130-fold increase in reporter gene activation for the 1.08 kb and 413 bp fragments, respectively. There was no significant difference (p-value of 0.19) in the relative luciferase expression in A549 cells transiently transfected with rs2656070 wild type (G) construct compared with the risk allele (A) for both fragments under basal conditions. Additional analysis will be undertaken to examine the effect of the SNP rs2656070 under conditions that are known to stimulate IREB2 expression including hypoxia and low iron cellular levels

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Abstract no. 220:Neuroimmune Interactions During the Mammalian Host Response to the Large Intestine Worm Infection (TRICHURIS MURIS) Mushref B Assas, Jaleel Miyan, Richard K Grencis, Joanne L Pennock University of Manchester, faculty of life science The biological and physiological connection and bi-directional influence between the nervous and immune systems has gained a great deal of interest in the last few decades. This direction in scientific research is termed ‘Neuroimmunolgy’. Neuroimmunology investigates the influential role the nervous and immune systems play on each other to modulate function. In the body, the suggestion that different systems cooperate with each other to perform a range of vital functions is supported by much evidence. Scientists have demonstrated bi-directional communication between the immune and nervous systems suggesting a functional relationship between the two systems [1-3]. One good example is the mast cells-colonic intestinal nerve relationship through alterations in ENS physiology. Mast cell mediators play a role in visceral hypersensitivity [4]. In the colonic mucosa of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), mast cells including degranulating mast cells were found close to nerves where membrane-membrane contact was occasionally seen [5]. By contrast, this was seen at a lower rate in healthy controls linking this feature to inflammatory responses seen in IBS patients through the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells, including histamine and tryptase that also exert an effect on the colonic nerves. An increase in the number of mast cells around colonic nerves was recorded in IBS patients (227% higher than healthy control mast cell count in the same fields) [5].

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Abstract no. 229: The Role of Anti-HLA class I antibody in allograft rejection: A potential link between antibody and cellular rejection Fatmah M.A. Naemi, V. Carter, S. Ali and J. A. Kirby Donor specific anti-HLA class I antibodies are associated with acute rejection and chronic allograft failure but the mechanism remains unclear. This study was designed to define the potential of anti-HLA class I antibody to modulate endothelium-leukocyte interactions by focusing on endothelial signal transduction pathways, adhesion molecule up-regulation and the induction of cytokine expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were stimulated with anti-HLA class I antibody (W6/32) and the cells were examined by western blotting to assess the activation of endothelail cell signalling, by flow cytometry to detect upregulation of endothelial adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM1), and by qPCR to measure cytokine gene expression. An in vitro flow based adhesion assay (Cellix platform), was used to assess the potential of anti-HLA class I antibodies to enhance leukocyte adhesion. Treatment of HMEC-1 with W6/32 antibodies activated the transcription factor CREB by a pathway sensitive to inhibition of PKA. The antibody-treated cells significantly increased cell surface VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, with expression peaking after 12 and 8 hours respectively (p<0.001 in comparison with isotype control antibody-treatment). Treatment with W6/32 antibodies also upregulated the expression of mRNA encoding IL-6 and the chemokines CXCL8, CXCL1, CXCL10 and CCL5. The expression of CXCL8 was dependent on antibody concentration. Chemotaxis assays demonstrated that medium conditioned by antibody-treated endothelial cells stimulated a significant monocyte migration (p=0.011). Under conditions modelling blood flow at 0.5 dyne/cm2, endothelial cells treated with W6/32 antibodies for 5 min showed a significant increase in apical monocyte adhesion (p<0.0001). These findings suggest that donor specific anti-HLA antibodies directly stimulate endothelial cells leading to an increase in their potential to bind activated recipient leukocytes, increasing the potential for allograft inflammation.

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Abstract no. 237: Caveolar disruption with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) causes endothelium-dependent contraction of rat femoral arteries A. Y. Al-Brakati Institutes of Translational Medicine University of Liverpool Background: Caveolae are flask shaped invaginations in the cell membrane which act as signalling hubs in endothelial and smooth muscle cells (1,2). Disruption of caveolae by the membrane cholesterol depleting agent MCD has various functional effects on arteries, including impairment of endotheliumdependent relaxation (1), and augmentation of smooth muscle contraction independently of the endothelium (2). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of MCD on contraction of rat femoral arteries. Methods: Isometric force was measured in rat femoral artery in a resistance artery myograph. Arteries were stimulated to contract with a solution containing 20 mM K+ and 100 nM BayK 8644 (20K/BayK). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, compared by Student‘s t-test. Results: Incubation of arteries with MCD (5 mM, 60 min) increased force in response to 20K/BayK from 11.84 ± 1.30 mN to 18.25 ± 2 mN (n = 12, P < 0.01). In contrast, contraction induced by 80 mM K+ was not altered by MCD (33.40 ± 1.43 mN to 33.16 ± 2.02 mN, n = 12, P = n.s.). Filipin, which also disrupts caveoli, also significantly increased force to 20K/BayK (5.36 ± 1.66 mN to 9.36± 2.21 mN, n =14, P ≤ 0.01). Cholestrol saturated MCD (Ch-MCD, 5 mM, 50 min) had no effect on its own on 20K/BayK induced force (3.15 ± 0.45 mN to 2.98 ± 0.59 mN, n = 4, P= n.s.), but reversed the effects of MCD (3.50 ± 0.62 mN in 20K/BayK, 4.93 ± 1.35 mN after MCD, 2.74 ± 0.59 mN after Ch-MCD, n=16). Functional effects of caveolar disruption have been reported to be both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent (1,2). Mechanical removal of endothelial cells from femoral artery reduced the ability of MCD to enhance contractions to 20K/BayK (6.62 ± 0.92 mN to 7.52 ± 1.03 mN after MCD, n = 22, P = n.s.). This result suggests MCD acts via altering basal release of an endothelial-derived vasodilator or vasoconstrictor. When endothelial release of nitric oxide (NO) was blocked by pre-incubation of arteries with Lenhanced (6.82 ± 1.61 mN to 14.90 ± 2.67 mN, n = 6, P<0.01). Subsequent treatment of these arteries with MCD caused contraction, and L-NAME no longer had a significant effect after MCD treatment (17.74 ± 3.46 mN after MCD, 16.10 ± 3.19 mN in L-NAME and MCD, n = 6, P = n.s). Conclusion. We provide evidence that the caveolar disrupting agents MCD and filipin increase contraction of rat femoral arteries. Our results are consistent with caveolar disruption resulting in decreased basal release of endotheliumdependent vasodilators, probably NO. pg. 53


Abstract no. 238: Functional genomic profiling of hypoxic breast cancer: search for novel molecular biomarkers markers Hani Choudhry, Carme Camps, Johannes Schรถdel, Spyros Oikonomopoulos, Laura Winchester , Francesca Buffa, Daniela Moralli, Emanuela Volpi, Peter J. Ratcliffe, Adrian Harris, David R. Mole, Jiannis Ragoussis The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford Hypoxia is a common feature of most solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. In current study, we profiled the hypoxia transcription landscape, Pol II activity and histone markers (H3K4me3 and H3K4me1) of breast cancer cell line [MCF-7] grown in hypoxia and normoxia using next generation of ribo- depleted RNA, mRNA, small RNA and ChIP sequencing. We found that about 7.3% of annotated genome is differentially expressed in hypoxic stress, which includes 1138 up regulated and 240 down regulated genes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed deregulation of a range of non coding transcripts including piwiRNA, microRNA, sn/snoRNA, long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), and natural anti-sense transcripts (NATs) under hypoxia. To define which hypoxic altered genes are dependent on, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), we suppressed HIF-alpha subunits in hypoxic MFC-7 cells using siRNA and subjected them to mRNA-seq. We identified a substantial number of HIF dependent transcripts (n=59) that were not reported before as hypoxia regulated genes. The differential expression of selected regulatory transcripts, including lncRNAs and NATs were validated in a panel of hypoxic breast cancer cell lines. We characterized two significant up regulated NATs in hypoxia and found that these transcripts are long (>200bp), localized in nucleus, and HIF dependent. A number (42) of novel un-annotated hypoxia induced transcripts were also detected in hypoxic MCF-7 cells. The presence of active histone markers at TSS of NATs and novel transcripts validates these findings. Moreover, small RNA-seq revealed differentially expressed miRNAs showing both direct regulations through HIF or through post transcriptional mechanisms. Four lncRNAs and one non poly-A mRNA were analysed further using a collection of 148 breast tumors and found to be associated with clinicopathological parameters. These findings will open new avenues in our efforts to understand hypoxia transcriptional regulation and finding novel pathways to develop therapies for breast cancer.

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Abstract no. 268: DETERMINATION OF TIME SINCE DEPOSITION OF SALIVA STAINS USING QRT-PCR M. Alrowaithi 1 and N. Watson CFS, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK, 1 majid.alrowaithi@strath.ac.uk Although DNA analysis is highly discriminating, it does not provide any information about when a biological stain has been deposited. The age of a stain is important in many cases, for example, where there is a close personal tie between the suspect and the victim. In this study, saliva samples from 6 volunteers were aged over 60 days. RNA analysis by RT-qPCR assay was used find the relative expression ratio (RER) of the quantity of β-actin mRNA to the quantity of 18S rRNA in the stains and was monitored over the age of stain. In addition the inter-donor variation was statistically calculated. The results confirm that there are detectable quantities of mRNA in stains after 60 days of storage at room temperature in a dry place. They confirmed that is a sufficiently good correlation between the age of saliva and the RER such that the age of the sample can be estimated approximately. The correlation between the age of saliva samples and the RER of β-actin mRNA to 18S rRNA was extended to tissue types other than blood.

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Abstract no. 277: Analysis of pure repetitive sequences with large copy number in the human genome: a new approach to estimate human tissue age Saeed Ghurmallah F. Al-Ghamdi College of Medical, University of Glasgow Ageing is a process where an organismâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s condition declines, the fertility rate decreases and the risk of death increases. In recent years, the need for forensic age estimation has increased. Using anatomical and morphological methods to estimate age are laborious, and need expert examiners. The use of molecular methods has the potential to be helpful as biological samples are recovered from many crime scenes. Microsatellites are simple DNA sequence composed 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;6 nucleotides. Some simple sequence repeats are unstable in somatic tissues and the number of variants increases with age. Such markers will have great use in ageing biological samples.

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Abstract no. 279: Using Next Generation Sequencing to investigate the level of microsatellite repeat length variations and to estimate human age dependent telomeres length shortening Saeed Ghurmallah F. Al-Ghamdi Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences (MVLS), University of Glasgow Email address: S.al-ghamdi.2@research.gla.ac.uk Small-Pool PCR that used currently to investigate the level of somatic instability is laborious and time consuming. This technique is suitable for research but is less likely to be used in higher throughput laboratories where 10â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s of samples are tested daily, such as in a forensic lab. Thus, one of the project aims is to use available new technologies that can achieve similar goals and can be used routinely. A new approach where Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) will be used to estimate human microsatellites repeat length variation and telomere age dependent shortening. Target sequences will be enriched by bait capture in 26 DNA sample extracted from peripheral blood, followed by Illumina Pair End (PE) sequencing.

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Abstract no. 317: 3D quantitative tooth shape analysis in hypodontia Ibrahim Al Shahrani School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University Objective: Assessment of tooth morphology is essential in the diagnosis and management of hypodontia patients. Several techniques have been used to quantify tooth shape in hypodontia patients and these have shown smaller tooth dimensions and anomalous tooth shapes in these patients when compared with controls. However, previous studies have mainly used 2D images and provided limited information. In the present study, 3D surface-imaging and statistical shape analysis were used to evaluate tooth form differences between hypodontia and control patients. Methods: Eighteen anatomical landmarks were recorded on the clinical crown of the lower left first permanent molar of 3D scanned study models of hypodontia and control subjects. The study sample comprised 120 hypodontia patients (40 mild, 40 moderate and 40 severe hypodontia patients) and 40 ageand sex-matched controls. Procrustes coordinates were utilized to scale and superimpose the landmark coordinate data and then were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, shape differences were tested statistically using MANOVA. Results: Significant interaction was found between the two factor variables ―group‖ and ―gender‖ (p< 0.002). Overall expected accuracies were 66% and 56% for females and males respectively in the cross-validated discriminantanalysis using the first 20 PCs. Hypodontia groups showed significant shape differences compared with the control subjects (p<0.0001). Significant differences in tooth crown shape were also found between sexes (p<0.0001) within groups. There appears to be progression in shape variation from mild, to moderate to severe hypodontia, while the controls are isolated from all three groups. Severe hypodontia has less prominent cusp tips, a flatter gingival margin and more tapered proximal margin when compared to the control subjects. Conclusions: The degree of variation in tooth shape was associated with the degree of the severity of the hypodontia. Quantitative measurement of the tooth shape in hypodontia patients may enhance the multidisciplinary management of those patients. pg. 58


Abstract no. 322: Effect of Incentive Spirometry (IS) on Some Pulmonary Function Parameters in Healthy Adult Subjects Author: Ali Nasser O. Aljarrash. Fourth year Respiratory care student. Respiratory Care Department. College of Applied Medical Sciences. University of Dammam. Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Amr El-Nouaem. Email: Ali_aljarrash@hotmail.com Background: Incentive spirometry ( IS ) is widely used clinically as a part of routine prophylactic and therapeutic regimen in perioperative respiratory therapy. IS is designed to mimic natural sighing or yawning by encouraging the patient to take long, slow, deep breaths from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity, but the clinical efficacy of IS is still controversial. Aim of Work: To evaluate the effect of IS on some of pulmonary function test results in healthy adult subjects. Method: Ten healthy adult students were randomly choosen and trained to use IS. After the baseline values for Forced Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume in one second , Forced Expiratory Volume in one second / Forced Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Flow 25-75 % , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate & volume measured on IS were measured , students were asked to use IS for two weeks ( twice daily for one week and 4 times daily for another week ). Pulmonary function parameters were measured after the first & second week to know the influence of IS on their performance. Results: There was a non-significant effect of IS on the measured baseline pulmonary parameter in healthy adult subjects (P > 0.05). Key words: incentive spirometry, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate.

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Abstract no. 400: Effect of Dental Bleaching on Hydroxyapatite Solubility and Salivary Protein Adsorption Dr. Najlaa Yousef Qusti, Dr. Steven J Brookes, Prof. Paul A Brunton University of Leeds Controversy surrounds whether peroxide bleaching demineralises or modifies tooth surfaces. Nothing is known about how bleaching may predispose enamel to subsequent acid challenges or how it may affect the adsorption of protective salivary proteins. Objectives: Evaluate the affect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the acid resistance of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the adsorption of salivary proteins. Results: There were no significant differences, in terms of mineral loss, between H2O2 and water treated HAP when subjected to an acid challenge. Adsorbed salivary proteins significantly reduced mineral loss from H2O2 and water treated HAP by 26% and 19% respectively (P<0.005). The greater protection afforded by salivary proteins adsorbed to H2O2 treated HA was significant (P<0.05). SDS PAGE and mass fingerprinting revealed that H2O2 treated and water treated HAP adsorbed salivary proteins differentially especially with regard to salivary amylase including the identification of a novel amylase dimer. Conclusion: H2O2 treatment did not affect the acid resistance of HAP but did increase the acid protection provided by adsorbed salivary proteins. Results suggest that H2O2 does not have a deleterious effect on the acid resistance of HAP but may enhance the protective effect of adsorbed salivary protein.

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Abstract no. 415: Diabetes modulates the fibrinolytic properties of aspirin without altering the platelet inhibitory actions: a possible mechanism for aspirin treatment failure Z Kurdee, A Mamaniat, F Phoenix, P Rice, PJ Grant and RA Ajjan Aspirin, which inhibits platelet function and modulates fibrin clot lysis, has been used for prevention from atherothrombotic disease in diabetes, but recent evidence suggests reduced clinical efficacy by unclear mechanisms. We hypothesised that hyperglycaemia in diabetes interferes with aspirin action, resulting in reduced cardiovascular protection. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ex vivo addition of aspirin to whole blood on platelet function and plasma clot lysis in healthy controls and in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) subjects devoid of complications and on insulin only therapy. Platelet function was monitored by multiplate assay and fibrinolyis was tested using turbidimetric analysis. Platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid (AA) after treatment with 0, 1 and 10 mg/L aspirin in 24 T1DM subjects was 62.68±3.2, 54.6±3.5 and 31.4±2.9 AU, respectively (p<0.05). Similar findings were documented for healthy controls (65.3±3.9, 60.2±3.5 and 27.7±3.5 AU, respectively; p<0.05). Fibrinolysis in 15 T1DM subjects showed no difference in the presence of 0, 1 and 10 mg/L aspirin (681±110, 672±113 and 712±73 sec, respectively; p>0.1). In contrast, fibrin clot lysis was affected by aspirin treatment in healthy controls (587±112, 514±44 and 568±57 sec, respectively; p<0.05). Our data indicate that diabetes has little effect on platelet inhibition by aspirin following AA stimulation. However, enhanced fibrin clot lysis by aspirin is lost in the presence of diabetes and may be the main mechanism for aspirin treatment failure in this condition. Future work is warranted to investigate the relationship between clinical aspirin treatment failure and fibrin clot lysis in diabetes subjects on aspirin therapy.

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Abstract no. 432: Medication Administration Errors at a Major Hospital in Saudi Arabia Mohammed Aljamal Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Medication administration errors (MAEs) could be used as a method of evaluating quality of care. Unfortunately there is no published study concern this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to investigate the incidence and type of medication errors in a tertiary hospital. The aim of the study is to investigate the incidence and type of medication administration errors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, prospective study using a direct, disguised observation method in a Female medical word at tertiary hospital. This study is a cross sectional, prospective observational study that held in tertiary hospital for one months. The observation held in all week days involving morning (6 am), evening (6 pm) and night (10 pm) drug administration time. All regularly schedule oral, inhaled, ophthalmic, injection, topically and rectally doses were included. The nurses were accompanied by the searcher the while administering the drug and all dispensed and administered drugs were registered and subsequently compared with eligible prescriptions in the nurse medication chart .Then any discrepancies were identified and registered as an error. Results: The Main outcome measures were the incidence and type of all detected errors compared with the total number of opportunities for error. During the study period, 2893 nurses' interventions were recorded .A total of 302 (10.4% of 2893 nurses' interventions) error were detected. Out of 169 errors, 59 were omission error and 8 were the wrong dose. the doses administer were under doses. Conclusion: Medical practice can be safer to patients if appropriate technology and mechanisms that facilitate human work are used, and if mechanisms that can detect and repair failures are implemented and maintained. Technology cannot replace the personnel involved in patient care, but it can organize and make the data available.

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Abstract no. 457: Reinforcement of anchorage during orthodontic brace treatment with implants or other surgical methods Safa Jambi, Jonathan Sandler, Kevin Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Brien The School of Dentistry, University of Manchester Background and objectives: The control of anchorage is integral to successful orthodontic treatment. The objective of this Cochrane systematic review was to evaluate the anchorage potential of surgical anchorage devices. Methods: The Cochrane systematic review was undertaken according to the methods published in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, version 5.1.0. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the mean values of distal molar movement when surgical anchorage and conventional anchorage were compared. Conclusions: Surgical anchorage is more effective than headgear without the inherent risks and compliance issues. However, intraoral appliances used in adolescence for distalisation of upper molars do not appear to have any advantages over cervical headgear.

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Abstract no. 492: The Development of a Protocol for Bone Marrow Stem Cell Seeding with Calcium Sulphate Injectable Scaffolds Randa Alfotawei1*, Kurt Naudi1, Matthew J. Dalby2, K. Elizabeth Tanner3, Ashraf Ayoub1 1Glasgow University Dental Hospital & School 2Centre for Cell Engineering, University of Glasgow 3School of Engineering University of Glasgow The objective of this study was to assess Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs) seeding into calcium sulphate hemihydrate/hydroxyapatite (CSH/HA) injectable scaffold in vitro. BMSCs were mixed with the powder and liquid in 9 samples. In another 9 samples the paste was left to set for 20 minutes to form calcium sulphate dihydrate/HA (CSD/HA). BMSCs were then directly seeded on the CSD/HA samples.Determination of cell viability was assessed at 24 hrs, 72 hrs and 7 days using vital staining (Calcein-AM and Ethidium homodimer-1) and MTT assay, immunofluoresent staining and SEM examination. Calcium sulphate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite proved to be biocompatible once set and encouraged the adherence and the survival of the bone marrow stem cells on the surface. The material is now ready for preclinical application. Abstract no. 800: Epigenetic Patterns of Human Preimplantation Embryos in Fertile and Infertile Couples Hanan A. Sultan, Fatima Santos, Wendy Dean, Suzanne Cawood Joyce C. Harper Three decades since the birth of first IVF baby, with more than eight million babies born worldwide. ART Indications have been extended by the aid of single cell diagnosis. This has emerged many social and ethical debits worldwide. ART are considered to be safe. However, recent reports indicate that epigenetic errors-imprinted genes- may be associated with ART. Whether this is due to the infertility per se or the procedure itself is unknown. We wanted to study and establish the normal pattern of DNA methylation and key histone modifications in human preimplantation embryos; cumulus and granulosa cells; and embryonic stem cells (hESC). An immunofluoresence approach was used to investigate individual embryos using 5MeC and H3K9me3 antibodies. Initially two mouse strains (F1&MF1) were used to optimise the methods. All 9 human paternal pronuculei were positive for H3K9me3, compared to only 20% of 65 mouse zygotes pg. 64


studied. One hundred human blastocysts were studied from 2 groups (fertile undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis and those with tubal factor compared with those who had genetic infertility). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of H3K9me3 markers more than DNA methylation.

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Aviation and Transportation Papers:

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Abstract no. 247: What Atract Travellers to Buy Airline Tickets from Airline Websites in Saudi Arabia? Saleh Bukhari, Ahmad Ghoneim, Charles Dennis Brunel University University of Lincoln There is still a lack of research in the area of online consumer behaviour towards the online services provided by airline companies due to the specific nature of travellers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; being using the internet for different motivations and buying specific kind of product (e-tickets). This study aims to measure consumersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; electronic satisfaction and intention to purchase tickets from Airlines websites. The results provide better understanding on the factors that attract travellers to adopt the most cost effective distribution channel for Airlines (own website) for ticketing needs. The results should provide better understanding on the factors that attract travellers to adopt the most cost effective distribution channel for Airlines (own website) for ticketing needs. To obtain the study objective, a review of the existing literature pertaining to econsumer behaviour, web quality, and travel and tourism streams where conducted. A research on the existing market in Saudi Arabia and within Airline Industry where also done. As a result, a conceptual framework is developed with items covering 9 constructs: Information Quality (IQ), System Quality (SQ), Perceived usefulness (PU), Perceived ease of use (PEOU),e-Trust (ET), Airline reputation (AR), Price Perception (PP), e-Satisfaction (ES), and Intention to Purchase (IP). A survey methodology was chosen to examine the constructs and the relations within the framework. Findings would help decision makers within airline companies to understand their customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; online behaviour and enable enhancements and modifications to be made to their airline storefront, hence ensuring the satisfaction of potential customers and conversion of visitors into buyers.

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Abstract no. 422: Wing Front Spar to Fuselage Frame Joint Design Ahmad Nayef S Alsudairi, Phillip Stocking Cranfield University Wing to fuselage joint is one of the critical problems in aircraft structure design. Because all of the lifting loads which produced by the wing are transferred to the fuselage through that joint. The wing front spar carries the highest amount of lifting loads, which is transferred to the fuselage through certain frame. In this project a joint design problem of a small transport aircraft was carried out. This project started by analysing the shear forces of a fuselage frame member, then designing the frame, the frame-internal spar connection, the internal front spar, internal-external front spar joint and the root of the external front spar. Then, stress analysis of the structure was carried out .Finally, engineering drawings of the product was produced.

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Business and Economics Papers:

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Abstract no. 18: Understanding the relationship among religious-beliefs and BPM and Development of a Brand Personality Measurement (BPM) Scale for an Islamic Context, with specific reference to Saudi Arabia Ali Homaid Al-hajla Hull University, Business School Characteristic branding such as brand personality, brand identity and brand image has been regarded as a very significant branding methods in recent years (Aaker, 1996a; Aaker, 1997a; Arora and Stoner, 2009). Brad personality as a strategic branding tool has attracted a noticeable amount of attention because of its ability to psychologically link a product to buyers through reflecting customer‘s ideal personality or actual personality (Ekinci and Riley, 2003; Malär et al., 2011). It has been determined that religion influences people‘s social personalities and consuming and purchasing behavior (Essoo and Dibb, 2004; Fam et al., 2004). The research will investigate the relationship between brand personality, religious beliefs and new product adoption and will propose an appropriate brand personality scale for the context of Saudi Arabian guided by theory of planned behavior and innovation diffusion theory. This research will use focus groups and surveys to collect primary data.

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Abstract no. 19: The Impact of the Customer on I.S. Project Escalation From the Viewpoint of Agency Theory: A Study of Saudi I.S. Project Managers Wael A. Bukhary University of Nottingham Nottingham University Business School, This research provides a new perspective to investigating the phenomenon of project escalation in I.S. development by applying agency theory. As a result, it has adopted the assumption that the customer suffers challenges of incompetence when it comes to the transfer of knowledge to the developers. It also investigates the process of knowledge transfer, in addition to identifying the causes of unclear ideas and project escalation in I.S. development practice by interviewing a number of I.S. project managers in Saudi Arabia. The analysis provided a number of themes which could be grouped within two main constructs, namely 'Knowledge Transfer' and 'Project Escalation'. Later, it produced a causal network diagram which presents the relationships between themes within the two main constructs.

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Abstract no. 31: The Influence of Cultural Differences on the Design of Diversity Training Practices Hussain Alhejji, Thomas Garavan Kemmy Business School University of Limerick The way in which organisations approach diversity training will be influenced by the national cultural context within which the training takes place. Diversity training practices that have evolved in a Western cultural context may have limited applicability in a non-Western culture. (Aycan et al, 2000). There is however a significant gap in the literature in terms of understanding diversity training from a cross cultural perspective. This paper will review the literature on the cross cultural perspective and explore how this perspective informs us as to the purposes, processes and outcomes of diversity training. It will engage with the notion that the concepts of diversity and diversity training are culturally situated and may have meanings that are unique to that cultural context. It will identify propositions for further research and explore the practical implications of the cross cultural perspective for the design of diversity training programmes.

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Abstract no. 33:Expatriates in Saudi Arabia: Motives and Experiences. A Comparative Study between Self-Initiated and Conventional Expatriatesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Saeed Turki Alshahrani, Michael Morley University of Limerick Self-initiated expatriates have been relatively overlooked in literature and most current studies on SEs are presented from developed countriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; perspectives (Inkson et al. 1997, Suutari and Brewster 2000, Biemann and Andresen 2010, Selmer and Lauring 2011). With Saudi Arabia as the research context, the aim of this study is to fill a gap in the literature on self-initiated expatriates by employing a comparative approach to explore differences and similarities between conventional expatriates (CEs) and SEs in terms of their motives, experiences and cross-cultural adjustment. This paper presents a contextual overview of Saudi Arabia as a location in which to live and work and proposes a model that can be used to examine both CEs and SEs from different perspectives.

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Abstract no. 42: Reverse Logistics: Outsourcing Reverse Logistics in Emerging Economy Evidence from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Mohammed Alnuwairan, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia Munirah Almousa, Stephen Eldridge Manchester Business School, University of Manchester Reverse logistics in most emerging economic countries is in the early stage. Thus engaging in reverse logistics activities is very costly. The purpose of this paper is to examine and explore the usage of third party reverse logistics providers services in Saudi Arabia. In particular, the current practice of reverse flow of product that done by third party provider in remanufacturers sector in Saudi Arabia. The research is exploratory in nature and two organizations were identified as appropriate case studies. These organizations were drawn from the plastics and oil and processing industries. Secondary data collection, direct observation, and elite interviewing methods were used in the case studies in order to test the existing literature on the topic. Applications of reverse logistics appear to be driven predominantly by economic factors and are highly dependent on the capability provided by third party logistics service providers. Supply chains tend to operate as open loops with recycled /reusable products being supplied to secondary markets. Third party logistics provider plays an important role of the following: reducing the cost of reverse logistics, collection, sorting and transportation. The two organizations are very satisfied with outsourcing reverse logistics activities.

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Abstract no. 51: An exploration of the role of culture in the building of Business-to-Business relationships in the Saudi Telecom Market. Waheed Ibrahim Baghdadi, Prof. Jillian Farquhar The impact of culture in marketing relationships has become more significant as companies expand into global markets. Understanding the nature of relationships across cultures is therefore critical to organizational expansion. Saudi culture has a significant impact on relationships in B2B marketing in business, especially in the telecommunications industry, where both the majority of clients and employees are Saudis. The imperatives for change and adjustments in MR will affect STC as they will other indigenous telecommunications companies. The purpose of this paper is to examine existing cross-cultural marketing theory developed in a business-to-consumer (B2C) context to apply this theory in a B2B context, by investigating B2B relationships in Saudi Telecom Company (STC), a key telecommunications company in Saudi Arabia with hundreds of partners. The investigation adopts a case study research strategy approach to explore how a growing middle-eastern telecommunications company absorbs cultural awareness into its B2B relationships. Data was elicited by interviewing 29 STC partners, and accessing and analysing secondary data from the company. The findings to date suggest that as the company grows it needs to develop B2B cross-cultural awareness at both a local and global level. Understanding the role of culture in the building of B2B relationships will make a significant contribution and be of great value for both academics and practitioners to expand their interest in the Middle East. The commercial gains to be acquired by STC and the Saudi telecommunications industry as a whole may be massive.

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Abstract no. 59: Control Mechanisms of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) over their Subsidiaries: An empirical analysis Jaithen Alharbi Brunel University This paper investigates the types and extent of controls utilized by Headquarters on their subsidiary units and affiliates in Saudi Arabia. Using cross-sectional data on 147 subsidiaries and univariate hypothesis testing, results offer some support for previous findings on the positive relationship between size of subsidiaries and control by socialization, as well as differences between organizational cultures based on country of origin. However, prior research predicting higher levels of formalized decision making for American MNEs and lower autonomy overall compared to Japanese ones is contradicted by the data. Furthermore, significant differences between German and other European firms on the extent of controls used as found by prior research were not replicable.

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Abstract no. 70: How much does risk aversion determine volatility in a developing financial market: Evidence from Saudi Arabia Ayman F. Alfi, Tapas Mishra, Alan Speight School of Business, Swansea University Investorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; attitude towards risk taking behavior is one of the key determinants of possible volatility pattern in financial markets. The attitude itself, however, differs significantly between developed and developing markets given the amount of uncertainty they face with regard to market imperfection and available information. This paper provides an in depth study of the extent to which the attitude of risk aversion behavior in a developing financial market contributes towards volatility. To this end, we employ a range of tests building on the basic GARCH-M procedure, estimate risk aversion parameter and study the movement of risk aversion parameter over time. Saudi Arabiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; financial market has been taken as a case of empirical illustration. It is shown that the risk-aversion parameter is time-varying which embeds information from the changing economic environment. Moreover, it is also argued that in such a market, given characteristic volatility with respect to imperfection and incomplete information, it is hard to predict the exact pattern of volatility.

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Abstract no. 77: Islamic Equity Funds Critical Investigation in the Saudi Arabian Market Mohammed Waleed Alswaidan* University of Portsmouth The aftermath of the financial crisis created much attention for the financial industry from different aspects. One of these aspects is the developing of the Islamic finance system which shows better returns than the Conventional system in some perspectives. This study aims to gives a snapshot of the Islamic Finance equity funds by critically evaluating the practical field of the Islamic Finance system in the Saudi Market. The study results found that the Islamic Equity Funds have expanding its market share in the Saudi Market up to 40% in 2012. It has grown fast in the Saudi Arabian Market. Furthermore, the distinctive advantage of the Islamic Finance over Conventional Finance systems leads investors to emphasise the Islamic system in the industry. This study attempts to highlight a critical understanding of Islamic Equity Funds and gives interesting recommendations to the industry on aspects for improvement.

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Abstract no. 82: Does The Stock Market Overreact? Emberecal Evidence from London Stock Exchange (LSE) Faten Alsadun Plymouth, Devon The impact of culture in marketing relationships has become more significant as companies expand into global markets. Understanding the nature of relationships across cultures is therefore critical to organizational expansion. Saudi culture has a significant impact on relationships in B2B marketing in business, especially in the telecommunications industry, where both the majority of clients and employees are Saudis. The imperatives for change and adjustments in MR will affect STC as they will other indigenous telecommunications companies. The purpose of this paper is to examine existing cross-cultural marketing theory developed in a business-to-consumer (B2C) context to apply this theory in a B2B context, by investigating B2B relationships in Saudi Telecom Company (STC), a key telecommunications company in Saudi Arabia with hundreds of partners. The investigation adopts a case study research strategy approach to explore how a growing middle-eastern telecommunications company absorbs cultural awareness into its B2B relationships. Data was elicited by interviewing 29 STC partners, and accessing and analysing secondary data from the company. The findings to date suggest that as the company grows it needs to develop B2B cross-cultural awareness at both a local and global level. Understanding the role of culture in the building of B2B relationships will make a significant contribution and be of great value for both academics and practitioners to expand their interest in the Middle East. The commercial gains to be acquired by STC and the Saudi telecommunications industry as a whole may be massive.

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Abstract no. 86: Testing the Weak-Form of Efficient Market Hypothesis and the Day-of-the-Week Effect in Saudi Stock Exchange: Linear Approach Abdullah I. Al Ashikh Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it investigates the existence of the random walk hypothesis (RWH) by testing the weak-form efficiency in the returns of one of the largest stock markets in the Middle East and North Africa; the Saudi Stock Exchange (SSE), using a set of highly regarded parametric and nonparametric linear serial dependence tests. Second, it investigates the existence of the day-of-the-week effects. The results indicate that the Saudi Stock Exchange (SSE) returns exhibit significant linear serial dependence. The hypothesis of market efficiency has been strongly rejected based on the results from the linearity tests. Thus, a conclusion has been reached that the Saudi stock Exchange is inefficient in the weak-form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH). The results also show evidence of day-of-the-week effects in the Saudi Stock Exchange, both in mean (returns) and variance (volatility) equation.

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Abstract no. 87: Nonlinear Serial Dependence in Saudi Stock Market: Testing the Weak-Form of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis Abdullah I. Al Ashikh Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University This paper investigates the existence of nonlinear serial dependence in the returns of one of the largest stock markets in the Middle East and North Africa; the Saudi Stock Exchange (SSE), using set of highly regarded nonlinear serial dependence tests. In addition, it attempts to validate the weak-form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) based on nonlinear serial dependence tests after removing linearity effects from all of the data series. The results indicate that the Saudi Stock Exchange (SSE) returns exhibit significant nonlinear serial dependence in addition to the linear dependence. The source of nonlinear serial dependence in the Saudi stock market returns has been attributed to nonlinear serial dependence in the conditional variance. The hypothesis of market efficiency has been strongly rejected based on the results from the nonlinear dependence tests, as it does from the results of linearity tests. Therefore, a conclusion has been reached that the Saudi stock market is inefficient in the weak-form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH).

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Abstract no. 111: Possible Barriers and Threats to Foreigner Direct Investment (FDI) in Saudi Arabia: Pegged Exchange Rate, Political Risks and Islamic Banking - Evaluation of the Strategic Solutions Mohammed Binkhamis, Yulia Rodionova De Montfort University The purpose of study is to examine problems and restrictions that the overseas investors face in doing business in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, to examine the impact of political issues of radical organizations threats and relationship with Iran on Foreign Direct Investment. The researcher will study the influence of fixed exchange rate of Saudi riyals on Foreign Direct Investment into the Saudi Market. Finally, the researcher will try to fill the gap in the literature about the impact of Islamic Banking on foreign investment in Saudi Market. Also, the thesis will search for the strategic solutions that help foreign investors to predict the potential risks of Saudi Market.

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Abstract no. 205: The impact of the oil shocks on the macroeconomic. Why are the 2000s different from the 1970s? Halah Hamed Aldhhahri The dissertation has tested the nature of the relationship between the oil shocks and macroeconomics performance. Also, the dissertation shows the macroeconomic performance of USA after the oil price shocks of the 1970s and after 1980 oil shocks, focusing on the differences across episodes. We examined four different hypotheses for decline the oil shocks impact: first the real wage rigidities second monetary policy third decline the share of oil in the economy forth another endogenous reasons led to inflationary the oil shocks. We conclude that all the four hypotheses played an important role.

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Abstract no. 227: An Examination of the role of actors in the formulation and implementation of high performance work system in the Saudi Banking Sector Hayam Bimjabi* & Chima Mordi Brunel Business School, Brunel University This thesis aims to investigate the role of actors (particularly Human Resource Managers and Line Managers) and contextual factors in formulation and implementation of High Performance Work System (HPWS), using Saudi Arabian banking sector as case study. This work is an extension of previous researches linking HPWS and organisational performance. The existing theories and perspectives are used to gain deeper insight into the best practices in HRM. Contingency theory and institutional theory are used to investigate the mediating factors, which may affect formulation and implementation of strategic HRM systems such as HPWS cognitively, regulatory and normatively. The main focus is on the operational dimension of HPWS including its formulation and implementation in practice. It involves studying the balance of objectivity and subjectivity in the formulation and implementation of HPWS and the extent to which shared meaning is developed between the formulators (that is, the HR managers) and implementers (that is, the line managers).

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Abstract no. 265: The Leaders Win the Battle: Exploratory research on how brand leadership impacts consumer perceived value in Saudi Arabia Ali AlMakrami, Dorothy Yen, T.C. Melewar Brunel Business School, Brunel University In a world of very competitive nature for global brands, consumers have the absolute decision about which brand they will buy and patronage. The concept of brand leadership as perceived by the end consumer is argued in the brand value literature as a major generator of consumer value. However, little is done in the realm of conceptualising the brand value on a robust theoretical base. In this study, the paper adopts the well-established theory of consumption values to develop a comprehensive measurement scale for brand perceived value. The novel scale is examined versus the abstract concept of brand leadership from the consumer perspective. Statistical analysis run on dataset consists of 510 Saudi consumers show interesting results. Brand leadership can contribute significantly to brand value subdimensions of epistemic, emotional and social value more than the conventional functional value (i.e. quality). Such finding would guide marketers to accommodate a fresh insight to their branding campaigns by donating certain attention to non-functional brand attributes to gain the potential of the increasing number of knowledge-seeker consumers.

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Abstract no. 275: Investigation of the Role of Performance Appraisal in the Motivation of Employees Alsnaideh Fahad, Hull University, Business School Performance appraisal is one of the most important tools for success and development of both employees and the organisation. Also, motivation is seen as an essential tool for increasing the performance of employees. Hence, scholars have developed several theories of motivation. However, there is a strong relationship between performance appraisal and motivation. Performance appraisal in any type of organisation plays a significant role in many activities of human resource management such as motivation. The current research will discuss the role of the performance appraisal in the Saudi workplace, especially in the Saudi Electricity Company (SEC). The methodology of the current study will be qualitative, through semi-structured interview.

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Abstract no. 287: Beyond Mobile Advertising: an investigation study of customer engagement and empowerment behaviour via mobile devices in relation to marketing communication campaigns in Saudi Arabia Ibrahim Alotaibi, Prof. Chanaka Jayawardhena Hull University The importance of customer engagement to sustain and foster business growth in interactive environment has been recognised practitioner literature. It has also been observed that such customers become empowered. Yet, there has been very little, if any, academic enquiry examining these concepts. Thus, the aim of this research is to examine customer engagement behaviour and customer empowerment in the context of mobile communication. A conceptual model is built based on the theoretical foundations of technology acceptance model (TAM). This model seeks to explain the level of engagement and empowerment of customers in mobile marketing campaigns. The inquiry extends to examine the impact of moderating factors that influence customer engagement and empowerment. Moreover, this research will investigate the antecedents of customer engagement and its possible consequences. Following Churchillâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s (1979), it is proposed that scales will be developed to capture engagement and empowerment. Given the positivist foundations of this study, a quantitative approach will be used to collect data. An online questionnaire will be hosted on a web server and the link posted on several popular electronic forums in Saudi Arabia. Following data collection, appropriate data analysis techniques will be employed. It is proposed that multiple regression equations along with structural equation modelling will deliver results. The contribution of the study is both theoretical and practical. On a theoretical level, two new scales will be developed to measure out the engagement and empowerment behaviour. These will provide the basic understanding to customer behaviour in mobile marketing communication. One the other hand, it will improve customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; relationships with businesses and enhance the communication practises, at the managerial level, and improve companiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; return on investment, as well. Better understanding of customers will also help marketing professionals to better segment and target the appropriate customers to enhance their loyalty.

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Abstract no. 292: Exploring strategies for small business in Saudi Arabia to survive Ahmed Alsaleh This research is about the survival of small business in the Saudi hospitality market. It aims to explore the strategies that small businesses have adopted to allow them to survive for more than the average, facing the difficulties that the Saudi market suffers from. This aim will be achieved by adopting a case study as the research strategy to gather data. The qualitative tools that will be used are semi structured interviews, observation and documentation, with five cases. The cases will be selected depending on some characteristics; if the age of the business is seven years and more, the number of their employees does not exceed 60 and the annual sales do not exceed $5000, 000. This research employs an interpretive approach to achieve the research question, which is what are the strategies that small businesses adopted to make them survive for more than the average age of such business in the Saudi market? The outcome of this research will enable future research to test strategies and to generalise to other cases.

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Abstract no.298: Examining the Implementation of Total Quality Management in Saudi Arabia Alotaibi, Munif, Bright, David and Elliott, Carole The University of Hull The study will examine the implementation of Total Quality Management in Saudi Arabia. Particularly, it will investigate the factors affecting the implementation of TQM in the educational sector under the Ministry of Education. These factors are related to the organisational culture in the country. The paper will study these factors and their relevance in affecting the implementation of TQM. Data will be collected via semi-structured interviews as the methodology is qualitative. Key Words: Total Quality Management, Ministry of Education, Saudi Arabia, National Culture, Organisational Culture

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Abstract no. 333: Champions in Innovative Projects: a Research Study Rsha Alghafes, Con Connell, Jonathan Klein University of Southampton Although increasing evidence suggested how champions are needed to promote successful innovations, little is known about how they are identified, their role and importance when it comes to implementing innovative projects. Champions are those individuals who have had a crucial role in successful implementation of innovations within organizations. Knowing the benefits champions can bring to organizations, this paper addresses this knowledge gap by first examining the concept of champions where different descriptions of champions are provided, and then a working definition of champions is derived. Additionally, we have classified all characteristics and behaviors found in the literature and extracted their commonalities in order to create a comprehensive, unified, and clear classification for organizations to benefit from. Finally, multiple case studies are currently underway in four public hospitals in Saudi Arabia to better understand who are champions, their role(s) and importance when it comes to healthcare innovations.

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Abstract no. 367: The availability of halal food in the convenience food market: Is it enough to satisfy current UK customer demand? Taqwa Bushnaq Manchester metropolitan University Convenience foods have become a fact of life in recent years. Consumers with challenging and demanding lifestyles are increasingly seeking convenience, especially in developed countries like the UK. The demand for convenience food causes food manufacturers to seek new markets. The spending power of the UK Muslim population in food is high. This research explores the potential of this new market for the convenience food industry and identifies the current market for Muslim customers. (Hartman, 2008; Sheely, 2008; Mintel, 2002) The method that was selected to carry out this study is a delivery and collection questionnaire. This method was chosen because the data is collected from a sample representative of a wider population, in this case the UK Muslim population, (Saunders and et al 2009). However, the results show that Muslims consumers are not satisfied with the current choices of convenience food in UK food market today. It is believed that halal food sector is a good investment opportunity for the food market in the UK because 93% of Muslim consumers showed an interest in halal food and they believe that this interest will continue in the future. As a result, this developing market could be a good investment opportunity for food manufacturers and suppliers, particularly those who are interested in satisfying all UK customers.

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Abstract no. 464: Critical Success Factors for Corporate Social Entrepreneurial Projects in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study Thunayan Althunayan University of Plymouth, UK In the last decade, social entrepreneurship has been a subject of growing interest among researchers and organisations alike but the factors that affect the success of this phenomenon are still not commonly understood. The purpose of this study is to identify the critical success factors for social entrepreneurial projects in Saudi Arabia and how these factors affect the development of corporate social entrepreneurship in the private sector. Using semi-structured interviews, a qualitative analysis for a case study of the National Commercial Bank was executed to explore the factors for success. Four main themes were summarised from the literature and discussed including: mission-focused factors, internal characteristics, organisational capabilities and environmental factors. The findings suggest that the more efficient is performance, the more successful is the organisation. Regarding the environmental factors, efforts made by public, private and voluntary sectors should be characterised in a systematic way in order to have complementary efforts that accelerate social entrepreneurial activity. Finally, the Saudi government should pay more attention to the field of social entrepreneurship in order to address and solve various social problems, especially unemployment.

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Abstract no. 465: An assessment of the structural characteristics of firmsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; trading operations and an analysis of the obstacles and barriers confronting Saudi non-oil exporters Abdullah BD S Alsakran Brunel University Saudi economy is mainly based on oil, and with the continuous volatility in oil prices along with facing the pressing needs of economic growth and development, Saudi Arabia had planned to diversify its sources of income. To that end, most of the solutions and efforts focused on development of the nonoil export sector, especially those supporting the industrial sector. Saudi Arabia created organizations and financial institutions to assist the private sector in the attempt to encourage it to play its intended role in the economy. Still, the contribution of the private sector in exports remains weak as it amounts to 15% of total exports. With the background above, this research aims to provide a complete view of the environment of non-oil exports financing. It uses primary data obtained by a specific questionnaire designed to generate data from its original source.

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Abstract no. 496: Towards Multi Enterprise Systems Deployment in Airline sector Jefri, Abdulrahman, Elbeltagi, I., Mirsha, A., and Almami, Abdullah Plymouth Universit Stiff competition in the Airline sector mandates airlines to innovate ways to gain a competitive advantage over their rivals; however, without a strong IT the mission to attain this would be arduous. Large airlines do their best to maximise the use of enterprise systems to stream their business processes. Nonetheless, some airlines are not up to date with technology and are left with few choices when attempting to secure their existence in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s harsh market. One option is to implement these systems concurrently (which is our focus in this paper) due to the fact that very scant research exists regarding this phenomenon, let alone the airline sector itself. The phenomenon of deploying multi enterprise systems concurrently was unique, owing to the fact that this approach is not the common practice most airline take. We argue here that having multi Airline Solution Providers (ASP) working together concurrently to constitute a homogeneous solution generates many aspects that necessitate a deep understanding in such matters as competitor ASPs and technology leakage. In addition, there are various aspects contributing to the success of such schemes that enable all ASPs to work in harmony, thereby avoiding downturns. A large airline was taken as a case study; it had over twenty six thousand employees. Five reputable ASPs in the airline industry in various fields were also included. Participants in this study were professionals in IT and the airline business, and all were involved in the phenomenon of deploying concurrent multi enterprise systems. The findings furnish an insight into the subject of the aspects arising from ASPs when working together to form Multi Enterprise Systems (MES) solution.

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Abstract no. 512: Trust Transference from Brick to Click Retailers: Investigating the Drivers of Customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Perceived Structural Assurance in the Introductory Stage Talal Alsaif, Ahmad Ghoneim Brunel Business School, Brunel University Trust appears as a complex concept in the literature, particularly in business to customer (B2C) electronic commerce. Indeed, scholars have addressed several issues that are related to trust transference from the retailerâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s physical store to its website. Nevertheless, there is lack of knowledge about the drivers of perceived structural assurance during the introductory stage. Hence, the purpose of this research is to highlight the structural assurance problem in brickand-click retailers, and to develop a conceptual model that can explain how customers perceive the structural assurance, particularly, in the introductory stage of relationship.

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Abstract no. 546: Recommendations for Improving the Way King Abdul Aziz University Handles Learning and Training Activities ABDULRAHMAN ALI ALHAZEMI University of Manchester The objective of this research-based research was to analyse the training and learning practices at King Abdul Aziz University and to make recommendations on the basis of good practice in training and learning, as identified through a review of related academic literature. The table above summarises the findings and recommendations. It was found that good practice in training and learning would include the integration of training and development activities with the strategic objectives of the organisation, ensuring that the organisation learns and grows continuously through a process of non-stop knowledge creation and dissemination, following the best practices in conducting training activities and ensuring appropriate management of multicultural resources. It is concluded on the basis of the literature review and primary research at KAAU that the leadership style followed by the university management and the lack of coordination between management and administration are major deviations from the best practice framework developed in this report. It can also be concluded on the basis of this framework that KAAU would be able to achieve better training effectiveness by adopting a strategic approach to training.

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Abstract no. 557: The Role of Higher Education in addressing the problem of graduate unemployment and developing economy in Saudi Arabia. Hassan Almahdi & Keith Dickson Brunel Business School, Brunel University Globalisation and the emergence of knowledge-based economies have a prominent role in the industrial development and the economic advancement of a country. At the same time entrepreneurship has long been considered as a driver of innovation, generator of employment opportunities and as a wealth creator for both individuals and organisations. To strengthen organisational vitality and enhance individual potential, economies must enhance entrepreneurship attitudes and intentions through targeted education and training. Literature supports the belief that appropriate entrepreneurship education and training programmes can be expected to increase the attitudes and intention of would-be entrepreneurs. By applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour, which argues that attitudes and beliefs predict intentions, and that intentions predict behaviours, this paper attempts to link the development of these attributes to entrepreneurship education. This study investigates the role of entrepreneurship education development programmes (EDPs) on entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions in a developing economy, namely Saudi Arabia. The research outlined in this paper draws its conceptual model from relevant literature and employed similar research instruments to create and analyse large, matched datasets obtained from surveys of students in Saudi higher educational institutions. Following a multi-stage procedure to infer results from the data the researcher adopted a survey questionnaire addressing two groups. One group comprises participants who are engaged in entrepreneurship courses in their degrees, and the second group consists of students who are not taking any such entrepreneurship courses during their studies. Data from both groups was collected at two different times: Time1 when students from group A started their entrepreneurship courses and Time2 when they finished these courses. Results support the proposition that the intention to become self-employed is positively and significantly correlated to the attitudes of the self-employed, certain subjective norms and to the perceived behavioural control. However, after entrepreneurial education, the intention to become self-employed is not positively or significantly correlated with start-up activities. The results indicate that entrepreneurial education develops pg. 97


entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions of would-be entrepreneurs. These findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship education and the theory of planned behaviour. They will provide useful insights into the state of entrepreneurship education for policy makers in universities and governments, particularly in addressing the problem of graduate unemployment in Saudi Arabia.

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Education and Linguistics Papers:

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Abstract no. 17: Is there a relationship between the training and experience of teachers in Saudi Arabia and the ability to improve the education of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder? Faten Abdulhadi Alzaidi University of Lincoln The study aims to acknowledge the relationship between teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; training and experience and their ability to improve the education of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in public education in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire method was used to collect data from 100 teachers from different educational backgrounds in Saudi Arabia. The results indicate that teachers who have less training and experience develop a negative attitude towards educational improvement for children with ASD. A teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s attitude can be affected by many more factors than simply their training and experience, such as culture and policies. Teachers also have a more negative attitude towards autistic students than students with other disabilities. The factors related to the teacher that can impact on improving the education of students with autism are for example, the number of students in the class, training, experience, low selfesteem, a negative attitude, a lack of information about ASD, less support from the school and low job satisfaction with their role. In addition, behavioural problems are the biggest issue in teaching students with ASD and teachers feel that they are not able to deal with it because they do not know the appropriate teaching style or strategies. This research can be a potential reference to improve other studies regards teaching students with ASD and a guide for discovering the best way to improve the education of students with ASD. The implications of this study address the limitations of the study itself in order to examine more closely the relationship between teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; training and experience and their attitudes and practices.

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Abstract no. 35: Basic-level Translations of Kinship Terms from Standard Arabic to English Khalid Omar Al-Saleem University of Salford This paper explores the obstacles to the translation into English of Arabic kinship terms. Kinship terms, like other cultural terms, are difficult to translate since they involve cultural knowledge, which the translator needs to possess. I investigate a number of English and Arabic kinship terms, considering the difficulties in translation between two different cultures with particular reference to basic-level English-to-Arabic translations, i.e. those translations which are likely to be most â&#x20AC;&#x17E;naturalâ&#x20AC;&#x; in non-technical contents. The analysis shows that the basic kinship terminology system of Arabic is more precise than that of English; a large proportion of basic-level Arabic terms are translated by English basic-level hyperonyms, but only a small proportion by English hyperonyms. By contrast, all the non-basic-level Arabic kinship terms considered are translated by English synonyms; there is total equivalence between complex and unusual kinship relations in the two languages.

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Abstract no. 57: Referring to The Other Sex Exploring the languageGender Relationship in Arabic Societies Hisham S. Alkadi Newcastle University Investigating the language-gender relationship is said to show fascinating results. How women and men use certain linguistic features of a language has been resulting much interesting information and stimulating researchers to examine different languages from several points of view. This study explores language differences in referring to the other sex and tries to investigate the underlying reasons which cause this particular language. It uses empirical data to examine the Arabic situation of referring to the other sex. Several Saudi and Emirati magazines used as evidence to reflect the language that men use in referring to women and vice versa. Exploration has been done in three categories: generalisation, work positions and social roles. The study has found that referring to males is continuously respectful, polite and matching their gender. Referring to women, in contrast, is rarely mentioned in generalisation, sometimes matching in workplaces and most of the time is polite in the social context.

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Abstract no. 73: An Investigation on The Relationship Between Children’s Understanding of The Concept of Death and Their Astronomical Knowledge: Study case Ghada Ibrahim Zamka University of Hull Among the midst of the research on young children‘s understanding of the concept of death, investigating how young children could understand the meaning of death remains a sensitive subject. This investigation was diverted through several perspectives started by psychological perspective. Then it was transferred to the cognition, which developed into investigation through perspective of biology. This study follows the cognition perspective on investigation the understanding of the concept of death through four subconcepts: irreversibility, inevitability, universality and non-functionality. The purpose of is to investigate young children‘s understanding of the concept of death through their astronomical knowledge. Understanding the cessation of internal organ‘s function is an abstract concept. From another point of view, scientifically, these functions could be affected by Time, which is called lifespan. This depicts how life, which includes years, days and moments, transfers in particular time into disappearance and not-existent. In other words, it is an attempt to understand all sub-concepts scientifically. This study is qualitative. The sample size is 29 children between 4 and 9 years. The data was collected in the UK. The stage of the study is in the analysing data. The study should be finished in 2013.

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Abstract no. 81: Neo-charismatic Leadership: A New Theory for Effective Leadership Ghada Talal Angawi Institute of Education- University of London This paper examines the neo-charismatic leadership model (NCM). The NCM focuses on leaderâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; roles affecting strategic transformation in higher education institutions. The importance of analysing leadership roles is vital given the rising global competition in the field, and the need for effective leadership. The NCM is developed by Conger and Kanungo (1998) and used a stage model to describe a leaders' role in each stage. The research used a qualitative case study approach involving three leaders employing document analysis and semi-structured interviews as data collection methods. The findings suggested a direct relation between NCM and the successful implementation of strategic decisions in higher education. The findings also revealed three additional roles to the NCM.

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Abstract no. 142: Equality Policies, their implementation and their effects on disabled preschool children in Saudi Arabia Thoraya Abdualkahlq Kadasah University of Roehampton I am doing doctoral research in Early Childhood Education at the University of Roehampton on the education of Saudi preschool children with disabilities. There are difficulties associated with disabled children entering the Saudi preschool system and I am working towards reform. My aim is to discover what needs to change, and these childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s rights, in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and inIslam, can be met. Saudi Arabia governs and rules based upon Islam (including guidance concerning equality; Ulwann 2000). These issues will be investigated, with the aim of promoting inclusion of the disabled in preschools. To be determined are the views of parents, professionals, schools and the state towards all developmental aspects of disabled children.

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Abstract no. 162: The Vocabulary Knowledge of University Students in Saudi Arabia Ahmed Masrai and James Milton Swansea University This paper presents an empirical study that investigates the vocabulary knowledge of 92 Saudi university learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) near the start and near the end of their university studies. Two tests were used to measure the participants‘ vocabulary size, the well-established Eurocentres Vocabulary Size Test (EVST) (Meara and Jones, 1990) test and a newly created XK_Lex, designed to make a more accurate measurement of vocabulary size. Results suggest that Saudi university students‘ vocabulary size is about 2000 to 3000 words on entry to university and around 5000 words nearer graduation. These figures thus emphasise that Saudi university learners‘ level is, on average, some way short of the kind of level associated with complete fluency in EFL. Thus the study suggests further English language support for the graduated students.

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Abstract no. 197: Acquisition of Voiced Stops by Adult Saudi Learners of English Sami Mohammed Alanazi University of Essex Researchers normally study the VOT of voiceless stops of L2 English but there is a scarcity of research on the acquisition of voiced stops of English specifically by adult Saudi learners. The current study aims to fill the gap. 20 adult Saudi learners of English and 20 monolinguals (10 native English and 10 Arabic monolinguals) participated in this study. The VOT of the voiced stops was taken in the context of three vowels. The results show that the vowel following a stop does not have any effect on the learning of VOT. Overall, the learning is very poor. Only two participants have learnt [b] but none of them have learnt [g] or [d]. There are signs of learning among the participants and the path of learning shows that English coronal stops are most difficult for the adult Saudi learners of English.

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Abstract no. 203: Investigating Saudi Students' Knowledge of the IELTS Test and their Attitude towards its Accuracy and Assessment in an Essential English Programme (EEP) Ahmad Alsagoafi University of Exeter The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s leading high stakes test that assesses the English Language Proficiency of candidates who speak languages other than English and wish to gain entry into universities where English is the language of instruction. Acknowledging this popularity and importance to learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), this small scale enquiry investigated Saudi students' knowledge of the IELTS test and their attitude towards its accuracy and assessment. This study was carried out in an Essential English Programme in Saudi Arabia where 30 Saudi students participated in this study. It found that male and female students aged 25 and under, and 26 and over held similar levels of knowledge and attitudes. In addition, their knowledge of the test did not correlate significantly with their attitude. The study points out that positive or negative attitude held by males or females who are 25 years or under or 26 years or more have no effect on knowledge. Although these findings were not built on a big, random and representative sample for generalisation these findings may have implications on the kind of preparation courses needed for the IELTS and the validation studies that can produce more accurate versions of the test for measuring language proficiency. These implications will benefit all IELTS stakeholders including candidates who intend to take the test, institutes who run preparation courses, teachers and administrators in Saudi Arabia.

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Abstract no. 246: Translating the Qur’anic Euphemisms; Literality Works Mohammed Albarakati King Abdulaziz University Given that the Qur‘an never elaborates explicitly on what are deemed to be distasteful themes, Qur‘anic text offers a useful source for studying the translation of euphemisms. In this paper a number of tools are employed to fulfil euphemistic functions; namely al-kinayah and al-ta’rid. This paper compares and contrasts the concept of euphemism in English and Arabic touching upon its definition, the linguistic devices used for its formation, and the possible motives underlying the use of euphemisms in both languages. Both al-kinayah and al-ta’rid use language and culture-specific expressions which can prove particularly challenging to translators, and this paper will focus on one of the most difficult of topics, namely the translation of sex-related Qur‘anic euphemisms into English, in an attempt to identify the different strategies adopted by the translators in dealing with these. Keywords: Euphemism, translation, Qur‘an, politeness, rhetorics

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Abstract no. 273: Language Programme Evaluation: Bridging the Gap between Universities and Saudi Workplaces: Qualitative Data analysis Ahmed M. Alghamdi Newcastle University The purpose of the study was to evaluate different aspects of the English language teaching programme in a Saudi university by investigating the appropriateness of teaching materials, teaching methods, and assessment procedures. This was conducted in terms of analysing various stakeholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; views who are involved in the programme. A mixed methods approach was used in designing the data collection procedure, including: three questionnaires, semi structured interviews and classroom observations. The study finds that the programme was not meeting the needs of the various stakeholders, as identified in the needs analysis. Therefore, this study proposed a coherent framework in which academic and workplace skills can be integrated to enhance the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; immediate and future achievement.

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Abstract no. 313: A Cognitive Study of Arabic Language: The Effects of Spelling-to-Sound Regularity and Word Frequency on Arabic Reading Abdullah ABDULRAHMAN Alasmari ESSEX UNIVERSITY

There are extremely few studies of word reading in Arabic, whose orthography has highly consistent letter-to-sound relationships and so could, in principle, be read aloud with high reliance on non-lexical phonological conversion. In order to investigate possible effects of lexical variables in reading Arabic words, the current study presented 37 native Arabic speakers with words to read aloud. The stimulus words manipulated word-frequency and concreteness orthogonally, and, in addition, presented 21 words with some degree of spelling-to-sound irregularity (7 pronouns and 14 nouns) and 21 matched regular words. Word naming latencies were reliably faster (by an average of 80ms) to high- than to low-frequency words, but an effect of concreteness (of 23ms) was found only for high-frequency words. The irregular words were read aloud 66ms slower than matched regular words (and this was true for both pronouns and nouns). These results suggest that skilled Arabic readers do not rely solely on non-lexical phonological recoding to read aloud (although this does seem to affect their reading performance) and can recognize high-frequency words visually.

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Abstract no. 315: Potential Integration of a Computer Mediated Communication Environment (SkypeTM) into the Saudi EFL Classroom: A Synthetic Review Jaber Ali Maslamani Newcastle University

The paper aims at reviewing the research about computer mediated communication to provide an understanding and discussion of their key features and capabilities and how these features might be used in online synchronous voice-based computer mediated communication (SVCMC) to support English as a foreign language learning (EFL) in Saudi Arabia. The problem of teacherbased classrooms in Saudi Arabia and their limited support of promoting oral proficiency and interactive learning environments is discussed. This paper first presents a brief overview of EFL instruction in Saudi Arabia, followed by a brief review of relevant SLA theories and research with respect to interaction, CMC, and CMC based tasks. A definition and the possible implications of Skype, a CMC tool, in language learning is then presented. Finally, this paper suggests ways in which CMC can be integrated into EFL learning in the Saudi context. Keywords: Skype, CMC, Saudi Arabia, online language learning, oral proficiency, task-based learning, interaction

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Abstract no. 366: Hiring Native and Non-Native Speaker EFL Teachers in Saudi Arabian Universities: Programme Administrative Perspective Oudah Alenazi Newcastle University This paper explores the process of hiring EFL teachers, the criteria used, and the effect of the status of applicants as native/non-native speakers of English on their employment potential. A questionnaire surveyed 56 recruiters in Saudi Arabia by asking them to listen to five speakers applying for teaching jobs by leaving voice messages on an employerâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s answer machine. The analysis of the data revealed that the academic qualification, teaching experience, native speaker status, nationality, and accents of the applicants were perceived to be important as hiring criteria in this particular order. Also, it was found that the participants who assigned more importance to the status of the applicant as native or non-native speaker, nationality, and accent perceived the non-native speakers to be less qualified and therefore had limited chances in employability.

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Abstract no. 423: Investigating the challenges facing the distance learning leadership and their implication on organizational change. A case study in one university in Saudi Arabia Faisal ALsuiadi ALsuiadi Hull Unviersity This paper is related to the expansion of distance learning programmes in Saudi Arabia, which mirrors similar changes in many developing countries. The adoption of distance education in higher education has had several purposes. However, in Saudi Arabia, the most important has been to expand access to higher education in order to allow those students who, for whatever reason, have been prevented access to conventional higher education. To date, there has been no examination of the challenges that face distance education programmes at the Imam Mohammad bin Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, data have been collected from one of the most important distance education systems in Saudi Arabia. The distance education at Imam Mohammad bin Saud University shows that the majority of the administrators in these programmes do not have studies available which focus on the challenges of such programmes. Therefore, this study aims to provide an analysis of the challenges of distance education for Saudi policy-makers using qualitative methods. The issues to be examined include some of the barriers confronting distance education in developing countries. The findings of this study highlight that the majority of the challenges that face Distance Education at Imam Mohammad bin Saud University in Saudi Arabia are shared with distance education in developing countries.

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Abstract no. 468: Learner-Online Applications Interaction: Tracking Language Related Episodes in Computer-Assisted L2 Writing Wael Hamed Alharbi University of Essex This paper examines the processes through which learners interact with two types of freely available online tools when they write in English as a foreign language and accesses the language related episodes (LREs) emerging from that interaction. Data were collected from an undergraduate EFL composition course in Saudi Arabia for one semester while students interacted with the online tools. Using exploratory techniques that triangulate on real-time screen recordings, corpus and dictionary queries, and oral reflections, this paper documents these interactions as evidencing each learner‘s efforts to resolve issues by retrieving, evaluating, and appropriating the online tools search results. The findings show that the learner‘s achievements depend both on their ability to interpret and exploit the search results and on the online tools' ability to respond to the learner‘s particular needs. Based on these findings, this paper suggests that computer mediated communication research should focus on maximizing the learner‘s developmental potential by developing more advanced corpus systems and enhancing the learner‘s textual awareness and analytical ability. Through working with the new tools, L2 writers met their lexical, grammatical and lexicogrammatical challenges in an effective and efficient way. Their interaction with the tools (Learner-Tool Interaction, LTI) is a multilayered process comprising four structural units: noticing, evaluation, searching, and decision. Through these units, students engage in intense hypotheses testing to eventually appropriate the target lexical, grammatical and/or lexicogrammatical items from the tools. The way LTI facilitates the students‘ development is strikingly similar to the ways in which an experienced tutor helps a student to advance through the learning process which is a hugely needed in this digital era. The findings also shows that LTI analysis opens up an exciting new avenue for research on the next generation of computer mediated pedagogy that recognizes and thereby facilitates language learning as computermediated activity focused on the learner‘s development.

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Abstract no. 485: An examination of the acceptance of the CENTRA system by King Abdul Aziz University preparatory year students Khulood Rashed Alsiraihi King Abdul Aziz University E-learning is an important mode of learning in today‘s Higher Education institutions because it increases access to education for a wider spectrum of learners. Centra is an online learning environment that is used by King Abdul Aziz university to offer virtual classrooms for their distance learners. This paper proposes a model grounded on Davis‘ Technology Acceptance Model (1986) and Rogers‘ Diffusion of Innovations model (1995, 2003) to explain distance learning students' acceptance and use of the Centra system. Quantitative data will be collected using questionnaire items developed and validated by Davis (1989) and by Moore and Benbasat (1991) to assess the model factors. The findings of the study will shed light on the key factors that determine the students‘ acceptance of the Centra system and will help to improve the virtual service offered by king Abdul Aziz University. E-learning administrators will also find the findings very useful to set e-learning policies and plans.

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Abstract no. 494: Classroom Simulator for Teacher Training using Virtual Learning Environments and Simulated Students Behaviour Fahad Mazaed Alotaibi, Dr.Jordan Dimitov De Montfort University In accordance with the development of technology, new teaching methods have appeared, such as e-learning and virtual learning environment. Virtual learning environment is involved in grouping both of the students and teachers in a virtual place using different software, such as Avatar, 3D, and SimCity to enhance the educational process. The modernity of this environment attracted both of the teachers and students to be trained by professional programmers. Students and teachers revealed that there are many positive and negative impacts that affect the process of learning in general especially those who work with new technologies.

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Abstract no. 542: Using Digital Tabletop Technology to explore Taskbased Interaction Saad Almutairi Newcastle University The study reports on research done to explore the use of digital tabletop technology in investigating task-based interaction in language classrooms. The study uses a multimodal lens to analyse interaction around Tabletops. The underlying methodology in this research is Conversation Analysis (CA). The reason for using CA to uncover the details of interaction in such environment is because it fits with the level of richness and detail that the environment provides. The results show that in the specific environment used for the study there was huge reliance on embodied actions and body positioning and orientation during the ongoing interaction. The results indicate that non-verbal communication plays an important role in the context of language learning. The Tabletop technology might nicely fit in an interactive classroom and enhance the quality and depth of interaction.

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Engineering & Architecture Papers:

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Abstract no. 12: Waste Packaging Problems and its Optimisation: A review Babader Ahmed, Ren Jun Liverpool Join Mores University This paper will address the importance of considering environmental issues in the industrial field, as well as packaging in daily lives. The analysing packaging life cycle and the state of industries will emerge some issues which discussed in this paper. Besides this, the paper will show some empirical evidences regarding current waste management systems used in a variety of countries around the world in order to testing waste management system by using possible techniques. The results from this paper is to clearly identify the challenges, opportunities and priorities for the future research and look for the important of consider a reusable packaging system as a solution to poor waste management, and its sustainability for environment.

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Abstract no. 43: C200 microturbine performance enhancement using single effect absorption chiller Basim M.A Makhdoum, Brian Agnew , Mohammed A. Al-Weshahi School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne School of Built and Natural Environment, Northumbria University This paper presents energy and exergy efficiency enhancement of C200 microturbine through the turbine inlet cooling using single effect absorption chiller. The IPSEpro software package was used to model the plant and the model was validated against units design data. The results show that the out power decreases by 8.14 % when the ambient temperature increases from ISO condition to 30 ยบC which is average ambient temperature at Jeddah city. The study suggested powering the absorption chiller by microturbine exhaust enable to reduce this temperature to 20 ยบC which leads to cycle performance improvement. Moreover, this reduction in ambient temperature leads to 6 % net power and overall efficiency improvement and 22 % enchantment on exergy efficiency. Furthermore, CO2 emissions declined by 40 % compared with microturbine stand-alone at Jeddah city ambient condition.

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Abstract no. 58: Investigating construction worker safety behaviour as a contributory factor to improving safety performance Youisef Al-Shehri, Francis, Francis Edum-Fotwe and Andrew Price School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough of University The construction industry has a relatively high level of fatal and non-fatal accident rate, which creates the need for improving its safety performance. Official statistics appear to suggest a levelling in safety performance improvement across the construction industry. The levelling in safety performance implies that improving safety beyond the current attainment calls for a radical look at how safety is addressed by construction. Such a radical look would not only cover the planning, implementation, and management of safety in construction, but also give attention to aspects beyond the traditional practices of safety management. This paper focuses on the contribution construction workers make to safety performance by exploring their safety behaviour. Understanding safety behaviour of construction workers should provide opportunities for improvements beyond traditional practices in safety management. This paper presents the conceptual framework for investigating the worker safety behaviour, which will form the foundation for identifying the improvement opportunities.

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Abstract no. 69: Analysing the Frequency of Traffic Crashes in Riyadh City Using statistical models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Engr. Saleh Abdulaziz Altwaijri Loughborough University Traffic crashes in Riyadh city cause losses in the form of deaths, injuries and property damages, in addition to the pain and social tragedy affecting families of the victims. The primary objective of this paper is therefore to explore factors affecting the frequency of road crashes in Riyadh city using appropriate statistical models and GIS approach to integrate the datasets and to calculate the yearly crashes per spatial unit aiming to establish effective safety policies ready to be implemented to reduce the frequency of road crashes in Riyadh city. Crash data for Riyadh city were collected from the Higher Commission for the Development of Riyadh (HCDR) for a period of five years from 1425H to 1429H. Crash data were classified into three categories: fatal, serious-injury and slight-injury. A negative Binomial (NB) model was employed and the units of analysis were 168 HAIs (wards) in Riyadh city. The results from the frequency models suggest that percentage of non-Saudi found positively associated with serious injury crashes; percentage of illiterate people and the income per capita found to be positively significant with the frequency of fatal and serious injury crashes; and the increased residential, transport, and educational areas of land use is associated with the decreased level of fatal and serious injury crashes occurrences. Based on the findings, a range of countermeasures are proposed to reduce the frequency of traffic crashes in Riyadh city.

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Abstract no. 78: A simplified model for the simulation of two-phase flow in a kettle re boiler Mohammed Almeshaal and David A McNeil School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University A simplified two-fluid model has been developed to accurately predict twophase flow behaviour in a kettle reboiler tube bundle. Two different boundary conditions are incorporated in the model these allow the flow transition from bubbly to intermittent flow to be included. The drag coefficient and tube-wall force are based on an empirical correlation. The ANSYS, CFX CFD package is used to solve the resulting equations. The analysis is performed at heat fluxes of 10 and 20 kW/m2 and the results of pressure drop, liquid velocity, mass flux and void fraction distribution are presented. The predicted pressure drop distributions are compared with measured results and good agreement is shown. The flow field observations confirm the predicted flow patterns. The predicted mass flux and void fraction distribution are compared with prediction from the one and two fluid models and a good agreement is obtained.

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Abstract no. 91: The meaning of Jeddah houses and their identity: From traditional to contemporary perspective Raghda Hassan Hareri King Abdul aziz University The architectural features of Jeddah houses have long been a noteworthy beauty of Saudi Arabia. Over time, however, Jeddah‘s residential environment has undergone radical changes, with many contemporary housing forms being adopted from western designs. This research will identify and analyse the evidence that contemporary houses built in Jeddah have overlooked significant elements of meaning and identity. Accordingly, this paper will argue that the adaptation of contemporary houses to reflect the design principles of traditional houses will enhance their functionality. This research‘s methodology is based on an integrated qualitative approach, organised into two parts: the theoretical and analytic. While contemporary houses retain the advantages of advanced technology, integrated electricity, and high-quality design products—which offer the position to cater to modern living requirements—the findings of this research reveal that contemporary houses are inferior when compared with traditional houses through the meaning, identity, and aesthetic design that distinguish the two.

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Abstract no. 100: A 3D computational analyses for optimum fin plate thickness of heat sinks for liquid immersion Abdulmajeed Almaneea, Harvey Thompsona, Jonathan Summersa and Nikil Kapura School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, United Kingdom High growth and demand in the information technology sector requires more powerful data centres. Since more power means more heat load, cooling the data centre becomes an important issue. Two main techniques are used for data centre cooling, which are air and liquid cooling. Of the liquid cooling methods, immersion of the server inside a dielectric liquid is one method that is used in this study. In the present study the server includes the CPU which generates around 130w of the heat load. The liquid between the CPU and a cold plate moves due to density variations. The plate fin heat sink is used to boost the heat dissipation from the CPU to the cold plate. Adding more fins increases the surface area, but it is seen to decrease the heat transfer coefficient, in contrast fewer fins, in the heat sink array, increases the heat transfer coefficient even though it decreases the fin surface area. Therefore, there must be an optimum fin thickness that can provide the best heat transfer. This study focuses on a 3D model using COMSOL to determine the best fin thickness of an immersed CPU heat sink. With the space between the fins kept constant at 1.5 mm, the best fin thickness has been found to be 0.9mm.

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Abstract no. 114: The formation of Jeddah houses: environmental and socio-cultural aspects Raghda Hassan Hareri King Abdul aziz University The architectural features of Jeddah houses have long been a noteworthy beauty of the Saudi Arabian city. Over time, however, the residential environment of the city of Jeddah has undergone a radical change, with many contemporary housing forms being adopted from the designs of western houses. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyse the evidence that contemporary houses built in Jeddah have overlooked important elements of design that relate to key environmental aspects and socio-cultural. The methodology of this research will be based on an integrated qualitative approach. The findings of this research reveal that the contemporary houses are inferior, to some extent, if compared with traditional houses in the standards of environmental responsiveness, and socio-cultural aspects. The contemporary house, however, retains the advantages of advanced technology, integrated electricity, and high-quality design products, which give the contemporary house the position within modern architecture to coexist with modern living requirements and lifestyle. This paper aims to highlight the functionality of the contemporary houses, in order to maintain and consolidate the local, environmental, climactic, and human values necessary for the formation of excellence, functionality, and beauty in contemporary houses.

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Abstract no. 294: Mathematical modelling of a sub wet bulb temperature evaporative cooling system using porous ceramic materials Abdulrahman Alharbi1, Rabah Boukhanouf, Abdulmajeed Aldabesh, Ghaith Yaghmour Department of Built Environment, University of Nottingham This paper presents computer modelling of an indirect evaporative cooling system for air conditioning in buildings. The system employs porous ceramic or fired clay materials as wet media and the airflows were arranged so that cooling temperatures below sub-wet bulb temperatures can be achieved. Modelling results show that for dry bulb temperature of inlet air ranging from 30o C to 45o C and relative humidity of 35%, the supply air temperature would be cooled to below wet bulb temperature. It was also estimated that the system would achieve a cooling capacity of 27 W/m2 of wet area with overall wet bulb and performance that would make the system a potential alternative to conventional mechanical system.

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Abstract no. 295: The Future of Multimedia Services for Better Quality of Business Emad Danish, Warnakulasuriya Fernando, Hemantha Kodikaraarachchi, Ahmet Kondoz I-Lab, Multimedia Communications Research, University of Surrey Following the recent technological advancements, an immersive volume of multimedia content is being consumed by users over multiple heterogeneous communication networks. Since this phenomenon could lead to unsatisfactory perception by customers, user perception of multimedia services has attracted much research recently. However, the quantified customer satisfaction remains in the hopes of improving the Quality of Experience (QoE), but it is not reflected on the customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s bill when charged. Apparently, there is a gap between customer satisfaction and charging. Hence, in order to address this gap a new dimension is essentially attached, that is the Quality of Business (QoB). In this piece of paper, we undertake the effort to highlight the problem of direct link absence between QoE and QoB. We first review the main driving forces in the multimedia services delivery chain; namely Quality of Service, Quality of Experience and Quality of Business. Later, we project this triple-Q concept illustratively on the relevant components of a typical IPTV model, where we expose questionable flaws in the current models. Finally, we suggest essential characteristics for new QoB models to address the gap between customer experiences (QoE) and charging (QoB), so that the achievements made in QoE assessment are interpreted into revenue.

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Abstract no. 296: Clean Energy via Hydrothermal Gasification of Hydrocarbons: Kinetics and Nanocatalysis Yousef M. Alshammari a, Ting-Jie Wang b, Lin Zhao b, and Klaus Hellgardt a a Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College b Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University Hydrogen is a key energy carrier which could be the solution to the Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s energy and environmental crisis. It is currently produced mainly through steam reforming of natural gas followed by the water gas shift process which results in significant yields of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. One novel process for clean production of hydrogen is the hydrothermal conversion of hydrocarbons underground. This work reports the first experimental analysis of hydrothermal gasification of hexadecane, a heavy hydrocarbon model, in tubular flow reactor system. The effects of temperature, and reactor residence time, partial oxidation, and catalysts loadings, on the yields of hydrogen and other gaseous liquid formed species in a relatively low residence time (3.00 s â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 14.00 s) in sub and supercritical water conditions were investigated. The results have shown the potential of transforming low productivity wells into hydrothermal reactors for hydrogen generation.

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Abstract no. 343: Assessing the use of an optical fibre probe for measuring void fraction in a heat exchanger Mohammed Almeshaal and David A McNeil School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Herriot-Watt University A fibre optical probe for measuring void fraction in a two-phase (air and water) flow has been developed. The optical probe determines the phase on the basis of the difference in refractive indices between the gas and liquid. A cleaved (straight cut) probe with normal reflection was used in this investigation. A light beam was presented at one end of the probe. The difference in reflected light intensity between the gas bubbles and the liquid in contact at the probe tip was detected at the same end of the fibre. Measurements of void fraction have been performed in a vertical airâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;water tube bundle. The optical probe and its associated electronic detection system were calibrated by comparing their void fraction measurements to those measured by a gamma ray densitometer. Good agreement was obtained between the measurements when an appropriate threshold value was chosen for the optical probe measurements. The value of the threshold level selected for the optical probe data has a large effect on the void fraction measurements.

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Abstract no. 348: Changes in the Urban Landscape of the Holy City of Makkah Jamal fawzi taj Departemnt of Architecture Plymouth University The city of Mecca is one of the oldest cities in the mankind‟ s history; it is known as „The Holy City of Mecca‟ because it is the point from which Prophet Mohammed started his Islamic message. The landscape of this city is essentially a desert surrounded by imposing mountains; in holy books Mecca is traditionally referred to as „The Dry Valley‟ . Many great civilizations either arose in or actually occupied Mecca, leaving behind a variety of landscape and urban features. Muslims and Arabs settled in the region over a thousand years ago and hence Mecca‟ s urban design character reflects a traditional Islamic city‟ s layout and design. Other elements have also influenced the design such as the climate and social economics. For hundreds of years the main source of Mecca‟ s economic prosperity has been the holy mosque. The government is currently reshaping the landscape of the city so as to cater for as many visitors to the mosque as possible in a bid to guarantee maximum income. In doing so, it has largely failed to consider the side effects of such changes and developments. In this essay I will analyze and describe the urban landscape of the city of Mecca; I shall explore the history of the unique Islamic urban planning and shall highlight the contrasts between the old and the new city layout. I will also show how cultural and economical factors influenced the present-day landscape of the city.

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Abstract no. 404: Reducing the BGP convergence time without harming the scalability Eatedal; Alabdulkreem, Hamed; Al-Raweshidy, Maysam; Abbod Electronic & Computer Engineering/ School of Engineering & Design One primary cause for the slowness of the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) convergence is the Minimum Route Advertisement Interval (MRAI), which is a timer with a default value of 30 sec. This timer forces the BGP routers to wait for at least 30 sec before sending advertisement for the same prefix. Though this will avoid the deluge of BGP advertisements, it may cause unnecessary delay for important BGP advertisements. The thirty sec is not the optimal value for every network topology; to date, there has been no specific value used by all the networks around the internet. This paper aims to find the optimum value for the MRAI timer that which maximally reduces the convergence time without harming the scalability. There is a need to examine different networks with different configurations to find the value that optimally balances convergence time and scalability, which should be more than 10 times smaller than the default value.

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Abstract no. 412: Insight into renewable energy potential of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia A. Aldabesh, R. Boukhanouf, A. G. Yaghmour, A. Alharbi Department of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham This paper presents an insight into the energy generation, consumption and the potential contribution of renewable energy technologies in the power generation mix in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The work gives an overview of the main factors that caused a sharp increase in energy consumption and a brief history of renewable energy development and type of technologies used with particular focus on solar energy systems. The paper concludes by discussing future trends and challenges to renewable energy systems.

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Abstract no. 431: Survey on the Service-Oriented Architecture Process Calculi Abeer S. Al-Humaimeedy King's College London, UK The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) paradigm is based on services composition, that is, loosely coupled autonomous heterogeneous services, which are collectively composed to implement a particular task. Internet standards are the dominant modelling methods of SOA systems. To address some weaknesses of these dominant modelling methods for SOA, new formal models have been developed at a higher level of abstraction, adopting the concepts rather than the notation of the internet standard primitives. Although there is a considerable amount of research proposed new formal models, papers comparing and categorising these models are limited in number. In this paper we propose a new model for comparing and categorising these models.

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Abstract no. 440: Investigations of Probe-Surface Interactions in Nanotopographic Measurements Khalid T. Althagafy¹‘² and Derek G. Chetwynd¹ ¹School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K. ² Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia This paper reports recent progress on extended studies into the contact regimes of surface profilometer styli, with a view especially to better understanding the uncertainty budgets. It simulates the 3D contact of an approaching (ideal or real) stylus. Behaviour at the limits of instrument capability is studied by using AFM-derived data to represent small areas of engineering surfaces at resolutions to 1 nm vertically and 200 nm laterally. Extending upon conventional kinematic simulations, its novelties include (i) detailed analysis of how contact points or patches scatter with respect to the normal axis and (ii) a ―threshold‖ function for exploring numerical and physical sensitivity to very small surface features (potentially noise). It first summarizes the rationale and main features of the algorithms and software implementation. Then operation of the new stylus simulation is illustrated using unrealistically large thresholds for clarity. Applications to real instruments will naturally use small thresholds representative of noise levels and elastic deflections. There will then be a statistical accumulation of individually small effects across the surface, for which summary statistics are under development.

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Abstract no. 456: Analysis and Design Optimisation of LJMU Formula Student Car Upright Awn Alghamdi Liverpool John Moores University The suspension system is aim to support the race car to be more stable at irregular road conditions. It offers the car to be more handled and achieve best results in competitions. The most important part that connects the suspension arms to the wheel is upright. Predicting the loads acting on this part correctly is crucial in order to perform a reliable design analysis. The formula student team at LJMU has simulated the whole car using CarSim software package and obtained all necessary forces acting on the tire patch and consequently to the upright. The data includes number of scenarios, for instance, normal case and worst case scenarios. The analysis covered by this research will use the worst case which considers the heavier loading such as cornering and braking. The aim here is to analyse the design of the existing upright to find optimisation possibilities. Applying correct constraints builds a true picture on the model performance under real work situations. The loads are extremely significant to be applied properly to the software; their positions, magnitude and directions are of particular interest. This paper produces approaches on how to employ Solid Works built-in tools in order to enhance the design and examine its properties under different conditions. The starting point in this work is to use the current part data and results to accomplish FE analysis towards obtaining new concepts of the front upright. The aim is to reduce the total mass and increase the model stiffness. The analysis concludes by addressing the critical features that can be focused on to extract a satisfactory findings from the design studies and analysis. It also ends with many suggestions for further work and recommendations.

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Abstract no. 466: Potential of Solar Driven Air Conditioning in building sector in the KSA G. Yaghmour, R. Boukhanouf, A. Alharbi, A. Aldabesh, Department of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham The KSA has a huge oil reserves, but it is increasingly recognised that a more sustainable form of energy sources such as solar energy would play a significant role in future energy generation mix. Developing technical and human capacities to exploit the new technologies would need sustained effort and capital investment. This paper highlights the potential of solar energy in the KSA and its deployment for air conditioning in buildings to reduce energy consumption of this sector. The work also describes briefly some existing solar driven cooling technologies that can be implemented.

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Abstract no. 514: Towards an Integrated Sustainable Urban Planning Development Model for 21st Century Cities Ali AlQahtany Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the field of sustainable urban planning development and it has become in constant mutation across the world. The reason of this is that during the last century the world has witnessed many environmental, social, economic and urban changes where population of the world has risen dramatically since 1900. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of sustainable urban planning topic for cities and give a comprehensive review of key issues in terms of underpinning concepts, principles and challenges. The paper will emphasis on a number of issues related to the built environment, neighborhoods and services. Furthermore, it aims to critically assess the most common and established frameworks of city sustainable development. Limitations of these frameworks are discussed, including regional variations. These are factored in a new approach for sustainable communities. The contribution of this research is to propose a scalable framework for an effective sustainable urban planning development for cities that address the gaps and the limitations of the existing models.

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Abstract no. 522: Energy Aware Cellular Adaptive Deployment Strategy Talal Alsedairy Centre for Communication Systems Research, University of Surrey Energy consumption of cellular networks is driving operators to optimise energy utilisation without sacrificing user experience. Energy consumption in the information and communication technologies (ICTs) sector has become a key issue from both an economic and an environmental perspective. Currently, most of the radio access mobile communication network energy is consumed in the base station, which makes it the ideal target for energy optimisation. In this paper we consider the idea of intelligent management of a cellular network by intelligently switching off base stations or functions of it in the network. This idea depends on the variation of traffic in load from time to time due to the typical night-day behaviour of users.

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Abstract no. 536: Machine Learning based Knowledge Acquisition on Spectrum Usage Ghassan R. Alnwaimi Centre for Communications Systems Research, University of Surrey There is an urgent need for more flexible and efficient schemes for managing the radio resources in the future network architectures. The objective is to improve spectrum efficiency and combat spectrum scarcity problem. To do so, particularly in heterogeneous network deployment potential cross-layerinterference has to be considered. The scope of this work is to design and deploy an algorithm to acquire knowledge about primary network activities, and model the spectrum pools for opportunistic access by secondary nodes. Certainly, distributed algorithm, machine learning and self- organization on the context of two-layer network deployment have been little exploited and thus constitute a main novelty of this work.

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Abstract no. 547: Improved Performance of 2.45 GHz Implanted Antenna for Wireless Communication Saeed Alamri University of Sheffield, Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering Body area networks will require antennas that can efficiently support the implanted systems wireless communication. This paper proposes the design, characterisation and simulation of probe implanted antenna for body wireless communication. It shows that a length of strip line and/or a frequency selective service (FFS) could be used in order to enhance the performance of the implanted antenna. This approach yields a significant improvement in the antenna gain and efficiency. The obtained gain is better than 4.5 dBm. The power consumption reduced about 10 times. Comparisons between different implanting depths with different design are presented.

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Abstract no. 549: Toxicity Assessment of Aircraft Interior Materials (Fabric Seat Cover and Wall/Floor Cover) Using the Cone Calorimeter and FTIR Analysis A. A. Alarifi & G. E. Andrews University of Leeds Aircraft fires are crucial due to the fact that evacuation cannot be started by simply identifying the existence of a fire. Fire smoke can impair the movement and the reaction of the victims before the flames reach them. Aircraft Interior fire loads, Fabric Seat Cover and Wall/Floor Cover, have been investigated in this paper in terms of toxic emission produced in case of a fire. The specimens were tested using an enclosed with restricted ventilation (15ACH) cone calorimeter and heat flux of 40 [kW/m²]. The fire effluents were analysed using an online FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) which enables monitoring 51 species. Different burning patterns were found for each of the materials with the Fabric seat cover sustaining a flaming fire for about 27 minutes while Wall/Floor cover had only 33seconds flaming period. The major contributing toxic emissions in Fabric seat cover were found to be SO₂ and for Wall/Floor cover HCN, CO and then SO₂.

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Humanities Papers:

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Abstract no. 20: Evaluation of thematic analysis TA: features, concepts, processes, validation; inductive & detective approached in interpretive research Alhojailan, Mohammed Ibrahim, Prof. Bernd Carsten Stahl, Mr. Ralph Birkenhead School of Technology, DMU University Thematic analysis (TA), ‗practically‘ in the resources of literature review shows inconsistent description and unclear issues regarding utilized, concepts, procedures, validation and interpretation. This paper aims to provide critical overview with the main differences between three types of qualitative data analysis i.e. grounded theory analysis, hermeneutics analysis and thematic analysis. Moreover, it will discuss TA in terms of utilizability, features, characteristics, description of the main steps of content analysis [process] following the model of Miles & Huberman (1994), with discussing themes‘ validation procedures. It has been found that thematic analysis approach is very suitable in instances when the research seeks to interpret individuals‘ point of view. Nevertheless, thematic analysis would primarily be a very beneficial and fixable when adapting inductive and detective approached. Finally, TA apply when the researcher pursues to link diversities concepts and opinion from multiindividuals‘ data, that data need to be comparison with different resources of data.

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Abstract no. 49: Saudi Arabia obligations under international human rights law (Focusing the position of IHRL in the domestic legal order) Mohamed A Almagsoudi School of Law, University of Aberdeen The implementation of international human rights law in the domestic sphere varies from one state to another. States are typically divided into a monist or dualist country depending on their domestic arrangement when dealing with international law. Dualist countries are founded on the principle of separation between international law and national law. According to this theory both laws are separate entities and for international law to be applied before national courts certain measures are to be taken. It remains the responsibility of the ratifying state to translate the treaty provisions into domestic law; however, the treaty will not be valid nationally without the prescribed measures or what is called the doctrine of transformation. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question at what time an international treaty becomes part of the national law in Saudi Arabia or it is hard to establish whether the Saudi Arabia is a monist country in which international law is part of the national arrangement, thus is no need for national incorporation of the treaty, or a dualist country where such domestication is required.

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Abstract no. 159: Maritime terms in the classical dictionaries Muhammad Zafer Alhazmi Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies at the University of Exeter After the advent o f Islam Arab interacted with various ethnic communities. As a result, Arabic was changing. When they noticed that, Arabic lexicographers set off on long journeys across the Arabia looking for Bedouin to document their language because lexicographers wanted to take Arabic back to its authentic origins. The language of urban communities on the Red Sea coast was not documented. This paper attempts to provide an explanation to the lack of maritime terminology in the classical dictionaries.

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Abstract no. 169: The Image of the West in Saudi Poetry Saleh Owaid Alharbi Isalmic University in Madinah In this paper I shall use a historical approach while exploring the ways some Saudi poets represented the West in their writings. I examine the responses to the West in the poems written between 1920 and 2010. In so doing, I demonstrate how the word "West" has always been loaded with various significations and references. This diversity of meanings assigned to the word "West" in the Saudi poems pursued in this paper allows for a historical understanding of the special religious and geographical nuances relating to Saudi Arabia. While pursuing a historical understanding of the use of the word "West" in Saudi poems, I shall trace the shifts gradually appearing in the socioeconomic and cultural lives of Saudi Arabians since the establishment of the kingdom. Such shifts, as this paper argues, allow for the differences prevalent in the ways Saudi writers perceived the "West".

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Abstract no. 190: Uncertain Lifeline: Literary Critics and Cultural Criticism Adel Alzahrani University of Leeds, King Abdul Aziz University. Criticism gains importance and effectiveness from its closeness to society; from the ‗age of criticism‘ – so named by Matthew Arnold - through to the present day, the public sphere has powerfully been an essential part in the critical process; those critics, who consider the wider society‘s needs, wants, goals, feelings and concerns in their works, tend to achieve popularity and survival. Cultural criticism is considered by theorists, for example Raymond Williams, Hoggart and Eagleton, the only lifeline for both institutional and noninstitutional critics. However, the debate around cultural criticism has gradually increased; beginning with the attempts to define ‗culture‘, the epistemological foundations of cultural criticism, and last but not least the boundaries and methodologies of the field. My paper deals with this debate, and attempts to discuss these issues on a theoretical basis.

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Abstract no. 196-The Potential Impacts of Cyber terrorism on National Security Abdulrahman Saad Alqahtani Hull University This paper outlines a PhD proposal, which is an attempt to design an effective a framework for the potential impacts of cyberterrorism on society, particularly on sense of security, compared with the effects posed by traditional terrorism. That will be by identifying the title and topic area, research purpose, questions, methods and resources. In this proposal a preliminary review of relevant literature will be introduced, followed by the research questions that the writer intends to address and the proposed methods to answer the questions. Then research ethics and the expected time frame will be represented.

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Abstract no. 526: A Call for Endogenous Saudi Animations: Stop Cultural Imperialism! Ohud Rashid Alharbi, Dr Emily Baines De Montfort University, Leicester Animation industry is one of the emerging industry that developed countries have dominated and reaping benefits from the investment in this creative industry (Screen Digest, 2009). One of these benefits is that animation films represented the national cultural identity to others nations. However, these benefits can have negative effects on the receiver culture if they absorbed massive dose from foreign cultures (UNESCO, 1980). Therefore, developing countries started to develop their own animation that can protect their heritages and convey their cultural identity to the world. In light of the above, this paper focuses on the role of animation industry in representing cultural identity by using contents analysis as a methodology to understand the misrepresentation of stereotype that embodied in animation films. Moreover, this paper spots light the landscape of Saudi Animation to find what is the current state of the animation industry in Saudi Arabia?

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ICT Papers:

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Abstract no. 9: Image Steganography Ahd Aljarf, Saad Amin School of Computing, Coventry University Recently, ‗Image Steganography‘ concept is becoming an important issue in the computer security world. Image steganography simply means to hide some secret data or information in a medium. These hidden data can be embedded in a text, image or a sound, but the most popular cover object used for hidden secret message is images. However, there are many methods to be used to hide any secret messages, such as: Jsteg. On the other hand, the procedures of detecting any secret data, is called ‗Steganalysis‘. The art of Steganalysis plays a major role in the selection of features or characteristics to find the hidden message. This paper focuses on the concept of ‗Image Steganalysis‘. As several existing methods are going to be implemented; first to test the performance, then to develop an image Steganalysis method based on some of the existing Steganalysis algorithms. The misuse of Images Steganography is also going to be covered on this research.

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Abstract no. 23: Evaluation of thematic analysis TA: features, concepts, processes, validation; inductive & detective approached in interpretive research Alhojailan, Mohammed Ibrahim, Prof. Bernd Carsten Stahl, Mr. Ralph Birkenhead. DMU, School of Technology. Thematic analysis (TA), ‗practically‘ in the resources of literature review shows inconsistent description and unclear issues regarding utilized, concepts, procedures, validation and interpretation. This paper aims to provide critical overview with the main differences between three types of qualitative data analysis i.e. grounded theory analysis, hermeneutics analysis and thematic analysis. Moreover, it will discuss TA in terms of utilizability, features, characteristics, description of the main steps of content analysis [process] following the model of Miles & Huberman (1994), with discussing themes‘ validation procedures. It has been found that thematic analysis approach is very suitable in instances when the research seeks to interpret individuals‘ point of view. Nevertheless, thematic analysis would primarily be a very beneficial and fixable when adapting inductive and detective approached. Finally, TA apply when the researcher pursues to link diversities concepts and opinion from multiindividuals‘ data, that data need to be comparison with different resources of data.

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Abstract no. 46: Evaluation of Access Process in Trust Based Access Control for XML Databases Norah Farooqi and Siobhan North Faculty of Engineering, University of Sheffield XML databases have become an active research topic due to the recent increase in their use for many applications. A lot of sensitive and important data can be stored in XML databases; so it is important to provide a secure environment to deal with this kind of data. The access control manages the access to data and prevents malicious processes. Traditional access models are static and focused mostly on protection from outsiders. This paper presents the access control model in a trust based access control for XML databases. Our dynamic access model is responsive to the evaluation of users‘ history. The model tracks users‘ errors and bad transactions over time and updates their privileges in the access policy. The system prevents outsiders‘ attacks and captures insiders‘ malicious processes effectively preventing users from taking advantage of their role and position in the system.

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Abstract no. 99: Learning Management Systems in Saudi Universities: Training and Implementation through Academics Alshammari1, Mohammed Saleh and Howley2, Richard Graham Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University This article is withdrawn from a PhD research in progress. It investigates the relation between the amount of training provided for academic staff to support their use of Learning Management Systems (LMS), and the use of LMSs‟ tools. The relation is examined through quantitative data gathered from three Saudi Universities; 1) Princess Nora University (PNU), 2) Al-Imam University (AIU), and 3) University of Dammam (UOD). To commence the study, a literature review was undertaken followed by the development and implementation of an online questionnaire. The results show that the majority of participants have not attend any LMS‟ s training, however, those who attended one or more LMS‟ s training course implemented the tools provided within LMSs more than those who did not attend any training.

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Abstract no. 120: Conditional Random Fields Based Diacritisation of Colloquial Arabic Sarah Al-Shareef and Thomas Hain Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffield Most of the available resources of colloquial Arabic speech are transcribed without diacritics. Those diacritics provide short vowels and other pronunciation information and by omitting them a considerable amount of ambiguity is introduced. In this paper, we propose the use of an automatic diacritisation method as pre-processing for colloquial Arabic processing tools. While generative methods dominate current methods of diacritising colloquial Arabic, the proposed system used is based on discriminative models. It is based on conditional random fields trained on different levels of contextual and speaker information. This method achieves a diacritised word error rate of 23.3%, a 13.2% relative reduction on the other reported methods in diacritisation of colloquial Arabic.

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Abstract no. 161: Two Dimensional Blind Deconvolution Based On A Robust GCD Method Nora Alkhaldi and Joab Winkler Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffeld Blind image deconvolution refers to the process that estimates an original image from its distorted versions, using partial information about the distortion function. The original image can be represented in the z-domain using Fourier transform as the greatest common divisor (GCD) of its distorted versions. This research proposes a new approach that does not require any prior knowledge about distortion function. The computations are performed in floating point environment which, with high probability, may lead to an ill-posed problem. Therefore, the computational process of the GCD can produce a very large number of errors, which can lead two exact (i.e. error-free) polynomials that have a non-constant GCD to become co-prime. As a result of this deficiency of GCD computations, an approximation to the GCD must be formalised, that is refer to an approximation of the greatest common divisor (AGCD). This research uses the framework of the 1D GCD Sylvester matrix type to solve the blind image deconvolution problem. Furthermore, three preprocessing operations are applied on the Sylvester resultant matrix before the computation of an AGCD is performed.

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Abstract no. 166: Evaluating the Introduction of Object-Oriented Programming Language as an Alternative to FORTRAN: A Case Study in a Saudi Institute Grami M A Grami & A. Al-Baz King Abulaziz University The purpose of this study is to evaluate the transition from FORTRAN which represents a general-purpose interpretive language to C programme language which falls under the object-oriented category in a Saudi institution that trains prospective computer programmers. Data was collected from both the department and interviews with selected students. The results confirmed our assumptions that the transition was a positive move. We also noted that the process should be executed following scientific procedures to eliminate any unwanted results.

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Abstract no. 168: Identifying the Relationships Between Key Development Stages and Critical Success Factored for Customer Relationship Management Ahmed Sanad, Christine Fidler, Neil McBride Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University Customer Relationship Management (CRM) becomes essential solution for organisation looking for increasing, retaining and satisfying their customers. Many organisations change their business process from being product-centric to being customer-centric. By the end of 2012, it is predicted that companies will be spending more than $13 billion on CRM packages. A survey conducted by Gartner (2012) for Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) revealed that CEOs quoted CRM as their most significant area of investment to improve their business over the next five years. However, studies have found that it is only a minority of CRM projects that achieve success. It is argued that one of the reasons for this is the inappropriate assessment of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) during the development life cycle of CRM implementation. In a project, CSFs need to be applied in certain stages during life cycle of the project to achieve the purpose of adopting them. Therefore, the aim of this research is to determine the relationships between the identified CSFs associated with CRM implementation and the key development stages of CRM implementation, which revealed the important of these relationships for the success of the implementation. The research involves fieldwork based on one particular national context; the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

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Abstract no. 176: Computer Attitudes of Saudi Postgraduate Students Manal O Alothman and Judy Robertson* School of Math and Computer Sciences, Heriot Watt University Computer technology has become an important element in our day to day life. Therefore, the educational and social importance of determining conditions that facilitate the development and productivity of computer literate people cannot be underestimated. The purpose of carrying out this research was to investigate and examine the attitudes of Saudi Arabia PhD students, studying in the United Kingdom, towards computer usage in Saudi Arabia and in UK for research or other purposes. The study aimed to investigate the associations between knowledge of English language, gender, computer confidence, experience, encouragement to use computer, and general attitudes towards making use of computers in a postgraduate studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s life. A qualitative study was conducted to collect details about studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; attitudes to computers and the factors that affect them. An interview was carried out with 14 PhD students (7 of each gender) in different fields of study. The results show that all students have strong positive attitudes towards computers, especially when they move to the UK for studying. Also, the study observed that there are gender differences in computer experience: female students spend more time with computers than males, females are prevented by their parents from using computers or the internet and that males feel that computers are easy to use and comfortable, while females express anxiety and fear towards using them.

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Abstract no. 181: Tokenized Access Control: Availability Meets Security John Fitzgerald, Abdulaziz Alabdulhafez School of Computing Science, Newcastle University A novel Tokenized access control model (Tokenized model) is defined with the aim of increasing file availability and information sharing in dynamic organizations by assessing the risks and benefits associated with each file access request. The Tokenized model is designed to be attached to any traditional access control model without changing it, with the aim to act as a second chance provider for access requests rejected by the traditional access control. In this paper, the Tokenized model is presented as a possible solution to overcoming the static problem associated with access control; we adapt and use the dynamic Tokenized model to make the information more available. This will allow the granting of run-time permissions automatically, without any human involvement, by assessing each request by considering the context (e.g. time, location and reason for request) from which the access request was originated. In this paper, full the proposed Tokenized model and its possible effects on files availability are discussed.

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Abstract no. 182: Simulation-based Analysis on Tokenized Access Control Model John Fitzgerald, Abdulaziz Alabdulhafez School of Computing Science Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne Researchers have recognized the need for access control since the 1970s. Recently, the need for flexible and robust access control has grown rapidly, as distributed systems have grown in size and are used by many users in different locations with different levels of trustworthiness. The recently proposed Tokenized access control model (Tokenized Model) can be attached to standard static access control models to add an extra dynamic layer in order to increase information availability. In this paper, we built an access control simulator to implement and simulate the Tokenized Model and analyze it to study to what extent it may or may not affect the informationâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; availability and security. A comprehensive and complete benchmark to compare the proposed model and the existing traditional models is provided.

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Abstract no. 183: Analyzing the Success Rate of Virtual Machines Coresidency in the Cloud Abdulaziz Alabdulhafez, Paul Ezhilchelvan School of Computing Science, Newcastle University This paper demonstrates the significance of virtual machines (VMs) coresidency problems and estimates the success rate of a targeted VMs coresidency attack. In this paper, a brief introduction to the VMs co-residency problem is provided, along with an analysis of the probability of achieving VMs co-residency in the cloud and its potential risk. This analysis shows that smaller public Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) cloud (i.e. IaaS with a small number of physical servers) can help attackers to achieve targeted VMs co-residency more easily which introduces a higher risk on other cloud users. The Analysis results are drawn and analyzed at the end of the paper.

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Abstract no. 191: Attitudes towards computers and CALL implementation in a Saudi University: a case study khalid Ahmed Alghamdi Warwick University This paper reports on a study that tried to elucidate the level of computer and CALL attitudes of university level English language teachers, in a Saudi university. The study is quantitative in nature and involved 17 English teachers from an English department is Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the majority of teachers had a positive attitude towards computer use, and had a negative attitude towards CALL use. The findings also revealed that the awareness presentation had a positive impact on the teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; attitudes towards CALL, and that lack of knowledge, lack of time and curriculum constrains are the main factors attributed to teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; negative attitude towards CALL.

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Abstract no. 204: Gender Differences, Women and the Internet Deena Al-Ghamdi University of Oxford, Department of Computer Science Gender Human Computer Interaction―Gender HCI‖ is a new term that has recently been devised, and refers to the field of computer science which studies and examines the impact of computer users‘ gender on different aspects of computer science. This paper reviews and summarises researches that have been done in this area. The importance of studying and specifying the differences between males and females when manipulating computer hardware/software is that such information can be used to avoid the gender bias which could be appear when male developers design a software. Such bias can lead to difficulties and complications, negatively affecting females‘ experience with computers. A negative experience will have implications for the future relationship between females and computers. In addition, the software‘s efficiency and productivity will suffer, since half of its intended users will have a negative experience.

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Abstract no. 216: On Verification of Re-Usable Software Components Basem Y. Alkazemi Grami M A Grami Department of Computer Science Department of European Languages Umm Al-Qura University King Abdualziz University Makkah, Saudi Arabia Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Re-using third party software components became somewhat unfavorable approach among many organizations nowadays. This reluctance is primarily built due to the lack of support to verify the quality attributes of re-usable components in order to avoid potential mismatches with systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s requirements. This paper presents an approach to overcome this problem by provide a tool support to check component compatibility to a specification provided by reusers. So, re-users can verify components that match their quality attributes prior of re-using them into their system.

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Abstract no. 217: Information System Integration in the Context of Merger and Acquisition Badr Banhmeid, Mike Newman Manchester Business School, University of Manchester As many firms engage in merger and acquisition (M&A) for variety of motives, they increasingly face the challenges for integrating their information system (IS), people, and operations. The post M&A integration phase has been highlighted as the most difficult and important process in M&A thereby the realization of synergy is depending how firms manage and achieve a successful integration. It has been claimed that most literatures that examine IS in the context of M&A are naturally anecdotal, scarce and mainly driven by practitioners rather than researchers. Moreover, lesser attention has been devoted to the issues associated with process of post-M&A IS integration and the related organizational changes. We view the project of integrating information systems in the context of merger and acquisition as a change in organizational activities in which two existing information systems which are deeply embedded in their organizational contexts prior to M&A need to be modified in four different ways; the adoption of either firmsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; information system, adopting a new information system for both firms, integrating the best of both systems or no change at all where the IS of both firms operates independently. The main objective of this research is to explain how organizational change unfolds during the process of information system integration. A pilot study with a leading company in Saudi Arabia reveals that the most challenges issues associated with the process of post-M&A IS integration are change management, competence of workforce, master data, infrastructure setup, adherence to processes and communication link capabilities.

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Abstract no. 250: What is ‘Private’ Information while Online: A Culture Effect Jehad Al Amri, N Ben Fairweather, Richard Howley and Sara Wilford Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University Leicester The spread of Internet usage and online communication has changed the meaning of privacy, in particular the possibility of having private communication online compared to offline. This paper examines the relationship between what is considered as personal information online and the cultural background, gender and age of Internet users. A survey in the form of a questionnaire has been conducted in two countries; Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. The research compares what is online personal information from the perspective of Saudi and Malaysian male and female students. This research shows that the individual‘s online privacy perspectives are affected by the gender, age and nationality of the internet users.

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Abstract no. 267: U-learning system controlled by CA-UCON Model(Case Study) Abdulgader Almutairi, Saad Almutairi Faculty of Technology, DeMontFort University A Context-Aware Usage CONtrol (CA-UCON) model is an extension of the traditional UCON model which enables adaptation to environmental changes in the aim of preserving continuity of access. When the authorisations and obligations require- ments are met by the subject and the object, and the conditions requirements fail due to changes in the environment or the system context, CA-UCON model triggers speci_c actions to adapt to the new situation. Besides the data protection, CA-UCON model so enhances the quality of services, striving to keep explicit interactions with the user at a minimum. In This paper, we represent a U-learning system controlled by CA-UCON model as case study in order to show how this model will work in Pervasive computing systems environment.

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Abstract no. 331: Modelling Dynamic Coalitions and Collaboration Structures Mohammed I. Almanea Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne Dynamic coalitions are defined as a group of autonomous agents that gather and form an alliance in order to respond to a major incident or to take an advantage of business opportunities. Existing models of dynamic coalitions were developed in order to observe the flow of information when communication between agents occurs. Our main objective is to achieve a high work flow, combining communication, coordination and collaboration between participating agents in order to accomplish their shared goals, tasks and objectives, as well as avoiding any conflict that might arise in many organizations. To achieve this objective, a new model of collaboration structures based on London Emergency Services Liaison Panel was developed using the modelling language VDM++, and it is integrated with existing models of dynamic coalitions in order to enhance its functionality. These models were validated using an existing workbench in order to examine the effectiveness of the collaboration structures models in detecting conflicts that arise within dynamic coalitions.

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Abstract no. 356: Towards An Architecture for Volunteer Cloud Computing Abdulelah Alwabel, Robert Walters and Gary Wills Electronics and Computer Science School, University of Southampton Abstract. Cloud computing has emerged as a new paradigm that promises to reduce cost of IT by allowing customers to harness computing resources and pay for their usage only. However, cloud computing can still be costly for nonprofitable projects such as scientific projects. Therefore, volunteer cloud model appears with a goal to provide cloud services at a little, if not free, cost. Volunteer clouds aim at providing cloud capabilities out of non-dedicated resources such as normal PCs based on the cloud business model. We propose architecture in order to form a cloud out of non dedicated resources. We believe that the architecture can facilitate the realisation of volunteer clouds.

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Abstract no. 359: Crawling Methodologies for Online Social Network Measurement Saleh Alghamdi University of Sussex The popularity and spread of social websites nowadays has offered good opportunities to study and understand the structures and characteristics of online social networks on a large scale. This can help with the analysis, evaluation and improvement of current social network websites and provide an understanding of how they work. In addition, it can lead to the design of new online social networks with improved features, such as developing search methods like hyperlinks [1] and defend attacks like Sybil attacks which will help to recognize trusted users [2]. Four of the most popular online social networks are presented in this review in large scale (11.3 million users, 328 links) [3] which are YouTube, Flickr, LiveJournal and Orkut. All the gathered information on these sites is publicly accessible data. Technically, it is found that â&#x20AC;&#x2022;online social networks contain a large, strongly connected core of high-degree nodes, surrounded by many small clusters of low-degree nodesâ&#x20AC;&#x2013; [3].

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Abstract no. 363: The role of the teaching assistant in synchronous distance education classrooms in Saudi Arabia Abeer Algarni, Professor Elizabeth Burd Durham University, United Kingdom. In Saudi Arabia, synchronous distance education technologies play an important role in the higher education system for females. This system faced the problem of a lack of female faculty members in universities compared to the large number of females students enrolled in these institutions. All universities use male faculty members to teach females students using synchronous distance education technologies, as this are the only authorised way for male instructors to teach females. In this educational environment, female students can see and hear their male instructor on screens, while he can only hear them. The physical absence of the instructor from the classroom led to many problems, including a lack of student discipline and technical issues (Algarni, 2010). This leads most universities to appoint a female teaching assistant who works in the femalesâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; classroom to help the male instructor communicate with students, solve problems that may interrupt the progress of the lesson and keep order in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role played by the female teaching assistants in these classrooms, and to evaluate their importance. The study concluded that the teacher assistants play a key role in this educational environment. All students agreed that the female assistant compensated for the physical absence of the male instructor from the classroom and helped lessons to run smoothly without problems. The teaching assistant has many responsibilities in the classroom, for example, ensuring studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; silence during lessons, reporting technical failures, keeping a list of students who attend or absence and conducting exams. It is recommended that any future studies focus on the personal needs and expectations of the female teaching assistants.

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Abstract no. 364: The importance of student preparation in reducing discipline problems in synchronous distance education classrooms in Saudi Arabia Abeer Algarni, Professor Elizabeth Burd Durham University, United Kingdom. In Saudi Arabia, the intermixing of genders is not allowed within most educational settings. Because there is a lack in the number of female faculty members in universities in Saudi Arabia, all such universities use male faculty members to teach female students in synchronous distance education classroom as this is the only authorized way for male instructors to teach females students. Both female students and male instructors face many difficulties in such an educational environment. One of the major difficulties relates to students' discipline problems in the classroom which largely affect studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; learning (Algarni, 2010). This study was conducted in order to explore the importance of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; preparation in reducing discipline problems in synchronous distance education classrooms and to identify the reasons causing students to misbehave in these classrooms. The majority of the participants (98%) mentioned that this preparation is very important and that they believed that such preparation would prevent them from causing disciplinary problems in the classroom. The study also indicates that there is a clear failure on the part of universities and instructors in providing such preparation as reported by the female students. It is recommended that both universities and instructors make a serious effort to provide such preparation for female students. It is also recommended that researchers undertake more investigation into the reasons for discipline problems in order to propose other strategies that could be used in reducing such problems in the distance education classroom.

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Abstract no. 384: A Comparative Study of Detecting Junk e-mails by Counting Suliman Alsuhibany School of Computer Science, Newcastle University Unsolicited electronic mails, often referred to as â&#x20AC;&#x2014;spamâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;, have emerged as a serious threat, not only to the internet, but also to society. This paper shows a comparative study of the existing method which is a Density-Based spam detector, and a new algorithm for detecting spam messages. Using both methods, the spam messages are detected by counting the number of similar email messages. The existing method uses document space density information as the key to identify spam messages from other e-mail messages. A direct mapped cache (DMC) contributes to the speeding up of the processing. In the new algorithm, a Bloom filter technology is used as a space-efficient data structure. An open Digest-Based hashing has been developed, as a new method for hashing the e-mail text in the new detection algorithm. In order to achieve the purpose of this paper, both methods have been implemented. The results show that the recall rate for both methods was greater than 96% and the precision of detection was 100%; the detection test against disguising attack for both methods reveals that the robustness of the new algorithm was significantly better than the existing method.

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Abstract no. 425: Factors Influencing Citizens to use E-government Services: Saudi Arabia as a Case Study Rabea Kurdi and Martin Randles Liverpool John Moores University, School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences Due to the current revolution in information and communication technologies (ICTs), which is affecting society in many different ways, egovernment applications have emerged over the last couple of years as a response to citizen demands. Most governments around the world spend more and more effort to deliver excellent online services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia, as a part of this world trend, is looking to develop in many technological fields. However in analysing current research in the field of egovernment in Saudi Arabia it can be observed that there are limitations for the use of e-government services. Thus there is a need for further research on egovernment with a focus on citizens‘. To this end, the core aim for this paper is to focus on the key factors that affect citizens‘ to use e-government in Saudi Arabia, and to provide Solutions for change in the future. In accordance with the purpose and the nature of this study, a questionnaire survey was decided to be an appropriate method by which to obtain data about e-government and the attitudes of citizens in Saudi Arabia towards it. A systematic review of the relevant literature, in the field, was considered, both qualitative and quantitative, as a starting point for this research approach. Since the native language of the sample population is Arabic, the survey was translated into Arabic to ensure respondents could understand it. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version (17.0) was used for analysing data in this study. The number of questionnaires distributed during the period of the fieldwork was 1000. A total of 600 Questionnaires from three government organisations were returned (The response rate was 60%). The reason for the high response rate is because the questionnaires were distributed to people who were interested in helping the researcher and people who are interested in this area of research. A descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on all part of the questionnaire by running a frequency distribution procedure to identify the most important factors that have an effect on citizen‘s attitude towards e-government in Saudi Arabia. Also in this paper text, tables and graphs will be used in order to give the reader clear vision and make the paper more understandable. Based on the analysis of data collected from the survey we found that there are significant factors which affect citizens‘ toward using e-government. All these results will be discussed in this paper with further details.

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Abstract no. 530: Investigating the factors influencing knowledge sharing among employees in Saudi governmental organisations Hamad Mohammed Hamad Al-Mazmomi Al-Harbi De Montfort University Knowledge is seen as competitive asset for organisations in today‘s knowledge-based economy. Knowledge sharing has its importance in that employees‘ knowledge would not turn into organisational knowledge before it is shared all through the organisation. However, little research has investigated the factors influencing the employees‘ knowledge sharing within organisation in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying factors and relationships that determine the Saudi employees‘ knowledge sharing behaviour. A model has been developed and validated for knowledge sharing from the employees‘ perspectives. The results found evidence for the impact of the decomposed beliefs on attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The findings also showed that the employee‘s level of education, their organisation‘s industry and size are correlated with their intention to share knowledge. The results showed that the employees in Saudi organisations contribute their knowledge because of their natural tendency to share their knowledge, their perceptions of control over contributing their knowledge to other employees, their positive attitude towards sharing knowledge and trust; but surprisingly they are not motivated by the social norms regarding sharing knowledge in this specific context.

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Abstract no. 552: Extending WS-Agreement To Support Grid Service Level Agreements Renegotiation Sanaa Sharaf, Karim Djemame School of Computing, University of Leeds Faculty of Computing and Information technology, KAU Grid Computing allows users to share resources in both commercial and scientific environments. This dependency on Grid systems accelerated the need for replacing the â&#x20AC;&#x2022;best-effortâ&#x20AC;&#x2013; approach used in most Grid environments with a more controlled and reliable one to achieve the high levels of Quality of Service (QoS) necessary to potential users. Service Level Agreements (SLAs) are electronic contracts between the service provider and service consumer, which provide a formal method for describing QoS requirements, guarantee terms and the responsibilities of each party. The WS-Agreement is a Web Service protocol used to establish an agreement between service providers and service consumers; the definition of the protocol is very general and does not contemplate the possibility of changing an agreement at runtime. The occurring of an unexpected event at runtime may be an important reason for reducing the reliability and trustworthiness of parties. The challenge is to make agreements robust and more long-lived to individual term violations. This research shows extensions of the WS-Agreement specification to support the dynamic nature of SLAs by allowing the possibility of SLA renegotiation at run time.

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Politics and Law Papers:

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Abstract no. 47: The Role of Banks and Financial Institutions in Combating of Money Laundering Crimes: Saudi Legislation to Anti-money laundering Hani Abdulghani Alharbi Brunel University This study will review the crime of money laundering and the ways to combat it at the international and local level. The scope of this study will focus on the following points: -The methods that have been used in money laundering crime -The role of banks and financial institutions in combating money laundering. -Under Saudi Legislation to Anti-money laundering (M/39), and what is the role of financial institutions which must be combating in the crime of money laundering Finally, the conclusion will set as the last chapter which will consist of the result of this study and the important recommendations.

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Abstract no. 118: The Law on Reforming Remuneration Practices in the UK in Light of Economic Theories Abdullah Almhmoud University of Liverpool Remuneration can play a vital role in aligning the diverse interests of executives and shareholders in public listed companies. However, there is general consensus that remuneration practices are flawed and fail to reward performance adequately. Bebchuk, Fried and Walker argue that the flaws in designing remuneration can be explained by their own proposed managerial power theory. The theory sees executives' power and domination of the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s board as a main reason for these flaws and failures. Executives' power gives them the ability to extract the maximum possible rent beyond what is optimal. Therefore, executives' power over the board and the process of establishing remuneration must be eliminated. This paper will argue that the reform of the law regarding remuneration establishment in the UK is heavily influenced by managerial power theory. However, adopting managerial power theory in the UK did not succeed in achieving the desired result. This paper also attempts to outline some of the reasons for this lack of success.

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Abstract no. 337: Saudi Arabia and TRIPS-Plus: Prospects for Progress in the Quest for Increased Foreign Direct Investment Bader Almodarra Lancaster University In this age of globalization, Saudi Arabia took radical measures to guarantee its economic future. Following its historic World Trade Organization accession in 2005, Saudi Arabia embarked on significant economic reforms that greatly changed its social and economic landscape, implementing essential intellectual property protection to secure increased foreign direct investment (FDI). Apart from embracing the WTO Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreements (TRIPS), the kingdom also seeks to upgrade to TRIPS-Plus to reduce potential investor risks and to boost the most-needed economic returns for pharmaceutical firms. There are a number of reasons why countries need to adopt TRIPS-plus, which include both social and economic benefits. Economics reality shows that multinational companies will never invest in a market economy that does not guarantee IP protection, rule of law, economic openness, foreign participation, and sound and practical legal measures. Thus, the case of Saudi Arabia clearly indicates that proper understanding of how the global markets work is a crucial key to proper implementation of TRIPS-plus measures and other relevant economic reforms.

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Abstract no. 416: An analytical study of Saudi Electronic Transaction Law compared with UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce Abdulrahman alajaji Since the beginning of e-commerceâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sintroduction and growth, theimportance of laws and regulations governing e-commerce has been recognised;including the recognition of the need for contracts for conducting business over the internet in order to protect consumers online.International and regional organisationsare making considerable efforts to enact and harmonise legislation at the heart and base of electronic commerce;such as theInternational Chamber of Commerceâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s approaches ( hereafter ICC), including theICC Guide for eContracting 2004, ICC eTerm 2004, and ICC Global Action plan for Electronic Business 2002.Moreover,the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) , has adopted Guidelines for Consumer Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce (1999).

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Poster: Applied Sciences

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Abstract no.13: Molecular Targets for Insecticides and Anthelmintics in the Pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans Saleh Alhewairini, Ian R Mellor and Ian R Duce School of Biology Sciences, University of Nottingham The continued application of insecticides in agriculture and public health requires appropriate methods to monitor their ecological and toxicological effects on target and non-target organisms. Previous work has showed that DDT and pyrethroid insecticides can affect development, growth and viability in Caenorhabditis elegans, despite the fact that this nematode does not appear to possess voltage-gated sodium channels, the acknowledged site of action of these chemicals. Feeding in C.elegans involves pumping bacterial suspension into the digestive tract by rhythmic contraction of the pharyngeal muscles under control of the nervous system. The muscles contract in response to a muscle action potential induced by depolarisation of the muscle membrane. The ionic current is initiated by input from the nervous system mediated through an acetylcholine receptor (EAT-2). The next phase involves a T-type calcium channel (CCA-1) which is also permeable to sodium ions. The inward current causes activation of an L-type Calcium channel EGL-19 producing a sustained current and pharyngeal contraction. Components of this response may be targets for anthelmintics and insecticides such as DDT and pyrethroids. This work aims to determine whether DDT, pyrethroids and anthelmintic drugs affect pharyngeal pumping in C.elegans, and to interpret how the various ion channels operate by examining pharyngeal pumping in strains of C.elegans with defective ion channels. Strain JD21 has a deletion mutation of the cca-1 channel gene, AD465 has a defective eat-2 -subunit and MT1212 has a defective egl-19 L-type Calcium channel. Direct observation and counting of pharyngeal muscle contraction was carried out and showed that incubation with anthelmintic or insecticide produced a dose dependent inhibition of pharyngeal pumping in control animals. The MT1212 strain was more sensitive DDT and deltamethrin than controls. In contrast DDT and deltamethrin which target voltage-gated channels were significantly less potent on JD21 strains where the putative T-type calcium channel is absent and levamisole which is an acetylcholine receptor agonist was less potent in AD465 worms where the EAT2 was affected. These results show that pharyngeal pumping in C. elegans provides a reproducible and quantifiable assay system to examine the effects of DDT and pyrethroids. The studies have provided further evidence that deltamethrin and DDT have alternative targets to voltage-gated sodium channels, and that the T-type calcium channel may represent such a target. In addition the effects of levamisole are in part mediated by actions on the EAT-2 channel and inhibition of pharyngeal pumping. pg. 186


Abstract no.14: Extra cellular pH governs the entry and phenotypic plasticity of Neospora caninum Mamdowh AlKurashi, Dr Hany Elsheikha School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham Background and aims: Neospora caninum, a strictly intracellular protozoan, is a major leading cause of parasitic-induced abortion in cattle. Despite this prevalence, very little is known about the pathogenesis of N. caninum infection. A widely held view of N. caninum infection is that both cellular proliferation and stage interconversion (tachyzoite-bradyzoite switching) are triggered, perhaps even modulated by, changes in culture conditions. The present study aimed to examine the effects of modification of the growth medium pH on N. caninum entry, proliferation and transformation in cultured K-652 and Vero cell lines. Materials and methods: The entry pathway of N. caninum in K-562 cells was studied by using a cell membrane potential-sensitive probe. Parasite invasion and proliferation of Vero cells was assessed by plaque formation assay. Stage transformation was studied using indirect double immunofluorescence and electron microscopy approaches. Results: Here we report that a major pathway for N. caninum entry into the K-562 cell line is dependent on endocytosis and exposure to a low pH. Also, N. caninum proliferation in Vero cells was highest when pH level was optimum and parasite encystation increased when the pH level was alkaline or acidic. Conclusions: These data suggest that external pH has a determinable effect on the host cells and free N. caninum parasites and provide evidence that the extracellular pH regulates the colonisation and phenotypic plasticity of N. caninum in mammalian cells.

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Abstract no.16 Design and Manufacturing of Remote Control for Child Viewing Using Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Inspiration Rafat Saleh Madani Our study is related to the design and manufacture of prototype of a remote control, the MY REMOTE, that controls television viewing content for children to protect them from inappropriate content, control, viewing time and keep them at a safe distance from the television screen. For security this remote control is activated by a fingerprint recognition system. The poster is a presentation of this project and is designed to visually represent the problem, the concept development and manufacture of a model prototype. There is also an emphasis on the 2D, 3D and 4D elements of the remote control.

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Abstract no. 34: The removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous systems using functionalized mesoporous silica Khalid Alotaibi and Lorraine T. Gibson Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde MCM-41 is a mesoporous silicate molecular sieve that is formed from close packed silica-coated micelles of a surfactant template. The material exhibits several remarkable features e.g. high surface area, narrow pore size distribution, tunable and accessible pores, make it an ideal material for the adsorption of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) from aqueous solution. Chemical modification of the silica surface with organosilanes, via a heterogeneous reaction, has produced a material with high selectivity towards selected PTMs. By changing the pH of the solution, different heavy metal ions could be selectively extracted from water, even in the presence of high concentrations of alkaline earth metal. In the present work, the removal of chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solution was investigated using amino-propyl functionalized mesoporous silica (APMCM-41) as an adsorbent. The assynthesised adsorbent was produced following a simple synthesis method at room temperature prior to template removal using microwave digestion. The maximum adsorption capacity at 111.1 mg g-1 was calculated according to the Langmuir isotherm model; suggesting a 1:1 monolayer adsorption mechanism. Moreover, AP- is a simple chelate yet it extracts Cr (VI) exclusively from solutions containing other mixed metal ions simply by tuning the solution pH. Recovery of Cr (VI) from loaded sorbents is equally easy to perform with 100 % extraction efficiencies; allowing reuse of the sorbent and recovery of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions containing a complex mixture of ions. The material will find use in environmental remediation applications, as a selective adsorbent of Cr (VI) or even as a solidphase extraction stationary phase to remove and pre-concentrate Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions.

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Abstract no. 39: Arabic Text Compression with PPM and bigraphs Khaled Mufraj Alhawiti, William Teahan Bangor University In this poster, we will introduce a new variation of PPM (prediction by partial matching) for text compression called BI-PPM that has improved the compression rate of Arabic-scripted text. The technique is based on the UTF-8 encoding scheme in which a processed file replaces the most frequent bigraph before encoding the file for the compression process. The new technique has been implemented and examined using different files. The results showed that the proposed variation of PPM achieves a compression ratio within the range of 8.28% to 29.14% for Arabic text with relation to the size of file.

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Abstract no. 45: Waste iron oxides as catalysts for hydrogen production via direct decomposition of methane A.I. Alharthi, J.S.J. Hargreaves, I. D. Pulford, H. Flowers and J. Wigzell School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow Hydrogen, as an alternative fuel, is more environmentally acceptable than hydrocarbons. It is considered as a source of clean energy and a fuel for fuel cells. The direct catalytic decomposition of methane is one of the methods for hydrogen production. It is regarded as a potential economical method to produce hydrogen. Due to the abundance of methane and its high H/C ratio, which is the highest among all hydrocarbons, it is an obvious source of hydrogen [1,2]. In this study, we have investigated the direct catalytic decomposition of methane into hydrogen and carbon over alternative materials as catalysts. These materials are iron containing wastes, which were procured from two places, the leachate from Landfill and residue from an old a nail works. Both Landfill (the leachate from landfill) and Factory (Residue from an old a nail works) samples revealed significant hydrogen production rates and produced magnetically separable carbon materials, which contain graphite. The performance of the Landfill derived sample was higher than that of the Factory sample. Characterization of raw and post-reaction samples has been made. SEM images of the raw Landfill sample illustrated that it has an unusual morphology resulting from its biogenesis, whereas the images of post-reaction samples showed the formation of carbon nanotubes with the Landfill sample and not with the Factory sample. XRD patterns demonstrated that postreaction biogenic iron oxide comprises iron, iron carbide and graphite. The Raman peaks of post-reaction samples matches with the graphitic carbon. CHN and TGA showed the amount of deposited carbon on spent samples. The surface areas for raw and post-reaction Landfill and Factory samples have been measured.

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Abstract no. 55: Electronic Energy Transfer in Self-Assembled Clusters and Liquid Crystals Containing BODIPY Dyes E. Bahaidarah* and A. Harriman School of Chemistry,Newcastle University Over the past few decades, a large variety of elaborate molecular architectures has been synthesized and examined in terms of their ability to demonstrate intramolecular electronic energy transfer. Although many exotic chemical systems have been reported they are not so useful from a practical point-of-view since the synthesis is demanding and time consuming. As an alternative we have investigated a system whereby ionic self-assembly leads to formation of 1:2 adducts that themselves associate into liquid-crystalline materials that are stable over a wide temperature range. In contrast to covalent entities, much less attention has been given to using electrostatic interactions to build superstructures with logically sited reactants displaying highly efficacious energy transfer. A further benefit this approach is that the emergent mesophase has the potential to function as a superior light-harvesting array for siliconbased solar cells. Here, we describe the photophysical properties of the individual units before and after self-assemblage 1. The results are interpreted in terms of electronic energy transfer and can be used to measure stability of the assembly and its dismantlement with competing cations. In particular, we consider the effects of temperature, polarity, concentration, and added cation. Comparison is made with the analogous covalently linked dyad 2. The target compound, which comprises a yellow-absorbing BODIPY as energy donor and two blue-absorbing BODIPY dyes as acceptor, was synthesized by the group of Dr Raymond Ziessel in Strasbourg while the photophysical properties have been measured in Newcastle.

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Abstract no. 54: The Development of Novel Nanoparticles for use as Fingerprint Powders Mohammad Alrashidi,Gary Bond, Tapas Sen, Stephen Andrews, and Allison E. Jones School of Forensic and Investigative Sciences, University of Central Lancashire A Fingerprint is one of the most common types of physical evidence found at crime scenes. It is basically a complex mixture of natural secretions of the body from three types of glands: eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous glands. It also contains contaminations from the environment. The chemical compositions of the deposit are mostly water (99%) and minor amount (up to 1%) of inorganic and organic compounds3. There have been number of studies undertaken to develop of materials used in lifting fingerprints4. In general, the impressions made by fingermarks found at the crime scenes fall into three categories, such as plastic (or impression), visible (patent) and latent prints; the latter require enhancement in order to be visualised and identified1. Since the 1990â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s there has been significant development in the visualisation methods of latent fingerprints. This includes the combination of optical, physical, and chemical methods4. In spite of all of the current methods for detecting latent fingermarks, there is a strong demand for new and more efficient reagents to visualise latent fingerprints2. In this study, we have succeeded in synthesising novel fingerprint powders based on silica nanoparticles of various sizes and surface functionalities. Three different types of fingerprint powder have been developed. The fingerprint powders have been applied to latent finger-mark deposited onto different non-porous surfaces and compared with currently available commercial powders. We will report data from the evaluation of these novel materials and their efficiency in capturing fingerprints from the surface.

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Abstract no. 56: Variation in lithiation sites of various substituted phenylalkylamines Mohammed B. Alshammari, Gamal A. El-Hiti and Keith Smith School of Chemistry, Cardiff University Lithiation of N'-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylamines with n-BuLi in THF at ho-position to the directing metalation group (DMG). The lithium reagents obtained react with various electrophiles to give the corresponding substituted derivatives in high yields (Scheme 5). In the case of urea derivative side products were obtained due to lithiation and substitution on one of the methyl of the urea but in low yields (113%).5 We thank the Saudi Government for financial support. lithiation of N'-phenethyl-N,N-dimethylurea, N'-(3-phenylpropyl)-N,Ndimethylurea and N'-2-(2-methylphenyl)ethylamine derivatives with RLi in THF at -chain of the CH2 next to the phenyl ring (Îą-lithiation) Ring lithiation was achieved by bromine-lithium exchange of 2- and 3-bromo derivatives.4 On the other hand, lithiation of N'-(4-phenylbutyl)-N,N-dimethylurea with ttaken place on one of the methyl groups of the urea unit under similar reaction conditions, while lithiation of N'-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl-N,N-dimethylurea of lithium reagents in which lithiation had taken place mainly on the ring next to the urea containing unit and on one of the methyl groups of the urea unit. Finally, lithiation of N-(4 methoxyphenethyl) pivalamide unit.

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Abstract no. 61: Liquid Crystal For Ferroelectric Display Rami Pasha and Michael Hird Chemistry Department, University of Hull This research programme will be concerned generally with the nanotechnology area of ferroelectric liquid crystals for microdisplay applications. Ferroelectric liquid crystal displays switch 1000 times faster than conventional liquid crystal displays, and offer much higher resolution, and hence are suitable for microdisplay applications. Novel liquid crystals will be synthesized, with the broad aims of enhancing switching speeds and improving the alignment of the molecules in the display. All the final products will be evaluated for their mesomorphic properties and a wide range of other physical properties, and the most suitable compounds will be formulated into mixtures for evaluation in prototype microdisplays.

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Abstract no. 65: Progress in proton beam writing of buried channels and overhanging structures for microfluidics applications Saad. Al-Shehri, V. Palitsin, R.P. Webb, G.W. Grime 1University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute The proton beam writing (PBW) technique has extra ability over other lithography techniques in the fabrication of three-dimensional structures with a high aspect ratio, straight and smooth sidewalls and overhanging structures. These features potentially facilitate the fabrication of rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems. This paper reports progress in the use of multiple energy exposures to fabricate buried channels in SU-8 resist as part of a project to develop functional microfluidic networks. Using protons with energies between 2.5 MeV and 0.75 MeV both buried and overhanging structures have been fabricated with minimum feature size of around 1 Îźm and depths of up to 40 Îźm and their properties have been evaluated. We describe the exposure and development processes and present preliminary examples of functional networks.

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Abstract no. 71: Solutions of linear equations over free Lie algebras Alaa Altassan, Prof. Ralph Stohr University of Manchester, Manchester, UK King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Let L be a free Lie algebra, over a field F, that is freely generated by X = { a1, ..., ak}. We study linear equations in k indeterminates x1, x2, ..., xk of the form [ x1, a1] + [ x2, a2] +...+ [ xk, ak ] = 0. In 2007, V. Remeslennikov and R. Stรถhr began the study of very concrete equations over free Lie algebras such as the given one in the case of two indeterminates (k = 2). In particular, they found bases for the homogenous components of the solution space of degree one, three and five. In a recent paper by the author and Stรถhr, we generalized some of these earlier results and provided more transparent proofs as compared to the rather technical arguments used in 2007. In this work, which is a part of this paper, we exhibit an explicit spanning set of the homogenous components of the solution space, for any an arbitrary degree n > 1, where the equation in our hand contains k indeterminates, k > 1.

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Abstract no. 76: Upon the reactivity of lattice carbon and nitrogen species in molybdenum (oxy)carbonitrides prepared using single-source routes. M. AlShalwia, J. S. J. Hargreavesa, J. J. Liggatb and D. Toddb. WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde Molybdenum (oxy)carbonitrides of different compositions have been prepared using single-source routes and the reactivity of the lattice carbon and nitrogen species within them has been determined by temperature programmed reduction and thermal volatilisation studies. Nitrogen is found to be much more reactive than carbon and the nature of its reactivity is influenced by composition. The difference in reactivity observed indicates that molybdenum carbonitrides are not suitable candidates as reagents for which the simultaneous loss of nitrogen and carbon from the lattice would be desirable.

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Abstract no. 89: Numerical Analysis of Flow Structure inside a Single Cylinder IC Engine Saud Binjuwair1, Salah Ibrahim1, Graham Wigley1, and Graham Pitcher2 1: Faculty of Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK, 2: Advanced Concepts, Lotus Engineering, Norwich The in-cylinder flow of internal combustion (IC) engines, formed during the intake stroke, is one of the most important factors that affect the quality of airfuel mixture and combustion. In this paper, numerical study has been carried out to examine the structure of the flow field inside a single cylinder engine under steady state conditions utilizing the finite-volume CFD package, STAR CCM+. The Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model, RSTM, is used to simulate the turbulent flow structure .The three-dimensional numerical study has been conducted on a single cylinder Lotus engine with a pent-roof type head for a number of fixed valve lifts (2mm, 5mm, 8mm) at two pressure drops 250mm and 635mm of H2O that is equivalent to engine speeds of 2500 and 4000 RPM respectively. The generated mesh is polyhedral type that holds nearly 3.7 million grid points. The nature of the flow structure together with discussions on the influence of the pressure drop and valve lift parameters on the flow structures are presented and discussed. Calculated results for the mean and fluctuations velocities are validated against previously published experimental data (Picton, 2006) from Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements on the same engine cylinder head.

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Abstract no. 96: Cortical activation induced by electrical stimulation in patients with multiple sclerosis and foot drop B. Aldebasi, X. Lin, T. P. Glover, R. Bowtell, C.S. Constantinescu, S. Francis School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham Division of Clinical Neurology, University of Nottingham Ankle dorsiflexion (ADF) is an integral component in gait. This study aims to investigate the pattern of brain activation during self-initiated (Active), Passive, Electrical Stimulated (ES), and combined Active plus ES ADF movements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with foot drop by comparison of their affected and non-affected legs.

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Abstract no. 115: The Design of Artificial Eyes by using Liquid Crystal Amal A. Altalhi, Laetitia Testut and Jay D. Wadhawan Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Kingston upon Hull First of all, the main idea of this project is to reproduce the photo-dynamic of the eyes. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s an artificial concept in three dimensional, deviced with a singular idea: the brain is referring to the potentiostat, the connexion between the working electrode and the potentiostat is the optic nerve and the liquid crystal with the working electrode is similar to the retina. The goal of this entirely new device of three-dimensional, autoassembled lyotropic nanosystems is to visualize the photo-electron transfer, induced by electrochemical perturbation, to the purpose of being able to compare this design with the eyes by analytical chemistry results. We are interested in a systematic investigation of electron and photoelectron transport through three-dimensional lyotropic LÎą phase nanosystems by several efficient analytical techniques such as the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, UV-Visible spectroscopy and cross-polarized microscopy. It gives us the opportunity during this internship to visualise: Anisotropic properties by cross-polarized microscopy, absorption spectra of the two photoreceptors studying here by UV-Visible spectroscopy, the influence of concentrations of each reagent on the diffusion coefficient, the photo-electron transfer by chronoamperometry and with using the UV-Visible lamp, the kinetics of the long-range charge transfer processes stimulated by the light. The wall of the eye contains three distinct layers: an outer fibrous tunic; an intermediate vascular tunic; and an inner neural tunic (retina). Then, the vascular tunic contains the iris, the ciliary body and the choroid. The innermost layer of the eye is the neural tunic or also called the retina. It consists of a thin, outer layer called the pigmented part and a thick inner layer called the neural part. The outermost layer, closest to the pigmented part of the retina, contains the two major types of light-sensitive photoreceptor cells used for vision: the rods and the cones, drawing by the schematic enlargement of the retina. Cone cells and rods are connected through intermediate cells in the retina to nerve fibres of the optic nerve. Light must, therefore, travel through the thickness of the retina before striking and activating the rods and cones. Subsequently the absorbtion of photons by the visual pigment of the photoreceptors is translated into first a biochemical message and then an electrical message that can stimulate all the neurons of the retina. As we just described above, how this extremely sophisticated visual instrument can be mimicked by these artificial eyes design? To answer further to this question, a description of this singular concept must be done. Accordingly, it comprises a photoredox-active material embedded within a nonpg. 201


ionic surfactant subphase, with a second redox reagent present within the aqueous pseudophase of a lamellar LÎą lyotropic liquid crystals framework, which will be described it, step by step.

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Abstract no. 124: Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms from Wastewater Samples Collected from Hassa, Saudi Arabia Alshubaith, I. H. and Gilmour, D. J. Sheffield University Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology As part of a wider study of the biodiversity of extreme environments, we decided to examine a wastewater habitat to look for the occurrence of extremophile bacteria within this non-extreme environment. At the same time, we were interested to find out whether pathogenic bacteria were present and whether any of the pathogens could also grow under extreme environmental conditions. The wastewater environment chosen was the Alasfar Lake and Drainage/Irrigation Canals, Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The environmental stress imposed on the isolated bacteria was salt stress â&#x20AC;&#x201C; we added 0.5 to 2 M NaCl to the isolation medium (rich LB medium). Extremophiles have been isolated from habitats where they are not expected to be actively growing. Therefore, it is possible that halotolerant or even halophilic bacteria can be isolated from a wide range of environments including freshwater and wastewater.

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Abstract no. 125: Recurrence Relations for Product Moments of Generalized Order Statistics ftom Doubly Truncated Continuous Distributions Bakheet N.Al-Matrafi, Taghreed M. Jawa Department of Mathematics and Statistic, Taif University, Saudi Arabia In this paper, we consider a general class of continuous distributions given c

by 1 F ( x) ah ( x) b . A recurrence relation for product higher moments of generalized order statistics (gos's) from the doubly truncated case of the above class is derived. Recurrence relations for product higher moments of ordinary order statistics (oos's) and k-records (ordinary record values (orv's) when k 1 ), are obtained as special cases from generalized order statistics. These results utilized to establish similar recurrence relations for Weibull, Pareto and Power function distributions.

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Abstract no. 130: Development of a Microfluidic Device for Efficient Protein Reduction Kevin Welham and Eman Alzahrani Department of Chemistry, University of Hull Study of proteins usually involves digestion of the proteins by using enzymes into peptides that are subsequently studied by mass spectrometry. However, if the proteins contain disulfide bonds, the specific locations in the proteins are inaccessible to the enzyme. Therefore, reduction and alkylation of disulfide bonds in the proteins before digestion is a required step in proteomics to facilitate protein unfolding and increase the efficiency of enzymes in digesting proteins (Chatterjee et al., 2010). A novel method to fabricate a silica monolith inside a glass microchip and modify it with a reducing reagent in order to use it for reduction of the disulfide bonds in proteins was successfully developed. Monolithic porous silica was prepared by a sol-gel process, followed by placement of the silica monolith disk inside the extraction chamber of the base plate of the microchip. Then, the two plates of the glass microchip were thermally bonded at 575 °C for 3 hours. By doing this, the problem of shrinkage in the silica skeleton during preparation was avoided completely. The surface of the silica-based monolith was chemically modified with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane. This was followed by immobilisation of the reducing reagent, which was tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride, on the surface of the amino-bonded silica monolith. The fabricated device was evaluated for its use in performing solid phase reduction using insulin and lysozyme at a concentration of 60 ¾M, and mass spectrometry was used for qualitative confirmation. The results show that the fabricated microchip-based silica monolith has the ability to reduce the disulfide bonds. In addition, the method was simple, repeatable, and results in lower amounts of the sample and reagents compared with the conventional techniques for proteomics sample preparation. This newly microfluidic device for protein reduction may find an application in the area of proteomic research.

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Abstract no. 133: Identification of protein like insulin activity in camel milk Alyaa Homoud and lydia Campbell & Stephen Houston Heriot-Watt university,life science school Edinburgh,UK Background: The camel is sometimes called the desert ship. It is the most important desert animal for nomads. Camels can remain without food or even water for several days in very high temperatures. Furthermore, absence of food and water does not affect milk production. Camel milk is consumed locally by nomads, the owners of the camels. In addition, Camel milk has affective oral insulin that can be going through digestive enzymes safely to the bloodstream. Method: milk has been separated using acetic acid and the fat extracted with a Soxhlet fat extractor. The samples obtained were powdered and kept in a cool place. The method that we used to detect the protein was: • Bradford methods used to determine the nitrogen percentage. • Western blot • ELISA assay Result: The most important result has been represented by Western blot and ELISA. In western blot, polyclonal anti- human insulin antibody has been used. Positive result has been indicated, but with high molecular weight fraction (55≤ KDa).Whereas, insulin molecular weight is ~ 5.8 KDa In ELISA test, monoclonal anti-bovine insulin has been applied. Significant result has been reported 0.000273µg of insulin/ .010g of whey powder Conclusion: Both assays indicated that, insulin in camel milk is excising. The formation and molecular weight of this fraction has not known yet. However, in western blot method, reaction has been done but with high molecular mass. As many researchers indicated that, camel insulin is encapsulated in nanoparticles (lipid vesicles) that make possible its passage through the stomach and entry into the circulation. Future work: As soon as camel insulin is detected, the next stage going to be isolating the insulin fraction by HPLC to be applied in vivo experiments to explore the effect of digestive system on camel milk insulin.

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Abstract no. 146: Electrodeposition of palladium from lyotropic liquid crystal mixtures Nawal Al-Abass, Guy Denuault, Derek Pletcher Electrochemistry Group, University of Southampton The aim of this research project is to prepare surfaces with controlled size and dispersion of small size particles by using electrochemical deposition. Small size particles are reported to enhance catalytic performance thus, reduce the amount of expensive metals such as palladium loaded onto an inert substrate.[1] The electrodeposition of palladium from (NH4)2PdCl4 has been studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in varying mixtures of octaethyleneglycol monohexadecyl ether C16EO8 and water. C16EO8 is known to form liquid crystalline phases depending on its concentrations in water. The mixtures were chosen to explore the micellar and hexagonal phase of the crystal. Pd films were electrodeposited on Au microdisic and macro carbon electrodes for a range of conditions such as the deposition potential and the deposition time. In each case voltammetry in H2SO4 was used to characterize the deposited platinum films. The electroactive area, roughness factor and the specific catalyst area of the paladium were systematically calculated. The poster will present an overview of the experiments conducted and results obtained.

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Abstract no. 153: Explained Variation for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Survival: A Review and Comparison Refah M. Alotaibi, Robin Henderson, Malcolm Farrow Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne Survival analysis is widely used in clinical and epidemiologic research to model time until event data. The purpose of many medical survival studies is to predict the process of the outcome of a disease. In this study we investigate predictive accuracy, especially for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) based on a study of 1391 patients followed for 10- years (1992 to 2002). In this area physicians usually use the International Prognostic Index (IPI) to order to identify low and high risk patients (Shipp et al., 1993). We consider whether it is possible to improve on the IPI. Four R2-type measures are used to assess IPI performance for predictive purposes and how it compares with a prognostic index obtained from the data to hand. The measures are: a) the Nagelkerke information gain R2 routinely given in R, b) an R2- measure based on the Brier Score (Graf et al., 1999), c) the Schemper and Henderson survival process measure (Schemper and Henderson, 2000) and d) the Stare et al. ( 2010) explained rank variation. We review and compare through simulation and an analysis of the NHL data. A practically important question is whether there are particular subsets of patients who are easier or di_cult to predict than others. We adopt the methods of Tian et al. (2009) to study this aspect.

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Abstract no. 157: Optical and Chemical Characterization of Erbium Doped Silicon Quantum Dots K. M. Abualnaja1, B. R. Horrocks2, L. Ĺ iller1 School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, UK Silicon is one of the major materials used in fibre optics for its good transmitting properties. The limitation of the undoped silicon is that it is considered a poor light emitter for optoelectronic application due to its indirect band gap and its short non-radiative life time. Doping Silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) with Erbium enhances the energy transfer from SiQDs to Er which makes it an ideal candidate for application in optical fibre technology. Room temperature light emission from Si has been shown possible when Er is incorporated into the Si lattice. In this study, the SiQDs where synthesised by galvanometric anodization followed by thermal hydrosilation reaction. We then use a novel chemical method to dope SiQDs with Er, to achieve light emission from Er doped SiQDs. Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of the Er doped SiQDs were carried out to investigate its optical and chemical properties. The Raman results show a strong peak at 1093 cm-1 which implies to the presence of Er ions in the SiQDs lattice, correspondingly the XPS results detect the presence of Si-O, Si-Si and Er2O3 presence, confirming the successful doping of Er within the SiQDs lattice.

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Abstract no. 160: How can we make biocompatible silver nanoparticles with high size and shape control? Heba A. Kashmery, Ruggero Dondi2 and Glenn A. Burley Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, UK. The preparation of silver nanoparticles has recently received a great interest in scientific research due to their useful biomedical applications in diagnostics and drug delivery; however current methods of preparation do not provide biocompatible silver nanoparticles with sufficient level of size and shape control. Current methods of preparation of silver nanoparticles involve the use of strong reducing agents (e.g. sodium borohydride) and harsh conditions that affords moderate size and shape control. We hypothesised that templating the initial reduction and growth phases of silver nanoparticles, a greater control of both the size and morphology of nanoparticles could be obtained. This poster will present efforts towards addressing this hypothesis by templating the growth of silver nanoparticles using the Tollensâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; reagent (Ag(NH3)2OH). Triazole sugars were used as the paradigm in this study. The sugars have been crucial in order to determine (i) the importance of the triazole group, and (ii) whether the relative distances between the three triazoles are important parameters in the formation of silver nanoparticles. This poster will present our latest findings in both the size and shape control of silver nanoparticles and highlight the mechanism associated with their formation.

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Abstract no. 167:Rational Chemical Design of Solar-Powered Nano Photocatalysts for Environmental Applications khadijah mohammed saleh katubi University of hull The goal of this project is to develop a low cost, safe and environmentallyfriendly nano photocatalyst materials that can use sunlight to catalyse reactions such as splitting of water for the production of hydrogen fuel and breaking up molecules of water pollutants. Novel nanomaterials will be produced by modifying the chemical composition of the most promising materials to favour improvement of the visible-light harvesting properties. The preparation strategy will be based on a combination of the conventional ‗cationic‘ approach with the less conventional ‗anionic‘ approach. Measurements of relevant physical properties such as the band gap of the novel nanomaterials will be constantly related to the synthesis to achieve tailoring of physical properties. A deep understanding of the relationship between band gap, structure, effect of anion and cation substitution and photocatalytic activity will be at the centre of this research. TiO2 is a semiconductor and is used as a photocatalyst for energy and environmental applications. However, due to its large band gap, TiO2 only utilises a small part of visible light. It has been suggested anion-doping induces band narrowing and better visible light response. In this first part of the research work TiO2 and anion substituted TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared via new synthetic routes that are easy and use low-cost reagents. The composition, structure and properties of selected samples will be presented and discussed.

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Abstract no. 175: The Need of Credible Simulation Tool in the Electronic and Computer Engineering Research: A Comparative Case Study between Communication and Electronic Researches M. Baz & A. AlBaz Taif University At present, most of the high quality researches in the field of Electronic and Computer Engineering (ECE) rely on design and fabricating of real hardware that is able to accomplish a predefined job and developing a software package to operate that piece of hardware. However, the process of design and manufacturing are expensive which requires the researcher to take all the precautions in order to produce high yield hardware. One of the approaches that is normally used in order to improve the quality of manufacturing is to simulate the hardware using a credible software package that is able to generate credible data with less than 5% error with respect to the actual hardware. This paper proposes a comparative case study between the researches in communications and electronics engineering and highlights the need to develop a credible software simulation package for researchers in communications engineering in order to produce high quality researches as in the field of electronics engineering.

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Abstract no. 177: Conjoined Twins: Is it Ethical to Separate Them If one of the Twins Inevitably Will Die? Nourah Abdullah Alsuhibany University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne In 1689, Johannes Fatio was the first surgeon who carried out the separation of conjoined twins. Conjoined twins occur in almost one case among 200 in twin pregnancies cases. It is consider as the rarest type of twin pregnancy, and the rate of their survival is approximately 25%. In addition, conjoined twins are classified as a set of twins which carries a high range of risk rates. The adhesion can occur between the twins in several different parts of the body such as chest, head, pelvis and abdomen, and the most common linkage are in the breast. There are some reports which confirm that an early diagnosis during pregnancy, specifically in the period between 10 to 12 weeks, may have a positive impact in the change with regard to the concept of conjoined twins management. This poster will discuss the ethical issues to separate the conjoined twins if one child inevitably will die.

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Abstract no. 207: Towards the identification of ion-selective sensors for use in biological systems Abeer Bukhari School of Chemistry, University of Manchester It is now well established that transition metals play an important role in many biological processes and that the regulation of their intracellular concentration has important consequences in the onset of a variety of disease states. As part of a broader programme of research concerned with determining the aetiology of metal-dependent disease states we have embarked upon a research project whose purpose is to identify the distribution of specific transition metals in living tissues and relate this distribution to morphological changes within tissue types. In this study we have undertaken the synthesis of novel chelating agents which incorporate a 2,3-dihydroxybenzenesulfonamide motif. This motif is embedded within a macro cyclic core which is also decorated with a reporter group which is responsive to the presence of the metal. The choice of chelating/mcrocyclic core is key to inferring metalselectivity in the complexation step: once a metal has been recognised and bound to form a bound metal-ligand complex resultant electronic changes within the ligand set are then used (e.g. by fluorescence) to report the formation of the metal to a recording devise. Introduction of specific residues (e.g. carbohydrates) to the periphery of the macrocyclic core are to be used to control the target specificity of the sensor to specific tissue types, thereby enabling a distribution of a given metal ion to be determined. Morphological changes within the tissue can then be mapped against the observed metal-ion concentration in order to determine a causal link. We wish to use of this approach in the design of sensors for application in the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

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Abstract no. 208: A Metallomics Study of Zn Biology in Relation to Age Related Macular Degeneration Tharwat N. Abduljabbar, Helen J. Reid, Barry L. Sharp Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a chronic eye disease, attacking the macula, an area in the center of the retina. The early sign of dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are characterised clinically by accumulation of yellow deposits called drusen, between the RPE and the Bruchâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s membrane (BM). In later stages, the RPE and photoreceptor cells slowly degenerate, leading to loss of central vision and legal blindness. It occurs in dry and wet form and the treatment for the dry form is still under investigation, (see Fig. 1a&1b). The retina has the highest concentration of Zn in the body. Exchangeable zinc may be essential for normal retinal function and changes in zinc homeostasis may lead to certain retinal disorders. Several experimental approaches have been successfully employed to study metal ions e.g. Zn, Cu and Fe in biology, these collectively known as metallomics.

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Abstract no. 210 :The isomeric structure of the 132Pr 1G.A.Alharshan, 1D.M.Cullen, 1M.J.Taylor, 1M.G.Procter,1 N.M.Lumley,2P. Jones, 2A. Herzan, 2J. Sorri, 2M. Leino, 2P. Nieminen, 2P. Ruotsalainen , 2P. Peura , 2J. Saven , 2R. Julin, 2P. Rahkila, 2J. Partaueu, 2S. R.Antila, 2S.Jutineu, 2C. Scholey, 2J. Usitalo, 2P. Greenlees, 2K. Hauschild, 2T. Grahn, 2M.Sandzelius, 2S. Ketelhut, 2S.Stolze, 2A. L. Marteens, 2U. Jakobsson 1 Schuster laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 3PL, UK, 2 Department of physics, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. The isomeric structure of the neutron deficient nucleus 132Pr in the mass 130-140 region of nuclear chart has been studied with the 98Mo (40Ar,p5n) 132Pr reaction at beam energies of 150 and 165MeV. The experiment was performed at the university of Jyväskylä , Finland where the 40Ar beam was accelerated onto the target by the K130 cyclotron. The JUROGAM II HPGe detector array was employed in conjunction with the RITU gas filled recoil separator. A new isomer has been established. Two new delayed transitions have been observed at energies of 101 and 118 keV. Prompt transition previously established in 132Pr is in coinciding with the newly identified delayed transition. The half-life of the isomeric state in 132Pr was determined from a series of focal-plane time spectra gated on the delayed 101 and 118kev gamma –ray transitions at both beam energies. The half-life of the isomeric state has been measured to be 2.6 (3)μs. Ongoing analysis aims to place the isomeric state in the known prompt level scheme of 132Pr, and intrpret it's structure properties from the transitions seen to directly feed the isomer.

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Abstract no. 233: The isomeric structure of the 132Pr G.A.Alharshan, D.M.Cullen, M.J.Taylor, M.G.Procter, N.M.Lumley,P. Jones, A. Herzan, J. Sorri, M. Leino, P. Nieminen, P. Ruotsalainen , P. Peura , J. Saven , R. Julin, P. Rahkila, J. Partaueu, S. R.Antila, S.Jutineu, C. Scholey, J. Usitalo, P. Greenlees, K. Hauschild, T. Grahn, M.Sandzelius, S. Ketelhut, S.Stolze, A. L. Marteens, U. Jakobsson Schuster laboratory, University of Manchester Department of physics, University of Jyvaskyla The isomeric structure of the neutron deficient nucleus 132Pr in the mass 130-140 region of nuclear chart has been studied with the 98Mo (40Ar, p5n) 132Pr reaction at beam energies of 150 and 165MeV. The experiment was performed at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland where the 40Ar beam was accelerated onto the target by the K130 cyclotron. The JUROGAM II HPGe detector array was employed in conjunction with the RITU gas filled recoil separator. A new isomer has been established. Two new delayed transitions have been observed at energies of 101 and 118 keV. Prompt transitions previously established in 132Pr are in coinciding with the newly identified delayed transition. The half-life of the isomeric state in 132Pr was determined from a series of focal-plane time spectra gated on the delayed 101 and 118kev gamma â&#x20AC;&#x201C;ray transitions at both beam energies. The half-life of the isomeric state has been measured to be 2.6 (3) Îźs. Ongoing analysis aims to place the isomeric state in the known prompt level scheme of 132Pr, and intrpret it's structure properties from the transitions seen to directly feed the isomer

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Abstract no. 235: How does Staphylococcus aureus Survive on Human Skin? Munirah Aldayel and Malcolm J. Horsburgh Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunist pathogen that is currently the most common cause of infections in hospitalised patients. The aim of this study was to identify survival mechanisms used by S. aureus for persistence on human skin. We determined sensitivity to the fatty acid linoleic acid and the amino alcohol D-sphingosine to then test the impact of cholesterol on survival from these antimicrobials. Initial results show that S. aureus can use cholesterol to ameliorate toxicity and that cholesterol could act as an alternative membrane stabilising agent to replace its own membrane carotenoid, staphyloxanthin.

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Abstract no. 257: Hydrocarbon and biogenic odour sensors Hadi Al Qahtania, Delia Puzzovioa, Antonis Dragoneasa, Tim Richardsona, Martin Grella Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield Department of Physics, King Saud University Alkane odours represent an explosion hazard, but the sensing of alkane odours with chemical sensors is difficult, because they do not engage in specific interactions at ambient temperatures. Here, we explore physical sensors instead, based on the swelling of an alkane matrix in a similar odour. We deposit dense, ordered, thin films of Au- dodecanethiol core/shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) by the Langmuir-Sch채fer (LS) printing method. AFM imaging reveals hexagonal ordering of the nanoparticles. We find that electrical resistance at ambient temperature responds selectively and sensitively to hydrocarbon odours. Response is a rapid resistance increase due to swelling, and is strongest for alkane odours where the alkane chain is similar in length to the dodecane shell. For decane odours, we find a response to concentrations as low as 15 ppm, about 600 times below the lower explosive limit. Response is weaker, but still significant, to aromatic odours (e.g. Toluene, Xylene), while potential interferants such as polar and/or hydrogen- bonding odours (e.g. alcohols, ketones) are rejected. Resistance does not depend on humidity, depends only weakly on temperature, and recovers rapidly and completely to its original value within the error margin of measurement.We also demonstrate the detection of 1decanol, a vapour released by E. coli bacteria, at a partial pressure in the order 100 ppb by just attaching different ligands, undecanolthiol, to CSNPs. This is an exceptionally low limit of detection for swelling-based sensors, and relies firstly, in the careful matching of the CSNPs ligands to the targeted odour, and secondly, in the very low volatility of this odour.

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Abstract no. 261: Magnetic and Optical properties of GdMnO3 thin Films M. Al-Qahtani,M. Alshammari, D. S. Score1, Harry J. Blythe, A. M. Fox, G. A. Gehring ,Vladimir Chichkov, Nikolay Andreev, Yakov Mukovskii Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield GdMnO3 is an interesting multiferroic material [1].In this poster we present a study the magnetisation and M-O spectra of thin films in order to investigate spin-lattice coupling which causes this material to be multiferroic. The GdMnO3 films were grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) and (LaAlO3) LAO substrates at MISiS in Moscow. The structure of these films were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The magnetic properties of these films were studied in the Sheffield laboratory using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The magnetic circular dichroism spectra are obtained for the film on the STO substrate. The results are compared with recent results obtained for GdMnO3 nanoparticles [2]. The LAO substrate and the films grown on it were heavily twinned so it was not possible to do magneto-optic measurements on this film but magnetisation data will be presented.

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Abstract no. 266: Parallel Concordance Benchmark Malak Aljabri, Prof. Phil Trinder, Dr.Hans-wolfgang Loidl University:Heriot Watt University Multi and many core architectures are dominating general purpose computer platforms today. OpenMP and MPI are the de facto standards for parallelism for shared memory and distributed memory architectures respectively. Having different parallel programming models increases the need to have an up- to-date evaluation of the available options for programming on multi-core machines. This poster presents the work carried out to construct a new parallel benchmark, a concordance program and to make a comparative evaluation of MPI and OpenMP on a multicore architecture. The concordance program is designed to analyze a text and to locate the occurrence or occurrences of each word and sequence of words, and list the pages on which these sequences occur. Results show that OpenMP version of the concordance delivers better performance with both experiments e.g. a speedup of 5.3 compared with 2.6 for MPI. The effort required to tune OpenMP version is less than that required for MPI, as a direct benefit of the shared memory. For MPI version, the high communication cost leads to poor performance.

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Abstract no. 269: Intestinal Glucose Transporter (SGLT1) Expression in the Small Intestine of Control and Diabetic Rats Rasha Al-Shali University of Liverpool The ingested carbohydrates in the diet are metabolised into the simplest form of sugars by intestinal digestive enzymes, namely sucrase, maltase and lactase. Then, the dietary glucose (and galactose) is transported from the intestinal lumen to the blood stream through the small intestinal (SI) absorptive enterocytes. Glucose is transported actively by the Sodium-dependent glucose co-transport 1 (SGLT1) across the brush-border membrane (BBM), and passively by the monosaccharide transporter, GLUT2, across the basolateral membrane (BLM) of the enterocytes. The fluctuating level of luminal glucose is sensed by a glucose sensor initiating pathways to regulate the expression of SGLT1. In diabetes mellitus (DM), intestinal SGLT1 expression is enhanced leading to higher capacity of intestinal glucose absorption. This upregulated expression is independent of dietary carbohydrate intake, blood glucose concentration and insulin. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the enhanced SGLT1 expression in the diabetic intestine. Control rats and experimentally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used as a model of type 1 DM.The immunohistochemical staining showed that SGLT1 is expressed in more enterocytes of diabetic rats than the control in the mid and distal SI along the crypt/villus axis. Transport studies revealed that glucose uptake rates in the proximal, mid and distal small intestine are significantly increased by 10-, 5- and 5- folds, respectively, in diabetic compared to control rats. While, the mRNA levels of SGLT1 were elevated by 2, 3 and 3.7 folds, respectively, in diabetic compared to control rats. The specific activities of maltase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes were determined and found to be generally 2.3, 3.3 and 3.5 folds higher in the intestine of diabetic compared to the control rats. The data suggest that the enhancement of SGLT1 expression and glucose uptake in the intestine of diabetic rats may be due to several causes: diabetic-induced mucosal hypertrophy, hence, more enterocytes supporting more SGLT1 along each villus, and higher expression of SGLT1 transporters per each Enterocyte.

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Abstract no. 270: Systematics and biogeography of Senna (Leguminosae) in the Arabian Peninsula Faten Filimban School of Biological Sciences University of Edinburgh Senna comprises c.350 species with most found in tropical America others in tropical Africa, Madagascar and Australia. Only a few species are found in south eastern Asia and in the Pacific Islands. This project aims to provide a taxonomic revision and biogeographic study of Senna species in the Arabian Peninsula. Taxonomic studies have used herbarium specimens from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in addition to field observations made in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Sultanate of Oman and the Republic of Yemen. The current research shows that approximately 17 taxa grow in the Arabian Peninsula. PADME software has been used to store the specimen and character data and will be used to generate taxonomic descriptions. Phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast matK sequence data indicate that Senna is a monophyletic genus and it shows that Cassia is the sister group. These results confirm the findings of previous phylogenetic studies. All the Arabian samples were combined together in a clade except for those of Senna sophera which were placed with the New World Senna accessions.

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Abstract no. 276: PEDOT:PSS/Ag Nano-Composite Transparent Electrodes For Optoelectronic Applications A. S. Alshammari, M. Shkunov and S. Ravi P. Silva Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey Silver nanowires were grown via polyol reduction of AgNO3 and used with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to produce a conductive and transparent thin film. The conductivity of the as grown nanowire was measured and found to be in the range of 103 S/cm. Conductive PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire composite were deposited on glass substrate by transferring the nanowires network on a spin coated PEDOT:PSS layers with different thicknesses. Scanning electron microscopy studies show a good distribution of the nanowires in the samples. Furthermore, the electrical measurements which have been performed at room temperature show that the resistance of the film strongly depends on the concentration of the nanowires in the sample and the thickness of the layer as well. The samples show low sheet resistance with very good optical transparency in the range of 80 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 90%.

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Abstract no. 284: Spatio-temporal SIFT and its Application to Human Action Classification Manal Alghamdi and Yoshihiko Gotoh Department of Computer Science University of Sheffield This paper presents a space-time extension of scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) originally applied to the 2-dimensional (2D) volumetric images. Most of the previous extensions dealt with 3-dimensional (3D) spacial information using a combination of a 2D detector and a 3D descriptor for applications such as medical image analysis. In this work we build a spatiotemporal difference-of Gaussian (DoG) pyramid to detect the local extrema, aiming at processing video streams. Interest points are extracted not only from the spatial plane (xy) but also from the planes along the time axis (xt and yt). The space-time extension was evaluated using the human action classification task. Experiments with the KTH and the UCF sports datasets show that the approach was able to produce results comparable to the state-of-the-arts.

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Abstract no. 304: Interrogation of The Drosophila Genes for Enzymes Regulating Ras Signalling During Eye Development Nada Alqadri School of Biological Sciences University of Liverpool Cancer is considered one of the fatal diseases that affect a large number of people all over the world irrespective of the geographic region and the socioeconomic status. This makes cancer therapy a very important subject of study. The frequency of RAS in cancer patients has been observed to be high and hence the involvement of it in causing or increasing the risk of developing cancer rises. Studies have discovered that the frequency and incidence of RAS gene mutations varied distinctively between the tumors types especially with relation to tissue, position, origin and development. Interestingly, in some particular tumor types such as, in some myeloid disorders RAS mutations occurred with very less frequency and were totally absent or rare in specific tumor tissues such as in breast. The core components of the RAS pathway are well characterized but their regulation by post-translational modifications, for example ubiquitination, is not completely understood. Therefore, the study aimed to test the involvement of deubiquitating enzymes (DUBs) in controlling Ras signalling. To do this, a library of transgenic dsRNA lines targeting each of the DUBs in Drosophila was tested for the ability to suppress or enhance the rough eye phenotype resulting from RasV12 overexpression. dsRNA line that suppressed the effect of RasV12 will examine further by i) testing the efficacy of RNAi enzyme knockdown and ii) by determining their effect on activation of ERK, a critical element of downstream signaling. These studies revealed that loss of function of one DUB, encoded by TRABID, suppressed Ras-induced ERK activation. Although preliminary, these studies suggest that pharmaceutical manipulation of TRABID may offer therapeutic approaches to abrogate the development and or spread of Ras-induced tumours in cancer patients.

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Abstract no. 314: A Model to Isolate and Characterizes Colon Cancer Stem Cells Reham Mohammed Balahmar Nottingham Trent university Recent evidences indicate that cancer stem cells are significantly important in analysing cancer treatment, prognosis and survival. Since these cell form to be the transformed stem cells, they posses ability to initiate tumour as well as affect the expression of the existing tumour. Conventional chemotherapy kills differentiated or differentiating cancer cells but fails to affect cancer stem cells due to their ability of drug resistance. This makes these cells a target or aim for further research and development which can contribute to successful treatment of this disease. The objective of this research is to isolate and characterise potential cancer stem cells using murine model in colon carcinoma. To study the drug resistant properties by treating Colon Carcinoma by doxorubicin. Colony formation assay was used to study the biological properties of CSCs. Moreover, potent CSCs were identified and characterised for the expression of cell surface markers such as CD44 and CD133 by using flow cytometry analysis. Furthermore the colony cultures developed by cancer stem cells with and without chemotherapeutic drugs need greater analysis. Surface expression markers are often utilised to identify various kinds of cancer causing cells. However there is still great controversy to the behaviour of surface expression markers with respect to different kinds of cancer. Only abundant research in this field can help to positively identify surface expression markers in particular forms of cancer. Such research is essential to identifying and treating cancer to save the lives of hundreds of thousands of people.

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Abstract no. 329: Wettability of Latexparticles Determined by the Gel Trapping Technique Hamza S. Alshehri, Vesselin N. Paunov, Tommy S. Horozov Department of Chemistry, University of Hull The wettability of powder particles by a fluid phase has attracted considerable interest during the last two decades due to its important application to different areas of life, such as, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, food, water treatments, building materials, paint, and secondary oil recovery.Small solid particles can attach themselves between two liquid phases. Hydrophobicity of these particles, which can be range from nanometre and micrometre, is the important issue to quantify the three-phase contact angle, θ. Moreover, contact angle of micron and submicron solid particles is difficult to measure due to small size. Knowledge of particle wettability is required in order to characterize and understand the interaction and behaviour of those particles at liquid interfaces . It is possible to predict the type of emulsions that may occur if the particle was hydrophilic. This would mean that the contact angle (θ) of these particles is less than 90°. On the other hand, particles are hydrophobic when the contact angle (θ) is more than 90°.

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Abstract no. 339: Synthesis and investigation of rod-shaped mesogens functionalized with ethylenoxy chains F. Z. Al-Qahtani, G. H. Mehl Department of Chemistry, University of Hull Liquid crystalline phase behaviour of ethylenoxy group functionalized molecules has in the main been associated with lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour. For thermotropic systems it has been connected to the investigations of LC crown ethers and for the investigation of complex perforated lamellar super-structures. Surprisingly not much work has been reported on the investigation of calamitic mesogens consisting of benzoic acid aromatic esters with the terminal chains bearing oligo-ethylenoxy groups. Thus such systems were explored, especially as these materials can combine thermotropic phase behaviour with some solubility in water, giving rise to the potential of chromonic properties. In this report we will describe the results of our synthetic efforts and of the chemical characterisation of the materials and the investigation of the liquid crystal properties using optical polarizing microscopy (OPM), Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additionally we report our results on the qualitative miscibility studies of these molecules with water, based on OPM experiments.

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Abstract no. 340: Modulation of transglutaminase 2 activity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes by activators of protein kinase A and protein kinase C. Ibtesam Almami, John Dickenson, Alan J. Hargreaves, Philip L. R. Bonner School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University Transglutaminases (TG) are a family of calcium (Ca2+) dependent enzymes that catalyse the post-translational modification of proteins. The ubiquitously expressed enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2; EC 2.3.2.13) can incorporate polyamines into proteins or covalently crosslink proteins in the presence of calcium. The enzyme has been implicated to be involved in many pathologies including celiac disease, neurodegenerative disorders and it has been shown to protect cardiomyocytes against ischaemia and reperfusion-induced cell death by regulating ATP synthesis. In the H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell line, phorbol-12myristate-13-acetate (PMA) an activator of protein kinase C and forskolin (FK) an activator of protein kinase A have been reported to mimic ischaemia preconditioning. The activation of both protein kinases facilitates cardioprotective signaling. A time course exposure of H9c2 cells to PMA or forskolin showed a significant increase in TG2 catalysed biotin cadaverine incorporation into endogenous substrates peaking after five minutes. This activation response was subsequently shown to be concentration dependent on the concentration of PMA (0-1.0 ÎźM) and FK (0-10.0 ÎźM). This activation was prevented by using inhibitors of PKC and PKA. Western blotting analysis of H9c2 cell extracts following activation by PMA or FK indicated that the levels of TG2 are modulated. The use of a cell penetrating substrate of TG2 confirmed in situ TG2 activity in response to PMA/FK treatment. The rapid activation of TG2 by activators of PKC and PKA suggests posttranslational modification of TG2 possibly by phosphorylation via these or other kinases in response extracellular signals.

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Abstract no. 354: The isolation and characterisation of naturally occurring inhibitors of transglutaminases 2 (TG2) maha aldubayan Nottingham Trent University Transglutaminases (EC 2.3.2.13) are calcium dependent enzymes which have been found to play a role in various disease states in human tissue such as neurodegenerative disorders, a variety of cancers and celiac disease. In celiac disease tissue transglutaminase (TG2) has been shown to deamidate glutamine residues on wheat gliadin peptides, initiating an auto immune response leading to the debilitating symptoms of the disease. Currently, the only effective treatment of coeliac disease is to restrict sufferers to a gluten free diet. Therefore aim of this research was to screen natural products for inhibitors of TG2 which may be useful in the treatment of celiac disease. The TG2 inhibitors from natural sources were isolated using flash chromatography and identified using TLC. After concentration their potency was established in the TG2 biotin cadaverine incorporation assay. One fraction (I) showed significant inhibition of TG2 activity. Cultured gut epithelial cells (HT29 and FHs 74 Ints) incubated with biotin-X-cadaverine (a cell penetrating substrate of TG2) demonstrated intracellular TG2 activity when viewed with a fluorescent microscope. The biotinylated proteins were extracted and analysed with SDS-PAGE and western blotting demonstrating specific intracellular TG2 protein targets. HT29 or FHs 74 Ins cells incubated either with Z-DON (cell penetrating inhibitor of TG2) or Fraction I demonstrated intracellular inhibition of TG2 activity. The MTT reduction cell viability assay showed the natural isolated TG2 inhibitor has no toxic effects on cells.

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Abstract no. 369: Sites with Different Ionic Recognition Properties Within the Same Molecular Receptor Abdelaziz El Gamouz, Salman Alharthi Angela F. Danil de Namor Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey Calix [4] pyrroles (products of the condensation reaction between pyrrole and ketones in acidic medium) and derivatives are mainly known as anion complexing agents through hydrogen bond formation [1,2]. An important issue to address is that regarding the introduction of suitable functionalities in the structure of calyx [4]pyrrole for the production of receptors that within the same molecule have sites which differ in their ionic recognition properties. Thus a new calyx [4] pyrrole amide derivative, meso-tetramethyl-tetrakis-[N,Ndiethylacetamide) phenoxy-methyl] calix[4]pyrrole, 1, has been designed, synthesised, characterised and its complexation with cations and anions are reported. For comparison purposes a detailed investigation on cation complexation processes involving calix[4]arene amide derivatives [5,11,17,23p-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetradiethylacetamide-calix[4]arene, 2, has been carried out in non-aqueous media. Factors contributing to ionic stability and selectivity of these receptors are discussed on the basis of the thermodynamics associated to these processes.

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Abstract no. 378: Investigating the impacts of Scalability, Mobility and Load on the Performance of MANET Routing Protocols Mohammed Alreshoodi School of Computer Science and Electric Engineering University of Essex Nowadays, there is a great deal of interest in the world of wireless technologies. However, wireless networks still have some limitations because of maintaining infrastructures that may break down due to various critical scenarios including military attacks, disaster, flood, and so on. One of the recent developments in the field of wireless networks is Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), which is being extensively deployed because it offers several features that traditional networks find difficult to emulate. The main feature of MANET is the dynamic change of topologies in different times; however, it does cause complex traffic routing. Several studies have been conducted for testing the suitable routing protocols for MANET in different simulators, such as [23][24][25], yet there remains a number of limitations due to the complexity of the MANET environment. This dissertation investigates the performance of three MANET routing protocols (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV), Geographic Routing Protocols (GRP) and Optimised Link State Routing protocol (OLSR)) in terms of two performance metrics: delay and throughput. This study is approached from three particular perspectives: the impact of varying nodes number, varying nodes speed and varying traffic load. This technical study is based on a simulation approach using OPNET Modeler 16.0 simulator. The selected routing protocols are evaluated and compared in several simulation scenarios. After investigating the impacts of scalability, mobility and load in the three protocols, the simulation results clearly show that the OLSR offers outstanding results in delay and throughput in all designed simulation models. GRP protocol performs well in high mobility rate, as well as it is not affected by the number of nodes. AODV protocol performs well in small-size networks with lower node mobility; however, it has the highest delay in all scenarios. The simulation results also show that the presence of varying traffic loads does not show a significant impact on the three routing protocols.

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Abstract no. 387: Physiological and Ergogenic Effects of an extract of Catha Edulis Forsk M.A. Sallam¹ ² & R.H. Baxendale¹. ¹Faculty of Medical, Veterinary and Life Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK and ²Medical Research Centre, University of Jazan, KSA Catha Edulis Forsk (khat) is chewed by people in southern Saudi Arabia for its perceived stimulant properties. These are attributed to cathinone in the leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming 45g of khat. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of Medical Research Center in Jazan University. 30 healthy male volunteers were recruited to a double-blind random order study. Each volunteer visited the lab twice. During the first visit: volunteers were familiarized with the tests before they ingested either 33ml of fruit juice or juice with 45g of ground khat leaves filtered to remove particles. After 7 days they ingested the other drink. Resting blood pressure, heart rate, reaction time and grip strength were measured every 15 mins for the next 75 mins. Previous studies show this allows adequate time for absorption of khat. All volunteers completed the experiment without any ill effect. Analysis showed that the baseline study variables were not significant different on both test days. Resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and grip strength were significantly higher and reaction time was significantly lower after khat consumption when compared with the placebo 60 mins after injection (heart rate p=0.005, systolic blood pressure p=0.001, grip strength p=0.006, and reaction time p>0.001) diastolic blood did not differ significantly These findings confirm that 45 g of khat leaves contribute to reduced reaction time and increased grip strength, systolic blood pressure and heart rate in healthy young men level in the Jizan district.

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Abstract no. 393: A bufadienolide glycoside from Rhodocodon calcicola (Hyacinthaceae) Alaa Alqahtani, Moses K. Langat1 Wolfgang Wetschnig and Dulcie A. Mulholland University of Surrey, Guildford University of Graz, Austria The phytochemistry of the Rhodocodon genus (Hyacinthaceae) has not been investigated previously. In this study we report on the isolation of several compounds isolated from the ethanol extract of the bulbs of Rhodocodon aff. calcicola (collections 04474 & 04476). One of the compounds isolated was the bufadienolide glycoside, hellebrigenin β-glucoside (1), reported previously to occur in Urginea altissima collected from Kenya. 1 However, its NMR data have not been reported before. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR studies. Bufadienolides are widely used in traditional remedies for the treatment of several ailments, such as infections, rheumatism, inflammation and disorders associated with the central nervous system.

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Abstract no. 395: Quality Control Mansour Sattam Aldosari Cardiff University This research aims to identify and comment upon the Quality Control related issues which result in statistical control analysis. Categories of statistical quality control (SQC) will be outlined. Three general categories will be presented here. These are: Acceptance sampling, Descriptive statistics and Statistical process control (SPC). Quality, control and a number of nomenclatures will also be defined, in addition to a description of control chart usage and identification of differences between c-charts, x-bar, R-charts and pcharts. Finally, graphs, tables and clarifications will be included. Through this research it will be possible to comprehend many quality control objectives.

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Abstract no. 403: The use of cold water immersion to enhance postexercise recovery in sports Nora Abdullah alshoweir Manchester Metropolitan University Intense physical activity (exercise) can lead to muscle damage and muscle soreness. The soreness is experienced as a dull, aching sensation from the muscles that were engaged in the exercise and can last up to 48 hours after exercise was finished. This is termed delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and occurs due to the release of metabolites from the damaged neuromuscular systems that activate efferent nerve endings. The damaged muscles can take several days or sometimes up to 4 weeks to fully recover. This cycle of muscle activation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; muscle damage â&#x20AC;&#x201C; muscle repair is an important part of the adaptation response to exercise and eventually leads to improved exercise performance. Nevertheless, athletes and sports clubs are always seeking ways to minimize the damage or speed the recovery process. Athletes frequently submerge themselves into water, either hot, cold, or a mixture of both to prevent the adverse effects of training or sport. There is a controversy about the effectiveness of water immersion in the prevention of adverse effects, such as delayed onset muscle soreness: there is also uncertainly as to hoe it may produce positive effects. This research follows on from a survey revealing that, in premiership Football and Rugby in England, there is no consistency or standardization in the use of water immersion, which is used not in based on research, but anecdotal evidence. Primarily, the effect of different types of water immersion will be tasted to determine change in metabolic markers in elite male footballers at rest. Secondly the actions of water immersion will then be tested following various type of exercise. This research aims to better inform those involved in sport about the effects of different types of water immersion.

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Abstract no. 406: Steps toward developing functionalised silica monoliths for environmental analysis in the field. J.S. Algethami, S.J.Haswell Department of Chemistry, Hull University Functionalised silica monoliths represent an attractive method for the extraction and pre-concentration of analytes of environmental important such as pesticides. This is due to the higher internal porosity arising from the structure of the silica network and good flow characteristics. The silica network produced, which consists of macro- and mesopores, enables flow paths through monolith and provides the surface area needed for efficient analyte retention. Methods to produce and physically characterise silica monoliths have been developed in order to establish their flow and surface area properties which will enable new and efficient extraction/pre-concentration/separation system to be designed. Silica-based monoliths with co-continuous structure were successfully prepared through a sol-gel process in the presence of a polyethylene oxide (PEO) (average Mv 200k and 100k) or triblock co-polymer (F127). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen sorption isotherm at 77 k were used to characterise bimodal pores structure of the monolith. The F127 was compared to the PEO, in the formation of silica monoliths and was demonstrated a higher surface area. Work is currently in processes to functionalise the silica monolith with C18 in order to evaluate the suitability of the proposed methodology for the extraction of pesticides from aqueous systems

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Abstract no. 411: Wettability of latex particles determined by the Gel Trapping Technique Hamza S. Alshehri, Vesselin N. Paunov, Tommy S. Horozov Surfactant & Colloid Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Hull The wettability of powder particles by a fluid phase has attracted considerable interest during the last two decades due to its important application to different areas of life, such as, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, food, water treatments, building materials, paint, and secondary oil recovery. Small solid particles can attach themselves between two liquid phases. Hydrophobicity of these particles, which can be range from nanometre and micrometre, is the important issue to quantify the three-phase contact angle, θ. Moreover, contact angle of micron and submicron solid particles is difficult to measure due to small size. Knowledge of particle wettability is required in order to characterize and understand the interaction and behaviour of those particles at liquid interfaces . It is possible to predict the type of emulsions that may occur if the particle was hydrophilic. This would mean that the contact angle (θ) of these particles is less than 90°. On the other hand, particles are hydrophobic when the contact angle (θ) is more than 90°.

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Abstract no. 426: Investigation the permeability of human insulin through rate control polymeric membrane Abdulrahman Essa, Leeds University The aim of the study to investigate the permeability of human insulin through microporous polycarbonate membrane, franz diffusion cell was used in the investigations to study the permeability. The main factors in the study were using different pore sizes of polycarbonate membrane, with and without continues film of polyvinylidene fluoride, testing different concentration of insulin in different temperature, these factors can influenced the permeability of insulin through the polycarbonate membrane, which can be very important criteria to design robust transdermal insulin patch rate control membrane that can control the release of insulin from the patch for long time, and can be used specially for infant and children that have poor insulin ijection control. The franz diffusion cell has two compartment, donor and receptor, the polycarbonate membrane placed between the two compartment, the insulin purchased from Eldich co. and freshly prepared using phosphate buffer saline solution, the sample placed in the donor compartment and the receptor filled with buffer solution, the concentration of insulin that permeate through the membrane is measured using UV spectrometry.

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Abstract no. 438: Monitoring the Internal Environment of a Heart Cell with resonance Raman Microspectroscopy Abdullah Al-Mohammedi, A. J. Hudson, N.M. Storey Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester New data has been obtained on the mechanisms of chemical processes that take place in heart cells under conditions of cardiac stress. These chemical processes involve a number of proteins that contain heme as a prosthetic group (i.e. myglobins, haemoglobins, cytochromes). Our methodology is novel. We are using lasers to manipulate heart cells and probe their internal chemical environment. This cutting-edge technology was developed in the Department of Chemistry, from the College of Science and Engineering, to answer questions in cell biology that are relevant to human health. The present data was obtained in collaboration with the Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology in the College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology. We have monitored the binding of oxygen molecules to heme proteins and electron transfer processes involving heme proteins in a single heart cell by recording the inelastic scattering of light from a laser beam. These measurements have been made whilst a physiological response is stimulated in the heart cell.

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Abstract no. 462: A New Selective Supramolecular Receptor for the Removal of Harmful Species from Water Adhwa Alharbi and Angela F Danil de Namor Chemistry Department, University of Surrey The aim of this work is to design receptors capable of selectively removing polluting ions from water. Thus a calyx [4] pyrrole derivative, namely, mesotetramethyl-tetrakis [N-(2-phenoxyethyl) Nâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;phenylthiourea] calyx [4] pyrrole (CA) was synthesised to target pollutants and remove them from aqueous solutions. 1H NMR was used to identify the active sites of complexation between the ligand and the ionic species in acetonitrile-d3 at 298 K. From the 1H NMR data it was discovered that this receptor interacts with mercury (II) fluoride. Conductance measurements were performed to determine the composition of the complex and the strength of receptor-ion interactions.1 The degree of recognition of the receptor for these pollutants is reflected in the thermodynamics associated with these processes. These were determined by nano-calorimetry. Based on these data attachment of the receptor to a solid support will be discussed together with the potential application of this material in the environmental field.2

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Abstract no. 471: Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter from milk powder production factories Hana Sameer Sonbol, Steve Forsythe, Catherine McAuley, Heather Craven School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University Background: Cronobacter is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, and recently multilocus sequence typing has shown that C. sakazakii ST4 is associated with the majority of neonatal meningitis cases in the past 30 years in 6 countries. Methods: Cronobacter from two previous environmental sampling studies(1,2)were profiled using the Cronobacter MLST scheme (www.pubMLST.org/cronobacter). Results: The majority of Cronobacter isolates from Australia were C. sakazakii followed by C. turicensis (8/49) and C. malonaticus (1/49) of the C. sakazakii isolates tested, 29 isolates were ST4. The majority of Cronobacter isolates from Germany were C. sakazakii .C. sakazakii ST4 was isolated from powdered infant formula. Potential virulence of the strain was supported by in vitro tissue culture analysis. The isolate also formed copious capsular material. It is notable that the product preparation instructions stated reconstitution at 40째C, a temperature that would support bacterial growth. Conclusions: C. sakazakii ST4 was isolated from recalled powdered infant formula. This ST is the predominant lineage of Cronobacter is associated with cases of neonatal meningitis. Appropriate preparation instructions should be suitable for maintaining the nutritional value infant feed yet also reduce possible microbial contamination.

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Abstract no. 476: The use of time-lapse imaging and FISH to study the effect of GM-CSF on development and aneuploidy in murine blastocysts Elaimi, A. and Harper, H. key steps in assisted reproduction are i) providing the perfect IVF environment in order to achieve the best for embryo culturing and maturation and ii) the assessment of embryo developmental potential in order to determine the best embryo most likely to result in pregnancy. A number of non-invasive techniques have been exploited to ascertain the best and most competent embryos with the highest chance to implant. These techniques include embryo morphology assessment and those that require more complex forms of technology such as metabolic analysis or time-lapse image analysis. Over the last decade, several types of commercial culture media have been introduced for in vitro embryo development. In 2011, a commercial culture media was launched containing 2ng/ml Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, growth factor). GM-CSF is as an important adjuster of cell number in developing blastocysts, normal fetal and placental development and in apoptosis reduction through its mitogenic effect.

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Abstract no. 498: Knowledge Gathering with Visual Techniques Towards a Visual Questionnaire Eshrag Refaee, Prof. Rob Pooley School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Heriot-Watt University It has been a challenge for researchers to decide on the most appropriate knowledge gathering tool that serves their research goals and objectives. Among the wide range of the currently available research techniques, questionnaires seem to be one of the most popular tools for researchers. Questionnaires are notably effective in terms of time and effort required, and analysis speed. However, the popularity of questionnaires has led to negative impact on the response rate and the quality of the data produced. On the other hand, there are many indications that visualisation could play a major role in motivating people to reflect their views in pictorial format.

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Abstract no. 499: Raman Investigation of Various Forms of Carbon by Using 785NM Laser M. Althobaiti Physics Department, University of Liverpool Diamond has attracted a great deal of research in various technologies very recently Diamond is a scarce material that has been made available by nature, however it has been only introduced to scientific research in the last tens of years. Diamond has the most extreme properties of any materials, allowing it to be used for applications that require sustenance at extreme conditions in extreme conditions. It is classified as the hardest of materials due to its bonding nature and has appealing electrical, optical and chemical inertness features that make it attractive to a wide range of applications, mainly nanotechnology and biotechnology applications such as biosensing with diamond nanotubes (Poh, Loh et al. 2004), and the rapidly growing quantum technology promising the almighty quantum computer (Greentree, Fairchild et al. 2008). One of the main methods that have been used to characterize diamond is Raman spectroscopy. Raman resulted spectral features of diamond, glassy carbon and diamond damaged by ion implantation have been studied in the literature. Raman resulted spectral lines populated by CVD diamond, glassy carbon and diamond damaged by ion implantation have been investigated by many research studies as evidenced by the existing literature. The majority of experiments found in the literature have operated the Raman laser beam at different wavelengths such as 488nm and 514.5nm. This study investigates the spectral properties of these materials using Raman laser energy of 785 nm, a laser energy.

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Abstract no. 503: Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter from milk powder production factories Hana Sameer Sonbol Nottingham Trent University Background: Cronobacter is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, and recently multilocus sequence typing has shown that C. sakazakii ST4 is associated with the majority of neonatal meningitis cases in the past 30 years in 6 countries. Methods: Cronobacter from two previous environmental sampling studies(1,2)were profiled using the Cronobacter MLST scheme (www.pubMLST.org/cronobacter). Results: The majority of Cronobacter isolates from Australia were C. sakazakii followed by C. turicensis (8/49) and C. malonaticus (1/49) of the C. sakazakii isolates tested, 29 isolates were ST4. The majority of Cronobacter isolates from Germany were C. sakazakii .C. sakazakii ST4 was isolated from powdered infant formula. Potential virulence of the strain was supported by in vitro tissue culture analysis. Conclusions: C. sakazakii ST4 was isolated from recalled powdered infant formula. This ST is the predominant lineage of Cronobacter is associated with cases of neonatal meningitis. Appropriate preparation instructions should be suitable for maintaining the nutritional value infant feed yet also reduce possible microbial contamination.

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Abstract no. 510: RESTful Web APIs An attempt to extend PhraseDetective.org functionalities Ans Alghamdi, Massimo Poesio and Udo Kruschwitz University of Essex, UK It is, perhaps, impossible to create very large and high-scale annotated corpora that are used for Natural Language Processing (NLP). Therefore, there is a need for sophisticated attempts to _ll in the gaps in NLP. One successful approach was Game With Purposes (GWP) Phrase Detectives. Phrase Detectives is a GWP project that aims to provide a fun, exciting, and entertaining framework for linguistics anaphoric annotation. As Phrase Detectives was extended from only one Web site to a Facebook version, much e_ort was needed to refactor the entire system. Therefore, this thesis aims to outline the extension of the functionalities of Phrase Detectives and to provide several Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) using Represen- tational State Transfer (REST) architecture. These APIs can serve any new approach for Phrase Detectives, such as mobile-based or Google+ game- based approaches. Phrase Detectives APIs can even be used to give other Web sites, games, and applications the ability to contribute or consume any exposed resources.

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Abstract no. 516: An empirical investigation for the Effect of Multimodal Metaphors in Electronic Customer Loyalty Management Systems (E-CLMS) Yusef M. alzahrani And Dimitrios I. Rigas Department of Media Technology, De Montfort University This Poster will investigate the usability of incorporating multimodal interaction metaphors into Electronic Customer Loyalty Management Systems (E-CLMS) interfaces. E-CLMS is a system which exploits technological developments to bring technique; it can be the best approach to enhance the customer loyalty into the online world by using multimodal metaphors through explanation on customisation. There were several technical challenges to ECLMS that can be addressed by multimodal metaphors, such as lack of loyalty, understand ability and usability (efficiency, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction) within an E-CLMS interface.

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Abstract no. 517: A study of the reaction of Cu (II) with the 1, 5diphenylcarbazide (DPC) wafa shamsan al arjan university of huddersfield , uk The objective of this project is to analyse the reaction of Cu (II) with the 1, 5- diphenylcarbazide (DPC). This study presents the results of the determination of copper ((II) in multivitamin tablets. The spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of nanogram levels of copper because it has catalytic effects on the oxidation of 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC). The chemical reaction between Cu (II) and DPC gives an intense red-violet colour that reaches a 位 max of 452 nm in 5 minutes. The same reaction was observed in 1, 5-diphenylcarbazone (DPCO) with a coloured compound (位 max= 458 nm) which reached its maximum at 10 minutes. The effect of time on the calibration curve is optimized. The analytical characteristics of the method, such as detection limit and linear range, are then obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) (mg/L) of the organic colorimetric reagents, such as DPC (DPCO), is 0.06 (0.01). This is calculated from the signal of the blank plus three standard deviations of the blank. Moreover, the precision of this method is evaluated as the relative standard deviation through analysis of a series of three replicates: 58.8 and 62.7 for DPC and DPCO as metal complexing agents. The influence of the inorganic matrix is examined. Beer's law was obeyed in the copper (II) concentration range of 0-5 mg/l, and the molar absorptivity at 458nm is 0.1L mol-1 cm-1, whereas 0.07 at 452nm is calculated from the slope of the calibration curve. The simplicity and the reproducibility are the main advantages of this proposed analytical procedure. By comparing, copper (II) is also determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In fact, the reaction between copper (II) and DPC is still unknown and has not been ascertained.

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Abstract no. 524: Monitoring the Internal Environment of a Heart Cell with Resonance Raman Microspectroscopy Abdullah Al-Mohammedi, A. J. Hudson, NM. Storey, M. Mahaut-Smith Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester Department of Chemistry , University of Leicester Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Leicester New data has been obtained on the mechanisms of chemical processes that take place in heart cells under conditions of cardiac stress. These chemical processes involve a number of proteins that contain heme as a prosthetic group (i.e. myglobins, haemoglobins, cytochromes). Our methodology is novel. We are using lasers to manipulate heart cells and probe their internal chemical environment. This cutting-edge technology was developed in the Department of Chemistry, from the College of Science and Engineering, to answer questions in cell biology that are relevant to human health. The present data was obtained in collaboration with the Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology in the College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology. We have monitored the binding of oxygen molecules to heme proteins and electron transfer processes involving heme proteins in a single heart cell by recording the inelastic scattering of light from a laser beam. These measurements have been made whilst a physiological response is stimulated in the heart cell.

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Abstract no. 528: One-Pot Synthesis Of Linear And Hyper-Branched Poly-Cationic Polymers And Characterization Of Their Aqueous Solution Behaviour Fatimah Alzahrani, Prof. Stephen Yeates â&#x20AC;&#x2014;Strathclyde routeâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; was used to synthesize a range of linear and hyperbranched poly-cationic polymers utilizing DMAEMA, PEGMA and DMC as monomers, EGDMA as branching agent, and DDT or TG as chain transfer agent. 1H NMR spectrum and IR spectrum main features confirmed the polymerization of the monomers used. The physico-chemical properties of the polymer solutions were studied by employing Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), measurement of viscosities at different pH values and surface tension measurements. Micellar characteristics of the polymer solutions were also investigated by employing fluorescence using pyrene as a fluorescence probe. Thermal investigations including Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to assess the thermal stability of the prepared polymers, as well as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), for monitoring heat effects associated with phase transitions, were also used. Higgins and Kraemer plots for the polymers investigated yielded non-linear relationships, with inherent and reduced viscosities increasing at lower polymer concentrations, rendering it impossible for determining the intrinsic viscosity by the extrapolation method. This behaviour was explained by the adsorption of the polymer chains onto the surface of the capillary and/or that the polymer chains are behaving like rigid rods rather than coils in this concentration regime. The polymers were found to be non-surface active as indicated by the surface tension measurements. Although polymer molecules were not adsorbed at the air/water interface, micelles were formed in the bulk solution as indicated by the fluorescence probe. This phenomenon was explained by the image charge theory. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated the presence of many thermal decomposition events some of which were overlapping. Polymers investigated were completely thermally degraded at nearly 450 0C. DSC graphs could not be used for determining the glass transition temperature, Tg.

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Abstract no. 531: Effects of recycled minerals (rockdust) and green compost on degraded soil. Alsukaibi, A. K. D.1; Flowers, T. H. ; Pulford, I.D. University of Glasgow, School of Chemistry A field trial was set up to examine the use of PAS 100 compost derived from greenwaste with or without additional recycled minerals (rockdust) for the redevelopment of degraded land. The site was a restoration area on the fringe of an operational landfill. Six treatments were applied in a three replicate randomized block design and the control was the original soil with no treatment. The top soil was a light covering of very stony clay with some recovered local material over compacted heavy clay. The treatments were rockdust1, rockdust 2, compost, compost with rockdust1, compost with rockdust 2 and control. Native shrub species were planted. After 3 years the 18 plots were sampled by taking 4 replicate samples for each plot using a stainless steel corer with an internal diameter of approximately 8 cm capable of holding a 50 cm length removable plastic core sleeve. The top 10 cm was used in experiments. The samples were sieved through a 4 mm sieve and stored at 4째 C in the cold room for analysis. The aim of this study was to measure biological nutrient cycling to assess the development of the soil ecosystem 3 years after treatment. The biological measures used were carbon mineralization, soil enzymes activities (phosphatase and sulphatase), nitrogen mineralization and potential nitrification rate. Carbon mineralization was measured as total CO2-C evolved weekly over 16 weeks of incubation. The samples were incubated at -0.5 bar soil water potential and 15째C. Nitrogen mineralization was measured as the inorganic ammonium plus nitrate produced weekly. Potential nitrification was measured as the rate of disappearance of added ammonium. The data indicate that relative to the control there were improvements with use of compost alone or compost with rockdust, the effects of rockdust alone were less clear.

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Abstract no. 532: The development of a new scale of fatigue Abdulaziz Al Salman , Dominic Micklewright University of Essex, UK, University of Dammam, KSA Introduction: This abstract outlines the preliminary work and series of studies that have been conducted to develop a Rating of Fatigue scale (ROF). A literature review revealed that perceived exertion scales, and numerous studies based upon such measurements, have been used to draw conclusions about fatigue. There is very little recognition in the literature either that the concepts of ‗exertion‘ and ‗fatigue‘ differ, or of the validity problems associated with using perceived exertion scales to investigate fatigue. Affective states and associative-dissociative cognitive orientations are known to influence the way internal physiological sensations are perceived. The purpose of this study is to develop a new scale of perceived fatigue that can distinguish between the physiological, affective and cognitive antecedents. Face Validity: After the preliminary design of the ROF two studies have been conducted to test its validity. The first study tested the face validity of the ROF scale that was established by interviewing 90 sports science academics, postgraduate research students and undergraduate students. In this study questions about the ROF were pitched before and after showing the participants ROF instructions. Generally, the ROF exhibited high levels of face validity. Construct and Concurrent Validity: In the second study ROF scores for 15 healthy participants were compared against various physiological and psychological measures during a graded cycling test. Concurrent validity was indicated by significant correlations between the ROF scale and oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate concentration (BLc) responses. Construct validity was indicated by significant correlations between the ROF scale and RPE (6–20). Discussion: Although the ROF exhibited good levels of face, concurrent and construct validity there is still a need to establish discriminate validity from RPE. During physical activity RPE and ROF are expected to co-vary but during rest should discriminate from one another, which I intend to show from data that I have already collected. The ROF also assumes that the pictorial, numeric and descriptive components for each discrete point are valid. The next stage of the research will be to test this assumption and if necessary revise the scale.

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Abstract no. 540: International Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia: Risk Management Practical Factors for Public Private Partnership Projects Saud Al-Otaibi, Stephen O. Ogunlana and Graeme Bowles School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University As a part of the PhD research entitle: International Contractors' Decision to Invest: The Strategic Risk Management Decision Model for Public Private Partnership Projects, this poster presents the findings of one of the data collection stages conducted by the PhD candidate; and can be described as the following: 1- Findings of twelve qualitative interviews conducted in the Saudi construction industry, 2- The interviews conducted to collect practical factors that could enhance the successful project selection with the following: Decision makers, Financial Managers, and Project Managers. 3- The interviews were conducted with both local and international construction experts, and 4- These interviews were conducted with respondents from both public and private sectors. Findings supports factors gathered from the relevant literature, and will help developing the initial model into an advanced level.

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Abstract no. 700: Calcium polysulphide- a novel ameliorant for the sustainable treatment of PTE contaminated soils and wastes S.M Dehlawi & G.I.Paton School of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Aberdeen, Scotland Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are ubiquitous, derived both from point source and diffuse pollution. Soils, wastes and dredging are commonly repositories for these pollutants that can have both direct and indirect effects on human, ecological and water systems. Treatment of such PTE contaminated matrices is controversial because removal is too costly and unsustainable. Allowing the PTEs to remain in the matrix (a more suitable cost/ benefit approach) while credible requires confidence from stakeholders and regulators that the process is developed from sound foundations. Calcium polysulphide (a highly reducing ameliorant) (CaSx) has been used to reduce hexavalent Cr to the less toxic trivalent form. This project has initially worked in this key process and then extended the performance of CaSx to a wide range of PTEs with a very high level of success. Initial work in laboratory studies revealed that concentration of up to 1000 mg/l of Cu and Zn could be reduced to environmental standards with modest does of CaSx. Some elements such as As and Sb were less easy to complex. Once the process was established in waters this was translated to a wide range of soils and wastes. Once again waste acceptance criteria (WAC) were met even with modest CaSx dosing. During this stage both laboratory amended and historically contaminated matrices were used and there was strong homology between the results. Key to the successful deployment of CaSx is an understanding of the concentration of the PTE, a measurement of the pH value (matrix and solution) and a quantification of potentially competing ions. Equilibration takes a few hours in soils as there are both reductive processes and stages of hydroxylation caused by the ameliorant. The sorptive and desorptive response of this ameliorant makes it an ideal candidate for the treatment of solid and solution borne PTEs. Resistance of the wider use of CaSx in the commercial community is probably founded on poor scientific judgement rather than valid reasons but the final stage of this project will field test genuine sites and evaluate the performance of CaSx relative to other techniques through integrating empirical science data with cost/ benefit analysis. The final step involved toxicity assessment of the treated water by using luminescence-based biosensor, E.coli HB101, which reflected that the residual aqueous concentration had relatively low bioavailability. Hence, the biosensor was an excellent complementary tool to the chemical analysis pg. 256


Abstract no.701: The role of Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-2 in immune function Thikryat Neamatallah, Robin Plevin University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-2 (MKP-2) is a type 1 nuclear dual specific phosphatase (DUSP4) and an important negative regulator of the inflammatory response. It deactivates the MAP kinase pathway to influence pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production ( Al-Mutairi, M. S., et al. 2010). In this current study we found the proliferation rates of bone marrow macrophages derived from MKP-2 knockout mice were significantly reduced when compared to wild type cells. However, a similar pattern was observed in the expression of macrophages surface markers (CD14, CD11b, MHC-II & F4/80) at 5, 7 and 10 days of differentiation. We further examined the role of MAP kinase phosphatase-2 (MKP-2) in the regulation of macrophage innate, classical and alternative immune responses. We conducted genome-wide expression profiling experiments using microarray of LPS-, IL-4 and IFN-Îł stimulated macrophages taken from MKP-2-null and wild-type mice. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes such as IL-6, IL-12, TNFÎą and the inflammatory proteins such as iNOS, nitric oxide was MKP-2 dependent. These expression profiling studies establish that MKP-2 is an essential regulator of macrophage responses to these agonists and suggest that MKP-2 plays a functional role in immune responses in these cells.

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Abstract no. 711: Intra rater reliabilityof joint angles of the lower limb during stance phase of gait in healthy subjects using siliconCOACH. Salem Alatawi Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Tabuk University, Saudi Arabia. Objective: Measurements of human movement and gait analysis have less popularity in the clinical practice, therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the intra-rater reliability, within day and between days, of SiliconCOACH in measuring hip, knee, and ankle joint angles at initial contact(IC), loading response(LR) and toe off (TO) phases during walking. Methodology: Twenty healthy subjects were asked to walk along a 10meter walkway at their self-selected speed . A digital video-camera was placed 5 meters away on a tripod perpendicular to the walkway. Retro-reflective markers were placed on the subject's right-side lower limb. The video-recording was imported into SiliconCOACH professional movement-analysis software to calculate the hip, knee and ankle angles during initial contact (IC) , loading response (LR) and toe off (TO) phases. Result: ICC's, SEMs and 95% limits of agreements (LOA) for the hip, knee and ankle joint angles respectively calculated during the three phases of stance. The ICCs were all above 0.85 indicating excellent reliability. The SEM scores were small and varied from 0.13˚to 1.82˚. The 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were between + 5.90º and – 4.10º Conclusion: SiliconCOACH has been shown to be a reliable measure of the hip, knee and ankle joint angles. It is relatively inexpensive, non-invasive and straightforward to use in clinical settings.

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Poster: Health & Social Studies

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Abstract no. 27: Exploring the Influence of Time-Activity Patterns on Personal Exposure to PM2.5 in different microenvironments in Al Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia Mr Salem AlBalawi, Prof. Tanja Pless-Mulloli, Dr. Anil Namdeo & Dr. Susan Hodgson Institute of Health & Society, Medical School, Newcastle University Transport Operations Research Group, Newcastle University MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College There is robust scientific evidence showing that exposure to air pollutants is associated with both acute and chronic health effects (WHO, 2008). There is evidence that exposure to air pollution can aggravate symptoms in asthmatic patients. Some of these studies have evaluated the short-term effects of particulate matter on asthma attacks and emergency department visits. Many epidemiological studies have used outdoor concentrations of air pollutants as a surrogate for human exposure (Avery et al., 2010). A common feature of such studies is their reliance on ambient fixedâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;site measurement stations. . In recent years the technology has improved in that personal monitoring to cover both indoor and outdoor environments in detail have become available. Little is known about the relationship between personal or indoor and outdoor air pollutants concentrations in developing countries, especially in the Middle East countries. To the best of our knowledge, no study of this kind has been conducted in an industrial city in Saudi Arabia. This study will investigate the association between exposure to air pollution and asthma hospital visits and identify factors that influence personal exposure in Al Jubail Industrial City. Such a study will fill important gaps in our understanding of the influence of time activity patterns and microenvironments on personal exposure in this setting.

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Abstract no. 145: Past trends and future impact of type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia Abdulkareem J. Al-Quwaidhi, Mark S. Pearce, Eugene Sobngwi, Julia A. Critchley, Martin O‘Flaherty Newcastle University, UK Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases in the world. It imposes significant burdens on the national health care systems and the quality of lives of patients. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) faces one of the highest prevalence rates of T2DM in the world. It was ranked by the International Diabetes Federation to have the sixth highest prevalence globally. This project aims to study the trends in T2DM prevalence in KSA, to forecast its future levels, and to quantify the impact of reducing some risk factors in preventing the disease and its serious complications. Methods: This project utilises ‗epidemiological modelling‘ as a logical analytical framework, through using the existing ―IMPACT Diabetes Forecast Model‖ which has been previously used and validated in England and four countries in the Middle East. The model integrates population, obesity and smoking trends to estimate future diabetes prevalence using a Markov approach. Model parameters were obtained from different sources, including local departments, medical literature and assumptions. The model results were validated against local data from the STEPWISE survey in 2005, where the model produced reasonably close results to this survey. Results: The estimated prevalence of T2DM among Saudi population aged 25+ years was 9.6% in 1992 (7.8%-11.6%), increasing to 29.6% (11.8%16.4%) in 2012, and predicted to increase to 38.8% by 2022 if the trends in obesity and smoking continue to rise. Prevalence in men changed from 9.8% to 37.6 % and from 9.4% to 39.6% in women between 1992 and 2022. Comparisons of the model results with the observed prevalence in the STEPWISE Survey (2005) showed a close fit, with a prevalence of 19.2% by the survey compared to 22.0% by the model. If trends in obesity start to decline by 10% in 20 years, a reduction of 6% in diabetes prevalence could be achieved. Conclusions: The burden of T2DM is now a significant public health challenge in KSA, and the model predicts that its burden will increase significantly in the next decade. Tackling obesity can result in reduction of the disease prevalence, and therefore should be an urgent action.

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Abstract no.170: A Perception Assessment Survey of Water Pipe Smoking Among Students In Manchester and A Review of Its Health Impacts Sultan Abdulelah Kotby School of Environment and Life Sciences University Of Salford The main objective of the study was to collect data in form of a survey, which provided a perception on the awareness of water pipe smoking amongst students of Manchester universities. As well as reviewing water pipe health, environment impacts and government policies, also reviewing water pipe smoking with comparison to cigarette smoking. Some researchers claim that the longer the duration of a water pipe session the more you are exposed to heavier yield of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Therefore one session is equal to 100 cigarettes or more, which leads to cancer. Other researchers criticise the methodology used and all evidence is based on one measurement source. The study took place in Greater Manchester assessing students from Salford University, Manchester University and Manchester Metropolitan University.Where questionnaires were distributed out to students. 300 quantitative questionnaires were given out to universities in Greater Manchester area, only 203 were returned, 15 did not know the concept of water pipe, 188 was the total number of candidates valid to assess. Results shows 45% of all candidates believe that water pipe is more harmful than cigarettes. The majority of students responded, that neither a good brand of charcoals nor tobacco can reduce the harm of water pipe smoking. 74% of respondents believe it is harmful to share a water pipe. 80% of candidates believed water pipe smoking makes the human body more susceptible to cancer. Health impact from Water pipe smoking urges to conduct clear clinical trials which have standardised methodology and longitudinal research evidence. Also triangulation is suggested to cross check the reliability and validity of findings. It is recommended to get permission to create awareness campaigns in schools and universities to spread information on water pipe smoking health facts and effects.

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Abstract no. 234: Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Gene Program in Human White Adipocyte Manal A. Malibary and Michael Lomax University of Nottingham Recent research has proposed that the changes in energy homeostasis which lead to the development of obesity are dependent on the balance between white and brown adipose tissue in the body. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy in the form of triacylglycerols and brown adipose tissue (BAT) expends energy due to the function of the BAT-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The conversion of WAT to BAT has been demonstrated in rodents so remodeling of WAT to BAT in human offers a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of UCP1 is under the complex control of a number of regulatory signals including cAMP, PPAR agonists, RXR agonists, thyroid hormones, insulin and glucocorticoids. The aim of this study is to establish whether combinatorial regulation is the key to unlocking the brown adipogenic gene expression programme in white adipocytes. Results indicated that RXR agonist, PPARgamma agonist and cAMP agonist act synergistically to induce mouse and human UCP1 expression in mouse cell lines. Future studies will evaluate the relevance of these studies to converting human white to brown adipocytes by using the human white preadipocyte cell line, to establish the optimum combination of brown adipogenic signals and confirming important results using human primary white adipocytes.

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Abstract no. 342: Nurse and Pharmacist Prescribing in Diabetes Careâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; A Systematic Review of the Literature Mohammed Abutaleb, Douglas Steinke, Steve Williams, Mary Tully School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Manchester Introduction: The development of non-medical prescribing (NMP) in the UK was part of the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s modernisation agenda for the health service (1). The agenda was designed to increase accessibility, choice and the quality of patient care by utilising the skills of different healthcare workers. At the time, there was a discernible shortage of doctors on the one hand, and an excess in the number, age and prevalence of co-morbidities amongst the population on the other (2). This abstract aims to present results of a thematic review of the current literature on nurse and pharmacist prescribing in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus. Method: Relevant literature has been sourced electronically using different databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, The British Nursing Index and Archive and International Pharmaceutical Abstract. Database searches focused literature published between Jan 1990 and Dec 2011. The websites of specific journals, such as the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, Australian Pharmacist, Pharmaceutical Journal, Nursing Times and Nurse Prescriber, have been used to find references cited in articles (mainly review articles). Furthermore, the websites of the UK Department of Health, the National Prescribing Centre and the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency have been used to find related grey reports. Specific keywords and MeSH terms used likened with certain Boolean operators. Results: Publications related to the management of diabetes mellitus by NMP worldwide were 38 and 29 for nurse and pharmacists interventions, respectively. Different models of prescribing found used by non-medical prescribers: guideline or protocol dependent, supplementary, and independent prescribing. The latter is most prevalent among most European countries than in the US. Evidence shows that NMP is operating safely and prescribing is clinically appropriate. It also indicates that overall patients are satisfied with their experience of nurse and pharmacist prescribing. Outcomes research showed NMP are non inferior to doctors in the management of hypertension and dyslipideamia in diabetic patients. Conclusion: Research focusing on glycaemic control as a primary clinical outcome in this area is still limited scarce.

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Absyract no.374: Transvaginal Ultrasound Simulation Training: Testing for Skill Acquisition and Retention Amal M Alsalamah, Pugh N, Amso N Cardiff University, School of Medicine Simulation training in transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) leads to skill acquisition and opens up a new era for learning ultrasound skills. The limited opportunities of training offered to trainees lead to gaining insufficient practice in scanning. Several studies have suggested that simulation training provides facilities to trainees to practice and learn freely [1][2][3]. Recently, new devices have become available to enhance ultrasound training, ranging from ‗physical‘ foetal or gynaecological mannequins to the virtual reality computer-based ultrasound simulator (ScanTrainer, MedaPhor Ltd., Cardiff, UK) developed at Cardiff [4]. This Ultrasound Simulator aims to shorten the length of training time through a series of simulation tutorials encompassing a number of objectives, tasks and assessments with computer-generated individualised trainee feedback. Objectives : (1) Determine the changes found in a trainee‘s learning curves using (i) structured simulation support training and (ii) conventional training alone, by continuous evaluation of ultrasound skills and trainee competency. (2) Monitor the trainee‘s engagement with the simulator during the interval. Materials and methods : The study is designed as a randomised controlled trial. 31 subjects were randomly allocated into control and intervention groups. Subjects were novices and recruited primarily from specialist trainees in Obstetrics & Gynaecology in the Welsh Deanery. Subjects underwent a 6 months assessment consisting of 9 core skills of 3 modules (Gyn1 – anteverted uterus, Gyn2 – retroverted uterus and Obs – early pregnancy). Each subject underwent baseline and regular skill evaluation each month. During the trial, the intervention group received structured self-directed simulation training while the control group were allowed to access (un-assessed practice) modules on the simulator with no feedback/review provided. Both groups were permitted to receive conventional training in the normal way. A skill checklist was used to test and evaluate each subject‘s performance. Task completion time was measured. Results: Comparison of baseline and end trial evaluation values revealed a significant learning outcome in both groups (p<0.001). In the intervention group, skill retention testing found significant improvement in skill level values when compared to the previous (month) value. In the control group, the difference between skill retention and monthly evaluation values varied depending on the quality and quantity of clinical training received during the interval.

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Conclusion: Basic TVUS skills can be learned successfully by novices using an ultrasound simulator. These skills cannot be retained without continuous training either by simulation or clinical practice. However, simulation training could offer opportunity for practice and repetition, which makes it more desirable.

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Abstract no. 397: The Potential of Using Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems for Flood Risk Management in Riyadh City - Saudi Arabia Ali Metab Alahmari Middlesex University - London Although Riyadh is located within an environment with dry climatic conditions - an arid region - and is associated with hot areas, and as rainfall is generally low, it has nevertheless been exposed to sudden flooding resulting from surface water pluvial flooding, especially during the years 988, 1996, 2002, 2008 and 2010. This has had an enormous impact, including the elimination of infrastructure, which has resulted in human, material, and economic losses. Additionally, significant impacts have been inflicted upon the environment, causing swamps and increasing rates of pollution. This study will therefore, explore the possible ways of solving this plague that has for a long time affected the economy in Riyadh. This study will also Attempt to present an in-depth examination of the integration between geographical, climatic and environmental information to evaluate the drainage system capacity. The study will use techniques such as GIS and stormwater modelling to help avoid further urban growth in areas that are at risk of flooding; as well as supporting decision makers in putting forward appropriate strategies for hazard management. In this study, geographic Information System will integrate hardware, software, and data for analyzing, capturing, displaying, and managing information, as well as process input data for use in other modeling programs. The study area will be analyzed and an understanding gained on the effect elements may affect the movement of water such as surface slope, the road network, land use, as well as the drainage network. The available SUDS device will be considered for each individual site from both hydraulic and environmental aspects.

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Abstract no.454: Medication Errors in the Middle East Countries Zayed Alsulami, Sharon Conroy, Imti Choonara Academic Division of Child Health, University of Nottingham, Objectives: To review studies of the incidence and types of medication errors in Middle East countries and to identify the main contributory factors involved. Methods: A systematic review of the literature related to medication errors in Middle East countries was conducted in October 2011 using the following databases: Embase, Medline, Pubmed, British Nursing Index and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature. The search strategy included all ages and languages. Inclusion criteria were that the studies assessed or discussed the incidence of medication errors and contributory factors to medication errors during the medication treatment process in adults or in children. Results: Forty-five studies from 10 of the 15 Middle East countries met the inclusion criteria. Twenty focused on prescribing errors, one assessed transcribing errors, 12 measured administration errors, and 12 were interventional studies. Dispensing and documentation errors were inadequately evaluated. Error rates varied from 7.1% to 90.5% for prescribing and from 9.4% to 80% for administration. The most common types of prescribing errors reported were incorrect dose with an incidence rate from 0.15% to 34.8% of prescriptions; wrong frequency and wrong strength. Computerised Physician Order Entry and clinical pharmacist input were the main interventions. Poor knowledge of medicines was identified as a contributory factor for errors by both doctors (prescribers) and nurses (administering drugs). Most studies did not assess the severity of the medication errors on the patients. Only nine (20%) studies were focused on medication errors in paediatric patients. Conclusion: Studies related to medication errors in the Middle East countries were few in number. High rates of medication errors were reported by including inappropriate prescribing and use of medications. Educational programmes on drug therapy for doctors and nurses are urgently needed.

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Abstract no. 541: Utility of a Medical Records Database for a Retrospective Comparative Effectiveness Research Mohammed Abutaleb Douglas Steinke, Mary Tully Medical records system offers a good opportunity for retrospective CER. Salford's diabetes centre is one of the secondary care diabetic centres equiped with high tech diabetes specility database. It has been used in research but no study looked to its quality control matters. This study aimed to observe how clinicians were using the database during their real life clinics. Researcher attended several clinics with different doctorâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s ranks as well as an independent nurse prescriber. Check list form was used. Results Although the database equipped with ICD system and other utilities that can lead to accurate data for secondary research, clinicians were using text method during their clinics. Laboratory results integrated with the hospital system, but some patients bring their results from the GP. Medicines information was available and good for research use. Secondary database in Salfordâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s royal trust diabetes centre is a good example for CER.

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Abstract no. 708: How are familial relationships changing between Saudi family members and what is the impact of the Internet? Maryam Alolayan, Jois Stansfield and Asiya Siddiquee Manchester Metropolitan University The global spread of technology, and, in particular, the Internet has had a major impact on how we communicate and the breadth and type of interactions. However, there are potential negative consequences too. Some of the concerns are about heavy usage and how this might lead individuals to neglect their social network leading to a problems forming and maintaining social relationships but so far studies on this topic remain inconclusive with researchers indicating very different findings. The second problem is that usage of the internet by young people in non-Western societies (traditional society) may increase the extent to which they absorb new social concepts, norms and that lead to inter-family conflicts and breaking up traditional social systems. This study seeks to explore both these issues and the empirical work has been conducted in Saudi Arabia and the participants were divided to two groups. One group consisted of 300 individuals aged from 18 to 28 and the participants were randomly selected from both undergraduate and school students from different high schools. The second group were drawn from the parents of the first group and aged 28 years and above. Preliminary results indicate that time spent on the Internet was not predictive of negative impact on individualsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; relationship with their family /society nor was it predictive of depression, anxiety, or social isolation. However, the questionnaire results indicate that there is relationship between gender, marital, and occupation with the number of hours per day they spend on the internet. At this stage the interviews are still being analysed.

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Poster: Medical Sciences

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Abstract no. 36: DNA-binding studies on T5 5â&#x20AC;&#x2122;flap endonuclease Faizah Ahmed AlMalki, Jing Zhang, Claudia S. Flemming, Svetlana E. Sedelnikova, Jon R Sayers and Peter J Artymiuk Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield In every living organism DNA plays a fundamental role in determining the structure and function of the cell because hereditary information is stored as the sequence of bases along the DNA molecule. To transfer the genetic information from one generation to another it is necessary to replicate DNA with high fidelity and with very few errors. In addition, if damage occurs there is a necessity that a repair system should be able to restore the integrity of the original sequence. 5 flap endonuclease (FEN-1) and 5'-3' exonuclease are a class of nucleolytic enzymes that play an important role in DNA replication and repair. Flap endonucleases have been identified in many organisms from different kingdoms such as eukaryotes, prokaryotes, archaea and in some viruses. Previous structural studies on wild-type T5 5`nuclease have revealed a specific structure known as a helical arch which forms a hole above the active site sufficiently large to accommodate single stranded but not double stranded DNA. However, it is not established whether the 5` flap of a DNA substrate actually threads through this hole or whether the arch collapses to form a clamp structure. For more than 14 years many attempts have been made to get a structure for T5FEN in a complex with DNA substrate. We will describe the results of crystallographic investigations on T5 endonuclease complexed with flap DNA that attempt to resolve these questions. This will provide a clearer view of the interactions between the enzyme and DNA substrate that may lead to a better understanding of FEN function.

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Abstract no. 44: FXR Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinases In Breast Cancer Noura Alasmael, Karen Swales, Nick Plant The University of Surrey Metastasis, the invasion and spread of cancer cell to distant sites, is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Metastasis involves degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), requiring matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In particular, MMP-2 and -9 expression correlate with poor breast cancer prognosis. MMP activity is regulated by the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Studies have shown that the nuclear receptor Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is involved in MMP and TIMP regulation in hepatic and vascular tissues and is highly expressed in breast cancer. So the aim of this project was to investigate whether FXR is a novel regulator of MMP-2 and -9 in breast cancer cells. Initially the cell viability of breast cancer cell lines MCF7 (Estrogen receptor positive) and MDA-MB-468 (Estrogen receptor negative) after treatment with FXR agonists chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and GW4064 were measured. FXR ligands decreased the cell viability in both cell lines and the effects were more significant in MDA-MB-468. The mRNA and protein levels of MMP-2 and -9 within cell lines did not change after FXR activation, when measured by real time PCR, Western blotting and ELISA. Interestingly, when the activity of the MMP-2 and -9 enzymes secreted into the culture media was measured using a fluorescent substrate; GW4064 increased MMP activity in a concentration dependant manner, whereas CDCA had no effect. To determine whether this was due to FXR regulation of TIMPs, their mRNA and protein expression was measured by real time PCR and ELISA. There was no effect of FXR ligands on TIMP-1 and -2 mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, FXR activation by GW4064 increases secreted MMP-2 and -9 activities in breast cancer cells but this effect is not via transcriptional regulation of the MMPs or their inhibitory factors TIMP-1 or -2.

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Abstract no. 72: High Throughput Characterization of Pharmaceutical Formulations Mohammed Al-Gahtani, Morgan Alexander, Jonathan Burley, Martyn Davies University of Nottingham

Introduction • High throughput characterization method helps to reduce the time and cost of the preclinical stage. • The aim here is to reduce the cost and the time of the pre-formulation stage by implementing microarray as a high throughput method which allow parallel analysis of the samples using nano-gram quantity. Method • Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) used as a pharmaceutical model. ASA was dissolved in distilled water (1mg/ml) and hydrolysed in different conditions. Results and Discussion • ASA spots printed on polystyrene slide was uniformed and consistent • TOF-SIMS analysis of hydrolysed ASA samples spots show relatively low or missing ASA characteristic peaks compared to the normal ASA . • Old ASA sample show mass peak pattern similar to the forced hydrolysed ASA . • TOF-SIMS images (Figure 5) give clear comparison between the normal and thehydrolysed ASA. Conclusion • Ink-jet printing is capable to print uniform ASA spots in microarray style. • TOF-SIMS is capable to analyse the minor quantity (10 ng/spot) and differentiate between the normal and hydrolysed ASA. • This method could be developed as a method to evaluate the stability of pharmaceutical formulations.

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Abstract no. 84: Monocyte subpopulations in pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia demonstrate a pro-inflammatory phenotype and upregulated expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 Ebtisam Alofi Medical school of University of Sheffield Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response (ESIR). We hypothesised that monocyte (Mo) subtypes in PE will demonstrate a pro-inflammatory phenotype, altered functional expression of Toll like receptors 2 and 4, dysangiogenesis, chemotaxis and migration dysfunction. Also we postulated that ESIR may be triggered by circulating endogenous ligand(s) of TLR2 and 4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from normal pregnant (NP, n=11), PE (n=16), and non pregnant (n=11) women. PBMCs were stained with antibodies to TLR2, TLR4, CD14, CD16, HLA-DR a MHC class II cell surface receptor, or isotypes. Also PBMCs were labelled by antibodies to Tie2 a receptor of angiopoietin, CCR2 a receptor of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, CCR5 a receptor of the macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1Îą) or isotypes. Then PBMCs were analysed by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of endogenous TLR4 ligandsheparan sulfate, hyaluronan, fibronectin, fibrinogen and High mobility group box-1(HMGB1) - were measured by ELISA. Mo was stimulated by LPS, peptidoglycan and endogenous ligands and cytokine levels measured by cytometric array. Compared to NP, the proportion of monocytes with the CD14+CD16+ phenotype was higher in PE (P<0.001) while CD14++CD16was lower, and TLR2 and 4 expressions were higher (P<0.001), and differed between monocyte subpopulations. Compared to NP, HLA-DR and Tie2 expression were lower in PE (P<0.01), CCR2 and 5 were higher (P<0.01). Plasma levels of heparan sulfate and fibronectin did not differ between study groups, but HMGB1 was higher in PE (P<0.05) whilst fibrinogen was significantly lower in PE compared to NP (P<0.05). In pre-eclampsia, stimulation of monocytes with peptidoglycan, E coli LPS and fibrinogen is associated with an exaggerated release of TNF-Îą and IL-6, consistent with ESIR. Upregulation of TLR-2 and 4 in Mo in PE suggests a role for these receptors in this condition. Furthermore downregulation of angiogenic (Tie 2) and upregulation of migration (CCR2 and 5) factors in Mo may participating in abnormal placentation and generalised vascular injury seen with preeclampsia.

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Abstract no. 95: DNA binding studies of fluorinated active compounds Mariam Mojally, Dr. George Weaver, Dr. Paul Lucas Department of chemistry, Loughborough University Um-alqura University, Saudi Arabia, Makah Fluorinated heterocyclic compounds have drug like properties and possess a valuable biological activity due to their rigid chemical structures and the high solubility profile. Novel fluorinated heterocyclic active compounds have been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of perfluorinated compounds such as pentafluoropyridine, hexafluorobenzene and pentafluorotoluene with carbazole or 1-bromo-2-naphthol. Their interaction with DNA was investigated by thermal melting studies via U.V. absorption at 260 nm using Calf thymus DNA double strand during gradual increasing in the temperature from 50 to 100 . 1-bromonaphth-2-yl tetrafluoropyrid-4-yl ether showed very high activity and bind to DNA more than other compounds possibly by intercalation.

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Abstract no. 101: Oxidative stress and DNA damage in cerebral white matter lesions Al-Mashhadi SA, Simpson JE, Heath PR, Dickman MJ, Ince PG, Wharton SB Department of Neuroscience, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering University of Sheffield Introduction: White matter lesions (WML), identified as hyperintensities on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the ageing brain, are linked to dementia and depression. Ischaemia, as well as other mechanisms, may contribute to their pathogenesis but the exact pathological role of these in WML remains poorly defined and the role of glial cell pathology remains unclear. Aims: The current study investigates the hypothesis that oxidative DNA damage contributes to the pathogenesis of WML and the surrounding WM through altered glial cells functioning. Materials and Methods: Expression of 8-hydroxy-2â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, was investigated in WML and control WM, both from cases with WML (referred to as lesional controls) and without WML derived from the MRC-Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Lesions were previously identified using post mortem MRI. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemisty and nuclear expression quantified as proportion of positive nuclei. Double staining was performed for GFAP, CD68 and oligodendrocyte specific protein to enable colocalisation of 8OHdG with markers of astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, respectively. Results: Extensive DNA oxidative damage was identified in all three groups of WM in multiple cell types. Both WML (p=0.007) and lesional control WM (p=0.011) showed significantly more 8-OHdG immunoreactive cells than control WM, whilst WML and lesional controls did not significantly differ (p=0.526). Other markers of DNA damage, including gamma histone H2AX (ÉŁ H2AX) and DNA dependant protein kinase (DNA-PK), showed a similar pattern of expression. Conclusion: Oxidised DNA is up regulated in ageing WM and may contribute to pathogenesis of WML. The similarity in the level of oxidative DNA damage in lesional control WM and WML suggests that oxidative damage is widespread and not confined to WML.

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Abstract no. 102: Investigating RNA editing in the pathogenesis of Motor neuron disease. khayria yassin alsomali University of sheffield Introduction: The susceptibility of motor neurones to injury in ALS may result from exocitoxicity and concomitant dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. This may result from AMPA receptors with an unedited GluR2 subunit channel, or a high expression of calcium, or its low expression of calciumâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;buffering proteins. Normally the mRNA for the GluR2 subunit is posttranscriptionally modified by the deaminating enzyme ADAR2 causing the resultant protein to create a calcium influx resistant pore in the AMPA receptor. However, it has been suggested that in the spinal motor neurones of sporadic ALS patients there is faulty editing of GluR2 leading to AMPA receptors that are open to calcium influx and excitotoxic cell death. Aims: The primary aim of the study is to investigate RNA editing in the pathogenesis of ALS disease. In particular differences between edited RNA levels of the AMPA receptor subtype GluR2 in healthy controls (nonneurological controls) compared to sALS and fALS patients in the spinal motor neurones. Methods: Laser capture microdissection to isolate motor neurons from human spinal cords sections of ALS patients and healthy subjects. Total RNA extraction and cDNA preparation followed by amplification of cDNA by PCR specific for the GluR2 subunit. The PCR products are digested with the restriction enzyme BseXI to differentiate edited from non- edited GluR2. These digested products are examined on an agarose gel and quanitified using the Agilent Bioanalyser. Results: Control cases have edited GluR2 and ALS cases have low levels of unedited GluR2 receptor subunit. Conclusion: Faulty GluR2 editing leads to ALS.

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Abstract no. 103: Characterization and mapping of FB148.5 mutant zebrafish Nimah Alsomali, Vincent Cunliffe, Andy Grierson & Jon Wood Sheffield Institute of Translational Neuroscience (SITraN) Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately 0.5 to 1 % of the worldwide population. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is one of the most widely studied SZ-susceptibility genes. We are using the zebrafish embryo to study the functions of disc1 in brain development. We identified an uncharacterized mutant (FB148.5) that showed very similar morphological defects to those seen in the disc1 morpholino mutants (morphants). Therefore, we hypothesize that the gene mutated in FB148.5 is functionally related to disc1 and may be of relevance to psychiatric disease. Methods : 1. I performed a detailed phenotypic characterisation of CNS development in FB148.5 mutants using whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH ). 2. I out-crossed FB148.5 onto the polymorphic wild-type WIK strain for two generations to identify the mutated gene. Results: Our preliminary phenotypic characterization of FB148.5 mutantâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s zebrafish showed a number of neurological abnormalities. I found that the mutated gene is located at linkage group 8.

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Abstract no. 108: The Weight Status of Saudi Adolescent Girls Using the 2007 Who Reference Data Elham Al-Jaaly Centre for International Health and Development, ICH, UCL Background and Aims: Adolescent females within the age range of 10-14 years old comprise 13% of the Saudi total population and 11% female within the age range of 15-19 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended â&#x20AC;&#x2014;BMI-for-age to complement height-for-age in the assessment of thinness, overweight and obesity in school-aged children and adolescentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; and growth charts for 5-19 years was developed by WHO in 2007. There are growing concerns about increasing levels of obesity in adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi adolescent girls was estimated as 19.4%, compared to the boys (16.5%) with an obvious increase in less than two decades. The objective of the study was to quantify the prevalence of weight status in adolescent girls in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia based on three categories: underweight, overweight and obesity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey included 1519 schoolgirls aged 13 to 18. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, and BMI. All individual data for BMI were converted into standard deviation scores (SDS) relative to the WHO 2007 using LMSgrowth programme. Weight categories were defined in terms of percentiles using the WHO 2007 guidelines for BMI classification by age and gender 2

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Abstract no. 110: HOXD10 participates in the pathogenesis of head & neck and lung cancers Fahad Hakami, Daniel Lambert, Penella Woll, Keith Hunter Unit of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Clinical Dentistry, Department of Oncology, Medical School, University of Sheffield Background: Genetic alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head & neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) are highly variable and are to some extent correlated with the site and stage of the cancer. Microarray analysis of HNSCC compared with normal mucosa revealed changes in the expression of a number of HOX genes, particularly HOXD10. HOXD10 expression is altered in a number of cancers and found to interact with a variety of important molecules. Results: qPCR and immunohistochemistry analysis showed very low HOXD10 level in normal cells; variable in precancerous cells; high in most primary tumours; but low in cells derived from lymph node metastases. Transfection of HOXD10 into low-HOXD10 expressing cells increased their proliferation, adhesion to fibronectin, and migration while silencing it in highHOXD10 expressing cells showed a reverse effect. Conclusion: The results suggest that the low expression of HOXD10 might be important in allowing primary tumours to metastasize while its overexpression is inducing cancer cells to grow.

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Abstract no. 113: Use of Nutritional biomarkers in blood lipids profile and cardiovascular disease Hend Faisal Alharbi Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health condition that can be explored by examining nutritional biomarkers. To help to assess CVD in its early stages, and anticipate problems, the amount of lipids in the body can be measured by conducting a blood test. Aims: Lipid profiling is typically done to ensure that a person has safe nutritional habits. This study will evaluate and validate the results from different types of lipid profiles, and examine the relationship between the results and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the poster is to illustrate in brief current research investigating the biomarkers of lipid profiles. Methods: A variety of methods have been developed and introduced to measure lipid profiles by performing simple blood tests. A lipid profile is a group of biochemical tests that measures TC, HDL, LDL, and TG. Studies have found that different lipid biomarkers can be used to either predict or assess the risk of cardiovascular disease. Result: A number of studies reveal that lipid levels can affect CVD. Some studies also demonstrate that a new technology designed to measure HDL function, called Cholesterol efflux capacity, is more associated with the protection afforded against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels. It has also been shown that different biomarker results can be used to predict CVD, and that individuals can decrease their risk of CVD by changing their diets and increasing their levels of physical activity. Conclusion: Current evidence shows that lipid biomarkers are a useful tool in predicting and assessing the risk factors associated with coronary and CVD. The discovery of new biomarkers relating to nutritional intake is critical for our continuing progress. It is also important to emphasise that people with higher energy expenditures due to exercise show a better lipid profile than those with sedentary life styles. There is, therefore, a need to understand the biomarkers that are closely related to our nutritional intake, to formulate recommendations regarding the manoeuvring of that intake. KEY WORDS: lipid profile, HDL, LDL, TG, and CVD.

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Abstract no. 116: Regulation of protein aggregation by Arfaptin 2 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Aida Mohammedeid, Ke Ning The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Rationale & Hypothesis: Previous studies showed that modulation of arfaptin 2 has a neuroprotective property that maintains the proteasome activity and induces degradation of misfolded proteins (Rangone, 2005; Peters, 2002). We therefore hypothesise that dominant negative form of arfaptin2 could control protein aggregation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) via maintaining the proteasomal pathway, which in turn would decrease neuron toxicity and improve neuronal survival. Objectives: To investigate the effect of Arfaptin-2-mediated regulation of protein aggregation in wild-type and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1G93A) in NSC34 cells and primary motor neuron (MN) culture. To assess whether Arfaptin-2 is involved in TDP-43 protein aggregation in NSC34 cells and primary MNs of SOD1G93A mouse embryos. Methodology: NSC34 cells or primary motor neurons (MNs) from mouse embryos (E13) were cultured and transfected with Arfaptin-2, C-terminal arfaptin-2 or TDP-43 plasmid DNA. Oxidative stress was applied by treatment with 10mM H2O2 for 1 hour. The cells were treated with Propidium iodide labelin for survival assay. Cells were fixed and stained by immunostaining using antibodies against arfaptin 2 and TDP43. Findings: Full-length arfaptin2 over-expression induces protein aggregates formation in NSC34 cells and MNs. On the other hand, a dominant negative form of arfaptin 2 (half-C arfaptin-2) over-expression decreases protein aggregation in NSC34 cells and MNs. The formation of protein aggregates in MNs was neurotoxic rather than neuroprotective. A dominant negative form of arfaptin 2 enhances survival of cells over-expressing SOD1G93A and TDP43.

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Abstract no. 119: Deep sequencing of hypoxic breast cancer reveals deregulation of non-coding RNAs, non ploy-A RNAs and natural anti-sense transcripts Hani Choudhry, Carme Camps, Johannes Schรถdel, Spyros Oikonomopoulos, Laura Winchester, Francesca Buffa, Daniela Moralli, Emanuela Volpi, Peter J. Ratcliffe, Adrian Harris, David R. Mole, Jiannis Ragoussis The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford Henry Wellcome Building for Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford Medical Oncology Department, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford Hypoxia is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the hypoxia transcription landscape, PolII activity and histone markers (H3K4me3 and H3K4me1) of breast cancer cell line [MCF-7] grown in hypoxia and normoxia using next generation of ribo- depleted RNA, mRNA, small RNA and ChIP sequencing. We found that about 7.3% of annotated genome is differentially expressed in hypoxic stress, which includes 1138 up regulated and 240 down regulated genes (fold >1.5). Bioinformatic analysis revealed deregulation of a range of non coding transcripts including piwiRNA, microRNA, sn/snoRNA, long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), and natural anti-sense transcripts (NATs) under hypoxia. To define which hypoxic altered genes are dependent on, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), we suppressed HIF-alpha subunits in hypoxic MFC-7 cells using siRNA and subjected them to mRNAseq. We identified a substantial number of HIF dependent transcripts (n=59) that were not reported before as hypoxia regulated genes. The differential expression of selected regulatory transcripts, including lncRNAs, NATs and non poly-A mRNA, were validated in panel of hypoxic breast cancer cell lines. We characterized two significant up regulated NATs (aSPAG4 and aCELSR2) in hypoxia and found that these transcripts are long (>200bp), localized in nucleus, and HIF dependent. A number (42) of novel un-annotated hypoxia induced transcripts were also detected in hypoxic MCF-7 cells. The presence of active histone markers (H3k4me3 and H3Kme1) at TSS of NATs and novel transcripts validates these findings Moreover, small RNA-seq revealed differentially expressed miRNAs showing both direct regulations. Through HIF or through post transcriptional mechanisms. Four lnc-RNAs and one non polyA mRNA were analysed further using a collection of 148 breast tumors and found to be associated with clinicopathological parameters. These findings will open new avenues in our efforts to understand hypoxia transcriptional regulation and finding novel pathways to develop therapies for breast cancer.

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Abstract no. 136: Characteristics of RNFL thickness attenuation of both VAVFL and non VAVFL Saleh Aljarudi & John Wild School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK Background: Vigabatrin (VGB), the antiepileptic drug has been associated with retinal toxicity as VAVFL, The Optical Coherence Tomography OCT may be a good bio-marker of identifying the retinal toxicity. Methods: 66 consecutive patients, treated with vigabatrin for epilepsy, underwent OCT exam using the standard Stratus OCT. Measurement value were compared with the expected normal value. Scans considered abnormal if they are beyond 5% and/or 1% prediction. Findings: 49 patients showed VAVFL. The global RNFL thicknesses of right, mean 68.28(um) SD (12), and for left eye, mean 65.98(um) SD 11.83. And 17 patients showed no VAVFL. The global RNFL thickness of right eye mean 82.32 (um) SD (11), and for left eye mean 79.20 (um) SD 11. Interpretation: OCT measurement of the VAVFL provides robust and faster result. It gives precise measurement of the RNFL.

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Abstract no. 138: Medicinal Plants in the Holy Quran and their Therapeutic Benefits Abdulrahman E. Koshak, PharmD1 Abdulaziz A. Alfaleh, PharmD1 - Prof. Essam A. Abdel-Sattar2 - Prof. Emad A. Koshak3 1Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 2Department of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 3Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha Kingdome of Saudi Arabia Background: There are many plants with medicinal applications have been enumerated in the Holly Book of Muslims â&#x20AC;&#x2022;Quranâ&#x20AC;&#x2013;. This may point to their pharmaceutical importance in different illnesses either due to their nutritional or phytotherapeutical values. Objectives: Identification of the medicinal plants enumerated in the Quran and exploring their phytotherapeutical benefits. Methods: Searching the Quran for any enumeration of medicinal plants was conducted. Then, exploration for any documentation and publication of their therapeutical benefits was explored by searching scientific literatures and professional internet websites for well referenced publications. Results: At least nineteen medicinal plants have been identified in the Quran. They include: Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora L.), Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), Fig (Ficus carica L.), Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), Grape (Vitis vinifera L.), Garlic (Allium sativum L.), Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic), Olive (Olea europea L.), Onion (Allium cepa L.), Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla L.), Tooth-Brush Tree, Arak (Salvadora persica L.), Mustard (Brasica nigra L.), Acacia (Acacia spp.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), leek ( Allium Porrum L.), Cedrus (Zizyphus Spina-Christi L.). Five of these plants were selected because of having several therapeutical values proven in the medical literature. Recent publications on pomegranate revealed its benefits as hypotensive, hypolipidimic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and as cancer-preventive activities in prostate and breast cancers. Grapes and grape seeds showed hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer activities and of great benefits in cardiovascular problems. Several clinical studies proved the effectiveness of ginger in nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, vomiting in pregnancy, and motion sickness, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic activities. Clinical and animals studies proved the medicinal benefits of olive oil and leaves as hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, hypocholesterolemic, antiviral, antimicrobial and as immunostimulant. pg. 286


Conclusion: Searching Quran has identified at least nineteen medicinal plants. The Phytotherapeutical benefits of some of them were supported by numerous scientific publications, both traditional as well as evidence-based. In order to explore the therapeutical benefits of the other medicinal plants found in Quran further advanced research work is required.

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Abstract no. 150: Study of Community Pharmacists awareness and contributions to, the Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reporting systems in Makkah, Saudi Arabia Naif Alhazmi and Ian L. Naylor Aim: To evaluate the attitude and awareness of community pharmacists towards ADRs reported in Makkah in Saudi Arabia. Method: Face to face interviews were carried out on 170 community pharmacists. Ethical approval has given by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Makkah randomly selected from a membership listed. Results: The pharmacists interviewed were employed in small, medium and large private pharmaceutical establishments, with over the counter retail facilities. From the data collected found the majority of community pharmacists 76% (n=129) were continuing education (1-5) hours per month. However,86 % (n=146) were not aware of the ADR reporting program in Makkah. Similarly, 56% (n=95) of the respondents were not aware of the existence the Saudi Food and Drug authority (SFDA) and they were also unaware of the system of reporting ADRs through the appropriate channel and filling in the forms to report them. 88% (n=150) they did not use one of fundamental tools of ADR reporting which was accessing and using the internet in their workplace. 65% (n=110) of respondents considered the reporting of ADRs to be integral to this professional role as a pharmacist. Importantly, all community pharmacists decided to report ADRs in the future after the researcher explained to them the importance doing so. The main factors that discouraged ADR reporting were the lack of reporting forms being available, that it was time consuming, that they did not know how to report them and some commented on their indifference to the system. Conclusions: The Community pharmacists could play an important role in ensuring the use of safe medications in patients. To knowledge about the importance of reporting ADRs require more education and appropriate training courses.

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Abstract no. 155: Proteasome subunit concentrations in frontal cortex, anterior cingulate in Lewy body dementia Amani Alghamdi,1 Tibor Hortobágyi,2 Clive G. Ballard,1 David Howlett,1 Dag Aarsland,3 John O‘Brien,4 Johannes Attems4 & Paul T. Francis1 1 Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King‘s College London, 2 Institute of Psychiatry- King‘s College London, 3Centre for Age-Related Medicine and Dept of Geriatric Medicine Karolinska Institute, 4 Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University Lewy bodies are the major pathological feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and Parkinson‘s disease dementia (PDD) contains a core of aggregated α-synuclein, and number correlates with cognitive impairment in DLB and PDD. Failure of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the major non-lysosomal pathway for α-synuclein degradation, is thought to play a major role in the formation of Lewy bodies and the development of α-synuclein aggregates. In the present study, protein expression of component subunits of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) have been determined in frontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24) of DLB, PDD, Alzheimer‘s disease (AD) and matched controls. Clinical and pathological data were available for the cases studied, with regard to duration of dementia and Parkinsonism, MMSE score, CERAD plaque, Braak stage and α-synuclein score. In BA9, reductions in protein expression of an ATPase subunit (RPT6), which associates directly with the 20S proteasome and is thought to play multiple roles within the complex, were observed in all three groups, PDD, DLB and AD. The reduction in the ATPase subunit was associated with longer duration of dementia and was related to an increased tangle score, plaque score, Braak stages and CERAD score. There was a significant reduction in α6 level only in AD, but no differences in either DLB or PDD compared with the control. BA24 showed the same reduction in the protein expression (RPT6) but was only observed in the DLB and AD groups and was also associated with a longer duration of dementia. Expression of α-6 subunits was significantly increased in both PDD and DLB in comparison with the control and AD groups. The data demonstrated that the 20S proteasome α-3 subunits in the anterior cingulate significantly increased in DLB and AD compared with PDD but not the control group. These findings indicate the role of the proteasome in disease progression, possibly as a consequence of tau and beta amyloid formation. Proteasome activation may therefore have limited utility for the early treatment of AD pathology in LBD, but the approach may have benefits in slowing disease progression.

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Abstract no. 172: N-cadherin is an important mediator of interactions between myeloma cells and osteoblasts Osama Al-Amer1, Allan Williams1, Clive Buckle1, Colby Eaton1 and Peter Croucher1-2 1 Bone Biology Group, Mellanby Centre for Bone Research, Department of Human Metabolism, Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK 2 Osteoporosis and Bone Biology Programme, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia Introduction: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy that causes osteolytic bone disease. Present treatments target end stage disease. It is clear that myeloma cells form specific interactions with the bone microenvironment, where they can remain dormant and protected from current therapy to eventually proliferate and cause disease progression. N-cadherin is an adhesion molecule that allows haematopoetic stem cells (HSCs) to localize to ‗niches‘ containing osteoblasts on endosteal bone surfaces. In this study, we have hypothesis that myeloma cells utilise N-cadherin to adhere to osteoblasts and hijack the HSC niche. Methodology: Primary cultures of calvarial mouse pre-osteoblasts were differentiated to mature osteoblasts in osteogenic medium. 5T33 and 5TGM1 myeloma cells were co-cultured with osteoblasts and adhesion evaluated using immunofluorescent microscopy. RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to assess N-cadherin expression in osteoblasts and myeloma cells. Immunohistochemistry and gene array were used to evaluate N-cadherin distribution/expression in myeloma cells growing in a mouse model of myeloma. Findings: N-cadherin mRNA and protein were expressed by osteoblasts and myeloma cells. We showed focal expression of N-cadherin in less than 5% of myeloma cells, whereas expression was observed contiguously on the membranes of adjacent osteoblasts. N-cadherin expression significantly increased during osteoblastogenesis (p<0.05). Blocking N-cadherin mediated interactions, using specific antibodies raised against the ectodomain of Ncadherin, significantly reduced adherence of myeloma cells to osteoblasts in vitro (p<0.05). Gene array analyses showed significant increases in N-cadherin expression in the 5T33MM-bearing mice when compared to naïve mice not bearing tumour cells (p<0.05). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry demonstrated staining of N-cadherin when 5TGM1 cells were in contact with osteoblast in vivo. Conclusion: These studies provide evidence that adherence of myeloma cells to osteoblasts is mediated by N-cadherin in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that myeloma cells may occupy a niche similar to that used by HSCs in bone. pg. 290


Abstract no. 179: Studies on novel approaches to therapy for Hepatitis C virus Shihana Nasser Almatrrouk University of Manchester Worldwide 270 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) which is a leading cause of chronic liver inflammation. Over a period 15-40 years this is known to promote progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Unlike hepatitis B virus, there is no HCV vaccine and treatment for chronic HCV infection can often prove unsatisfactory. Clearly there is an urgent need for novel approaches to HCV therapy. There is evidence that some tumour viruses perturb gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between adjacent cells and it has been shown that experimentally induced suppression of GJIC between hepatocytes promotes the development of carcinogen-induced HCC. Thus far, there has been no work aimed at exploring the effects of HCV oncogenes on GJIC or the therapeutic potential of GJIC modifying compounds. In order to address these issues we have established cell lines which stably express the HCV Core protein using NIH3T3 cells and immortalised human hepatocytes. These cells systems will be used to evaluate the ability of various GJIC modifyinmg compounds to suppress cellular transformation produced as a result of ectopic expression the HCV Core protein. These experiments may indicate a novel approach to HCV therapy which aims to reduce the oncogenic potential of the virus.

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Abstract no. 180: Investigating the role of IREB2 genetic variants in susceptibility to COPD Aiman Abdulrahim Alsaegh, Tamar Guetta-Baranes, Noor Kalsheker, Sally Chappell Molecular Medical Science School, University of Nottingham The IREB2 gene encodes the iron-binding protein 2 (IRP2), which is a major regulator of iron homeostasis. Previously, we observed significant associations of seven IREB2 genetic variants with increased risk of COPD in a large case-control study. Subsequent in-silico analysis showed that two variants lie within the promoter (rs2656070), expected to disrupt the binding of transcription factor, and the 3â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;UTR (rs12899351) region of IREB2 gene which is a target site of micro RNAs mir-1285 and mir-5096, and may alter translation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the functional consequences of these variants on IREB2 expression. For the promoter SNP, a 413bp fragment was amplified and cloned from genomic DNA corresponding to homozygotes for each allele of rs2656070. The fragment were inserted upstream of the luciferase reporter gene in the pGL3-Basic vector and then transfected into the A549 cell line. Our results show a significant promoter activity equating to a mean 130-fold increase in reporter gene activation. There was no significant difference (p-value of 0.19) in the relative luciferase expression in A549 cells transiently transfected with rs2656070 wild type construct compared with the risk allele under basal conditions. Additional analysis will be undertaken to examine the effect of the SNP rs2656070 under conditions that are known to stimulate IREB2 expression. For the 3â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;UTR SNP, two fragments for the wild type and the risk allele of rs12899351 were cloned immediately downstream of the luciferase gene in pmirGLO vector. The constructs were transfected into HepG2 cells that are known to express mir1285. Our result showed that there is no difference in reporter gene expression from both wild type and mutant constructs. These findings indicate that the cloned sequence was not recognized by mir-1285. Additional analysis will be carried out to investigate the regulatory role of mir-5096 on IREB2 expression.

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Abstract no. 186: The role of Interleukin -1 (IL-1) signaling in the immune defense and for the development of T helper cells lineage Wesam H.Abdulaal, Werner Muller Immunology group, Faculty of life Sciences, the University of Manchester The interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokines are highly pro-inflammatory molecules. IL-1ι and IL-1β are the best two characterised IL-1 family members, both bind and activate the same receptor namely IL-1 receptor type-I (IL1-RI). The function of IL-1 signaling for particular cell types of the immune system is still unclear. In this project we will investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in haematopoietc cells and in T cells. For this, we will use genetically engineered mice harbouring a conditional IL1- RI fl / fl gene. Breeding regimens underway to create mice whereby the IL-1 receptor has been inactivated specifically in haematopoietic cells and T cells. These mice will then be challenged by parasites like T.muris. Following infection, the T helper cell (Th1, Th2 and Th17) response will be measured using a variety of standard approaches such as worm burden, antibody response, cytokine responses and pathology of the mice. From the current literature we expect that the IL-1 signalling is critical for Th17 responses and this should become obvious in the infection module chosen. The role of IL-1 signalling for Th1 and Th2 responses is currently unknown and will be interesting to study.

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Abstract no. 188: The toxicity effects of sub-lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells Ramya Sindi, Alan Hargreaves, Chris Lloyd Mills Nottingham Trent University Organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its metabolically activated form CPF-oxon are neurodevelopmental toxins, which can cause neurodegenerative effects in animals and humans. A previous study shows that at a sublethal concentration of 3ÎźM, both agents inhibit the differentiation of cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells, disrupting microtubules, neurofilaments and cell signaling pathways. The aim of this work was to relate the neurotoxic effects of these compounds on neurite outgrowth in pre-differentiated mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells to the levels of expression and activities of cytoskeletal proteins and axon growth-associated proteins. This was achieved by densitometric analysis of western blots of cells induced to differentiate for 20 hours followed by 4 or 8 hours exposure to the toxins. Our results revealed reduced levels of reactivity of lysates with anti-phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNFH) antibodies but no effect on anti total NFH. However, neither compound altered the activation status of signal-regulated protein kinase ERK 1/2, which is known to be important in neurite outgrowth and phosphorylation of NFH. These findings suggest that this reduction in pNFH is not related to altered ERK activity, but it could be due to the OP-induced dephosphorylation of NFH that mediated by protein phosphatases. CPO was also found to induce a transient reduction in growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) compared to controls following 4 hours exposure. These changes suggest that GAP-43 could significantly contribute on the morphological effects of CPO, since it plays an important role in axon outgrowth and maintenance. Although both agents are capable to inhibit the neurite outgrowth in predifferentiated N2a cell, further work will help to determine whether the reduced levels of pNFH can account for the phosphatase activity or other molecules involved.

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Abstract no. 199: Whole Blood Platelet Aggregation Measured by Single Platelet Counting Using A new Double Fixation Approach to Facilitate Remote Testing Mohammad Algahtani, Jane May, Ann White, Natalia Dovlatova, Andrew Johnson, Stan Heptinstall, and Sue Fox. Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Nottingham, Queenâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s Medical Centre Previously we have measured platelet aggregation in whole blood as fall in single platelet count using a whole blood platelet counter in samples fixed using a single fixation step which provided stability for up to 3 hours. We have more recently developed a flow cytometry technique to measure the fall in single platelet count and combined this with a new double fixation approach (fixing solution followed by a stabiliser solution) which stabilises single platelets/aggregates for up to 9 days thus facilitating remote aggregation testing (patent PCT/GB2009/050482). This study compared the accuracy of this double fix method utilising flow cytometry counting with our well-established method to measure aggregation. Platelet aggregation was measured in citrate anticoagulated blood from healthy volunteers who denied taking any antithrombotic drugs. Blood was stimulated using a range of concentrations of ADP, collagen and U46619 and stirred for 0.5, 1 and 4 min. Stimulated samples were a) double fixed and single platelets counted following labelling with CD42a-FITC using flow cytometry or b) single fixed using our older, established method and single platelets counted using the Ultra-Flo 100. Samples fixed using the double fix approach analysed at 1 to 3 days showed good correlation when re-analysed after storage for 6 to 9 days (y=0.9870x, r2=0.9824). Aggregation measured using the double fix method correlated well with the single fix method when tested in blood stimulated using a range of ADP, collagen and U46691 (y=1.0097x, 1.0128x, 1.0215x, r2=0.9649, 0.97606, 0.9799 respectively). Our study demonstrated that aggregation data obtained from samples fixed via the double fix method with flow cytometry platelet counting correlated with the established single fix Ultra-Flo 100 method. In addition, stored samples fixed using the double fix method were stable for up to 9 days, thus facilitating remote platelet aggregation testing.

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Abstract no.201: Study of the antimicrobial effects of epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechins of green tea on both biofilm and planktonic forms of staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA Fahd Alkhaleefah*and Christine Murphy Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Hull Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microorganism responsible for cases of skin and soft tissues infections. It also causes many systemic infections and is one of the most commonly encountered pathogens in infections related to healthcare settings. Resistance to conventional drugs is rapidly acquired by Staphylococcus aureus, especially strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus auerus (MRSA), vancomycin intermediate- Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). The study was conducted to assess the effects of two green tea polyphenolic catechin compounds, EGCG and EC, on 12 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (9 MRSA and 3 MSSA ―methicillin-sensetive Staphylococcus auerus”). After determination of the EGCG minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 12 conventional antimicrobial agents (penicillin,vancomycin,gentamicin, fusidic acid, clarithromycin, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, neomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim, tetracycline, and mupirocin) were tested for their effect on staphylococcal strains alone and in combination with the sub-MIC of EGCG. To study staphylococcal biofilm formation and resistance to EGCG, the Innovotech MBEC kit was used to form bacterial biofilm on pegs, which was then challenged with EGCG to test for its effects upon biofilm and planktonic bacterial forms. EGCG showed bactericidal effects against all the tested strains of staphylococci with its mean MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 350μg (range 30-40mg/ml). No antibacterial effects for EC were detected. There was positive synergy with penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin for most of the strains. Bacterial biofilm was also formed and EGCG affected bacteria within it, in the mean concentration of 45mg/ml. EGCG was shown to have an antibacterial effect upon both planktonic and biofilm staphylococci, and its use in sub-MIC concentrations augments the action of conventional antimicrobial agents.

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Abstract no. 209: Investigation of the ability of human T-cell Leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) to activate expression of human endogenous retroviruses Sultan Ayed Alqahtani University of Manchester, College of Medicine Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) like sequences represent approximately 8% of the human genome and elevated expression of HERV gene products has been observed in some leukaemias and multiple sclerosis (MS). HTLV1 causes adult-T-cell leukaemia and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) which is a neurodegenerate condition similar to MS. In view of these smilarities, it was decided to investigate a potential link between expression of the HTLV1 Tax oncogene and HERV genes. Expression of HERV W, K and E RNA and protein have been analysed in Jurkat T-cell leukaemia cells containing a CdCl2 inducible HTLV1 Tax (JPX9) and mutant Tax (JPX-M) expression plasmid. This showed that 10μM CdCl2 induced a rapid, transient increase in HERV W,K,E RNA at 8 hours in JPX9 and control Jurkat cells whereas this was not observed in the JPX-M cells which showed an increase in the HERV W,K,E mRNA at 20µM CdCl2 for 8 hrs and 10µM CdCl2 for 24hrs. No evidence of altered HERV W env protein expression was observed in these cells. The results indicate that CdCl2 may effect HERV-W, K and E env expression in Jurkat cells in general and that HTLV1 Tax may effect this. Further work will be aimed at analysing this effect in more detail. This raises the intriguing possibility that deregulated HERV expression could be involved in diseases associated with HTLV-1 infection.

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Abstract no. 214: A novel Role for the complement regulator CD46 in epithelial tight junction formation/regulation Samia AL-Shouli, John Cardone and Claudia Kemper School of Medicine , Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s College London University, Guyâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s and Sâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;t Thomas Hospital Background: The complement regulator CD46 has been shown to play a role in epithelial cell polarization and is overexpressed on epithelial tumor cells. It is clear that our understanding of the many functions of the complement system in health is growing but still not complete. It is therefore to be expected that complement will be connected in the future with additional human diseases. This research project focuses on just such a prediction: We have obtained data suggesting a novel role for CD46 in epithelial cell tight junction regulation and growth induction or restriction.These data suggest that complement may also play a previously unacknowledged role in another important human disease, colon cancer. Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the UK with a poor prognosis because of a high mortality and recurrence rate, thus, there is a need to develop better treatments. Methods: 1-Culture PTECS or Caco-2 cells for several days on 24 wellsplates to measure E-cadherin expression, CD46 expression, Cell-proliferation assessed and apoptosis induced in cells. 2Culture the human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECS) or the human intestinal cell line (Caco-2) for several days on transwells to measure Transepithelial resistance (TER) and Beads dextran. Results: we found that CD46 interacts with E-cadherin and SPAK, both vital proteins in the maintenance of epithelial cell layer integrity. Mutations in either protein cause colon cancer or IBD, respectively. Further, we observed that CD46 regulates tight junctions and by this transepithelial resistance and paracellular permeability. Based on these data we hypothesize that complement/CD46 communicates with the E-cadherin/catenin network in epithelial cells (via interaction/activation of SPAK) and contributes to normal epithelial cell barrier integrity. Further, defects in CD46-mediated signals leading to disturbance in its crosstalk with the E-cadherin/catenin network may be a factor in malignant transformation. Conclusion: our study was conducted to ascertain the biological properties of CD46 in a cell-cell adhesion network. We believe that this study helped to further solidify this idea and set the ground for more detailed future studies.

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Abstract no. 225: Expression of DNA Damage Repair Proteins in Breast Cancer Alaa T. Alshareeda, Ian O. Ellis, Andrew R. Green, Emad Rakha Department of Histopathology, University of Nottingham NHS Trust, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham Deficiencies in DNA-damage signalling and repair pathways play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of several human cancers including breast cancer. In sporadic breast cancer, it has been documented that oestrogen receptor negative (ER-) BC demonstrates dysfunction of BRCA1;a key marker of homologous recombination (HR) however; no BRCA1 gene mutation has been found in these tumours and the difference in the expression of DNA repair genes between ER- and ER+ is unknown. In this study, we have used a large (n=1661) and well-characterised series of stage I-III BC cases in addition to 25 with known BRCA1-germline mutation to assess the DNA repair defects. Biomarker characteristics of 2pathways were assessed, including BRCA1, RAD51 (HR) and KU70-KU80 (non-homologous end joining; NHEJ), using TMA and immunohistochemistry. Results: In the BRCA1-mutated tumours, expression of HR markers (BRCA1 and RAD51) was negative while the NHEJ marker KU70-KU80 was positive in all cases. In sporadic BC, nuclear BRCA1 expression (BRCA1n) showed a positive correlation with nuclear RAD51 (RAD51n) but a negative association with its cytoplasmic expression (RAD51c). There was a positive association between KU70-KU80 expression and RAD51n, RAD51c and BRCA1c. ER- tumours showed frequent loss of BRCA1n and RAD51n but increased cytoplasmic expression of both proteins. No difference in the expression of KU70-KU80 was identified between ER- and ER+ tumours. Expression of KU70-KU80 was associated with RAD51n and BRCA1c in the ER+ and with RAD51c in both ER+ and ER- tumours. In ERtumours, absent/reduced BRCA1n expression was associated with RAD51n but increased expression of RAD51c. Loss of expression of RAD51 and/or BRCA1 was independently associated with worse outcome in the whole series (P<0.001).Conclusion: Both HR and NHEJ mechanisms may have role in the development and progression of BC. Not only expression but also sub-cellular location of DNA repair proteins may play a role in BC. The significance of DNA repair defects in ER+ tumours needs further investigation.

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Abstract no. 231: The TNFR1-R92Q polymorphism and its relationship to cellular inflammation and systemic inflammatory diseases Wesam Abduljabbar, Ola Negm, Paul Radford, Sue Bainbridge, Colin Nicholson, Lucy Fairclough, Ian Todd and Paddy Tighe School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham Tumour necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a hereditary autoinflammatory periodic fever syndrome. It is associated with autosomal dominant variants in the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene, which encodes the tumour necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR1). More than 100 mutations have been identified in TNFRSF1A and around 80% of these mutations are associated with TRAPS. The missense (R92Q) polymorphism is the most common variant associated with TRAPS within the Caucasian population. In comparison with other variants, R92QTNFR1 is associated with a milder disease course and shorter episodes of fever. In addition, the prevalence of the R92Q polymorphism in the general population varies from 1-4%. The aim of this study is to comprehensively examine: the intracellular signaling pathways that are affected by the presence of the R92Q variant; the influence of R92Q on signaling homeostasis in the cell; and the cellular response to inflammatory stimuli in the presence of R92Q-TNFR1 in comparison to wild-type (WT) cells. The endothelial cell line (SK-Hep-1) was stably transfected with full length wild-type (WT) or R92Q TNFRSF1A. The cells were tested for expression of TNFR1 and TLRs. Reverse phase protein microarray was applied to examine different signaling molecules after stimulating the cells with diverse inflammatory stimuli. The results demonstrate that wide ranges of inflammation-associated pathways are disregulated in SKHep-1 cells expressing the R92Q-TNFR1 variant. These cells also show altered responses post-stimulation with TLR-ligands and microbial extracts in comparison to SK-Hep-1 expressing the WT-TNFR1.

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Abstract no. 239: Assessment of Stickiness of Resin-Composite Pastes Khold Al-Ahdal, Nick Silikas, David C Watts. School of Dentistry, Manchester University Objectives. To evaluate the stickiness of unset resin-composites and to evaluate the influence of the filler loading, resin matrix type and the use of a Speedmixer upon their stickiness, in terms of maximum probe separation-force (Fmax) and work-of-separation (Ws). Materials and methods. Seven commercial resin-composites were selected. To illustrate four of them were presented. Each material was placed in a cylindrical mould (φ= 8, depth= 4 mm). The maximum force (Fmax, N) and work probe separation (Ws, N.mm) were measured by using a texture analyzer to register force/displacement. First, the resin-composite was hand mixed, and then it was put in the Speedmixer at 1500 RPM for 30 sec. The material later was divided into 6 portions of about 0.7 g/specimen. The material was left till it reaches the room temperature. Then each specimen was placed into the mould and slightly overfilled. A plastic foil was placed on the material in the mould. And a 2 kg mass was placed on top of it for 1 min after removing the weight and the plastic foil, a razor-blade is used to ensure a flat top surface of the resincomposite. The flat-ended stainless-steel probe (φ=5 mm) was mechanically lowered into the surface of the unset specimen ‗bonding‘ phase at speed of 0.10 mm/s for stickiness. A ‗trigger‘ compressive force of 0.5 N was registered, dataacquisition commenced. The probe descended further, into the sample surface layer, which was held constant for 1 s. Then the probe was moved vertically upward at a predetermined constant velocity of 3 mm/s ‗debonding‘ phase. As the specimen material adhered to the probe, it become elongated and exerted a tensile force on the transducer, the magnitude of the force as well as elongation depends on the viscoelastic properties of the material. The same methodology was done to measure the stickiness but without using the Speedmixer. Data were entered into statistical software (SPSS ver. 16, SPSS Inc., Illinois, USA) and SigmaPlot ver.10. Results. Fmax and Ws were taken as parameters to measure stickiness. Multivariate ANOVA showed that there were no statistical significant differences between the materials without the use of Speedmixer. Where as Fmax of Empress Direct was the higher than the rest of the materials (p<0.05) with the use of Speedmixer. Conclusion. Fmax and Ws are parameters to measure stickiness of resincomposite materials. The use of the Speedmixer has a strong effect on the stickiness of the material.

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Abstract no. 240: Functional and Comparative Genomics of Enterococcus faecium Ashwag Shami1, Willem van Schaik2, Rob J. Willems2, Alistair C. Darby1 and Malcolm J. Horsburgh1. 1Institute of Integrative Biology, FHLS, University of Liverpool 2Dept. Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals as commensal flora. In recent years two species, E. faecalis and E. faecium, have become an increasing medical concern by virtue of their ability to gain and spread antibiotic resistance. Moreover, there are specific lineages in humans and animals and the animal strains have the ability to act as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. These genes have been shown to be transferred to human isolates. The aims of this study are first to investigate host adaptation of antibiotic resistant E. faecium. Three animal strains, from pig, chicken and calf were studied to determine if these strains differed from human isolates and whether they acquired genes specific for colonising an animal host. Phylogenomics of E. faecium Genomic comparisons were performed to investigate the relationship between animal and human strains of E. faecium. In addition, mobile genetic determinants were examined to identify if those carried by animal strains of E. faecium are similar to or distinct from human isolates. Comparative genome and phylogenomics analysis were performed using different bioinformatics tools such as Act, Rast, MeV and Fig Tree. The three animal strains of E. faecium genomes are different in size and the size differences are mostly due to acquisition of horizontally transferred genetic material in the genome. Moreover, comparison of genomes identified putative niche adaptation genes such as carbohydrates utilization genes. To conclude, it was found that mobile genetic elements that horizontally transferred, such as bacteriophage, plasmid and Transposon are the main differences between animals isolate and human one.

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Abstract no. 242: The Linkage Between the Lectin and the Alternative Pathway Complement-Mediated Activity in Bacterial lysis and Haemolysis Mutaib Mashraqi, Professor Wilhelm Schwaeble Department of Infection and Immunity and Inflammation The complement system, an essential part of the innate immune system, is activated via three different pathways, the classical (CP), the lectin (LP) and the alternative pathway (AP). Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), collectin 11 (CL-11) and ficolins are the carbohydrate recognition molecules of the lectin pathway. They can bind to microbial carbohydrates, resulting in the activation of associated unique enzymes, MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP-1,2 and 3), and a non-enzymatic protein, MAP19 (Schwaeble et al., 2002). Recent work showed that MASP-1 is required to convert factor D into its enzymatically active form, a process required to initiate the activation of the alternative pathway (Takahashi et al., 2002). Moreover, a very recent study has indicated that the serine protease MASP-3 has a role in triggering alternative pathway activation by connecting C3b complexes into the pre-formed alternative pathway C3 convertase C3Bb (Iwaki et al., 2011). This project has demonstrated that either MASP-1, or MASP-3, or both have an essential role in driving the alternative pathway complement activation as MASP-1/3 deficient mouse sera have impaired complement lytic activity for rabbit RBCs. This highlights a crucial role of MASP-1/3 in the complement-mediated lysis. Moreover, addition of properdin significantly augmented the lytic activity for both bacteria and rabbit RBCs, demonstrating a significant role in enhancing the AP complement-mediated lytic activity. Thus, the blockage of either MASP-1, or MASP-3, or both may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of people with deficiencies in one or more complement regulatory components to prevent complement-mediated haemolytic diseases such as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH).

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Abstract no. 245: The Influence of HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein on the Radiation Resistance Mashael saleh alfaifi University of Manchester-Manchester.UK Background and hypothesis: HPV status is known to influence the response of cervical cancer to radiotherapy which has been related to genetic instability. It is hypothesised that the interaction the HPV E6 oncoprotein with the tumour suppressor p73 may affect this response. Material and method: Human cervical carcinoma C33A cells which had been previously transfected with HPV6 E6 and HPV16 E6 were cultured, irradiated and harvested at various time points post radiation. Cell cycle measurements were determined using flow cytometry of propidium iodide stained cells and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was used to compare the levels of expression of the p73 transactivated target gene BCL2-like 11 apoptosis facilitator BIM. Result: C33AE6 16 cells showed a higher background level of polyploid cells in the pre-irradiation population compared with C33A and C33AE6 6. The observed proportion of polyploidy cells was higher in C33AE6 16 cells at all post-irradiation time points compared to C33AE6 6 cells. C33AE6 16 cells also had the lowest baseline pre-irradiation expression of BIM. Post irradiation there were clear differences in the kinetics of BIM expression between the three cell lines studied. C33E6 16 cells showed a modest induction at 9 hrs which was reduced at 12 hrs and yet, curiously BIM was also induced at 24 hrs. Conclusion: Our in vitro results are consistent with the hypothesis that genetic instability could be augmented in HPV 16 positive cervical cancer cells by the interaction of E6 with p73, especially against a background of dysfunctional mutant p53. Under these circumstances, the function of the p73 protein may be compromised by E6 leading to alteration of its ability to activate BIM in response to radiation.

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Abstract no. 260: Vitamin D status in women living in the KSA and the UK and dietary strategies to improve this (in the UK) Taqwa Abdulrahim Bushnaq Manchester Metropolitan University Vitamin D is common topic nowadays because of large numbers of people who experience vitamin D problems as deficiency or insufficiency. There are many factors affect vitamin D levels, one of them clothing This research will emphasis on women who adopt the dress of Islamic law (hijab). This dress could be perceived as presenting an obstacle to obtaining adequate vitamin D from exposure to the sun however many researches in the middle east and other Islamic countries showed that all women were similarly found to have low vitamin D levels, whatever their dress styles; and it was suggested that this was affected by both changes in food habits and a lack of exposure to sunshine This project will illustrate background of the subject; look at the project aims and methods

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Abstract no. 274: Vitamin D Production in Caucasian and South Asian Women Following UV Exposure Ohood Adel Hakim Nutrition and Metabolism Department, University of Surrey Background: It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation UVR and thus photosynthesis of 25(OH)D. However the ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be elucidated. Objective: This study have been conducted to investigate the differences in vitamin D production between Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined, controlled exposure to UVR. Design: Seventeen women; 9 white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), 8 South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their own controls. Three blood samples were taken for measurement of 25(OH) D during the run in period (9 days, no sunbed exposure) after which all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (9 days, 3 sun bed sessions, 6, 8 and 8 minutes respectively with approximately 80% body surface exposed) . Skin tone was measured four times during the study. Results: Despite consistently lower vitamin D levels in South Asian women, they were shown to synthesise vitamin D just as efficiently as Caucasians when exposed to the same dose of UVR. Interestingly, the baseline level of vitamin D rather than ethnicity and skin tone influenced the amount of vitamin D synthesis. Conclusions: These novel findings indicate that people of Asian ethnicity have the full capability to produce similar amount of vitamin D compared to Caucasian group; initial vitamin D concentration influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations. These findings indicated no effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of vitamin D and identified that length of exposure was the critical factor.

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Abstract no. 285: Effect of T follicular helper cells on regulation of mucosal immunity to influenza haemagglutinin by novel immunological adjuvants Abdullah N Aljurayyan1, 2, Stephen Gordon3 and Qibo Zhang2 Department of Clinical Immunology, King Fahad Medical City Institution of Infection and global health, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine3 Background: Stimulation of the innate immune system has an important role in the initiation and regulation of adaptive immunity. Therefore, inclusion of some immunological adjuvants such as Toll-like receptor ligands, which trigger early innate responses to enhance the adaptive responses, is crucial to vaccine effectiveness. T follicular helper cells (TFH) have recently been shown to be crucial in germinal centre function and in regulation of adaptive immunity. The aim of the study is to investigate whether and how TLR ligands regulate T and B cell immunity to some respiratory tract pathogens through TFH cells. Methods: Peripheral blood, nasopharyngeal swab and adenotonsillar tissues were collected form children and adults undergoing adenotonsillectomy. B cell antibody production were analysed ELISA. TFH cells and effect of TLR ligands on their function were analysed by flowcytometry and intracellular cytokine staining. Kinetics of antibody and cytokine production will also be analysed by ELISA. Results: The proportion of TFH cells in adenotonsillar tissue was significantly higher in children than that in adults. Stimulation of adenotonsillar cells by CpG-DNA was shown to increase the numbers of TFH cells and this was consistent with the finding that CpG-DNA significantly enhance the antibody production to haemoglutinin (HA) of seasonal influenza virus (sH1N1) antigen in adenotonsillar cells. However, TLR-2 ligand (BLP) seems to downregulate both the proportion of TFH cells and the antibody level to sH1N1. Conclusion: CpG-DNA promotes TFH cells in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue which is correlated with the enhancement of influenza HA-specific antibody production. Understanding the mechanisms by which TLR ligands regulate adaptive immunity through TFH cells may lead to novel vaccines against respiratory infections.

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Abstract no. 290: Effect of Incentive Spirometry (IS) on Some Pulmonary Function Parameters in Healthy Adult Subjects Author: Ali Nasser O. Aljarrash. Fourth year Respiratory care student. College of Applied Medical Sciences. University of Dammam. Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Amr El-Nouaem Background: Incentive spirometry ( IS ) is widely used clinically as a part of routine prophylactic and therapeutic regimen in perioperative respiratory therapy. IS is designed to mimic natural sighing or yawning by encouraging the patient to take long, slow, deep breaths from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity, but the clinical efficacy of IS is still controversial. Aim of Work: To evaluate the effect of IS on some of pulmonary function test results in healthy adult subjects. Method: Ten healthy adult students were randomly choosen and trained to use IS. After the baseline values for Forced Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume in one second , Forced Expiratory Volume in one second / Forced Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Flow 25-75 % , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate & volume measured on IS were measured , students were asked to use IS for two weeks ( twice daily for one week and 4 times daily for another week ). Pulmonary function parameters were measured after the first & second week to know the influence of IS on their performance. Results: There was a non-significant effect of IS on the measured baseline pulmonary parameter in healthy adult subjects (P > 0.05). Key words: incentive spirometry, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate.

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Abstract no. 302: NGS analysis of DNA from tumour biopsies to reveal differences between genomes of pre-cancerous lesions and malignant tumours Manar M Samman, Henry M Wood, Stefano Berri, Catherine L Daly, Alec S High, Pamela H Rabbitts. Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, St. James's University Hospital Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is a low grade, non-metastasising, slow growing variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), with an estimated incidence range between 2%-10% of all OSCC cases. In general, OVC histopathological diagnosis is ambiguous and difficult. Distinguishing OVC from classical OSCC is a common problem for pathologists due to the poorly defined diagnostic criteria and sampling difficulties. Early OVC usually presents as a pre-malignant lesion such as proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) or oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH). PVL and OVH lesions may transform into either an OVC or an OSCC. The genomic alterations underlying OVH / PVL, and OVC a lesion is still not clear and requires further investigations. We identified 8 OVC, 5 OSCC with verrucous pattern, and 6 OVH / PVL patient samples in this study. FFPE blocks were retrieved for all samples and DNA was extracted from the macro-dissected tumour tissues. DNA libraries were prepared and assessed for quality and concentration followed by samples sequencing in Illumina Genome Analyser II. Copy number (CN) gain and loss pattern along the whole genome was compared between PVL / OVH, OVC, and SCC with verrucous pattern lesions, as well as comparing OVC karyograms with previous OSCC karyograms from another study in our group. The results of this study showed gain and loss regions along the whole genome in all OVC, and OSCC with verrucous pattern karyograms. These karyograms demonstrated different types of CN patterns, in terms of both the complexity of the damage and the proportion of genomes involved. On the other hand, gain and loss features were minimally found in OVH / PVL cases. The analysis of CN aberrations across the entire OVCs data set revealed lower chromosomal instability features in OVC samples when compared to OSCC samples. This study shows that NGS analysis can be used for a more specific assessment and evaluation of OVCs heterogeneity based on the analysis of the whole genome CN karyograms. However, these results require further investigation and confirmation.

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Abstract no. 305: Effect of CPP-ACP on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Salha Aljohani, Dr Martyn Sherriff , Prof Fraser McDonald Dental Institute, King‘s College London Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been proposed for its anticariogenic and remineralisation effects when applied onto the tooth enamel during and after orthodontic treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets and to assess the mode of bond failure. Fourty eight extracted human premolars and molars were randomly divided into two groups. In the control group (n =24), no CPP-ACP treatment was carried out on the enamel. In the experimental group (CPP-ACP group), a small amount of 10% of CPP-ACP in the form of GC Tooth MousseTM(GC EuropeN.V., Leuven, Belgium) was applied to the enamel surfaces for 3 minutes; The teeth were left in water at 37° for 30 minutes, then gently rinsed, and the procedures repeated once weekly for 4 weeks. In both groups, brackets were bonded using a conventional 3-step acid etch and light-cure adhesive (Transbond XT™, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, California, USA). Brackets were debonded using an Instron Universal Testing Machine™ at 0.5mm/min crosshead speed and the bond strength values recorded in Newtons. Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores were recorded to assess the residual adhesive at 10 magnifications using a microscope. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test were used to calculate the difference in bond strength between the two groups at an α = 0.05 significance level. Pearson chi-square test (χ2) was used to assess the difference in ARI scores between the two groups. There was no significant difference in SBS has been found between the two groups (p=0.385). CPP-ACP group showed significant higher scores in ARI than the control group (p=0.012). The findings of this study suggest that CPP-ACP may be safely applied to enamel surfaces when etching and bonding with light cure adhesive are used without significant effect on the bond strengths of orthodontic brackets.

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Abstract no. 308: Molecular Mechanisms and Functions of T21: A Novel Prostate Cancer Antigen Bader Alshehri, Sumanjeet Dhillon, Morgan Mathieu, Amanda Miles and Robert Rees School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University Prostate cancer is the most prevalent diagnosed malignancy in men in the UK. The current criteria for diagnosis and prognosis using Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) are highly criticised for not being sufficiently reliable due to the inaccurate diagnosis. Subsequently, identification and characterisation of prostate cancer specific or over-expressed antigens remains vital in developing biomarkers and treatment modalities. These may eventually be used to target and/or differentiate the localised and aggressive forms of prostate cancer. T21 is a novel prostate Tumour-Associated Antigen (TAA) identified by this group and has been shown to elicit a humoral immune response in prostate cancer patients. T21 has also been shown to be over-expressed in malignant glands of prostate cancer compared to benign glands and stroma at the mRNA level. In addition, T21 is expressed in both metastatic and non-metastatic cell lines derived from prostate cancer which will allow in vitro study. Interestingly, T21 shares significant similarity with a centrosomal protein called CEP290. This large protein has been implicated in several cilia related syndromic disorders such as Joubert syndrome. The association between T21 and CEP290 requires further investigation, and in addition the possible function of T21 needs elucidating so that the prognostic/diagnostic and/or therapeutic potential of T21 can be determined. T21 and CEP290 specific primers and antibodies have been designed and optimised to probe prostate cancer cell lines, prostate cancer cell clonal progenies and prostate cancer tissues. Real Time PCR and Immunofluorescence have been use to achieve this objective. Furthermore, the current work involves gene silencing experiments in prostate cancer cell lines using specifically designed and optimised CEP290 small interference RNA (siRNA). This functional assay will determine whether transient or stable knockdown of these genes is detrimental to the proliferation and tumorigenic potential of various prostate cancer cells. qRT-PCR has shown variation in relative expression of CEP290 knocking-down of two transfected prostate cancer cell lines and is currently being confirmed using Immunofluorescence and Immunoblotting.

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Abstract no. 324: Regression of prostate tumours following intravenous administration of tumour-targeted gene therapeutic systems Majed Al Robaian, Ker Chiam Yi, David R. Blatchford, Christine Dufès The University of Strathclyde Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in industrial countries. To date, there is still no efficacious treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer with metastases. New treatments are therefore critically needed for these patients. Gene therapy holds great promise for the intravenous treatment of prostate cancer. However, its use is currently limited by the lack of delivery systems able to selectively deliver therapeutic genes to tumours by intravenous administration. In this study, we demonstrated that new tumour-targeted therapeutic systems recognizing receptors specifically overexpressed on prostate tumours, were able to improve the in vitro therapeutic efficacy on PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells when compared to the non-targeted delivery system, by up to 100-fold in LnCaP cells. In vivo, the intravenous administration of the tumour-targeted therapeutic system encoding Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)ι resulted in tumour suppression for 60% of PC3 and 50% of DU145 tumours. When using a therapeutic DNA encoding Tumour necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), it also led to tumour suppression of 10% of PC-3 tumours. When using a therapeutic DNA encoding Interleukin (IL)-12, it resulted in tumour regression of 20% of PC-3 and DU145 tumours. The treatment was well tolerated, with no apparent signs of toxicity. These tumourtargeted therapeutic systems therefore hold great potential as a novel approach for the gene therapy of prostate cancer.

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Abstract no. 327: Cten (C-terminal Tensin-Like) Connects Kras to Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK) and is Associated with Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer. AlGhamdi, S; Albasri, S; Lobo, D; Zaitoun, A; Durrant, L; Seth, R; Kindle, K; Fadhil, W; Ibrahim, S; Nateri,A; Ilyas,M School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University C-terminal tensin-like (Cten, TNS4) is a member of the tensin gene family which we have previously shown results in enhanced cell motility in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Since Tensin family proteins localise to the cytoplasmic tails of integrins we hypothesised that Cten may act through Integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Knockdown and forced expression of Cten in the CRC cell lines SW620 and HCT116 (respectively showing high and low Cten expression) showed that Cten up-regulates ILK. Furthermore, concomitant knockdown of ILK and forced expression of Cten in HCT116 resulted in loss of the motility inducing effects of forced Cten expression. Since the EGFR has been shown to regulate Cten, we tested whether this may be mediated through Kras signalling. Knockdown of mutant Kras in SW620 resulted in downregulation of Cten and inhibition of cell motility. Forced expression of Cten with Kras knockdown however restored cell motility to normal. Finally, we tested a series of 476 CRCs for expression of Cten by immunostaining. High Cten expression was significantly associated with advanced Tstage, vascular invasion and distant metastasis. Univariate analysis showed that high expression was associated with poor prognosis (p<0.001) and a trend was found on multivariate analysis (p=0.07). We propose that there is a Kras â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cten â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ILK axis regulating cell motility and tumour metastasis.

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Abstract no. 330: Validation of a New Oxygenation Index in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Adil Mubarak Alotaibi, HM. Al-Otaibi, RP. Mahajan, JG. Hardman Division of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Nottingham The currently used O2 indices are FIO2 dependent (1). Mean Predicted PaO2 (MPP) is a newly introduced oxygenation index but still needs to be validated across a variety of different pathologies commonly seen in ICU settings (2). We hypothesized that MPP is more likely to resist variation in response to changes in FIO2 and compare favorably with currently used oxygen tension based indices.The aim of this study is to evaluate MPP robustness against FIO2 variation in a large sample of patients. In this is prospective, observational, non-interventional study, 50 datasets were collected (so far) from 50 patients who required an adjustment of their FIO2. Each dataset consisted of the patient‘s demographic data, ventilator settings, arterial blood gas results (ABGs - which include pH, PaCO2 (kPa), PaO2 (kPa), HCO3- (mEq/L), BE (mEq/L)) and Hb (g/dl). Patients‘ demographic data includes admitting diagnosis, age, height, weight, and gender. Ventilator settings consist of ventilator mode, FIO2, respiratory rate (breath min-1), tidal volume (ml), minute ventilation (l min-1) and positive end expiratory pressure (cm H2O). ABG values will be collected at three or four different FIO2 points. Selection of FIO2 values will be based on patient-specific needs. The first ABG set will be collected at the patient‘s current FIO2. The second, third, and forth ABG sets will be drawn 20 minute after FIO2 adjustment. 50 datasets derived from 50 patient treated with MV in the critical care settings were analyzed. The 95% confidence interval of the change in MPP is -3.8 to 11.7 with a mean of 3.9%. The present data validate the reliability and consistency of the MPP index with sufficient accuracy to be used in critical care settings particularly with patients who are fully supported by mechanical ventilation.

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Abstract no. 336: Susceptibility to Schizophrenia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) Mariam Mohammed Ali Al Eissa University of Glasgow The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) shows a strong correlation with the development of schizophrenia (SZ). This literature review seeks to provide a better understanding of the factors resulting in SZ in patients with this syndrome. Chromosome 22q11.2 contains a series of low copy repeats which makes the region prone to deletions during unequal recombination in meiosis. There are a number of good candidate genes for SZ within the 22q11.2 deleted region, but none of them has been conclusively linked to the development of SZ. Many of the epigenetic events including methylation and acetylation are associated with SZ , and large number of studies have been carried out attempting to identify the genetic association , by combining the genetic base and the environmental factor a way may be found to solve the complex puzzle of SZ. Using nuclear programmed cells to study the flanking region of the deleted allele in the mouse model. The gene expression for both the deleted and non-deleted allele in the other chromosome can then be examined for any structural variant which may cause SZ in 22q11DS. Aided by targeted bisulphite sequencing to reveal any changes in DNA methylation or any sequence change.

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Abstract no. 344: Genotypic and phenotypic characterisation of a glyoxalase 1 mutant mouse Alaa Shafie, Mingzhan Xue, Paul J Thornalley and Naila Rabbani Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, University Hospital, Coventry Glyoxalase 1 plays an important role in the metabolism of reactive dicarbonyl metabolites, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, to less reactive products and prevention of dicarbonyl-derived advanced glycation endproduct formation. Glo1 deficient mice and Glo1 overexpression transgenic mice provide valuable models to study controlled change in extent of dicarbonyl glycation in mammalian systems. The aim of this study is to characterise the genotype and phenotype of the Lexicon Glo1 mutant mouse. In the genotyping of Glo1Lex mutant mice we found only Glo1Lex (+/-) heterozygote and wild type siblings. No homozygous Glo1Lex (-/-) mice have been born to date. No significant impairment in fertility was found for Glo1Lex (+/-) mice. The activity of Glo1 was not significantly different between wild-type controls and Glo1Lex (+/-) mice (P<0.05, Mann Whitney-U). For brain, Glo1 activity (U/mg protein; median (lower – upper quartile)) was: wild type 1.77 (1.53 – 2.00), Glo1Lex (+/-) 2.05 (1.55 – 2.27). For heart, Glo1 activity was: wild type 0.95 (0.85 – 1.05), Glo1Lex (+/-) 0.98 (0.87 – 1.04). Other tissues similarly gave no significant difference in Glo1 activity between wild-type controls and Glo1Lex (+/-). To conclude, Glo1Lex mutant mouse appears embryonically lethal for homozygous inheritance; cf. mutant human GLO1 gene with no viable homozygous offspring. It has compensatory increased Glo1 expression in Glo1Lex (+/-) heterozygotes with normal fertility. The mutant mouse appears to have been incorrectly genotyped in preliminary characterisation by the originator.

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Abstract no. 353: Enhancing Transgene Expression and Immunogenicity in Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Naif Khalaf Alharbia*, Toritse Orubua, Sarah C. Gilberta and Matthew G. Cottinghama a The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford The CD8+ T cell response to a transgenic antigen expressed in modified vaccinia Ankra virus (MVA) can be enhanced by using a promoter with increased early activity. We are pursuing three approaches to augmenting early transgene expression in recombinant MVA. First, we are using BAC recombineering technology to replace MVA open reading frames with a transgenic reporter construct, placing it under control of viral promoters at their natural loci. Replacement of B8R, C11R, F11L or E3L with Renilla luciferase (rLuc) gene revealed that the endogenous promoters could drive early transgene expression and elicit murine CD8+ T cell responses similar to or greater than the conventionally used promoters p7.5 and modified H5 (mH5) (Wyatt et al. 1996 Vaccine 14:1451-8). These promoters has been used at an exogenous insertion site in MVA genome, such as thymidine kinase locus. Second, we are attempting to boost early activity, starting with the B8R promoter (pB8R), by replacement of unfavourable nucleotides in the early promoter core region, as originally described for mH5. Third, we aimed to prolong translation of early transcripts by inserting an IRES upstream of the rLuc reporter in order to counteract decapping activity, which could occur in MVA due to the D9 and D10 poxviral proteins. However, IRES insersion did not result in any detectable effect on transgene expression in vitro or in vivo. In agreement with other studies, we show that enhancement of the immunogenicity of the transgene product is associated with reduced immunodominance of viral antigens. A potential advantage of the endogenous promoter strategy is that each of these strong early promoters is automatically associated with its own novel insertion site in MVA. This may find application for development of multivalent T cell inducing vaccines against diseases such as influenza, tuberculosis and malaria.

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Abstract no. 361: Identification of differentially expressed proteins in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia using qualitative and quantitative proteomics Suliman Abdallah Alsagaby, Sanjay Khanna, Keith W Hart, Christopher Fegan, Christopher Pepper, Ian A Brewis, Paul Brennan Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignant B-cell disorder characterised by a heterogeneous clinical course ranging from indolent to aggressive. We have developed a sub-cellular fractionation workflow to rigorously solubilise purified primary CLL cells isolated directly ex vivo. This was used to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of the CLL proteome using 2-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography (2D nano-LC) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS) collectively termed LC-MALDI. Using this approach, we have identified 900 proteins and quantified 655 proteins using isobaric tag-labelled cell extracts. By combining published Affymetrix gene arrays of normal B-cells and CLL cells with our qualitative proteome data, we identified 20 concordant genes and proteins preferentially expressed in CLL. Furthermore, 14 proteins showed differential expression (iTRAQ value â&#x2030;¤0.80 or â&#x2030;Ľ1.25) in poor prognosis CLL samples. Two of these proteins were investigated further using specific antibodies in a larger CLL cohort; T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma protein 1A (TCL-1) showed increased expression in CD38+ CLL cells (p=0.03, n=24) and myosin-9 showed reduced expression in CLL cells from patient with advanced disease (p=0.0001, n=16). One of the most heterogeneously expressed proteins in CLL samples as shown by iTRAQ data was S100A8, which was measured in CLL samples and showed increased expression in CLL cells from patients with more rapid progression of the disease (p=0.02, n=17) and an early requirement of treatment (p=0.01, n=19). This study enhances our understanding of the biology of CLL and confirms that CLL cells show changes in cell signalling proteins and molecules that regulate lymphocyte cytoskeleton.

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Abstract no. 372: Sequence Characterisation of Human alpha defensin DEFA1A3 copy number Omniah Adnan Mansouri and John A. L. Armour School of Biology, University of Nottingham Alpha-defensins are a family of antimicrobial peptides involved in innate and adaptive immune system. Human -defensin has five genes are located on chromosome 8p23.1. The -defensin 1 (DEFA1) and -defensin 3 (DEFA3) genes are variable in copy number ranging from 3 to 12 copies within European populations. The locus is named DEFA1A3 due to DEFA1 and DEFA3 genes appearing to be interchangeable variant cassettes within tandem gene arrays. The -defensin cluster has three copies of repeat unit, including two full repeats (~19 kb each) and a partial repeat (~10 kb) as annotated on UCSC genomic browser. This project aims to study the DEFA1A3 locus by characterising and analysing DEFA1A3 sequence variants, and then build up a haplotype structure of DEFA1A3 loci diversity relative to location. In this, we aim to determine and understand DEFA1A3 gene sequence of separate individual gene units. Therefore, a target region of kb has been studied in 11 control samples (10 HapMap CEPH and 1 member of a CEPH family). 97 variants were identified within the DEFA1A3 gene and promoter region of the gene. In the meantime, a variable position of 7bp duplication was discovered during DEFA1A3 sequence analysis. Consequently, this 7bp duplication was studied and analysed to partition DEFA1A3 repeat units, and also develop an allelic ratio assay to measure DEFA1A3 copy number.

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Abstract no. 376: Studies on the Oncogenic Properties of Human T-Cell Leukaemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Rowaid Qahwaji The College of Applied Medical Sciences Haematology Department, University of Manchester Background: Previous work has shown that the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein can suppress the functions of the cellular antiviral protein, ribonuclease L (RNase L) and that the specific HIV protease inhibitor (PI) lopinavir can reverse this effect. Since it is known that the T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) Tax and HPV16 E6 oncoproteins possess several activities and functions in common, it was decided to investigate the potential effects of HTLV-1 Tax on the RNase L antiviral system and its cellular inhibitor ABCE1 (RNase L Inhibitor gene). Methods: Jurkat T-cell leukaemia E6.1 cells and the same cells stably transfected with the Tax open reading frame (ORF) under the control of a metallothionein promoter (JPX-9 and JPX-M) were used. Unlike JPX-9, JPX-M cells are containing a mutated non-functional Tax protein as a control for the JPX-9 cells. Induction of Tax expression was achieved by treatment with 20 µM CdCl2. Cell viability was determined by AQ-96 colorimetric proliferation assays and gene expression was analysed by RT-PCR and Western immuneblotting (W.B). Interactions between Tax, RNase L and ABCE1 were assessed by co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assay. Results: Expression of Tax, RNase L and ABCE1 mRNA and protein was detected in JPX-9 and JPX-M cells following treatment with 20 µM CdCl2 for 24 hours as demonstrated by RT-PCR and W.B. RT-PCR results were consistent with the protein signals detected by W.B and cell proliferation data indicated that CdCl2 could be toxic to the cells independent of Tax expression. CO-IP initially showed weak interactions between the targeted proteins and this needs to be confirmed. Conclusions: Our results are compatible with previous studies that have used the JPX-9/M CdCl2 inducible cell system and indicate that this has significant ‗off-target‘ toxicity. In spite of this, initial CO-IP experiments indicated that there could be interactions between Tax and the endogenous ABCE1 and RNase L proteins. In order to investigate this further we are currently constructing tetracycline-inducible Tax expressing monoclonal cell lines.

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Abstract no. 377: Triggering apoptosis of AML cells by blocking HOXPBX dimer Raed Alharbi, Hardev Pandha and Richard Morgan Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey Back ground: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a disorder characterised by the accumulation of blast cells or progenitors of one of several non-lymphoid haematopoietic cell lineages. AML is classified into two types: primary '' de novo mutations'', and secondary, which follows myelodysplasia, chronic myeloid leukaemia or previous treatment with chemotherapy. HOX genes are overexpressed in both AML and other cancers. This overexpression is associated with an intermediate/ unfavourable cytogenetic subset of AML. Although HOX overexpression is a common feature of NK-AML, conventional knock out methods have failed to fully evaluate their functions due to their functional redundancy. We have applied an alternative approach by using a synthetic peptide called HXR9 to antagonise the interaction between HOX proteins and their cofactor PBX, which interacts with HOX proteins in groups 1-9. Results: This study examined the expression of all HOX genes in primary derived AML cell lines including HL-60, KG-1 and HEL 92.1.7; and secondary derived AML cell lines including KU812F and K562. We found that the expression of HOX genes in primary AML derived cells is significantly higher than their expression in secondary cell lines. Notably, the most expressed HOX genes in both cell line types were Abd-B like genes. In addition, we showed that targeting the HOX-PBX interaction in AML cell lines resulted in apoptotic cell death possibly by up-regulation of c-FOS. Interestingly, primary cells were more sensitive to HXR9 than secondary cells. Conclusion: Our findings showed that blocking the HOX-PBX dimer is a potential therapy in AML.

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Abstract no. 383: Synthetic lethal targeting of BRCA1 deficient cells by ATM and DNA-PKcs inhibitors for personalized cancer therapy Nada Albarakati, Rebeka Sultana & Srinivasan Madhusudan Molecular Medical School, University of Nottingham City Hospital Campus, Nottingham Synthetic lethality (SL) has provided new opportunities for the development of targeted therapies which will increase therapeutic efficacy and reduce toxicity. BRCA1 germ-line mutation is one of the significant contributors towards hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Cells lacking functional BRCA protein are deficient in Homologous recombination (HR) pathway which is critical for double strand breaks (DSBs) repair. Thus, the cells will dependent on the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway to repair the DSBs. We are investigating a novel SL in BRCA1 deficient (MDA-MB-436 human breast cancer cell line and BRCA1 deficient HeLa SilenciX®) cell lines and proficient (MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line and BRCA1 proficient HeLa SilenciX®) cell lines using ATM (key proteins in the HR pathway) inhibitor (KU55933) and DNA-PKcs (key proteins in the NHEJ pathway) inhibitor (NU7441) as an alternative strategy. Recently, it has been found that BRCA1 may transcriptionally regulate expression of DNA base excision repair (BER) factors such as OGG1, NTH1 and APE1 which is essential for processing base damage induced by alkylating agents and radiation. We are examining BER expression profiling in BRCA1 deficient cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity studies data shows BRCA1 deficient cells are hypersensitive to ATM inhibitor (KU55933) and DNA-PKcs inhibitor (NU7441). Moreover BER profiling using Western blot analysis shows that BRCA1 deficient cells have reduced expression of BER enzymes (APE1, SMUG1, UNG, XRCC1, FEN1, POLY ß). Interestingly, octamer binding transcription factor OCT1 is also down regulated in BRCA1 deficient cells which may have a role in BRCA1 mediated stimulation of BER enzymes. We provide the preliminary evidence that ATM and DNA-PKcs inhibitors could be alternative synthetic lethality target in BRCA1 deficient breast cancer evidenced by hypersensitivity to DSB repair inhibitors.

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Abstract no. 392: Development of nanoparticles based approach for targeting basophils and mast cells Walla Alelwani, Franco H. Falcone and Snjezana Stolnik School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham Activation of mast cells and basophils by the clustering at least two high affinity receptors (FcÎľRI) by IgE bound to multivalent antigen induces signaling cascades leading to mediator release such as histamine (Bevil et al., 2006). This mediator leads to allergic symptoms. Here we describe the design of a nanosystem as a potential drug carrier capable of targeting basophils and mast cells via FcÎľRI, which is restricted to these cell types. This will be performed via surface modification of model polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by attachment of two antibodies, IgE and IgG. The aim of the present work is to: Detect mediator release of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells under various conditions in addition to defining the optimal condition for the degranulation assay which would suit both NPs colloidal stability as well as optimal mediator release. Investigate basophil activity when NPs coated with anti-IgE are applied to human blood. Establish a formulation procedure for surface modification of PS NPs with antibody (BSA used as a model) that achieves colloidal stability.

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Abstract no. 396: Caffeine Ingestion, Affect and Perceived Exertion During Incremental Arm Cranking Fahad R. Alslouli¹ & Ronald H Baxendale² ¹King Fahad Security College, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh ²School of Life Science, The University, Glasgow, Scotlan, UK Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of caffeine on the perception of effort and fatigue during progressive upper limb exercise. Methods: The experimental protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. A randomised double blind study design was used to compare the effects of caffeine at 7.5mg/kilogram and a placebo of starch at the same dose. The caffeine was consumed in gelatine capsules 45 minutes before the start of the exercise test. Healthy young male volunteers performed arm-crank exercise to volitional exhaustion. After a 2 minutes of unloaded cranking the power output (PO) increased at a rate of 10W.min-1 until the volunteer was exhausted. Their physiological responses were recorded continuously. During the last 20 seconds of each minute the volunteer indicated their rating of perceived exertion on a Borg 6-20 RPE scale. Results: caffeine consumption produced no significant effect on RPE, exercise duration, peak power output, peak oxygen uptake or peak ventilation. However, peak heart rate and blood lactate concentration were significantly higher after caffeine consumption than after placebo consumption.

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Abstract no. 410: Characterisation of a novel Ygt Type Three secretion system (TTSS) in Yersinia enterocolitica species Alya Redhwan1, Sandra Reuter2, Miquette Hall1,Thomas Connor2 ,Nicholas Thomson2, Alan McNally 1 1Pathogen research group, Nottingham Trent University 2Pathogen sequencing unit, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram negative enteropathogenic bacterium. The species causes concern to the food industry due to its ubiquity in the environment and in animal reservoirs. Infection with Y.enterocolitica is heavily associated with consumption of undercooked and contaminated porcine products. Symptoms range from mild- self-limiting diarrhoea to systemic complication symptoms associated with gastroenteritis, terminal ileitis and reactive arthritis. The species is a heterogeneous collection of organisms consisting of six different biotypes 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5, which also group to non, low and high pathogenicity. The virulence of Y.enterocolitica is thought to involve the activities of Type Three secretion system (TTSS). Y. enterocolitica has three different contact-dependent TTSSs; Ysc the plasmid encoded TTSS that found in low and high pathogenic strains. Ysa that located in the chromosome, within the plasticity zone, of the highly pathogenic Y.enterocolitica strains. Ygt the recent discovered TTSS in Y. enterocolitica species. This abstract describes a project aiming to characterise Ygt in Y.enterocolitica species. Bioinformatics analysis has allowed comparison of Ygt islands at the genomic level of the three different Y. enterocolitica pathogenic groups. The analysis showed that Ygt island is present in both the non and the low pathogenic strains and interestingly has been lost from the highly pathogenic biotype strain 8081, with only two remnant genes located within Ygt island. Phylogenetic analysis to determine the relation between this TTSS in Y.enterocolitica and in other related species provides an insight into the ancestral nature of the TTSS, as well as retained potential function of the TTSS throughout the genus. Gene expression study will provide evidence of the optimum conditions at which Ygt genes are expressed.

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Abstract no. 419: Investigating the Effect of Troglitazone on Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism Maryam Ahmed Thabit University of Surrey Introduction: Troglitazone was introduced as an anti-diabetic drug in the late 1990s, and represents the first of the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. Troglitazone activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg) to enhance insulin sensitivity. Due to increasing concerns of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, troglitazone was withdrawn from the market. However, the exact mechanism of troglitazone induced toxicity has yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine the exact mechanism of troglitazone liver toxicity. Objectives (1) Investigate whether troglitazone affects glucose metabolism, and (2) assess the effect of glutamine supplementation in the culture medium on troglitazone toxicity. Methods: HuH7 cells were seeded in 6-well plates at 3 x 105cells/well and incubated for 24 hours. The cells were then treated with troglitazone (0-50ÂľM) for a further 24 hours. In experiment (1) the glucose concentration determined using a kit. In Experiment (2) the cells were incubated with troglitazone and glutamine. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. Results and Conclusions: Troglitazone had no effect on glucose metabolism, while high levels on glutamine supplementation did not prevent troglitazone toxicity. Therefore troglitazone probably affects other intermediates in energy metabolism. Further work: Investigate the role of malate, glutamate and related metabolites on troglitazone toxicity.

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Abstract no. 429: The binding profile of lab-adapted Plasmodium falciparum isolates to mutant ICAM-1 Aymen Madkhali, Alister Craig Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine The cytoadherence between red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum (iRBCs) and different human receptors are thought to be critical in severe malaria cases, including endothelial cytoadherence. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) receptor is thought to mediate cerebral malaria. In this study, the effect of two mutations in ICAM-1, ICAM-1L42/A and ICAM-1L44/A on binding of 10 lab-adapted parasite lines was investigated using a static assay system. The preliminary findings suggest that L42 residue of ICAM-1 has a considerable impact on the level of iRBCs binding, defining a key binding area on the ICAM-1 molecule. The adhesion of more ICAM-1 binding isolates will be examined using extra mutants ICAM-1.

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Abstract no. 433: Investigating the efficacy of different monoclonal antibodies raised against variant DBLβ-PfEMP-1 domains in blocking the adhesion of parasitized RBCs to ICAM-1-expressing cells Mohammad O. Alkurbi, Richard J. Pleass, and Alister G. Craig. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Background: A distinctive feature in the virulence of Plasmodium falciparum infection is the sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes (PEs) to endothelial cells lining the microvasculature of various host organs leading to severe clinical complications. P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1) is a major parasite-derived protein ligand exported to the surface of PEs and is associated with the adhesion of PEs to host endothelium. The binding of PEs to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was linked to cerebral malaria, a major cause of mortality in P. falciparum infections. In our study, we aim to develop monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target and hopefully block the potential adhesive DBLβ domains of PfEMP-1 from ICAM1 binding parasites. This intervention was hypothesized not only to reduce ability of PEs to sequester to the host microvasculature, but also to have a role in the clearance of invading parasites by the host spleen. Methods: mAbs were raised against four different recombinant proteins namely rDBL13, rDBL27, rDBL31 and rDBL41. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were used to characterize the rDBL proteins. Additionally, different sets of ELISA assays were carried out to screen mouse anti-sera and hybridoma clones for the presence of reactive rDBL-specific antibodies. Specific Absecreting hybridomas were affinity purified for further investigations. Results: We developed thirteen distinct monoclonal and polyclonal hybridoma clones that significantly recognised immunizing rDBLβ domains. All clones were found to secrete IgM-class reactive immunoglobulins. Our results also demonstrated that all polyclonal anti-sera and produced hybridoma clones showed variable degrees of cross-reactivity with the other heterologous rDBL antigens. Future work: further studies will be carried out to investigate the ability of the 13 Hybridoma clones to label the surface of live infected PEs infected with different ICAM-1 binding P. falciparum lines using Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) analysis.

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Abstract no. 436: Effect of nanoparticle surface charge on interaction with epithelial cells Azzah Bannunah, Driton Vllasaliu, Snjezana Stolnik Division of Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, School of Pharmacy University of Nottingham The interaction of nanoparticulates designed for drug delivery (eg polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes or emulsions) with cells is governed by the nature of their size, shape and surface characteristics. The surface properties, including charge, surface curvature, surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and attachment of targeting moieties have extensively been exploited with the aim to provide opportunities for site-specific drug delivery. The aim of the present work is to assess the effect of nanoparticle surface charge on their interaction with epithelial cells using an in vitro intestinal model based on Caco-2 (human colon carcinoma) cells cultured on permeable membranes. In this model, Caco-2 cells form polarised monolayers of differentiated cells with intercellular tight junction structures, presenting a physical and biochemical barrier to the passage of material such as macromolecules and nanoparticles. Considering that the toxicity of nanoparticles is expected to vary depending on their physicohemical parameters, the effect of particle size and surface charge on cytotoxicity was initially investigated in this study. Positively and negatively charged model nanoparticles (amine- and carboxy-modified, respectively) of 50 nm and 100 nm diameter were evaluated for their toxicity towards Caco-2 cells using two separate assays. The MTS assay was employed to assess the effect of nanoparticles on cell metabolic activity, whereas LDH assay was used to determine cell membrane integrity. Work also found that cell uptake and transport of positively charged (aminated) and negatively charged (carboxylated) nanoparticles was concentration, size and temperature dependent. Cellular uptake and transport was increased as the concentration of applied nanoparticles increased. Cell internalisation and transport was more prominent for 50 nm nanoparticles compared to 100 nm counterparts. Cell uptake and transport were dependent on temperature, with notably larger uptake and transport observed at normal cell culture conditions (37째C) compared to 4째C, hence indicating an energy-dependent process. Calculating nanoparticle transport efficiency (ratio of transported versus internalised nanoparticles), we found that negatively charged carboxylated nanoparticles are more efficiently transported across the cells compared to positively charged aminated nanoparticles. These findings show that size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles dramatically affect their interaction with epithelial cells. This work is therefore important in the field of oral drug delivery of biotherapeutics, where nanoparticle carriers have been suggested as drug carriers potentially crossing the mucosal barrier. pg. 329


Abstract no. 439: CD56+CD3+ T cells in relation to infection in normal subjects and kidney transplant patients Mazen Almehmadi1, Sally Heyworth2, Mr Abdul Hammad2, Dr Brian Flanagan1, Dr Steve Christmas1 Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institution of Infection and global health1, Renal Transplant Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital2 Background; CD56+CD3+ cells are a small subset of T cells of unknown function but with cytotoxic capacity following activation in vitro. In preliminary work we found that levels were higher in normal subjects positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) than in CMV negative subjects. Kidney transplant patients are particularly prone to reactivation of CMV infection which as well as causing acute disease may play a role in triggering the rejection process. Aims; This work aims to investigate the role of CD56+CD3+ T cells and their response to CMV and other pathogens, and their possible role in triggering the immune system toward the transplanted organ. Material and Methods; Phenotypic studies of memory and activation markers of CD56+CD3+ in normal CMV+ and CMV- subjects will be done to investigate the lineage of these cells by FACS analysis and whether they are increased in CMV infection. Functional analysis, consisting of the response of these cells to stimulation with mitogen, bacterial and viral antigens will be tested by measuring cytokine production and cell proliferation (CFSE labelling). Any differences in numbers, phenotype or function in transplant patients with or without CMV infection will be sought. Results and Conclusion; CD56+CD3+ cells are found to be higher in both healthy and post-transplant patients the same as have been found in the preliminary study. The activation marker CD69 is found to be higher in patients who are CMV positive than CMV negative patients.

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Abstract no. 441: Feasibility study of medication reconciliation quality indicators Mohammed Aljamal Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Forty-one medication reconciliation (MR) indicators were developed and validated in previous work. A feasibility study is defined as a small scale research study which aims to assess the practicality of a set of measures or indicators that could aid understanding, and prepare or recommend further applications. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of a set of indicators to evaluate the quality of the MR process. Materials & Methods: A data collection form was designed based on data required for the MR indicators and used as a structure for the observations. Data collected included patient and admission details, the reason for not performing MR, checks about drug allergy (DA), drug history (DH) including sources used, checks of medication adherence and intolerance and identification and documentation discrepancies. A structured non-participant observation design was used to observe 10 pharmacists conducting the MR process in two teaching hospitals, purposively selected because of two different documentation systems (i.e. electronic and paper). The data were analysed based on the availability and practicality of collecting data for MR indicators to evaluate the MR process. Results: Both hospitals used different MR documentation systems that partially documented the MR process. Several aspects of the MR process were conducted but not documented in patient records, such as checking OTC and complementary (herbal) medicines, adherence, intolerance, and identifying discrepancies. Out of the 41 tested indicators, five were considered not feasible due to practical issues. Of these five, two were considered to be easily confusing with other indicators (e.g. discrepancies was confused with unintentional discrepancies (UD)), two were related to how MR was structured (e.g. the method of documentation) and one was found to be difficult to identify. Three were found feasible for the structure of the MR process. Fifteen were thought to be feasible for providing data about the process, such as time to reconcile, checking DA, intolerance, adherence, OTC, herbal, sources used, identifying and documenting UD. Eighteen additional indicators were considered feasible for providing detailed information about the process. These additional indicators include detailed sources used, identifying DA name and reaction, number and type of discrepancies, times of contacting prescriber and changing UD. Conclusions: Three groups of MR indicators were found feasible for assessing MR, structure, general assessment and additional detailed information about the process. A comprehensive MR documentation system should be used. The MR indicators and the data collection form could be used as a guide in pg. 331


designing such a system and could facilitate the communication between hospital staff and help doctors and nurses to participate effectively in the MR process.

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Abstract no. 445: Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to Cetuximab Treatment in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Ashwag Albukhari1,2 , Ioannis Ragoussis2 and Anthony Kong1 1 Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford 2 Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a sub-molecular type of breast cancer that is defined by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 amplification. The high expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in TNBC patients (60â&#x20AC;&#x201C;70%) makes it a good candidate for target therapy. However, clinical trials have shown a poor response rate of cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, in these patients and the reasons of resistance are poorly understood. In this study, a model of TNBC acquired resistance to cetuximab, MDA-MB-468CR, has been established and characterized in order to study the molecular mechanism of cetuximabresistance. Resistant cells were morphologically similar to parental MDA-MB468 cells with slight increase in their growth rate. Using high-throughput screening, the activity of 42 receptor tyrosine kinases in resistant TNBC cells following chronic exposure to cetuximab has been examined. In contrast to the other previous cetuximab-resistant models, MDA-MB-468RC manifested strong activation of phospho-VEGFR1 in comparison to the parental cells. Additionally, the transcription landscape of the TNBC cetuximab acquired resistant model has been compared to the parental sensitive cells using high throughput mRNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report that highlighted the main characteristics of acquired cetuximab-resistant TNBC model and suggests further studies in combining different targeted therapies which would be more efficient as a therapeutic strategy than using a single agent in order to overcome the resistant mechanism.

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Abstract no. 455: Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to Cetuximab Treatment in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Ashwag Albukhari1,2 , Ioannis Ragoussis3 and Anthony Kong1 1 Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford 2 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University 3 Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a sub-molecular type of breast cancer that is defined by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 amplification. The high expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in TNBC patients (60â&#x20AC;&#x201C;70%) makes it a good candidate for target therapy. However, clinical trials have shown a poor response rate of cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, in these patients and the reasons of resistance are poorly understood. In this study, a model of TNBC acquired resistance to cetuximab, MDA-MB-468CR, has been established and characterized in order to study the molecular mechanism of cetuximabresistance. Resistant cells were morphologically similar to parental MDA-MB468 cells with slight increase in their growth rate. Using high-throughput screening, the activity of 42 receptor tyrosine kinases in resistant TNBC cells following chronic exposure to cetuximab has been examined. In contrast to the other previous cetuximab-resistant models, MDA-MB-468RC manifested strong activation of phospho-VEGFR1 in comparison to the parental cells. Additionally, the transcription landscape of the TNBC cetuximab acquired resistant model has been compared to the parental sensitive cells using high throughput mRNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report that highlighted the main characteristics of acquired cetuximab-resistant TNBC model and suggests further studies in combining different targeted therapies which would be more efficient as a therapeutic strategy than using a single agent in order to overcome the resistant mechanism.

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Abstract no. 458: HLA-B*5701- Restricted Activation Of FlucloxacillinResponsive CD8+ T-Cells Manal Monshi, Lee Faulkner, Andrew Gibson , John Farrell , Rosalind Jenkins, Ana Alfirevic, Munir Pirmohamed, B. Kevin Park and Dean J. Naisbitt Dept of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology University of Liverpool Flucloxacillin is a common cause of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Delay in the reaction onset and identification of HLA-B*5701 as a susceptibility factor are indicative of an immune pathogenesis1. Despite this, drug-responsive Tcells have not been detected and as such the role of the HLA risk allele in the disease is not known. We test the following hypothesis: drug-responsive T-cells circulate in patients with flucloxacillin-induced liver injury and the drug antigen is presented to T-cells by HLA-B*5701. PBMC were isolated from 6 patients with a history of flucloxacillin-induced liver injury (5 of the patients express HLA-B*5701) and tolerant controls. PBMC responses to flucloxacillin were characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot). We also utilized our recently established in vitro T-cell priming assay that recapitulates key elements of events that occur in vivo during elicitation of an immunological drug reaction by combining naive CD3+ T-cells from 3 HLA-B*5701 positive volunteers with flucloxacillin and dendritic cells in culture2. Drug-responsive T-cells were expanded for 8 days prior to analysis of IFN-γ secreting cells. Tcells from patients and volunteers were cloned and flucloxacillin-specific proliferation and cytokine secretion measured. The mechanism of flucloxacillin presentation to T-cells and the basis for the association with HLA-B*5701 was investigated. Flucloxacillin-responsive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were characterized from patients with DILI. Furthermore, naive CD8+ T-cells from volunteers expressing HLA-B*5701 were activated with flucloxacillin when dendritic cells present the drug antigen. T-cell clones secreted IFN-γ, Th2 cytokines, perforin, granzyme B and FasL following drug stimulation. Flucloxacillin-derived haptens bound to selective lysine residues on albumin in a time-dependent manner and the level of binding correlated directly with the stimulation of clones. Activation of CD8+ clones with flucloxacillin was processing-dependent and restricted by HLA-B*5701 and the closely related HLA-B*5801. Clones displayed additional reactivity against β-lactam antibiotics, but not abacavir. These studies define the immune basis for flucloxacillin-induced liver injury and link the genetic association to the iatrogenic disease.

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Abstract no. 467: Elucidating the mechanism of Aag-dependent cell death Fahad Alhumaydhi Department of Biochemistry and Pathology. Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. University of Surrey DNA repair systems are ubiquitous and cross talk with many fundamental cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription and recombination, in order to protect and preserve the integrity of the genomes of all living organisms. However, DNA damage cannot be avoided and can result from the inherent chemical instability of DNA itself, or from the interaction between DNA and a variety of external physical or chemical agents. Some spontaneous damage to DNA can come via deamination/depurination events and by the actions of reactive alkylating and oxidative agents being generated endogenously as by-products from normal metabolic processes. This project deals with one repair pathway that is key for the repair of bases subtly modified by alkylating agents and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), named base excision repair or BER. Initiation of the BER pathway occurs via the removal of a damaged base by one of many substrate-specific glycosylases. There are many glycosylases in mammalian cells but the focus of this project is an enzyme called 3-methyladenine (3MeA) DNA glycosylase. The gene coding for this enzymatic activity in humans is AAG (for alkyl adenine DNA glycosylase), Aag in mice. AAG/Aag excises the alkylated DNA bases 3MeA, 7MeG, deaminated purines, and the exocyclic etheno DNA adducts (1, N6ethenoadenine and 1, N2-ethenoguanine), that are induced by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Initiation of BER by AAG can paradoxically lead to cell death, with important implications for overall cellular viability and homeostasis. Elucidating the mechanisms of this AAG-mediated cell death is relevant for the understanding of degenerative diseases associated with ageing, such as neurodegeneration.

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Abstract no. 470: Energy intake, expenditure and appetite following exercise of different intensity in non-obese men. Ghalia Shamlan, M.D.Robertson & A.L.Collins. Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, University of Surrey Appetite control (i.e. control of energy intake) is important for weight maintenance. Exercise is the most variable component of energy expenditure but its impact is beyond the energy cost of exercise including physiological, behavioural, and appetite effects. Exercise is known to acutely influence effect appetite but there is a lack of evidence as to the independent effect of intensity. This study investigated the role exercise intensity on appetite and gut derived hormones, energy intake (EI) and subjective measures of appetite. One hour after a standardised breakfast, 14 healthy normal- weight volunteers subjects undertook either 8 repeated 60 second bouts of cycling at 95% VO2 max (high intensity) or 30 minutes of continuous cycling, at a fixed cadence, equivalent to 50% of the participantâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s VO2 max (low intensity) in randomised crossover design. Ghrelin, polypeptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were measured in the fasting state, Pre- exercise and post-exercise. Subjective satiety were assessed throughout the study using visual analogue scales and subsequent ad libitum intake of a pasta meal was measured at the end (3-h post-breakfast). No significant effect of exercise was observed on the average of ad libitum meal or 24 hour energy intake postexercise. Hunger scores were significantly decreased for exercise for high intensity (HIE). HIE significantly increased fat oxidation compared to low intensity (LIE) at 15 minutes post-exercise. Despite no significant difference in energy intake for 2 days post-exercise between two intensities, dietary carbohydrate intake was higher after LIE, not noted until the second day after exercise. In conclusion, currently, there are mechanisms and consequences of exercise in short and long-term appetite control; however, these mechanisms warrant further explanation. These results support the need for future research in to the role of in regulation energy balance, especially for obese people

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Abstract no. 472: Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Ciclosporin: It’s Application to Measurement of Brand and Generic Versions from Different Countries. Badr Aljohani, Faisal Al Otaibi, Essam Ghazaly, David Perrett and Atholl Johnston Queen Mary School of Medicine and Dentistry Ciclosporin used as immunosuppressant post-organ transplantation. Recently, many questions n raised about using generic substitutes, especially with narrow therapeutic index drugs (NTID ). In this study, a simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed, validated and applied to detect ciclosporin. Seven ciclosporin products were obtained from Columbia (C), Egypt (E), India (I), Jordan (J), Pakistan (P), Saudi Arabia (S) and Turkey (T) for inclusion in this study. Dissolution testing was done to the capsules, conditions were as follows: 500 mL deionised water using as the medium in apparatus 2 (Pharmatest, Germany); temp: 37.5 ±0.5°C,: 50 rpm, sampling times were 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes with 5 mL for each sample. HPLC separation was by a C18 column, 5 µm, (4.6 x 250 mm, ACE 5) held at 50 ±0.3°C. Analytes were isocratically eluted at 0.7 mL/min with acetonitrile and water (70 + 30%) and 0.03% trifluroacetic acid as an ionpairing agent to sharpen the peaks and improve resolution, over the 25 minutes runtime. Intra-day imprecision for ciclosporin across the standard range was < 5% and the inter-day imprecision < 4%. Accuracy of the assay was within 3% of the true value at standard curve concentrations range from 0.1 to 2 mg/mL of ciclosporin. The lower limit of detection was 0.001 mg/mL ciclosporin. The upper limit of detection was 2 mg/mL. Following validation the HPLC method was used to determine the concentrations of ciclosporin in the capsules. All brands (S, T, P, J, E) and one generic (C) showed more than 80% of ciclosporin after 90 minutes (90.3, 100, 90.4, 82.7, 81.4 and 90.6%) respectively. One generic (I), showed less than the minimum percentage of labelled amount 69.1%.One or more impurities were detected in all capsules. These impurities are currently under investigation in order to identify their nature and their effect on ciclosporin pharmacokinetics. Relative to the brand (T), statistical analysis showed significant differences (p<0.0001) of the mean percentage content between brand and generic, the confidence interval 95% range for the brands (E, J, P, S) were (72.2-91.8), (73.4-93.3), (80.2-101.9), (80.1-101.8), respectively, and (80.3-102.1), (61.3-77.9), for the generic (C) and (I) respectively. Based on these results we conclude that some of the ciclosporin preparations do not contain the exact mass labelled and the majority contained as yet unidentified impurities.

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Abstract no. 475: The Role of Adrenomedullin signalling through RAMPs in Cancer Emad Kutbi, Suruchi Pacharne, Gareth Richards & Tim Skerry Sheffield University Background: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone involved in many physiological processes. As well as it role in physiology AM is also associated pathophysiological conditions including cancer, where AM expression is elevated in 80% of tumours. AM has many pro-tumourogenic effects such as increasing proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and decreasing apoptosis. AM functions are mediated by two different receptors which are complexes of receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) and the calcitonin like receptor (CLR); differing combinations of RAMPs and CLR produce 2 AM receptors subtypes. AM1 receptors consist of a CLR in combination with RAMP2, and AM2 receptor consists of CLR in combination with RAMP3. The majority of the current studies suggest RAMP2 to be responsible for physiological actions of AM, whereas RAMP3 is suggested to be involved in pathophysiological conditions. Recent studies have confirmed this observation in cancer cell lines where knock down RAMP3 have been shown to inhibit the cells invasive capabilities. Hypothesis: RAMPs are involved signalling between tumour cells and stromal tissues, promoting tumour growth and development. Aim and objectives: The current aim of this study is to determine the expression AM receptor components in the mouse prostate cells line BMA-178. Methodology: The expression of RAMPs and CLR in the cell line BMA178 was measured using endpoint PCR and western blotting. Result: Initial result show that BMA-178 prostate cancer cell line express RAMP1,2,3 and CLR at the mRNA level. Western blot analysis of BMA-178 confirmed the protein expression RAMP1, RAMP2, RAMP 3 and CLR. Conclusion: In conclusion, the BMA-178 cell line express RAMP1, RAMP2, RAMP3 and CLR at both mRNA and protein levels.

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Abstract no. 481: Variability of the obturator and/or accessory (aberrant) obturator arteries AL DORAZI, Shorok, AL-TALAWAH, Waseem, Roger SOAMES, Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University For Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia*, Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, UK** The superior pubic ramus fracture may be associated with a high incidence of pelvic haemorrhage due to contribution of the obturator and/or accessory (aberrant) obturator arteries: A similar circumstances may arise during surgical repair of direct and indirect inguinal and femoral hernia. The life threatening has to be considered if one or both previous arteries arise from the external iliac artery due to lacerations in case of either pubic rami fractures or surgical hernia repair. The current study, undertaken on 67 specimens, investigated the incidence of the obturator artery arising from the external iliac either dependently or independently, as well as from the internal iliac artery. The obturator artery was observed to arise from the internal and external iliac arteries in 48 and 19 specimens, respectively. The obturator artery arose independently from the external iliac artery in 2 specimens, from a common trunk with the inferior epigastric artery in 16 specimens and as a branch of the inferior epigastric in 1 specimen. An accessory obturator artery was observed to arise independently from the external iliac artery in 1 specimen and the inferior epigastric artery in 1 specimen.

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Abstract no. 490: Association of Th17/Treg in NALT with pneumococcal carriage in children and adults Ayman Mubarak1, Anand Kasbekar2, Max McCormick3, Helen Beer3, Nigel Cunliffe1, Paul S McNamara2, Qibo Zhang1 Department of Clinical Infection, Institution of Infection and global health1 Alder Hey Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s Hospital2, ENT Department, Royal Liverpool University Hospital3 Background: CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the regulation of the immune response to infection, whereas Th17 have been suggested to be crucial in bacterial clearance from the host. In this study, we have studied the association between the ratio of Th17/Treg cells and nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in children and adults. We have also studied the induction of those cells by pneumococcus in human nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Methods: Mononuclear cells (MNC) from adenotonsillar tissues were isolated from children and adults undergoing adenotonsilectomy. Treg and Th17 cells were enumerated in adenotonsillar MNC by intercellular staining of Foxp3 and IL 17 with or without stimulation by concentrated pneumococcal culture supernatant (CCS) derived from a type II pneumococcus D39. IL-17 production in adenotonsillar MNC was measured by ELISA. Results and Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the proportion of Th17 in adenotonsillar MNC between adults and children, which was higher in the former in whom pneumococcal carriage was low. The same trend was also shown in the ratio of Th17/Foxp3+ Treg between adults and children. There was a significant increase in both Treg and Th17 in adenotonsillar MNC after stimulation by the pneumococcal CCS. Significant increase in IL17 production in adenotonsillar MNC after CCS stimulation was shown by ELISA. It is suggested that the development and balance of Th17 cells and Foxp3+Treg in the local mucosal immune tissues play an important role in modulating the specific immunity against pneumococcal carriage in humans.

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Abstract no. 502: A systematic review of counterfeit and substandard medicines Tariq Almuzaini, Helen Sammons, Imti Choonara Academic Division of Child Health, University of Nottingham Objective: To explore the extent of the problem of counterfeit and substandard medicines worldwide. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using Embase, Medline, PubMed and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, including articles published till May 2011. Only prevalence studies containing original data were included and relevant data were extracted. Results: Forty-two prevalence studies were identified. The overall median prevalence of counterfeit and substandard medicines reported was 36%. These studies were conducted in thirty-eight different countries; the majority (34 studies) were focussed on low-income countries (LIC) and lower-middleincome countries (LMIC), the remainder having mixed groups. The median prevalence in the samples was similar in LIC and LMIC in Africa and Asia (35% to 38%). No individual data about the prevalence in upper-middle-income countries (UMIC) and high-income countries (HIC) was available. Antimicrobial drugs were the most extensively studied group of medicines (34 studies); antimalarials were the focus in two thirds (22 studies). The majority of the studies found samples with inadequate amount of active ingredients (83%), and a third had an absence of active ingredients (36%) and excessive amount of active ingredients (36%). Only Nine studies included paediatric formulations in their sampling process and one third (113/338) of the samples tested were substandard. Conclusion: There is a widespread use of counterfeit and substandard medicines throughout Africa and Asia in LIC and LMIC. More than a third of medicines available in these countries could be counterfeit or substandard. The use of poor quality medicines can lead to a lack of efficacy, therapeutic failure, toxicity, and the emergence of drug resistance.

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Abstract no. 534: Development of a lysine modified monolithic extraction for acidic drug using ion-exchange phase in a micro fluidics system. A.L. Jilani, S.J.Haswell, T. McCreedy Department of Chemistry, University of Hull This poster which, will focus on the analytical chemistry and drug monitoring required demonstrating the development of analytical methodology based on micro fluidics which exploits the advantages of miniaturisation for sample preparation and separation for selected range of drugs. Current forensic drug monitoring procedures normally requires the collection of samples from locations remote to a laboratory for analysis, which requires a number of steps to be carried out to stabilize the sample during transport and preparation for analysis. Traditionally laboratory based the drug analysis utilizes large and expensive instrumentation systems that are slow, costly and samples can degrade. Accordingly the development of a small – scale portable device for analysis system will allow fast result with low manpower at point of need to be carried out. In this poster we present on the fabrication of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) monolithic rod and surface modification the silica for ion-exchange phases with lysine. The modification of monolith was carried out in shrinkable tube where rods of monolithic silica were 4cm in length and 3.4mm i.d figure1. The functionalisation or modification of silica by lysine provides high efficiency for extraction anion or acidic drug. The functionalised silica monolith was tested with acetylsalicylic acid as acidic drug and detected using HPLC system. The result indicate that the structural property of TEOS monolith provide good permeability rather than the TMOS according to SEM image. In addition the surface area of TEOS monolith was found to be about 245 ± 27 m²/g, compared to TMOS which offer a higher surface area of 308 ± 29 m²/g, determined using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas adsorption method. In general, an acceptable extraction of drug was achieved using TEOS and TMOS lysine-bonded monolith silica. The TEOS monolithic column shows high extraction efficiency (91%) towards acetylsalicylic acid compared to the TMOS column (60%).

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Abstract no. 535: Effect of a Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Programme in Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Ahmed O. N. Alsabih and M.J.Taylor School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, it is characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) which the body cannot use properly. Type 2 diabetes continues to increase in number and significance as changing lifestyles lead to reduced physical activity and increased obesity. Type 1 diabetes is also increasing. High blood sugar levels (hyperglycaemia) leads to numerous complications such as blindness, kidney failure, nerve damage, lower limb amputation and cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke). It is recognised that regular exercise is an important part of diabetes management and can have physiological benefits including improved physical work capacity, body composition, better blood sugar control as well as improved blood pressure and blood lipid profile. However, the benefits of different types of exercise (aerobic versus resistance [lifting weights] or a combination of both) are uncertain. Therefore, the purpose of this study is: to study the effects on the two different forms of diabetes (Type 1 and 2) when using the same exercise regimens.to assesses the benefits of regular exercise in people with diabetes. to evaluate effectiveness over a short period e.g six weeks. With institutional ethics approval, and following preliminary tests, volunteers will undertake the main experimental trials that involve 2 x 2 hour exercise sessions a week for a six-week period. Each exercise session will consist of a combined exercise protocol of about 30 min of moderate resistance exercise using upper and lower muscle groups followed by 20 min moderate cycling. Blood glucose levels, lipids profile, blood gases, albumin, lactate, and electrolytes will be monitored before, during and after exercise programme. During cycling, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, oxygen saturation, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), body temperature, heart rate and Electrocardiography (ECG) will be recorded through ADI machine power lab system. We will present preliminary results comparing blood and expired air biochemistry among the healthy and diabetic groups, when undergoing resistance and cardiovascular exercise. The protocol will be adjusted to produce closely matched perceived and objective measures of exertion in all participants. We will also show the improvements in each group after the six-week programme and discuss the effects of medium term moderate exercise on the metabolic syndrome markers such as blood glucose, lipids, blood pressure and creatinine. It is hoped that this work will lead us to publish recommendations about the benefits of exercise for people with diabetes. pg. 344


Abstract no. 543: Maintenance of the Tooth-bone Interface during Development Authors: S. Alfaqeeh, A.S. Tucker, and F. Mcdonald Craniofacial Development and Orthodontics, King's College London Abstract: The tooth forms a functional complex with the surrounding alveolar bone cushioned by the soft tissues of the periodontium. The ability of the tooth and its associated periodontium to undergo rapid remodelling during the process of mastication, tooth movement, and the progression of periodontal diseases is crucial to understand. During development a space is created between the developing tooth and bone, allowing the tooth to grow and periodontal ligament to form. We have called this region the tooth-bone interface (TBI). Defects in the TBI lead to ankylosis of the tooth. When isolated in culture the cells of the TBI differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone. During normal development, therefore, both bone formation in the TBI and encroachment of the alveolar bone into the TBI must be prevented. We have started to characterise the mechanisms that protect the TBI utilising murine tooth slice explants. Such explants allow for the developing tooth, bone and TBI to be visualised in culture. Signalling molecules hypothesised to play a role in creation of the TBI were added to the cultures, which were analysed by TRAP assays, in situ hybridisation and histology. Osteoclasts were shown to line the alveolar bone at the border of the TBI during development. Addition of RANKL and OPG to developing tooth germs in culture altered the number of osteoclasts, leading to changes in the size and shape of the TBI and encroachment of the bone into the tooth germ. A change in fate of the TBI was observed after altering the level of BMP signalling in culture, indicating that this signalling molecule plays an important role in controlling the size of the TBI. We intend to clarify these results and further investigate the interactions between the tooth and bone during development, looking at the roles of Noggin, Runx2, Twist, and Periostin.

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Abstract no. 545: The Role of HPV E6 Protein in the Induction of Autophagy Ghadir Almuhaini EPT OF Oncology, Weatherll Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford Autophagy can be viewed as an intracellular house keeping process during which cells sequestrate damaged or aged cytoplasmic proteins or organelles into an isolation membrane forming autophagic vacuoles (autophagosomes) to be delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Autophagy plays a major role in cell survival, cancer and cell death. Additionally, studies showed that both autophagy and apoptosis could be triggered by common upstream signals. Recently, studies showed that autophagy is triggered in bax -/- bak-/- double knockout MEFS in response to DNA damaging agents such as etoposide. Human Papilloma viruses (HPV) are widely recognized for their role in the development of different cancers including cervical and skin cancers. HPV E6 and E7 proteins are the key players in the oncogenic transformation of cells. HPV E6 protein has been shown to inhibit mitochondrial apoptosis following UVB exposure by specifically targeting BAK, a key apoptotic protein for proteolysis. Since HPV E6 targets BAK for proteolysis we hypothesized that HPV E6 may induce an autophagic response to promote cell survival following an apoptotic stimulus. HT1080 cells and human keratinocytes expressing cutaneous HPV E6 proteins were exposed to UVB and autophagy levels were investigated. Results show an increase in autophagy levels in HPV E6 expressing cells compared to empty vector cells, whilst expression of HPV E7 protein resulted in no apparent increase in autophagy rates. These results show for the first time that HPV E6 proteins promote autophagy in response to an apoptotic signal and that may enhance cell survival in the background of DNA damage which may contribute towards tumorgenesis.

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Abstract no. 551: Effect of Advanced Glycation Endproducts on Breast Cancer Cells Hanaa Sharaf, Sabine Matou-Nasri, Qiuyu Wang and Nessar Ahmed School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University Patients with diabetes mellitus have hyperglycaemia and increased formation of tissue advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Diabetic patients have an increased likelihood of developing certain types of cancer including breast cancer. Moreover, many studies have shown that diabetes and hyperglycaemia are associated with an increased risk of malignant tumours because of increased oxidative stress which is considered an initial step in carcinogenesis. However, the association between diabetes and breast cancer is not clear. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the carcinogenic effect of AGEs on a nonhormone-dependent breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231. Bovine serum albumin (10 mg/ml) was glycated sing 0.1 M methylglyoxal to produce AGEs (BSA-AGEs). Cultured breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 were exposed to different concentration of BSA-AGE (25-200 µg/ml) for up to 3-days and the cell proliferation and migration was assessed. Changes in extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation were assessed using a Western blotting technique. BSA-AGEs increased proliferation and migration of cultured MDAMB231 cells and their invasion through a reconstituted basement membrane reaching peak stimulation at 50 µg/ml. In addition, BSA-AGEs caused a change in cell morphology into a spindle shape. Moreover, no effect was seen on the cell viability and the cell stimulation was associated with a concomitant increased phosphorylation of ERK induced by BSA-AGEs at 25-50 µg/ml in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, BSA alone did not show any effect on the MDA-MB231 cell line. These results may explain the molecular link between the role of AGEs and breast cancer, and suggest that AGEs might have a serious pro-carcinogenic effect and contribute to breast cancer development. These the role of AGEs in development of certain types of cancer deserves further investigation.

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Abstract no. 553: Strategies for Mechanical Lower Back Pain: An Evaluation, Analysis and Recommendations Raghda AlFarhan School of Medicine, Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s College London Mechanical Low Back Pain (LBP) is a common condition that can be treated successfully with therapeutic exercises (TE). Two main strategies form the corn stone of TE, forward strategy (FS) and backward strategy (BS). Clinicians are divided into two opinions; each is biased with one strategy. Advising patients to adapt one direction of movement and avoid others may worsen the problem. Patientâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s directional preference and symptoms centralization is a key element when deciding TE; it can be achieved by asking the patient to exercise on the direction that would decompress the nerve root. In view of this, FS can help to decompress anterior nerve root while BS can help to decompress posterior nerve root. Treatment can be monitored by electrical HReflex which indicates the best direction that decompresses the nerve root. Patients should be encouraged to move on all directions at an early stage to avoid the development of fear of movement beliefs which consequently leads to chronicity, weakness and disability.

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Abstract no. 704: Role of MAP kinase phosphatase-2 (MKP-2) in prostate cancer Sulaiman Alnasser, Marie Boyd and Robin Plevin Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science University of Strathclyde Background to the project: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in the UK as well as United States and is the second leading cause of death after lung cancer (Jemal et al., 2008). Recently, one of the crucial signaling pathways which have been reported in the progression of several tumors in vivo is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. A key regulatory off switch for the MAPKs is the MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) (Arnoldussen and Saatcioglu, 2009). This study was designed to examine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-2 (MKP-2) expression in the prostate cancer progression using LNCaP Androgen Insensitive (AI) and Androgen Sensitive (AS) cell lines. Results: In this study Adenovirus MKP-2 (Adv.MKP-2) was used as a tool to study the effect of MKP-2 on the kinetics activity of MAPKs. In LNCaP (AI) and (AS) immunofluorescence staining a revealed strictly nuclear expression of adenovirally expressed MKP-2 with more than 90% of the cells were infected. In LNCaPs (AI), ERK phosphorylation in response to EGF was sustained whilst, in (AS) cells was transient. In contrast, JNK phosphorylation was sustained in both LNCaP (AI) and (AS) in response to ultraviolet light (UVC) (60 J/m2). Infection of both LnCaP (AI) and (AS) cells with Adv.MKP-2 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell cycle progression was also studied. In deprived of S value, Adv.MKP-2 reduced cells LNCaP (AI) over 90% of the cells, where, found to be G2/M value approximately 5-8 % in following. However, Adv.MKP-2 also reduced LNCaP (AS) about 70 to 80% deprived of S value, whilst, found approximately over 90% in G2/M phase. These results indicate the potential for MKP-2 to influence cancer cell progression. Future studies will use MKP-2 siRNA and assess effects upon proliferation and tumor formation in vivo.

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Abstract no. 710: Legalisation and Islamic bioethical perspective of Prenatal Diagnosis and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in Saudi Arabia Hanan A. Sultan , Sioban SenGupta, Ray Nobl, and Joyce C. Harper Saudi Arabia is one of the leading Islamic countries where regulatory authority follows Islamic Shariâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;a law. Legal fatwa in Saudi is issued through the Saudi Council of Senior Scholars (CSS) based on information given by the experts in the field. Health care is regulated by the Ministry of Health (MOH). The first code of practice to regulate ART practice in Saudi was issued in 2006. The tribal nature and high incidence of consanguineous marriages in Saudi results in a high incidence of genetically based disorders. Prenatal Diagnosis (PND) and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis practice (PGD) for different indications raises many ethical and social dilemmas worldwide. Regulations of PGD in Saudi are based on the following Islamic perspective: PGD is encouraged to prevent diseases based on the fact that it is beneficial. However, because of the balance of risk to the mother, social sex selection is not a sufficient justification for PGD

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Abstract no.715 :RNA PROCESSING AND THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES FOR SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY ” Aziza Rashed Al-Rafiah and Mimoun Azzouz The Medical School, University of Sheffield, UK Motor neuron diseases are devastating neurological disorders. Aberrant RNA processing has been implicated in pathogenesis of various motor neuron diseases. In lethal congenital contracture syndrome type 1 (LCCS1), mutation in GLE1 gene leads to depletion in an mRNA export mediator GLE1 protein. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), another motor neuron disease, caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron gene1 (SMN1) which results in the reduction of the (SMN) protein. This protein plays a crucial role in mRNA splicing and β-actin mRNA transport along the axons, therefore its deficiency causes axonal defects in motor neurons. The actin-binding protein Plastin 3 (PLS3) has also been reported as a modifier for SMA. Recently, it was shown that the overexpression of the (PLS3) gene improved axonal length and outgrowth in SMN-deficient motor neurons of SMA Zebrafish and mouse embryos in vitro. However, the therapeutic efficiency of both PLS3 and GLE1 has never been evaluated in a rodent model of SMA. Specific aims of this thesis are to: 1) evaluate the neuroprotective effects of GLE1 and PLS3 in in vitro models of SMA; 2) undertake efficacy pre-clinical proof-of-concepts using adeno-associated vector serotype 9 (AAV9) encoding GLE1 or PLS3 in SMNΔ7 mouse model of SMA. Ultimately use viral vectors to modulate GLE1 and PLS3 gene in rodent and explore the changes in RNA processing in vivo. To achieve our aims, lentiviral (LV) vectors encoding human PLS3 or GLE1 were successfully designed and generated. LV-GLE1 and LV-PLS3 vectors were validated in cell lines in vitro. In addition, LV-PLS3 virus was produced at high titre 2.5x108 TU/ml. Transduction of HEK293 cells with LV-PLS3 vector led to 5-7 fold increase in PLS3 protein. The gene transfer efficiency of LV-PLS3 has been confirmed by immunostaining. Preliminary experiments revealed that LV-GLE1 is also functional but further validation is being performed. Our next step is to evaluate the neuroprotective efficiency of these vectors in in vitro models of SMA.

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Abstract no. 716: The regenerative capacity of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells: Impact of telomere biology Nouf Alajmi Newcastle University Introduction: Different human blood cells originate from common precursors, haematopietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Telomeres are the end caps of chromosomes that maintain chromosomal integrity and telomerase is the enzyme responsible for telomeres replication. In this study the link between telomere biology and HSPCs has been explored. Methods: HPSCs were isolated from two different sources, human umbilical cord blood and mice bone marrows. CD34+ cells were isolated from fresh cord blood samples using immunomagnetic beads labeling. CD34+ cells were expanded for 1 week in culture and then differentiated into myeloid lineage for another week under two different cytokines mixtures. Immunophenotyping, telomeres length, telomerase activity, and genes TERT and TERC were measured. Whereas mice bone marrow HSPCs were tested from two groups; ad labium (AL) and dietary restricted (DR). HSPCs were compared between groups by means of cell proliferation, markers expression, and clonogenic potential.. Results: CD34+ cells could be expanded up to 1000-fold in three weeks culture with maintained telomere length. The maximum significant induction of telomerase activity is seen at day 14 compared to day 0 (p<0.05). This induction is not transcriptionally regulated by TERT or TERC. Interestingly, DR mice HSPCs show significantly higher marrow plasticity (p<0.05) with lower clonogenic potential in CFU-GM (p<0.001) compared to AL mice. Conclusion: Telomerase activity is required for the regenerative potential of CD34+ HSPCs independent of transcriptional regulation by TERT or TERC. Dietary restriction in mice models suggests a protective role against inflammation.

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Poster: Aviation and Transportation

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Abstract no. 38: Understanding the Factors that Attract Travellers to Buy Airline Tickets Online In Saudi Arabia Saleh Bukhari 1 , Ahmad Ghoneim 2, Charles Dennis 3 1,2 ISEing, Brunel Business School, 3 Lincoln Business School, University of Lincoln There is still a lack of research in the area of online consumer behaviour towards the online services provided by airline companies due to the specific nature of travellers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; being using the internet for different motivations and buying specific kind of product (e-tickets). This study aims to measure consumersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; electronic satisfaction and intention to purchase tickets from Airlines websites. The results provide better understanding on the factors that attract travellers to adopt the most cost effective distribution channel for Airlines (own website) for ticketing needs. To obtain the study objective, a conceptual framework is developed based on literature pertaining to e-consumer behaviour, web quality, and travel and tourism streams. A detective quantitative methodology was chosen to examine the constructs and the relations within the framework. An online survey targeting actual airline online users (travellers) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is developed with items covering 9 constructs: Information Quality (IQ), System Quality (SQ), Perceived usefulness (PU), Perceived ease of use (PEOU),e-Trust (ET), Airline reputation (AR), Price Perception (PP), e-Satisfaction (ES), and Intention to Purchase (IP). Data collection is completed with the help of the two airlines operating in Saudi Arabia and it ended with 494 valid responses. Data Analysis has been done using Structure Equation Modelling (SEM) to test and validate the framework. Findings would help decision makers within airline companies to understand their customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; online behaviour and enable enhancements and modifications to be made to their airline storefront, hence ensuring the satisfaction of potential customers and conversion of visitors into buyers.

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Poster: Business and Economics

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Abstract no. 52: An exploration of the role of culture in the building of Business-to-Business relationships in the Saudi Telecom Market Waheed Baghdadi The impact of culture in marketing relationships has become more significant as companies expand into global markets. Understanding the nature of relationships across cultures is therefore critical to organizational expansion. Saudi culture has a significant impact on relationships in B2B marketing in business, especially in the telecommunications industry, where both the majority of clients and employees are Saudis. The imperatives for change and adjustments in MR will affect STC as they will other indigenous telecommunications companies. The purpose of this paper is to examine existing cross-cultural marketing theory developed in a business-to-consumer (B2C) context to apply this theory in a B2B context, by investigating B2B relationships in Saudi Telecom Company (STC), a key telecommunications company in Saudi Arabia with hundreds of partners. The investigation adopts a case study research strategy approach to explore how a growing middle-eastern telecommunications company absorbs cultural awareness into its B2B relationships. Data was elicited by interviewing 29 STC partners, and accessing and analysing secondary data from the company. The findings to date suggest that as the company grows it needs to develop B2B cross-cultural awareness at both a local and global level. Understanding the role of culture in the building of B2B relationships will make a significant contribution and be of great value for both academics and practitioners to expand their interest in the Middle East. The commercial gains to be acquired by STC and the Saudi telecommunications industry as a whole may be massive.

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Abstract no. 60: Control Mechanisms of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) over their Subsidiaries in S.A Jaithen Alharbi Brunel Business School, Brunel University The overarching aim of this study is to examine the influence of the structural, relational and cognitive dimensions of knowledge sharing in of foreign subsidiaries of MNEs located in Saudi Arabia. The impact of these flows on the performance of subsidiaries is also investigated. The study thus reflects on the influence made by MNEs being a powerful actors contributing in the Middle East region developments. We adopt the typology on four control categories found in the literatureâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;personal centralised control, bureaucratic formalised control, output control, control by socialisation and networks and find that larger sized parents exercise higher controls on their subsidiaries. As the size of the subsidiary increases, the level of autonomy and level of informal communication between the subsidiary and HQ and fellow subsidiaries decreases. Autonomy in Oriental subsidiaries is greater than in American subsidiaries. European and Oriental subsidiaries exercise less output and bureaucratic controls. A larger number of managers from HQ leads to greater informal controls. Informal control is higher for older firms.

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Abstract no. 129: Saudi Travel Agenciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; attitudes towards the acceptance of Online Services Khald Alatawy Dept of Strategic Management & Marketing Leicester business school, De Montfort University This paper investigates the experience of online booking with the technology currently used by travel agencies. A qualitative, exploratory approach to research is adopted, with a focus on investigating Saudi travel agentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; utilisation and experience of booking systems, along with their attitudes towards and propensity toward adopting online booking processes. The paper also focuses on the travel agentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; perspective, and identifies barriers to the implementation of online booking technology. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers and staff at selected travel agencies in Saudi Arabia. A technology acceptance model (TAM) was applied and developed to address online booking and purchases in the travel industry, and to explain the factors influencing user acceptance of this. Findings showed that customer culture, lack of customer trust and security, the e-payment process, lack of government support, internet service connections, and the level of understanding of the services and benefits all have a considerable influence on the perceived usefulness and ease of use of online booking/purchasing and its acceptance

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Abstract no. 141: The Impact of the Customer on I.S. Project Escalation From the Viewpoint of Agency Theory Wael Bukhary Business School, Nottingham University This research provides a new perspective to investigating the phenomenon of project escalation in I.S. development by applying agency theory. As a result, it has adopted the assumption that the customer suffers challenges of incompetence when it comes to the transfer of knowledge to the developers. It also investigates the process of knowledge transfer, in addition to identifying the causes of unclear ideas and project escalation in I.S. development practice by interviewing a number of I.S. project managers in Saudi Arabia. The analysis provided a number of themes which could be grouped within two main constructs, namely 'Knowledge Transfer' and 'Project Escalation'. Later, it produced a causal network diagram which presents the relationships between themes within the two main constructs.

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Abstract no. 158: A data model for processing financial market and news data in electronic financialSystem for investors with non- financial expertises the case of Saudi Arabia Abdulaziz Aldaarmi, Dr. Maysam Abbod Brunel University Some studies have found evidence that stock returns are predictable using micro and macro variables, others failed to find any support at all for the ability of certain micro or macro variables to predict returns. In other words, evidence of the predictive ability for a given variable has not always been found. The mixed results make it difficult to determine which particular micro or macro variables (if any) are reliable. Therefore, the problem of this study is to examine whether the predicting power of stock return can be improved in Saudi Arabia Stock Exchange (Tadwal) by using computer-based information systems (artificial networks). Moreover, this study argues the efficiency of Saudi Arabia Stock Exchange. If attempts to improve the predicting power of stock return in Saudi Arabia Stock Exchange through the use computer-based information systems made the market inefficient, then there are two possibilities. This inefficiency may be due to the fact that it is an emerging market. Alternatively, the predicating power of stock return in Saudi Arabia Stock Exchange (ASE) cannot be improved by using the computer-based information systems.

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Abstract no. 211: HR influences on strategy implementation success rate: the case of Saudi Arabia Moataz Alhilou, Dr. Saleema Kauser Manchester Business School, University of Manchester According to Kaplan and Norton (2004) 70% to 90% of organizations fail to realize success from their strategy formulated. Many barriers were mentioned in the literature as possible causes for these failures. However David Norton stated in (Becker et al., 2001) that nowadays human capital form the base of creating value arguing that studies showed that 85% of these values are based on intangible assets. Moreover he argued that since the development of the balanced score card in 1992 little development were seen in this particular area. Consequently this study focus on the human resources perspective and aim to identify how possibly could it be used in order to minimize the current high ratio of implementation failure available in different organizations in a developing country. In order to achieve this objective multiple case studies will be conducted in different organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This will allow the researcher to explore the possible success factors if the implementation went successfully or the possible obstacles related to the human resources in case of failure. After analyzing the outcomes the researcher will try to identify the most recommended roles to be taken from leaders and actors in specific contexts in order to increase the probability of successful implementation.

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Abstract no. 228: Multichannel service retailing: examining the moderating effect of customer characteristics on the relationship between channel performance satisfaction and behavioral intention Afrah Yassin Alsomali Business department, University of Leeds The advent of multiple channels demands a re-examination of the link between customer satisfaction with service retailer performance in the different channels and behavioral intention. Despite the importance of customer satisfaction with retailer channel performance, studies which specifically addressed this relationship in the multichannel context are rare, as stated by Van Birgelen et al., (2006). Therefore, objectives of this study are: to re-examine the relationship between satisfaction and behavior intention in multichannel retail banking environment. Determine the role of personality trait variables and demographic variables as moderators of this relationship. Finally, the impact of customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction with retail bank multichannel performance has on behavior intention. A survey was distributed among 500 customers of Saudi banks. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is employed to assess the fit of the measurement model. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and multi group analysis is going to be used to test the hypothesis.

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Abstract no. 291: Family Business Agency Problems, Ownership Concentration and Corporate performance: Theory and evidence from Saudi Arabia Mohammed Saied AlGhamdi The University Of Hull Agency costs, ownership concentration and firm performance are three constructs that have been extensively examined in the finance literature. In the Saudi Arabia economic structure there are a large number of family owned businesses, and the significant involvement of the Saudi government in the private sector (non family). In general, a limited number of studies have provided definitions of family firms in the context of capital market research. Burch (1972) examined the top 300 manufacturing and 50 merchandising and other companies based on the 1965 Fortune 500 list, to determine the number of firms that were family controlled. He found that more than 47% of these publicly held firms were controlled by families.

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Abstract no. 307: Women Customer Behaviour in Online Shopping: A study on the Fashion Sector in Saudi Arabia Eman Saleh Alkhalifah The University of Manchester The aim of the research is to identify the antecedents of online consumer behaviour in the fashion industry of Saudi Arabia with respect to women. For accomplishing the research aim, the research objectives are focused on developing a model which will provide a country specific knowledge in the area, enable comparison with the findings from other countries and contribute to the theoretical frame in the emerging area of Online Consumer Behaviour. The research topic is of significance for the contemporary organisations due to the evolution of Internet and the continuous growth of e-commerce on global level. In the process fashion has been one of the sector, in which the marketers have actively been using the Internet to promote its products since Internetâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s introduction in the marketing efforts of companies. Saudi Arabia is not an exception from these trends, which is why an understanding of the consumer behaviour in the online environment in the country requires more attention. This study aimed contributing in the development of the theory in the area of online consumer behaviour by developing an empirical model for online consumer behaviour and contributing to the growing discipline of consumer behaviour. A model which can allow comparison of the findings with the findings from other countries, allowing for the development of aggregate cross-national analyses in the future; and The researchers have approached the issue of online consumer behaviour extensively during the past decade; however, without producing a dominant design, or a model. Many have approached the issue through application of the rational consumer decision models in online environments as is the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TBP). Others, motivated by the weaknesses of the rational models, approached the issue through exploring the impact of psychology â&#x20AC;&#x201C;heuristics- even developing combined adapted models to online environments, as is the online adaptation of the popular model of Engel, Kollat, and Blackwell, or the EKB. These existing models of online consumer behaviour are significant since they shape the scope of the research (conceptual framework) despite the country-specific and industry-specific context of the study. As a result, the research approach of the study although based on the rational modelâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s foundation includes environmental, institutional, and person specific factors with culture specific components of consumer behaviour. Therefore, the research design defines a formal, explanatory study which builds on previous literature findings, where a survey is the main research strategy.

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Abstract no 310: Exploring the Factors that Determine a Corporate Socially Responsible (CSR) Bank in Saudi Arabian Banking Context By Ahmed Ajina Business School, University of Hull Supervisors: Dr. David Harness, Dr. Dianne Dean The Aim of this study is to identify and understand the range of factors that defines CSR within retail banking and how these shape stakeholders‘ perceptions, to measure SA retail bank CSR engagement to judge the depth of commitment, and to determine the factors that impact on CSR within the banking sector, to identify drivers, barriers and opportunities for deeper engagement. The stance of the study is that CSR has to be judged from a range of stakeholders and thus it will build on the ―Management Stakeholders‘ Framework‖ which was first designed by Freeman (1984) and then developed by Clarkson (1995). CSR and banking industry are extensively researched subjects; however they are not often viewed in the same context, especially in the emerging markets and developing countries (Abrol, 2002), it is notable that there is no worldwide standard definition of CSR because of the nature of CSR concept, in addition to the ongoing development of concept. This emphasises the need to better understand the contextual factors the shape the CSR organization (Rahman, 2011), and different industries and businesses require different forms of CSR. So, CSR should be tailored to the industry along with the organization strategy (Rowley et al., 2000). The same applies to cultural values. The values that might determine the characteristics of CSR bank in the West may differ from those that determine a CSR bank in the East (Nijhof, 2006). This study consist of four phases; extracting the factor that determine CSR organizations on the west from the CSR literature, analysing the CSR secondary data published by the Saudi local banks, interviewing the CSR managers in the Saudi local banks, and distributing a questionnaire to primary stakeholders (shareholders, employees and customers). This study will contribute to the current knowledge by adding clarity to CSR literature knowledge by determining the factors that shape CSR organizations, and by identifying the drivers, barriers, and opportunities that affect understanding of CSR. It will also contribute to the business practices by allowing local banks in Saudi Arabia to gain better understanding of the factors that determine CSR banks of better engagement. Moreover, it will have a methodological contribution by utilizing a mixed method approach to gain deeper and more comprehensive views of the phenomenon under investigation. The majority of previous researches have applied quantitative research approaches (Olsen L E & Peretz A, 2011).

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Abstract no 385: Dwelling fires in Saudi Arabia: A review Faisal Alsharabi and Dr. Mumtaz Kamala School of Computing and Informatics, University of Bradford In recent years, residential dwellings in Saudi Arabia have experienced increased incidences of fire. In 2002-2011, Saudi fire department responded to an estimated average of 8653 dwelling fires annually. The results of the study show that dwelling fires caused an annual average of 542 civilian injuries and cost SAR 118 million in direct property damage. There were 66 civilian deaths annually due to dwelling fires reported during this time period. Major causes of dwelling fires include electrical fires, home fires involving heating equipment, Children playing with fire, home fire involving cooking equipment and intentional fires with criminal intent. It gives a detailed overview of the relationship between the relevant causes and the incidences of fire. Furthermore, this data allows us to compare Saudi dwelling fires with other nations having geographical, social and economical similarities with Kingdom of Saudi Arabia & also aids in developing strategies in further minimisation of dwelling fires.

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Abstract no. 460: Employees’ perception of performance appraisal process: a case study of SABIC Alharbi Saleh Business school, University of Hull Employees‘ performance appraisal (PA) is an essential tool used by organizations to develop and improve employees‘ competencies and skills, and so assure organizations‘ survival. In recent years research has moved from a psychometric approach, such as rater accuracy and rating error studies, to the qualitative aspect of PA where employees‘ reactions (Levy and Williams, 2004a) and perceptions of performance appraisal are seen as indicators of success and effectiveness. Employees‘ satisfactions with the system are indicated by scholars as the major indicator of employee perception of fairness (Cardy and Dobbins, 1994; Cawley et al., 1998; Keeping and Levy, 2000; Murphy and Cleveland, 1995). The research will focus on the employees‘ perceptions of fairness in performance appraisal in Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and will use semi-structured interviews for collecting primary data.

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Abstract no. 513: Job Satisfaction, Customer Service and Flexible Working in the Hotel Sector: a two Case Study Based Analysis Saham Alismail College of Business School University of Birmingham Abstract-In the This project critically analyses the theories, concepts and previous research on employee retention and performance strategies, job satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and flexible working as a retention strategy. Flexible working is discussed in-depth as it is one of the employment strategies that can improve job satisfaction through the provision of flexible working hours and arrangements, for example, part-time work and working-from-home. Job satisfaction can improve retention as well as enhance performance. There is therefore a specific focus on flexible working in this study. This paper aims to explore these themes by investigating the links between 1) job satisfaction 2) employee retention strategies and 3) customer satisfaction within hospitality organisations. The research will focus on the particular role of flexible working arrangements considering whether the provision of such arrangements enhances the job satisfaction of hospitality employees and contributes towards employee retention. The sample of employees studied in this research are males and female with children under 15 years old, as this group arguably benefits most from flexible working arrangements. The research also aims to conduct a comparison between hospitality organisations in the UK and UAE. The research may also consider a sample of men and women who are cares of adults.

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Abstract no. 520: The Adoption of Total Quality Management in Saudi Hospitals Abdulrahman Hamad AlRabeah Glasgow Caledonian University Quality has been a major concern in Saudi hospitals. Despite the high expenditure by the Saudi government on health care facilities, the health care system is still suffering from long waiting times, medical errors and deteriorating service. Total quality management as a holistic approach to integrate all organizational functions to meet customer needs and the organization objectives is used to enhance the efficiency of the health care systems. In this study, the adoption of TQM in the Saudi hospitals is investigated through three cases of selected hospitals which differ in their source of funding and the length of TQM experience. The study explores the main factors which account for the success of TQM in those hospitals, the reasons behind the TQM implementation, and the obstacles and cultural challenges for its efficient adoption. Also, the benefits gained from the application of TQM in relation to its improvements to customer satisfaction and efficiency are examined The study results aim to develop helpful guidelines to build up a paradigm for successful implementation of TQM in Saudi hospitals, in order to realize its full benefits.

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Abstract no. 705: Beyond Mobile Advertising: an investigation study of customer engagement and empowerment behaviour via mobile devices in relation to marketing communication campaigns in Saudi Arabia Ibrahim Alotaibi and Chanaka Jayawardhena Hull University The importance of customer engagement to sustain and foster business growth in interactive environment has been recognised practitioner literature. It has also been observed that such customers become empowered. Yet, there has been very little, if any, academic enquiry examining these concepts. Thus, the aim of this research is to examine customer engagement behaviour and customer empowerment in the context of mobile communication. A conceptual model is built based on the theoretical foundations of technology acceptance model (TAM). This model seeks to explain the level of engagement and empowerment of customers in mobile marketing campaigns. The inquiry extends to examine the impact of moderating factors that influence customer engagement and empowerment. Moreover, this research will investigate the antecedents of customer engagement and its possible consequences. Following Churchillâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s (1979), it is proposed that scales will be developed to capture engagement and empowerment. Given the positivist foundations of this study, a quantitative approach will be used to collect data. An online questionnaire will be hosted on a web server and the link posted on several popular electronic forums in Saudi Arabia. Following data collection, appropriate data analysis techniques will be employed. It is proposed that multiple regression equations along with structural equation modelling will deliver results. The contribution of the study is both theoretical and practical. On a theoretical level, two new scales will be developed to measure out the engagement and empowerment behaviour. These will provide the basic understanding to customer behaviour in mobile marketing communication. One the other hand, it will improve customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; relationships with businesses and enhance the communication practises, at the managerial level, and improve companiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; return on investment, as well. Better understanding of customers will also help marketing professionals to better segment and target the appropriate customers to enhance their loyalty.

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Poster: Education and Linguistics

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Abstract no. 198: Investigating Saudi Students' Knowledge of the IELTS Test and their Attitude towards it in an Essential English Programme (EEP) Ahmad Alsagoafi University of Exeter The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s leading high stakes test that assesses the English Language Proficiency of candidates who speak languages other than English and wish to gain entry into universities where English is the language of instruction. Acknowledging this popularity and importance to learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), this small scale enquiry investigated Saudi students' knowledge of the IELTS test and their attitude towards it. This study was carried out in an Essential English Programme in Saudi Arabia where 30 students participated in this study. It found that male and female students aged 25 and under, and 26 and over held similar levels of knowledge and attitude. In addition, their knowledge of the test did not correlate significantly with their attitude. The study points out that positive or negative attitude held by males or females who are 25 years or under or 26 years or more have no effect on knowledge.

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Abstract no. 212: The syntax of the subject position in Standard Arabi Mansour Qazan Alotaibi Essex University, United Kingdom The subject position is one of the fundamental phenomena in Standard Arabic at the syntax-morphology interface. This paper shows with empirical evidences that the preverbal NP (Noun Phrase) subject must be interpreted as a topic. It argues that the SVO (subject + verb + object) order is not derived via movement but rather via base-generation account. In this sense, (i) the preverbal NP is base-generated in the specefier position of the Topic projection, (ii) the real subject appears as a little pro. (iii) the relationship between the topicconstituent and the little pro is assumed to be under correlation. The analysis will be within the Minimalist framework.

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Abstract no. 236: Problems Faced by Learners of English as a Second Language: An Intercultural Communication Perspective Lamyaa Abdullah Bin Obaid Anglia Ruskin University Faculty of Arts The university students in the UK who come from Saudi Arabia find the cultural interaction overwhelming because of the wide cultural gap between the two countries. When these students prepare to come to the UK, the main focus of the preparatory courses is EAP or achieving linguistic competence whereas, intercultural competence is overlooked. Their perception of Britain is much influenced by their own cultural background. I conducted a pilot study with two Saudi female students, I interviewed them regarding what challenges they faced whilst studying the English language in the UK. Both students responded explaining that they experienced an astonishing culture shock. I would like to highlight the importance of cultural competence in English language teaching and my research would present a case to the Saudi Education Ministry of Education that intercultural communication should also be taught in the university preparatory classes in Saudi Arabia. The research will focus on university level Arabic-speaking learners of English, investigating linguistic competence and the impact of intercultural communication on the Englishlearning outcome. Achievement of these two areas will be the main of focus of this study. The syllabus of the preparatory courses in Saudi Arabia will also be critically evaluated to find out if it is fit for purpose and if it prepares students to adapt to culturally diverse lifestyle in the UK. The research will be based on 50 or more Arabic-speaking international students at selected universities in the UK. It ranges from pre-intermediate to upper intermediate or a 5.5 band in IELTS exam. Then via questionnaires, interviews, observations and assessments, various languages aspects will be investigated. Also, the impact of inter-cultural communication will be investigated including examination of their emotional experiences.

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Abstract no. 258: Exploring Parents’ Attitudes Towards Teaching English to Children in Elementary Schools in Saudi Arabia Shereifa Saad AlMohareb London Metropolitan University There is a trend towards an early start in English internationally that resulted in many developments and because of this international pressure, Saudi Arabia's Higher Committee of Education Policy mulled a program that aimed at introducing English language as part of primary schools' curriculum. The purpose of this study is to add to the body of knowledge regarding Saudi parents‘ attitudes toward the learning of a foreign language by children in elementary schools. The study will be limited to Saudi parents whose children are studying or have studied in elementary schools in Saudi Arabia. By the end of the research study, I hope to be able to identify the reasons behind parents‘ approving / disapproving of teaching English in elementary schools in Saudi Arabia and whether they concur with the research hypothesis that some parents feared that the introduction of English to primary schools would lead to the Westernization of Arab children. Furthermore, whether parents‘ educational level, as well as the factor of age as when to starting teaching their children English, might affect their attitudes towards the language.

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Abstract no. 316: The Viability of Using Tabletop Computer for ESL Collaborative Reading Jaber Ali Maslamani Newcastle University This poster demonstrates part of a work-in-progress that reports on the design, development, and evaluation of a Digital Collaborative Strategic Reading (DCSR) application with regard to its effectiveness in improving reading comprehension of ESL (English as a Second Language) students. The DCSR application allows students to read collaboratively on multi-touch and multi-user digital tabletop displays that support both face-to-face and computerbased interaction simultaneously. The application is designed to provide systematic instruction on tabletop computers as a learning environment using four main comprehension strategies that form the Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) instructional approach. DCSR involves a number of stages; in the first stage, the students are given a preview of the text. In the second and third stages, they are encouraged to brainstorm about the subject generally and then predict what the document will contain. In the next stage, they can identify unknown words from within the text, one paragraph at a time. The unknown words are then collaboratively examined using various digital â&#x20AC;&#x2022;fix-upâ&#x20AC;&#x2013; strategies to help students understand the meaning of these unknown words. Once all the paragraphs are viewed, the final (wrap-up) stage requires learners to generate questions to summarize what they have learned. The study addresses the following questions: (1) What is the impact of the tabletop-based reading system on learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; reading scores with regard to reading assessments? (2) How do learners collaboratively construct meaning on the tabletop computer? To answer these research questions, the subjects used the DCSR application on the tabletop computers in groups of four. This study reports on the design of the reading application and the administration of the study, but will focus on the analysis of the data from the different sources, and present insights into the nature of collaborative reading using the DCSR application on a tabletop computer.

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Abstract no. 325: Investigating the Effectiveness of the Provision Given to Spld/Dyslexia Pupils in Primary Schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Layla Alshareef, Dr. Deirdre Martin School of Education, University of Birmingham Even though the first verse in the Holy book (Quran) says explicitly ―Read‖, each year there are thousands of children in Saudi Arabia who fail to achieve their full potential in education due to difficulties in reading and spelling which can be attributed to Dyslexia. The British Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia as a specific learning difficulty that mainly affects the development of literacy and language related skills. Dyslexia is predominantly a neurological disorder which much research has been carried out (Shaywitz and Shaywitz 2004: Coltheart 1996). Although in Saudi Arabia there is an acknowledgement of dyslexia as a type of learning disability, little has been done on the subject. Study by Al-hano (2006) shows that five per cent of Saudi pupils have dyslexia. This figure is hard to verify because there is no specific procedure for assessing or referring children suspected to have dyslexia. The issues of assessment and referral depend largely on the teachers‘ competence in distinguishing between dyslexia and poor educational background, as a result, there are cases of children with dyslexia who are not identified (UNESCO, 2010). Unfortunately, reading difficulties caused by dyslexia affect every part of the school curriculum, which in effect seriously weakens success in school for children with dyslexia. The purpose of this study is to explore the provision for children with dyslexia in Saudi Arabia and examine the strategies applied by teachers in supporting them achieve their full potential. The study will explore Social-cultural theory on how children‘s identities are developed which then influence their language development. Using an ethnographic case study approach, data will be collected from students, teachers and parents using semistructured interviews, observation, and document analysis from two schools selected through purposive sampling. The study further investigates teachers‘ perceptions towards inclusion of children with dyslexia in mainstream primary schools as well as the government‘s policy on inclusion of children with dyslexia. This study is significant in the sense that it will: (a) Highlight measures that can be taken to improve the provision for children with Dyslexia in Saudi Arabia. (b) Create awareness not only to the teachers but also to the parents/guardians and policy makers on the importance of collaboration in supporting children with dyslexia. (c) Provide useful knowledge on factors that influence and contribute to creating a school environment that would accommodate all children regardless of their individual differences.

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Abstract no. 399: Collaborative Writing Feedback on Tabletop Computers: An Exploratory Case Study Suliman Alsuhibany, Jaber Ali Maslamani Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne This poster reports on a study that explores the use of tabletop computer as a learning environment for collaborative writing feedback among English as a second language (ESL) students. The study aims to examine how the use of tabletop computer can help to create a learning environment that is facilitative for second language collaborative writing feedback. Although research on the use of tabletop technology in learning is still at its infancy, current available studies are associated with positive results with regard to promoting learning through simultaneous face-to-face and computer-based collaboration. In order to introduce tabletop technology to collaborative writing feedback, the researchers have designed and developed an application (iCoFeed) that allows students to collaborate with each other while providing spoken and written feedback. The design has five stages (1) planning, (2) feedback on planning, (3) composing, (4) feedback on composing, and (5) correcting. Planning for the writing topic, composing, and correcting are individual strategies while feedback is done collaboratively. The study addressed the following research questions: (1) what is the impact of the tabletop-based collaborative writing feedback system on students‘ outcomes as measured by the pre-test and posttest? (2) How do students collaboratively provide feedback with regard to content, style, and structure? The study adopted a repeated measure design for data collection. Participants were tested under two experimental conditions, the paper-based feedback (A) and the tabletop-based feedback (B). Sixteen students were divided randomly into four groups of four students. To avoid order effects, Groups 1 and 3 received intervention ‗A‘ followed by intervention ‗B‘. Group 2 and 4 received intervention ‗B‘ followed by intervention ‗A‘. Data was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to bring insights into the nature of collaborative writing feedback using ‗iCoFeed‘ on a tabletop computer.

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Abstract no. 434: Impact of web applications on student-lecturer relationship Saeed AlshahraniL, DR Rupert Ward University of Huddersfield This research aims to investigate the impact of using web technology on the student-lecturer relationship in Saudi Arabia. Data will be collected from three main universities and samples will be chosen from those who use web applications in their education. The research targets students who frequently use Internet websites for study purposes and as a communication channel with lecturers.

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Abstract no. 474: Exploring the nature of the Saudi English teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; beliefs and attitudes toward EFL and its effect on their teaching practice. Saleh Alresheed London University The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is emerging as a global player in world politics and commerce. To sustain its growth and development it needs to be involved in international dialog at all levels, both state and street. English is the Lingua Franca of the world, and the Saudi government has focused on increasing the proficiency of English at all levels of education. To this end English as a Foreign Language (EFL) has been made mandatory at schools and institutes of higher education. However, the quality of Saudi learners EFL is abysmal. Even after years of study, most students are unable to communicate in English, and have only the most basic reading and writing skills. This state of learner incompetence can be partly attributed to negative teacher attitudes, beliefs and unproductive classroom practices. This paper examines the reasons behind negative teacher attitudes and their relation to classroom practices. It was found that almost half the EFL teachers in KSA are biased against English. These biases have led to demotivated teachers; who are teaching only for economic security. They use normative language teaching methods, and learners have little communicative practice in English within or without the classroom. Furthermore, such methods promote rote learning and learners are dispirited, displaying no motivation to learn, and focusing only on passing exams. The Saudi EFL education system needs an urgent overhaul to address the root cause of this learner apathy and incompetence in EFLâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; the negative attitudes of Saudi EFL teachers.

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Abstract no. 702: CENTRA Virtual classroom system: Understanding studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; acceptance and usage Khulood Alsiraihi E-learning or virtual learning systems are essential tools for todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s educational process in Higher Education institutions around the globe. This is because they allow access to education for the least advantageous groups of learners. Understanding the issues that might motivate or impede the acceptance and use of a virtual system is a first step to a successful learning experience. This research focuses on understanding the acceptance and use of the CENTRA system used by the distance learning students at king Abdul Aziz university. CENTRA is an online learning environment that is used by King Abdul Aziz university to offer virtual classrooms for the students enrolled in distance learning courses. The Virtual Class Room System (CENTRA) system is one of the latest techniques employed for Distance Learning through the internet. These are smart virtual classrooms, which provide the required components for a dynamic interaction between a student and the teacher. It is one of the main systems in Distance Learning featuring open interaction during the learning process. This study adopts two models to build a conceptual model to explain the virtual system acceptance and use. It employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which is a theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. The model suggests that when users are presented with a new technology, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when they will use the system. The study also uses the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures. The study utilises a questionnaire built on Davis and Moore and Benbasat items to measure new technologies use. The study sample consists of KAU students taking English 101 and 102 through the distance-learning mode. The students are King Abdul Aziz university students in their preparatory year. The outcomes of this research will be of value to universities and tertiary institutions adopting virtual classroom systems. The results are hoped to guide e-learning management and policy-makers in the design and initial phases of implementing an online learning system.

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Abstract no. 707: Do Computers Games Really Motivate Children to Learn Faster and Better? Sadaf Gilani and Tracy Josh Department of Early Education, Aberdeen College Since more than two decades computer-based learning has become an integrated part of the education system. Many researchers suggested that using appropriate technology can improve children‘s thinking ability and help them to develop their cognitive skills. Some researchers has emphasised that computer use can be a valuable learning experience when it is utilised in a pedagogically appropriate manner and is integrated into the naturalistic learning environment. Computer games can promote many skills of children‘s such as cognitive development, memory, hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, imagination and creativity. However, many researchers claim that prolonged periods of playing computer games can have many negative impacts such as physical inactivity, obesity, social isolation, learning wrong values, and in extreme cases can lead to anti-social behaviour. In our study we investigated the impacts of computers-based learning approach on children‘s behaviour. We followed the individual children observation approach to assess the impacts of computer games on children‘s behaviour. We observed the changes of behaviour for 30 children, aged 3-5 years old at one of the private nurseries in Aberdeen city, Scotland. The study concluded that there was a clear change in the behaviour of children of played computer games such as rudeness, being uncooperative and becoming more aggressive. We recommended that the computer games should be carefully selected according the age and stage of the child and the children should not be allowed to play more than 30-40 minutes per day.

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Poster: Engineering & Architecture

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Abstract no. 26: Monitoring of an industrial process using robust adaptive multi-block partial least squares Bothinah Altaf School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University The continuous monitoring of an industrial process is critical in helping ensure the maximisation of production and the maintenance of product quality. Data collected from industrial processes is typically dynamic and correlated in nature. One approach to the development of a model that describes data of this form is adaptive partial least squares (APLS). APLS is an approach that recursively updates a PLS model that describes process behaviour. APLS is an online projection based modelling technique that can be extended to the case where a process is separated into different blocks based on specific process criteria, multi-block APLS. Monitoring metrics include Hotelling T² and square prediction error (SPE) can help identify abnormal behaviour in specific process units as well as in the whole process. The main challenge with APLS based modelling and monitoring schemes is the occurrence of outlying observation in the data. The presence of an outlying observation in APLS results in a model that is not reflective of process operation resulting in the process representation providing unreliable monitoring and process predictions. This presentation describes an extension to APLS, robust adaptive multi-block partial least squares (RAMBPLS) where the goal is the development of monitoring charts for individual blocks that are based on a model that is adaptive and resistant to outliers. Three approaches have been developed to deal with outliers. The first removes the outlier based on a combined index. The second approach uses a weight calculated to reduce the impact of the outlying observation and including it in the updating process. The third uses the statistical rule of outliers along with the combined index to differentiate between the statistical outliers and the outlying observation from process malfunction.

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Abstract no. 94: Mobile and Web Interface for Medical Services Abdullah Alsharif, Dr Tahmina Ajmal Department of computer Science & Technology, University of Bedfordshire This work is a thesis project on the development and implementation of an online system that is addressed to patients who suffer diabetes and high blood pressure, or any other interested user in these two diseases. The registered users of the system are divided into two groups; patients and doctors. Registered patients who can access the system services can use these services to educate themselves on these diseases and learn how to measure their blood sugar and blood pressure. Once they have taken these readings, the users have the option to submit the results to their profiles request an appointment with a doctor and leave their doctor a message. The other group of system users consists of doctors who can use the system to access their patient profiles, approve appointments and read messages. The system has been designed based on computer engineering perspective using advanced techniques in computer system architecture. Regarding the prevalence of mobile devices, the system is accessible via any computer operating system or browser, as well as via any mobile device using the WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) development.

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Abstract no. 131: The Impact of Climate Change on the Infrastructure and how the Infrastructure will be Resilient Yahya alfraidi University of liverpool Climate change is no longer an insignificant scientific issue; it is a significant trend that has profound impact on infrastructural assets world wide. Examples of this infrastructure include roads, railways, sea ports, airports, water supply and energy systems among others. Infrastructural assets have a long operational life; therefore, they are not only sensitive to the existing climatic conditions but also to the climatic variations occurring over decades of their use. This dissertation evaluates the impact of climate change on infrastructural assets through research and case studies. In reference to the findings from the research, various strategies geared at improving the resilience of infrastructural materials towards climate change will be discussed. A general framework for evaluating the effects of climate change on planning and design will be presented. The framework will help utilities to identify options that can cope with climate change and related uncertainties. Reference will be made to six recent primary and secondary academic sources. According to Hallegatte (2008), the principle threats presented to infrastructure by climate change include high temperatures, intense precipitation, wetter winters and dryer summers, increased storminess and rise in ocean levels. Some of the implications of these factors include scour of bridges, instability of embankments, rail buckling, and tampering with water treatment systems and processes. According to The Royal Academy of Engineering Infrastructure Report (2011), increased precipitation leads to flooding risk which, in turn, affects all infrastructural components. However, these impacts can be curbed by application of resilient strategies. Infrastructural resilience refers to a set of measures that aim at reducing harm or utilizing beneficial opportunities in response to adverse climate changes (Allard et al., 2002). Responding to climate change requires two principle strategies; mitigation and adaptation. In preparing infrastructural assets to be resilient to climate change, it is prudent to prioritise on efficient land use approaches, proper designing and renovation of houses, adequate funding of national infrastructure, managing the natural resources effectively and efficient emergency planning (Nicholls et al., 2008; Means et al., 2010). Achievement of more climate resilient infrastructure requires prominent consideration of climate change in planning, commissioning, designing, building and maintaining of infrastructural facilities (Larsen et al., 2008:446).

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Abstract no. 149: Computer Vision and Molecular Dynamic Integration Keywords: Molecular Dynamics (MD), Computer Vision, Gestures Recognition, Artificial intelligence, Material Modelling and Manipulate the Molecules. Rajab Mohammed Alsayegh This research study sets out to develop better molecular/nanostructure design tools that are interactive helping users with limited experience to better understand what it is they try to design, to try to simulate a type of force to combine and separate the molecules and to interact with the digital world without markers (keyboard and mouse) by using physical work or the senses. Furthermore, this research is remarkably challenging and innovative because it will open up new horizons for development and knowledge by building a clear base from which to develop the computer vision also enabling the design and creation of new materials. The aim of this research to reach to Multi Scale Approach by integrating computer vision (e.g. Gesture recognition & Artificial intelligence), Molecular Dynamic (e.g. Molecular modelling & Material modelling) and intuitive understating of atomic scale. By doing this, we will be able to interact with molecules via our senses, for example, by using our hand gestures to deal with molecules. All these topics that will be integrated have been analysed and developed to highly advanced levels. For example, scientists who specialise in the area of computer vision have created a revolutionary device called Kinect that can be used and manipulated in different areas. This device is able to control PC computers and laptops via hand gestures without using markers (mouse & keyboard). In addition to this, scientists in atomic scale and molecular modelling have been able to analyse molecular structure on a scale of 0.1-10nm using Atomistic-based simulations such as molecular dynamics, molecular mechanics and Monte Carlo-based methods (M. Fermeglia & S. Pricl, 2009). These methods are now widely used in material design. The fast and precise prediction of new computational material properties is needed before they can be further developed and produced effectively. These properties must be predicted before preparation, processing and portraying qualities in order to be effective. This is especially important where material properties are dependent on their nanostructure, such as in the field of polymer nanocomposites. â&#x20AC;&#x2022;Advances in computational materials science in general will continue to facilitate the understanding of materials and materials processing, the prediction of properties and behaviour, and the design of new materials and new materials phases, thus facilitating the application of process system engineering to more sophisticated and innovative processesâ&#x20AC;&#x2013;(M. Fermeglia & S. Pricl, 2009). Interactive pg. 387


simulations are evolving quickly and effectively Molecular Dynamic and Computer Vision 20/06/2012

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Abstract no. 206: CFD Modelling of a Closed Two-Phase Thermosyphon Bandar Fadhl, Luiz C. Wrobel School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University Interest in the use of heat pipe technology for heat recovery and energy saving in a vast range of engineering applications has been on the rise in recent years. A heat pipe is a two-phase heat transfer device with a highly effective heat transfer rate through evaporating and condensing a fluid that is circulating in a sealed container [1, 2]. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to study the details of two-phase flow phenomena during the operation of a heat pipe, that otherwise could not be visualised by empirical or experimental work. Furthermore, CFD has the ability to simulate the heat and mass transfer processes inside the heat pipe. These include evaporation, condensation and phase change material. Therefore, the central objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive CFD modelling to cover details of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena during the operation of straight wickless heat pipe. A wickless heat pipe or thermosyphon relies on gravitational forces to return the working fluid to the evaporator. This is different from a wick heat pipe, where the working fluid is returned from the condenser by capillary forces [2]. In a thermosyphon, heat is added to the evaporator where a liquid pool exists, changing the liquid into vapour. The high temperature and pressure cause the vapour to flow and pass through the adiabatic section toward the condenser. The vapour adjacent to the condenserâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s wall condenses and releases its latent heat that was absorbed in the evaporator. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator due to gravity [3]. ANSYS FLUENT 13.0 and the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method have been applied for the modelling of a closed two-phase thermosyphon. In particular, for the twophase simulation, FLUENTâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s capability has been tested to model the evaporation and condensation phenomena inside the heat pipe. The predicted CFD results have been compared with the results presented in [1]. A total length of 100 cm of a closed copper tube was used as the thermosyphon geometry, with 1.9 and 1.75 cm for outer and inner diameters, respectively. The model considered water as the working fluid. The CFD results of this work show that FLUENT with the VOF method can successfully model the complex phenomena inside the thermosyphon. The predicted results of evaporation and condensation showed similar behaviour to the results presented by Alizadehdakhel et al. [1].

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Abstract no. 226: New understandings on spatial and temporal distribution of shear stress field inside vessels for storing materials in powder and granular form Antony, S. Joseph and Saeed Albaraki Institute of Particle Science and Engineering University of Leeds Understanding of the processing behaviours of materials in granular and powder form is of high interest to number of engineering industries for example, mining, mineral, pharmaceutical, geotechnical and for advanced material processing applications. However such understandings are not yet clear due to significantly complex and non-homogeneous nature of processing characteristics displayed by powders and grains under industrial environments especially when viewed below micron scale. In spite of number of recent technological advancements made to characterise internal structural and mechanical properties of materials in powder form, for example X-ray Micro Tomography (XMT), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) and Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPET), these are mostly limited to obtaining the density and velocity variations inside particulate assemblies to a moderate degree of success [1,2]. Here we aspire to develop the ability to probe distribution of stress profiles inside particulate assemblies using advanced Photo Stress Analysis (PSA) tomography. In this, by developing new stress-responsive sensor powders, their birefringent properties even under their self-weight were captured. Such measured signals were then converted to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of maximum shear stress profiles inside powder packing of different geometries as presented here. These developments would allow scientists and engineers in future to understand the fundamental yet complex functional characteristics of materials under both self-weight conditions and other external loadings environment at manufacturing processes.

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Abstract no. 243: The challenge of implementing the eco city concept in practice Moiad Sameer Almadani University of Liverpool Civic Design An Eco city is a human settlement modelled on the self sustaining resilient structure and function of natural ecosystems, there is a growing interest in developing the city to become more sustainable and try to apply this in practice. Governments faced many challenges to apply the concept of eco-city so it is important to give a better understanding of the eco-city concept and help governments to implement this concept by preparing a framework that can be used as guidelines (Zhenghong, 2011). This research aims to analyze the concept of the eco city planning approach and explore how the eco-city can be implemented from theory to practice. The Research objective can be summarizing as the following: To give a better understanding of the eco-city concept by identifying the benefit of eco-city concept and the criteria of eco-city and to explore the challenge of implementing the eco-city theory. This research will focus on 6 key quotations: Q. 1: What is the meaning of eco-city and how can we cicatrice the ecocity? Q.2: What are the benefits of applying the concept of eco-city and how developing eco-city becomes more important? Q.3: How can we plan eco cities? Q.4: How can the eco-city be implemented from theory to practice and what is the challenges that governments face when they implement the eco-city theory? Q 5: What is the recommendation of this research and how we can use it? This research can be described as ‗investigative research‘; an effective ‗interactive-adaptive method‘ will be useful for this case. This method will be consisting of an analytical review of the available literature with reference to eco city and sustainability for urban planning, with a case study approach by conducting some semi-structured interviews.

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Abstract no. 244: Low-Complexity Phase Feedback Scheme for Use in Asynchronous Cooperative Relay Networks F. T. Alotaibi and J. A. Chambers School of Electronic, Loughborough University A novel low-complexity phase feedback scheme is proposed to achieve full cooperative diversity gain within asynchronous cooperative wireless relay networks based on distributed extended orthogonal space-time block code (DEO-STBC) for four relay nodes. In this scheme, the phases of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbol for each sub carrier are rotated according to the feedback from the destination receiver. The lowcomplexity solution is based on exploiting the linear relationship between OFDM sub carriers phase rotations and considering the phase discontinuity. The proposed scheme just needs to feedback the quantized phase angles of the first two sub carriers. Numerical simulations show that the proposed scheme can retain the advantage of perfect feedback scheme with substantially reduction in the feedback overhead.

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Abstract no. 253: Pre-processing Enhancement Techniques For Speech Intelligibility Improvement In Adverse Acoustic Conditions Maryam Al Dabel The Department of Computer Science, Sheffield University Humans listeners experience difficulties understanding speech in the presence of challenging acoustic environments, i.e. additive background noise and reverberation effects. This is a situation that typically occurs in public spaces such as multiplepurpose halls, train stations and airports. The ability to understand speech in acoustic environments is referred to as speech intelligibility. High noise may mask part of speech signal and therefore speech information is not entirely accessible to the listener. Reverberation effects may cause overlap masking in which the reverberant parts of one segment mask the segments that follow which result in misunderstanding the segments following the reverberating segments. Additional challenges facing the listeners might be caused by the lack of prior knowledge related to either the speaker or the listening environments or both. Therefore, techniques for enhancing speech are needed for improving the intelligibility of the target speech signal in speech communication systems. There are two main approaches to enhance the speech namely; pre- and post- processing enhancement techniques. The conventional approach to speech enhancement are postprocessing based, i.e. these methods are (in principle) processing the distorted signal to estimate and reconstruct the clean signal at the receiver-side. More recently proposed the pre-processing based methods in which the speech signal is processed at the transmitter-side prior to transmitting it to acoustic environments. The latter is the main focus of this research project. Using the principle of pre-processing enhancement with the aim to improve the intelligibility of speech is not entirely new, but, so far, the performance of the current techniques has had limited success. Their limitations vary from the computational complexity and efficiency to the possibility of on-line application. There is an ongoing research related to optimising the performance of the modification mechanisms by employing intelligibility measures prior to transmission to specified acoustic background. This poster introduces a modelling framework of the proposed enhancement system based on recent advances in employing speech intelligibility models in order to optimise the enhancement process. The research project will further this concept with the aim of parameterise the intelligibility modelling to specified listener or speaker prior to the optimisation procedure.

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Abstract no. 326: Maximize Mean Torque and Minimize Cogging Torque in PM Machine Fahad mohammed Almutairi, Yasser A Alamoudi School of Electrical engineering at Newcastle University This paper provides a brief literature review on some of the machine types; it covers some of the principles of magnet materials, mainly focusing on explaining cogging torque and explains some methods on how to minimize it. In addition, this study provides the results of the simulation that was carried out in order to investigate how varying magnet span would help to increase the mean torque and minimize the cogging torque.

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Abstract no. 373: High tourque Density Permanent Magnet Machine for Automotive Applications Yasser Abdullah Alamoudi, G.J. Atkinson, B.C. Mecrow, F.M.Almutairi School of Electrical Machines, Newcastle, united kingdom This paper discusses a study of new permanent magnet machine topologies to achieve high torque densities specifically for automotive applications along with mentioning the different types of electric motors which are suitable for automotive applications now a day. Also a comparison between these different machines is given by highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each one of them.

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Abstract no. 417: Value, meaning and affordances of public spaces in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Abdullah N. Addas Sheffield University Phenomenon of place attachment is vast and perceptions of researchers as well as other individuals vary greatly in context of it consequences and impact on different aspects of life. Conceptual framework of this study based on the weaknesses or shortcomings of the previous researches in which scholars have talked about people`s attachment with their homes, neighbourhood, regions or native land. Various psychological precepts have also been revealed in many studies that have been mentioned in the literature review, but no research has been observed on attachment with particular infrastructure or place that ultimately turns into attachment with the entire region. Literature shows that cognitive development, immigration and psychological factors contribute most to set a bond with the place, but no study has pinpointed the addictive aspects in context of place interconnectedness. This research shall also study the topic in addiction context because it is related with the Publics in Saudi Arabia (Smith). Additionally, some other weaknesses have also been noticed in previous studies, which failed to discuss all pros and cons of effects of advancements in technology and globalization that have brought many changes in people `cognitive demands and preferences. Moreover, it is noteworthy that wholesome information regarding attachment with place and behaviour of people towards their surroundings and other members has been left out unclear. This study shall also intend to cover those aspects, which were not discussed in the previous researches and will exclude out those parts that have been repeatedly been discussed in various studies related to place attachment such as childhood memories (Smith). As the topic of the research is place attachment with the public spaces in Jeddah Saudi Arabia is very different and rarely studied, thus a wide variety of literature has been observed for this study, but no research has been conducted yet to find out people` attachment with the public places in Jeddah Saudi Arabia and the problems people face due to their attachment with the region. In some studies, it has noticed that Muslim people are attached with Saudi Arabia for religious purposes mainly because of two important cities of Arab i.e Makkah and Madina. In addition, as Saudi Arabia is an Islamic country so there is no open concept of such places, where alcohol and other substances are easily available. Therefore, the conceptual framework of the study based on the perceptions and attachment of Muslim people with the Public spaces in Jeddah and other factors, which may contribute to interfere their attachment with such places. This research will study public place attachment via multidimensional context and will also consider the observation and notions of attachment with public in Non-Muslim countries. Designed conceptual pg. 396


framework will help in the identification of relevant data needed to gather and study specifically from the people of Jeddah Saudi Arab in order to attain the target of the research. Ideas, such as weaknesses of other studies, addiction with place and negative and positive influences of place attachment on people are some important part of this conceptual framework, which will lead researchers to work according to the proposed research design (Smith).

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Abstract no. 418: Hijazi Sustainability in Old Residential Buildings Fahad Mohammad Allwihan Architecture Department, Derby University The meaning of sustainability was available in the past in most of societies. All resources in that time was taken from natural and natural only. After that, the civilization is dominated on the world and that is making many problem to the planet and making pollution to the environment. Moreover, the sustainable was understood in different places in the world but in Hejaz they were more technicals of using the natural resources. In this research I will present different example of how the Hejaz region were success. Suddenly, in Hejaz the residents were stopped to develop and they start to follow different way and techniques to built their residents houses

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Abstract no. 420: Dimensionality Reduction for Human Action Recognition Using COG/COF Ayman Ahmad I. Alharbiy The University of Sheffield Human Action Recognition (HAR) is the _eld that focus on processing video to understand the behaviour of subjects. Because video contain huge amount of information, it is hard to develop an algorithm that provides an accurate result within reasonable resources, especially for applications like monitoring, where time is precious. Dimensionality reduction is the main entry to achieve such algorithm. In this paper I will present the Correlogram of Oriented Gradient/ Correlogram of Optical Flow (COG/COF) descriptor that utilises the layout information of motion to improve recognition. Furthermore, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is used for more reduction of the descriptor dimensionality. Finally, statically optimum algorithm for the recognition will be used here, the nave Bayes nearest neighbour (NBNN).

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Abstract no. 428: Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic system: P&O with an Irradiance Sensor Method Mohammed Alqarni, Mohamed K Darwish Brunel University In the past decades, there has been a huge growth in the use of the renewable energy sources. Photovoltaic energy is one of these sources but, the high cost and low conversion efficiency have limited the use of such endless energy source. Also the output power of a photovoltaic system (PV) is nonlinear and it is affected by weather conditions, therefore the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) was invented to extract the maximum power from each PV array. In this paper two methods are critically reviewed; Perturb & Observe method (P&O) and Incremental Conductance. A new technique of tracking the maximum power point based on P&O is introduced in this paper. In this technique, a new variable irradiation is added to the measured components to improve the overall performance of the P&O tracking mechanism.

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Abstract no. 430: Control of Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Machine Abdulhamid Alsaqer, Krishna Busawon School of Computing and Engineering, University of Northumbria A brushless doubly fed reluctance machine (BDFRM) is an alternating electrical machine that comprised of two stator windings (primary and secondary windings) and those windings have assorted pole number, different applied frequencies and salient pole rotor. A fixed voltage supply is connected to the primary winding while the secondary winding is inverter fed. The main feature of this machine is that its electromagnetic torque evolves in time in order to take minimum reluctance position for the stator flux. This situation will happen only if the stator field axis almost corresponds with rotor axis. Since there are no brushes, the BDFRM is known to be very reliable. Over the past few years (BDFRM) has been a matter of great research due to the fact that the machine has a tremendous potential for both motoring and generating modes. Therefore, sensor-less torque control is expected to have a huge part in the future drives by many industry professionals. This project is mainly focused on the investigation of the dynamical model and the controllability properties of the BDFRM with the aim of designing a speed controller of the latter. For this purpose, a theoretical model of the machine is described and a software simulation of the latter is carried out in open loop in order to study the properties of the BDFRM. Next, after the controllability analysis, a scalar control to regulate the speed at a constant value is derived. The performance of the controller is shown in simulation using the Matlab/Simulink software. The project motivation came from comparatively simple strategy which exploit the properties of the BDFRM and because there is a partially use of rated power, the running cost of the machine is decreased and which, in turn, increases the machine reliability.

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Abstract no. 449: A novel Design for a New Dual Application of BIPV for Buildings with Parapet Flat Roofs Abdulkarim Albaz and Mohammad Darwish Brunel University, School of Engineering and design Purpose â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative solution of renewable energy solar system by adding a new functionality to the photovoltaic panels. The proposed solution is intended to be better and more reliable when used in houses and buildings of the Middle Eastern countries with parapet flat roofs, especially in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The model for the proposed solution has been designed using a Computer Aided Design (CAD) technique. The model has been developed to serve the simulation methodology of the proposed combined solar and shading system. The model can be used for the integration of different shapes and designs of buildings with different tilt angels and orientation to match the solar direction demand. Practical implications the majority of the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s rooftops in the Middle East has flat surfaces and do not have a pyramid shape rooftops as in most western countries. Hence, this limited the usability of the integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems on their current status. The proposed innovative solution is intended to overcome these limitations. Furthermore, it provides many advantages including the shading cover which are not available in existing designs.

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Abstract no. 483: Behavioural Classroom simulator for Teacher Training in Second Life Fahad Alotaibi, Dr. Jordan Dimitrov Software technology, De Montfort University We present a classroom simulator with 3D avatar based virtual environment using Second Life for the purpose of teacher training. Also, we have created a virtual classroom in Second Life populated with autonomous student avatars controlled by Second Life (SL) bots with Artificial intelligence. Moreover, we wish to provide a rich environment for exploring professional behavioural patterns with the aim of exposing the human teacher trainee to possible student behaviours in the classroom.

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Abstract no. 484: Investigating the relationship between the risk transfer and construction cost in PPP projects in Saudi Arabia Saleh Alzahrani University of Liverpool All parties must understand risk responsibilities, risk event condition, risk preferences and risk management capabilities. Therefore, risk should be transferred to the best party in order to manage it effectively (Wehrung et al. 1988; Al-Bahar and Crandall 1990 cited in Wang and Chou 2003). According to Witt (2010) a successful risk transfer to the party most suited to manage it is evidence to execute construction project within budget estimate which achieves value for money. In traditional procurement, the arrangement has transferred less risk to the contractor while in PPP procurement the studies have proved that PPP have greater cost and time certainty. However, achieving value for money will not transfer all risk to the private sector but will transfer it to whoever is able to bear it (John Davies, 2006). There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s claim that the extra cost of PPP is related to risk transfer (Pollock, Price et al. 2004). This research will discuss the question â&#x20AC;&#x2022;What is the relationship between risk transfer and construction cost in PPP projects in Saudi Arabiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2013;. It will investigate the risk transfer assumptions that might be represented in the form of a model applicable to optimise and control the construction cost in general to be tested with empirical evidence from construction projects in Saudi Arabia.

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Abstract no. 497: The Green Compound in Mina during Hajj Season 2011 Abdullah Faisal Alsebaei University of Leeds, School of Civil Engineering Hajj is the world biggest pilgrimage event for Muslims in Makkah. Around 3 millions pilgrims performed Hajj in 2011. This event occurs in six days, five of them take place in Mina. Mina contains around 800 compounds for pilgrimâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s residence. As a result, a huge quantity of solid waste is generated in these compounds every year and dumped in Makkah's landfill. The Aim of this project is to reduce the environmental impacts of the solid waste generated during Hajj by waste sorting at source then recycling. Last Hajj season (2011) this project applied in three compounds where the pilgrims in these compounds were asked to sort their plastic waste in a special green waste baskets during two and half days. These compounds were Egyptian VIP pilgrims, Pakistanis pilgrims and Western Europe and Australian pilgrims and. The main factors affecting this project are firstly the pilgrimsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; education level then the way of food serving inside the compound and finally the existence of the free drinks fridge. This research recommends that to expand this project in more compounds and motivate investors to invest in the Hajj's waste.

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Abstract no. 515: Towards an Effective Sustainable Urban Planning Development Framework for 21st Century Cities Ali AlQahtany Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the field of sustainable urban planning development and it has become in constant mutation across the world. The reason of this is that during the last century the world has witnessed many environmental, social, economic and urban changes where population of the world has risen dramatically since 1900. This growth has caused a lot of pressure on many of the available resources and has contributed to the exhaustion of environmental and natural resources. Therefore, the significance of the subject of sustainability in general, and in particular on sustainable urban planning for the cities, has emerged as one of the key issues that must be taken into account by the relevant authorities and experts. The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of sustainable urban planning topic for cities and give a comprehensive review of key issues in terms of underpinning concepts, principles and challenges. The study will emphasis on a number of issues related to the built environment, neighborhoods and services. Furthermore, it aims to critically assess the most common and established frameworks of city sustainable development. Limitations of these frameworks are discussed, including regional variations. These are factored in a new approach for sustainable communities. The contribution of this research is to propose a scalable framework for an effective sustainable urban planning development for cities that address the gaps and the limitations of the existing models.

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Abstract no. 537: Dynamic Spectrum Sharing with Interference Management in Heterogeneous Network Ghassan R. Alnwaimi Faculty of Engineering, University of Surrey The increasing demands for wireless spectra and limited radio resources emphasize the need for more efficient spectrum sharing mechanisms. Dynamic spectrum assignment (DSA) has been cited as a promising mechanism for managing the radio spectrum. The objectives are to achieve flexible spectrum usage, improve spectrum efficiency, and combat the spectrum scarcity problem, in which constitutes the main motivation setting out the scope of this work. To do so, particularly in future heterogeneous networks, potential interference has to be considered, where factors such as the dynamic nature of network topology, several network infrastructures, and usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; mobility with several profiles and preferences could make the spectrum optimization problem intractable. In this context, this work focuses on designing distributed dynamic spectrum sharing techniques that able to exploit the spatial and temporal variation, optimize spectrum resources, and maximize operatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s rewards, in multi-operators scenario. The work provides a broad understanding of the general principles of current and state of art spectrum management practices, and approaches to future ones. The current work addressed the impact of multi-cell, multi-operator interference over a downlink radio interface based on UMTS systems, when multiple operators co-exist and share a common pool of radio resources. CellCell interaction based approach and a novel; simple medium-term DSA algorithm has been introduced in order to enhance the spectrum utilization given a minimal interference level shared among multi-operators. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm, for co-located and displaced cellular networks, significantly outperforms the FSA in terms of spectral efficiency, fairness, and average required transmission power for BSs.

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Abstract no. 544: Managing risks in Independent Water and Power Plant Projects in Saudi Arabia Yousef Saad Alsulaiman Saudi Arabia (SA) has the greatest capacity for producing desalinised water (SWCC, 2011). The successful completion of water and power project within budget, on time and to desirable quality depends on adequate management of risks during the project life cycle. The paper aims to identify the key risks influencing Independent Water and Power Plant (IWPP) parties in SA. This paper presents part of an on-going research towards devising an organised procedure for effective management of risks in IWPP projects. The outcome of the research will benefit project promoters, contractors, government officials and consultants involved in IWPP projects in developing countries. Water and power projects are more risk intensive in the areas of finance, completion, operation, political and environment when compared to other forms of capital intensive projects. Moreover, the risk characteristics depend on the type of procurements adopted. IWPP projects are more risk prone than those procured using other forms. It is important to manage the multifaceted risks associated with IWPP projects to fully enhance the project performance. A review of the extant literature shows that little has been done on risk management in IWPP projects. This is due to the short history of private sector participation in water and power projects. As a result, IWPP projects have poor performance in terms of time, cost and quality. One of the main reasons behind this failure is the absence of effective risk management in water and power plant projects (World Bank, 2010).

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Abstract no. 713: Enhanced sub-THz Electrical Conductivity of Carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles Conductors niak2, Michal Horaczek2, Diana Rudka2, Charles Free1 and J. David Carey1 1Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK. 2Faculty of Mechatronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland. Silver nanoparticles sintered at 350 oC and fabricated into coplanar waveguide conductors have lower high frequency (sub-THz) electrical losses than conductors made with micron sized silver particles produced at 850 oC. The improved characteristics are attributed to the higher packing found with the nanoparticles. Also, we have measured the sub-THz electrical response of carbon nanotube- poly(methylmethacrylate) polymer composites conductors up to 220 GHz. The measured electrical losses using mm long coplanar waveguide geometries averaged as low as 0.15 dB/mm in the frequency range 40 GHzâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;110 GHz and showed a reduction in signal loss with increasing frequency; a behaviour opposite to that found in conventional metallic conductors. Between 140 and 220 GHz, the electrical losses averaged 0.28 dB/mm. We show that the low electrical losses are associated with the capacitive coupling between the nanotubes and discuss potential high frequency applications. Many important applications can be found at this band of extremely high frequencies such as the millimetre wave security scanner, radio astronomy, sensing and broadband communication links. Because of short wavelengths at these high frequencies, the developing of small antennas made with nanomaterials would be of great interest for such important applications. It is worth commenting on the likely source of the capacitance and how it is related to conduction. Individual or bundles of CNTs are embedded in a matrix consist of long and thin conductors and separated from each other by a thin potential barrier. The barriers can be associated with the insulating PMMA between the nanotubes or the intrinsic barrier to conduction associated with direct nanotube-on-nanotube contact. Electrons will tunnel between the conducting regions taking the shortest electrical distance between the conductors. This results in tunnel junctions with small areas and small tunnel junction capacitance. Fluctuations in the local pg. 409


barrier heights and local barrier thickness gave rise to fluctuation induced tunnelling (FIT) in which charge fluctuations induce voltage fluctuations across the tunnel junctionâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s effective area of tunnelling. Recalling that the reactance of capacitance associated with a capacitor scales inversely with reactance then as one goes to higher frequencies, then the reactance decreases for a given overall capacitance and this is reason why there is an overall decrease in insertion loss on going to higher frequencies.

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Abstract no. 717: Changing Urban Landscapes in Saudi Arabian Cities: A new framework for assessing sustainable urban development Basim Sulaiman Al Atni, Dr. Magda Sibley & Dr. Leandro Minuchin University of Manchester The urban landscape of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been transformed over the last sixty years from the low rise, small, densely populated cities and towns of the pre-oil boom period to the large sprawling cities of today. This transformation has been driven by four main factors: accelerated population growth (census data CDSI.org.sa); rapid urbanization; growth in wealth due to the oil discovery; and the modernization of the KSA economy. Such development (currently 3.2% growth, www.CDSI) has brought with it imperatives for increased housing, offices and commercial buildings, such that an urgent need has now arisen for effective and responsible growth management. In response to this need the Saudi Arabian government has begun to change the strategies and regulatory framework pertaining to urban development. Little literature exists concerning urban sustainability indicators and frameworks in the Arab context and the debate concerning the meaning of urban sustainability needs to be informed by developments and good practice elsewhere in the world. In this respect, the sustainability Framework introduced in the USA and in Australia, where similar climatic conditions to Saudi Arabia can be found, represent valuable sustainable frameworks that attempt to motivate changes in land development practices to eradicate sprawl. The study examines the body of literature appropriate to the issue and undertakes empirical fieldwork using two case studies, these being the development of business districts in the two Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and Dammam. Gathering data via a questionnaire survey, and face to face interviews involving a wide range of stakeholders and decision-makers in the Kingdom. On examination of the current documents discussing current and future strategies for urban development, ―sustainability‖ is part of the goals. However, exactly how it is defined and assessed is not clear. The field work will aim at tracing how sustainability is defined by different stakeholders having an influence on the urban development of KSA cities. It will also trace the ―sustainability‖ understanding in official documents and in the implementations of large urban interventions in Riyadh and Dammam.

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Poster: Humanities

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Abstract no. 67: Distribution Pattern Analysis of Green Space in AlMadinah Using GIS Haifaa Yahya Al-Ballaa University of Leicester Green spaces and parks are of great importance both for ecological balance and for the health of individuals (Frumkin,2001). They play a fundamental role in providing opportunities for rest and relaxation and enjoying the beauty of nature for the urban population. This study will examine the distribution and analysis of accessibility to public parks for all categories of the population using (GIS).When there is a significant increase in population and urban growth in a region, the need for public places of recreation increases. For example, in Britain, the area dedicated to national parks and green areas is in the region of 10,000 square miles or 17% of the total area of England and Wales (Cullingworth, 1972). Increasing rates of urbanisation in Madinah have led to increased pressure on many of the services and facilities, especially green spaces and gardens which are a key requirement for high density neighbourhoods.

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Abstract no. 241: Language selection and production in bilinguals Alasmari, Abdullah Abdulrahman University of Essex How bilinguals deal with the activation of two words by each concept is called the ―hard problem‖ for theories of lexical selection by bilinguals (Finkbeiner, Gollan, & Caramazza, 2006). How are bilinguals able to control which language to produce? This paper discusses some of the background literature on the control of language and language switching in bilinguals. This experiment both replicates and extends the studies by Meuter and Allport (1999) and by Finkbeiner, Almedia, Janssen, and Caramazza (2006). 18 ArabicEnglish bilinguals named ―English digits‖ in English (e.g., 8 = ―eight‖) and ―Arabic digits‖ in Arabic (e.g., = ―themaniah‖), and named pictured objects in either English or Arabic (cued by the colour of the background screen). The experiment found that native Arabic speakers named English digits faster than Arabic digits. There was also a larger language switch cost from Arabic-toEnglish than from English-to-Arabic digit naming. For picture naming, there was a language switch cost only for naming in English. These results are discussed in terms of the possible suppression of the non-target language.

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Abstract no. 280: The City as the Site of Transformations in Social Freedom and Alienation within the Saudi Novel Abdullah H A Alfauzan There is a correlation between freedom and alienation, and this is a phenomenon which has imposed itself on the novel across linguistic borders, Defoeâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s Robinson Crusoe, Buzzatiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s The Tartar Steppe, Camusâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; The Stranger and the psychological works of both Kafka and Dostoevsky all being cases in point. The contemporary Arabic novel is also concerned with the content of this humanitarian issue which belongs to all lifestyles, particularly in the cities where all the various manifestations of alienation are to be found. Often the novel, short stories, poetry and plays present the city as the location of freedom. The various Saudi novels which I have selected for this study include real and imaginative cities, male and female writers and different cities and times. The aim of this paper is to explore the environment of the city as contrasted with the village, especially in terms of its implications for traditional family life. The novels vividly illustrate how the city often in fact disappoints and alienates those who fall victim to its initial allure; and yet they also portray it as a site of greater freedom and creativity.

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Abstract no. 389: An Investigation into the Potential of Variable Particle Size Volumetric Mist Screens for Use in Three-Dimensional Display Amani Darweesh Althagafi De Montfort University, Leicester, UK This project will research, investigate and devise a potential method of projecting three-dimensional images onto a volumetric variable particle mist screen. The research aims to develop a novel holographic process that may be applied to three-dimensional displays and contribute to our better knowledge of applied optics including laser speckle and light dispersion through diffused surfaces. Furthermore, a number of digital holograms will also result from this research including a mist display system. In addition, to evaluate spectatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; reactions and experience of new multimedia presentation in this project. This research includes a literature review to establish the current state of knowledge in the particular field. By establishing what research has already been conducted, one can then identity the gaps in knowledge that need filling. This allows a research question to emerge in the light of previous research. Stating the relevance of the research, or its usefulness to other researchers, clarification of the research methodology, in particular the role of the practice in the research. Moreover, articulating the likely contribution to knowledge and increasing the practical element of the research. This study should be considered a practical based study rather than theoretical. Several final outputs, including an exhibition of the results, will be published in targeted journals, conference proceedings and thesis submission. A number of digital holograms will also result from this research including a mist display system. This will research and investigate different types of lasers, Mist Device, Holographic Lab, Three Dimensional Holograms by using Cinema 4D - Photoshop â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mia softwares.

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Abstract no. 444: Arabic Calligraphy Lighting Western Household Hanan Makki Zakari, Dr Richard Chippes MA Design Innovation, Art and Design department, De Montfort University The researcher has observed the fact that Arabic calligraphy has been used for religious purposes both in the past and is still used for such purposes at the present time. Although Arabic letters are formed with attractive shapes, this decoration is still only generally used within a narrow field, such as for the interior and external decoration of mosques or in the interiors of Muslim households to display verses from the Qurâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;an. For that reason, this project aimed to develop wallpaper for domestic interiors using abstract Arabic typography decoration combined with illumination for western household The project involved gathering general opinions, recommendations and suggestions from customers via questionnaire in order to gather useful information on wallpaper design. Forty five participants filled in the questionnaire via the Internet, at a university and on a high street. The age of participants ranged from 17 to 45 years, and included 20 male and 25 female participants. In order to collect information about which materials, calligraphy types and colours could be used, three experts were interviewed: one Arabic calligrapher, one assistant technician specializing in the History of Graphic Design and Typography and one wallpaper designer. There were two different steps involved in the design process: deciding on the correct materials to use for the wallpaper and deciding on the software to use to create the design. In the first step, three materials were tested: (i) acrylic sheets; (ii) tracing and photo papers; and (iii) light box. The second step involved used software such as 2D and 3D design tools The research demonstrated that western people would find Arabic calligraphy attractive for decorating their own homes, especially when accompanied by illuminated wallpapers.

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Abstract no. 450: Silence in the Holy Qur’an Dr.Salman M Al-Saad Soas, Saudi Arabia This paper investigates the use of silence in the Holy Qur‘an as it have appeared as human behaviour when taking a position or reacting to an outside events ,actions or self feelings. The work will explore the Qur‘anic text in attempt to find a position for silence within various behaviours of mankind such as the field of communication to create a frame of understanding to this kind of people‘s activities. It is an attempt to open door for researching this topic which has not got enough concerns as uttered words have got. The main conclusion made by this effort was the rise of a question that needs an answer about the concept of silence as a human way of expression in relation to language. It is to say if silence a language? If yes, what kind of language? If not, where it can be located?

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Abstract no. 486: Saudi Houses: Identity, Privacy and the contemporary house Maryam AlKhateeb Bournemouth University Through the last century, the discovery of oil has affected the lifestyle of Saudi Arabia from different angles: socially, economically, culturally, and politically. The remedies of these changes are still noticeable in the Eastern reign of Saudi. Limited research was found related to the impact of lifestyle changes on houses, interior spatial design. Therefore, the research explores the traditional architecture and its development to the state it is at now. The methodology employed in the research is based on a qualitative approach. The research investigates which factors mostly affect the taken design decision and shaped houses. The analysis of the data collected is expected to embrace the design tools, elements and factors. The presented knowledge can generate designs for socially acceptable houses.

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Abstract no. 527: Saudi Animation Industry: The Current State and Outlook Ohud Rashid Alharbi*, Emily Baines *, Janet Choo** *School of Design, De Montfort University, Leicester **School of Media and Communication, De Montfort University, Leicester It is not hard for any observer to see the dominance of the Japanese and North American animation in the animation industry at the global level. On the other hand, it is hard to locate any animation characters that originally come from Saudi Arabia. The last few years, nevertheless, have seen a production of some short animation series directed at adults. Khalifah argue that producing animation series is not an easy job within the current market and its success is questionable in Saudi Arabia.1 Moreover, animation requires massive budget and high -end techniques that are not easily secured. This study focuses on the research of animation industry in Saudi Arabia by explore the factors that either hinder or motivate animation industry and to find out what are the obstacles facing animators and producers in Saudi Arabia.

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Abstract no. 709: How do Visual Signs Operate as Messages of Information for Different Cultures? Case Study: The Holy Places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia Saeed Alamoudy Makkah has the character and image of a religious city and also that of a STC for tourism. The urbanization of Makkah not only competes with STCs but it can compete strongly with global cities in terms of its economy and quality of construction, especially the HPs with their capacity to accommodate the huge number of visitors that increase every year. The government of Saudi Arabia is continually spending millions of dollars developing and expanding the HPs. Pilgrims come together in Makkah as part of RT, speaking hundreds of different languages and in a country that they have probably never visited before. This thesis focuses on how visual signs(VSs) operate as messages of information for different cultures and languages. For this creative work, I have chosen to design several VSs that follow the route and rituals of the pilgrimage of Hajj and its HPs in Makkah.

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Poster: ICT

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Abstract no. 8: Semi-Supervised Techniques in Breast Cancer Classification A Comparison between Tranductive SVM and SemiSupervised FCM Hala Helmi, Daphne Teck Ching Lai, Jonathan M. Garibaldi School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham Transductive Support Vector Machine (TSVM) and semi-supervised Fuzzy c-means (ssFCM) are two popular data mining techniques. In this work, we compare the classification results of these two techniques on the Nottingham Tenovus Primary Breast Carcinoma Series dataset using 10-fold CrossValidation technique. Both techniques achieve high accuracy levels at above 80% with only 10% of labelled data. ssFCM was found to produce results of higher accuracy than TSVM when amount of labelled data is low but TSVM produced results of higher accuracy than ssFCM at high amount of labelled data. Given the amount of labelled data, ssFCM is the more favoured when amount is low and TSVM is favoured otherwise for this dataset.

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Abstract no. 63: Behavioural based Virus Analysis and Detection Sulaiman Al amro, Antonio Cau Software Technology Research Laboratory, De Montfort University, Information Technology (IT) Department, Qassim University The growing number of computer viruses and the detection of zero day malware have been the concern for security researchers for a large period of time. Existing antivirus products (AVs) rely on detecting virus signatures which do not provide a full solution to the problems associated with these viruses. The use of logic formulae to model the behaviour of viruses is one of the most encouraging recent developments in virus research, which provides alternatives to classic virus detection methods. To address the limitation of traditional AVs, we proposed a virus detection system based on extracting Application Program Interface (API) calls from virus behaviours. The proposed research uses a temporal logic and behaviour-based detection mechanism to detect viruses at both user and kernel level. Interval Temporal Logic (ITL) will be used for virus specifications, properties and formulae based on the analysis of API calls representing the behaviour of computer viruses.

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Abstract no. 121: Risk Management Based-Runtime Monitoring System Amr Jadi & Feng Chen Software Technology Research Laboratory, De Montfort University, Leicester In dynamic environment, risk management may change while the system is running; hence danger runtime changes may compromise the correct execution of the entire system. However, traditional risk management techniques cannot cope with dynamic change. Hence, the difficulty of using traditional designtime verification techniques to cope with run-time changes and run-time monitoring may detect errors only too late. The desired would be to use advance monitor with the ability to predict and mitigate the potential risk in the future. This Poster is to propose a new approach that by combining runtime monitoring and artificial neural networks, can look ahead in the near execution future, and predict potential risks. The key contribution of this poster is to illustrate the three aspects of risk management: predictability, reactivity, and quality, which should be considered while the system is running.

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Abstract no. 123: Security Management System for 4G Heterogeneous Networks Hani Alquhayz, Ali Al-Bayatti, Amelia Platt De Montfort University In recent years, there have been major developments in, and deployment of, diverse mobile technology. Security issues in mobile computing are now presenting significant challenges. The ability to move from one network to another, and from one provider to another creating thus vertical and horizontal handoffs, has increased the complexity of mobile security. In this poster, we propose a management system which is responsible for enforcing security policies and ensuring that security policies continued to be followed. The objective of this security management system is to prevent the mobile equipment from being abused or used as a malicious attack tool. The proposed security management system is consistent with the security specifications defined by ITU-T recommendation M.3400 TMN management functions. Finally, this paper will present a policy-based architecture for the security management system of 4G heterogeneous networks focusing on detection and prevention of malicious attacks.

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Abstract no. 127: Developing and Evaluating Mobile Technology for Capturing and Sharing Experience in Undergraduate Field Trip. Ragad Mohammad Allwihan Computer Science School, University of Nottingham Note-taking in undergraduate field trips involves a combination of raw data collection and documentation of ideas; It is â&#x20AC;&#x2022;the practice of writing down pieces of information to fulfil two major functions: to record information and/or to aid reflectionâ&#x20AC;&#x2013; (Boch and Piolat, 2005). This poster describes ongoing research that investigates methods of capturing and sharing the experience of undergraduate students in a field trip by using mobile technology. Because the experience has massive examples, the research focuses in deep on Note taking. It presents the results of qualitative studies conducted with two undergraduate student cohorts participating in different field-study settings: 60 Geography students attending a 1-day field trip in a rural setting; and 22 Architecture students conducting in an urban setting. Observation and analysis of field notes taken by each group and follow-up interviews with students from each group were used to determine the methods and the tools that the students use to capture and share their field study notes. This information was then used to identify user requirements and guidelines for developing mobile technology to support the note-taking activity in different field study contexts.

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Abstract no. 152: Database Predefined Queries Generation from Highlevel Relational Algebra Models Ahmad F Subahi and Anthony J H Simons Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffield This paper presents an object-oriented framework for generating a fully functional relational database implementation of predefined quereis and database operations. We adopt a code generation strategy from translating a plateform-independant relational algebra model, which represent the intermidate level of the functional requirements of a system, into data manipulation and predefined query languages, e.g. MySQL. The proposed framework exemplifies a compositional model transformation approach, and is readily customisable for generating code for different target relational database systems. It constitutes a component tier in a future architecture for MDE by layered representational transformations.

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Abstract no. 184: Virtual Machines Placement Algorithms Impacts on Targeted VMs Co-Location in the Cloud Abdulaziz Alabdulhafez School of Computing Science, University of Newcastle upon Tyne In order to achieve maximum utilization of their physical infrastructure, Infrastructure as a Service (IAAS) cloud providers use virtualization to allow multiple users (tenants) to share a single physical server, ending with many tenants running their own virtual machines (VMs) and sharing the same underlying physical infrastructure, and this is called Multi-tenancy. This VMs Co-location/Co-Residency may introduce multiple threats to the cloud users. In this Experiment, we propose an objective method by simulating cloud infrastructure settings and compare different VMs placement algorithms used in some of the open source public and private cloud platforms (i.e. Nimbus, OpenNebula, Eucalyptus and OpenStack) in order to understand each placement algorithmâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s effects on the probability of achieving targeted VM co-location through targeted VMs co-location techniques. The method followed in this study was to design and implement a discrete-event cloud simulator, which aims to apply different settings and VM placement algorithms of some of the widely used open source cloud to model and test the VM placement algorithms used in these cloud platforms and assess their effects on the probability of achieving successful targeted VMs co-location. The results from this study show that different VM placement algorithms have different effects on the Co-locatibility window of VMs in the cloud. For example, Zero Percent Co-locatable VMs forms nearly about the third of all VMs when using First Fit algorithm (Figure 3). In addition, The Co-locatable VMs using First Fit algorithm are the minimum when compared to Random and Next Fit policies. This can be the result of the (Maximum-Utilization) nature of the First Fir, which aims to use the minimum number of resources. While Random and Next Fit policies tend to distribute the load on the whole resources which adds extra rooms for new VMs to Co-locate in each server. The conclusion of this study was that while the number of cloud users, number of clusters and hosts have a noticeable impact on VM Co-location, VM placement algorithms that aim to maximize resource utilization (e.g. First Fit) decrease the possibility of successful VM Co-location by at least 77% compared to load-distribution algorithms (e.g. Next Fit and Random).

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Abstract no. 224: Unified E-learning Repository System for Sharing Learning Objects among Saudi Universities Ayidh Alawni Alanazi, Dr. Maysam Abbod School of Engineering and Design, Electrical engineering department This study, started just eleven months ago, firstly reports an overview of the research project; then, it focuses on the proposed methodology for its application. The following steps will be detailing other parts such as: the achievements so far, the developed work plan, the research skills acquired, and finally plans for further future work and research required. The main aim for this study is to create a dedicated e-learning shard repository system for Saudi Universities, which will be based on instructors needs for effective share and utilization of the learning objects.

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Abstract no. 293: Gender Differences in Computer Science Deena E. Al‐ Ghamdi University of Oxford, Department of Computer Science deena.alghamdi@linacre.ox.ac.uk Gender Human Computer Interaction ―Gender HCI‖ is a new term that has recently been devised, and refers to the field of computer science which studies and examines the impact of computer users‘ gender on different aspects of computer science. This paper reviews and summarises researches that have been done in different areas. Video games, phishing, online shopping, web applications and others are areas have been assessed by researchers to examine the influence of the user‘s gender. The importance of studying and specifying the differences between males and females when manipulating computer hardware/software is that such information can be used to avoid the gender bias which could be appear when male developers design a software. Such bias can lead to difficulties and complications, negatively affecting females‘ experience with computers. A negative experience will have implications for the future relationship between females and computers. In addition, the software‘s efficiency and productivity will suffer, since half of its intended users will have a negative experience.

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Abstract no. 332: Towards Balanced Transparency and Security In a Cloud Environment based on "CCM" Framework Mohammed Almanea, Supervisor: Dr. John Fitzgerald Newcastle University Cloud computing aims at providing companies with the ability to utilize a tremendous capacity instantly without the need to invest in establishing new infrastructure, training new employees or buying a software license. In spite of the potential benefits towards the adoption of the cloud computing model, it has opened new challenges such as the Lack of Transparency. Transparent security has been defined by Sun Microsystems (2009) as ―appropriate disclosure of the governance aspects of security design, policies, and practices‖ (2009). It has been argued that transparency is improving, however, the lack of independent tools that measure the transparency of the cloud providers is the issue. A framework ―Cloud Controls Matrix‖ has been developed by Cloud Security Alliance to encourage transparency in the cloud. it is based on a set of questions that cloud customers or auditors could ask cloud providers about before migrating to the cloud. The aim is to augment their framework in order to address issues such as : (1) Assessing the trustworthiness of the cloud providers, (2) Measuring their level of transparency, and (3) to check if the existing framework has helped cloud customers to make better informed decision towards migrating to the cloud. The study aims at consolidating an existing framework of transparency developed by the Cloud Security Alliance by adding other features that would provide methods for measuring the cloud providers transparency. A tool will be developed letting cloud customers and providers experiment with the augmented CCM and evaluated against the existing one. More importantly, to know if the framework has helped cloud customers to make better informed decisions.

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Abstract no. 352: The development of e-government services in Saudi Arabia: A case study on the online services offered by the Saudi Arabian Government and its impact on the citizen Abdulalrhman Alharbi University of Bedfordshire In the recent years Saudi Arabia has emerged as one of the strongest egovernment and as per the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs it is said that Saudi Arabia has been ranked 41st out of the 193 egovernment infrastructure government. It is also true that in the last two years it has topped from 58th rank as in 2010 to 41st as in 2012. It is emerging as one of the leaders in the e-government index from the list of five countries such as South Korea, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark and the United States. Further to this among the Middle East countries Saudi Arabia is the regional leader in the e-government followed by UAE, Bahrain and all the service components within the Saudi Arabian e-government are well above when compared with the global average. Saudi Arabia is also spotted to be the top performer in the whole-of-government as they have strongly developed and adapted the overall commitment to all the elements of the government services (Council, 2012) (Yesser, 2012). Most of the countries do not effectively utilise multiple channels to deliver their services to their citizens and this includes traditional channels, free access to internet, Wi-Fi including mobile applications. Whilst Saudi Arabia is one such country among the seven other countries that provides text notification, mobile applications, online mode mobile payment and dedicated mobile government services (Council, 2012). The government of Saudi Arabia took the challenge for an implementation of egovernment for the ongoing issues that they noticed that are related to huge number of agencies that are associated between the citizens, the time and high cost involved in this process, to cut down the long time that is associated which will address the individual economic benefits, to emerge in the International Trade Benefits which could be fulfilled by meeting the e-government requirements and finally for the matter of democratic reforms. All the above stated challenges were then dealt by "Yesser" to develop a robust e-government whilst the initial criticism that was heard (Council, 2012) (Yesser, 2012).

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Abstract no. 362: Virtual currency systems Saleh Abdulqader Alghamdi, Natalia Beloff University of Sussex There is no doubt that the era of information and communication technologies has created many golden opportunities in several aspects. One of the most fields that benefit from these technologies and online connections is the financial and business sectors. A growing numbers of online users has activated virtual word concepts and created new business phenomena. Thus, new types of trading, transactions and currencies have been arising. One of the remarkable systems that have emerged in the past few years is virtual currency systems. Virtual currency can be defined as any medium of exchange, apart from real world money, that can be used in many financial transactions whether they are virtual or real transactions. Virtual currencies represent valuable and intangible objects which are used electronically in different applications and networks such as online social networks, online social games, virtual worlds and peer to peer networks. The use of virtual currency has become widespread in many different systems in recent years. The research will explore many aspects of virtual currency systems attempting to answer the main question which is â&#x20AC;&#x2022;Will virtual currency be the next currency platform?â&#x20AC;&#x2013;. It will investigate different virtual currency platforms in order to provide deep insight about mechanisms of implementing, controlling, issuing, spending and exchanging virtual currencies. The research also will analyse current virtual currency systems and platforms in order to extract concerns, problems, issues and challenges that are exist. The goal is that we would like to provide novel and useful information to be used as a resource for implementing new virtual currency systems and developing the current virtual currency systems. Furthermore, we also aim to outline the strong impacts of virtual currency systems on some of real world aspects such as real monetary systems, business industry, laws breaking rates and crime payment methods. The outcomes will draw the attention of all parties who participate in and affected by virtual currency systems to the importance of controlling virtual currency use. Those parties are governments, operators and users. The outcomes also alert lawmakers and virtual currency providers to release and set up strict rules, policies and legislations to control virtual currency systems. Additionally, helpful solutions and recommendations for all parties who are involved in virtual currency systems will be provided at the end of this dissertation.

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Abstract no. 368:An Adaptive Window-Size Approach for ExpertFinding Fawaz K Alarfaj Finding an expert within a university is a common problem; two examples are potential research students who are looking for a suitable supervisor and the research office trying to put together a strong research proposal. We report on experiments to find experts in a university domain using two different methods to extract a ranked list of candidates: a database-driven method and a datadriven method, the first method is based on a fixed list of experts (e.g. all members of academic staff) while the second method is based on an automatic Named- Entity Recognition (NER) technique. We use a graded weighting based on proximity between query and candidate name within a window of text. The window size is adaptive based on the document. As a baseline, we use a system that ranks candidates based on frequency of occurrence within the top 10 documents. Results show that taking document features in consideration when determining the window size does have an effect on retrieval effectiveness.

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Abstract no. 509: Change Management for Ontologies on the Semantic Web Sana Al Azwari Taif University, Strathclyde University The Semantic Web aims for machine-readable Web resources so that information within these resources can be shared and processed by different agents, whether these agents are human users or automated tools. To this end, the use of semantic mark-up is required. Semantic mark-up is an annotation of the Web resource with information on its content that is understood by the different agents. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is an annotation language that makes use of certain terms. As RDF annotations (also known as RDF triples) will be shared between different agents a common interpretation of the terms used in annotations is required, and this is the role of ontologies. Ontology is a collection of definitions of concepts that is used by different agents to provide a shared interpretation of these concepts. Using ontologies for automatic processing in computers (or for the Semantic Web) requires an expressive and well-defined knowledge representation language that can formally describe ontologies as an example of this is the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Data schema in the Semantic Web is represented by ontology and data are typically stored in RDF format. RDF data is represented as a collection of triples containing subject, predicate, and object. This collection of triples can be seen as directed graph where the structure of the graph matches the ontology. On the Web, there is an extremely large number of RDF triples and this number is increasing rapidly. Changes to ontologies require changes to the associated RDF triples but the regeneration of complete RDF structures is time consuming. Therefore, if the ontology change is limited it would be best not to regenerate the whole of the RDF but to update it instead. The aim of our research is to study the problem of ontology evolution and its reflection in the associated RDF triples. This work will focus in particular on how it is possible to update RDF collections rather than regenerate an entirely new structure.

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Abstract no. 533: Visualization of Large Spike Train Datasets Roy Tucker, Nigel Barlow, Fahad Al Mansour and Liz Stuart Plymouth University Our research applies the techniques and principles of Information Visualization to support the analysis of vast Neurophysiological datasets. The original VISA (Visualisation of Inter Spike Associations) software (previously packaged as Neurigma) has been completely redeveloped to enable greater freedom for users to define how they analyse and subsequently visualise their data. In order to achieve this, we have developed a highly visual and flexible interface which we have called iPipeLine. The VISA software (3rd release) software attempts to process and present recordings of neural activity for analysis by neuroscientists. This program acquires neural recordings (known as spike trains), performs pre-processing operations and presents the result in an interactive visualisation that allows the user to explore the dataset. In the VISA3 software, there are three types of process: (i) Data Source processes which provided one process named Input File (ii) Data Manipulation processes, which provided five processes named Merge Datasets, Export To File, Group: integrate, Sort: Burst, and Sort: ISI (iii) Data Visualization processes which provided one process named iRaster. This new user environment, iPipeLine, is now sufficiently developed that we have started importing previous successful techniques and visual representations into this new environment. Clearly, usability testing of the software is an important part of the development process, so we are currently seeking volunteers to participate in user testing of our interactive visualisation.

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Abstract no. 538: Optimizing the Release Order of Defensive Mechanisms Suliman Alsuhibany Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne In the practical use of security mechanisms such as CAPTCHAs and spam filters, attackers and defenders exchange â&#x20AC;&#x2014;blows,â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; each celebrating (temporary) success in breaking and defending. We are interested in the question of whether the order in which defensive algorithms are released has a significant impact on the time taken by attackers to break the combined set of algorithms. The rationale behind our approach is that attackers learn from their attempts, and that the release schedule of defensive mechanisms can be adjusted so as to impair that learning experience. This poster introduces this problem. We show that our hypothesis holds for an experiment using several simplified but representative spam filter algorithmsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that is, the order in which spam filters are released has a statistically significant impact on the time attackers take to break all algorithms. We then model the problem as an optimization problem using a Markov Decision Process model. We present a tailored optimization algorithm to obtain efficiently the optimal release strategies for any given model.

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Abstract no. 554: Increasing Strategies achievement in Balanced Scorecard through prioritizing IT applications readiness S.Nooh, H.Zedan, H.Janicke Defining the strategy is the first and important step in establishing any organization. This well defined strategy is the guidance which directs employees to achieve the organization strategic objectives. The Balanced Scorecard is one of the most important strategy defining tools and management systems that used to measure the organization's performance for either the profit or non- profit organizations. Aligning the use of Information Technology within the organization strategy is essential to achieve the mission, vision by using modern tools such as Balanced Scorecard.

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Abstract no. 555: Extending WS-Agreement To Support Grid Service Level Agreements Renegotiation Sanaa Sharaf, Karim Djemame School of Computing, University of Leed Grid Computing allows users to share resources in both commercial and scientific environments. This dependency on Grid systems accelerated the need for replacing the â&#x20AC;&#x2022;best-effortâ&#x20AC;&#x2013; approach used in most Grid environments with a more controlled and reliable one to achieve the high levels of Quality of Service (QoS) necessary to potential users. Service Level Agreements (SLAs) are electronic contracts between the service provider and service consumer, which provide a formal method for describing QoS requirements, guarantee terms and the responsibilities of each party. The WS-Agreement is a Web Service protocol used to establish an agreement between service providers and service consumers; the definition of the protocol is very general and does not contemplate the possibility of changing an agreement at runtime. The occurring of an unexpected event at runtime may be an important reason for reducing the reliability and trustworthiness of parties. The challenge is to make agreements robust and more long-lived to individual term violations. This research shows extensions of the WS-Agreement specification to support the dynamic nature of SLAs by allowing the possibility of SLA renegotiation at run time.

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Abstract no. 559: Managing Semantics of Learning Spaces (ManSemLeS) EimanAlmami, Dr. Ibrahim Elbeltagi School of Computing and Mathematics Plymouth University, UK Where is my learning space? We have to configure your LeS. How? Which technology? Will I be able to see my LeS? How do I know that I am in my LeS? Is it a cyber space? Real space? Virtual Space? Cyber-Physical? You have to personalise my learning space! I will not join if it is not tailored for me! It must be my space? Can I join your space? Which measure do we need to take if we wish to address the problem of avoiding “eye contact” when teaching autistic students? What do we do to ensure that ADHD students are following instructions in a particular classroom?” Are my materials ready in terms of their content formats and availability on hand-held devices, for the debate on Social Networking in Healthcare, which has been scheduled for all Computer Science students regardless of their DiffInL(Asperger, Dyslexia, Visual impairments) but should also be available for students from different schools (Law and Psychology students)? Which technology (devices, networks, interfaces and software tools) should we use in supervision of Master students across all University Campuses in the State (different time zones), who need various research sources and have express their interest in working across their research domain of interest and generate a debate for their final projects? What would be the exact set of instructions (including choices of technologies) to be given to children who are learning „reading‟ in a mixed class of pupils with different mother tongues, DiffInLand different exposure to spelling? How do we make a correct selection of all possible hardware (e.g. devices) and software solutions which assist in a LE, which make provisions for a clearly declared differences in learning? Some of my students for a class at 3 pm are autistic –is my environment ready to guarantee their participation? The issue of personalisation of LeS must take into account various learning aspects such as:

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a) the purpose of the LeS(What do we learn today, why and how? Are the known learning theories applicable to educational practices we may perform in the LeS?); b) personal preferences (Can I choose classes which run in Second Life? Am I going to run classes in bioscience and allow learners from humanities to join?); c) learning needs –differences in learning (Can I sit this exam as dyslexic? Are my learning materials suitable for all types of learners described in cognitive and behavioural psychology?) d) technology, software toolkits and frameworks which support teaching and learning strategies and facilitate (a) –(c) above. Discussions • OWL/SWRL enabled environments are ideal for modeling the semantics of instances of LeSsand storing them in persistence. • OWL/SWRL enabled ontologiescan create computational solutions on an adhoc basis where we perform matching through either initial assertion of individuals in OWL models or numerous possibilities of inference across OWL ontologies; • The technologies which enable us to create a software application from the proposed model (NetBeansIDE, Servlettechnology,OWL-API, Jess Engine, Protégé ontological editing tool, all running on a Cloud) prove that our ideas, interwoven in the computational model, can work, BUT • Real life deployment depends on how clearly we can define what DiffInLin education are and how we wish to deploy learning theories when addressing them. • We wish to trigger discussions and raising awareness of both: 1) the power of technologies when creating personalized spaces in modern LE, where we must address DiffInLand 2) the problem of modernization of traditional learning theories, which have not been properly reviewed since the 90s. The Layered Architectural Model • The Domain Model Module (DMM) contains ontological concepts and their hierarchies which belong to any learning environment(LE). • The Learner Domain Module (LDM) is an excerpt from the DMM, which is created as a result of a particular ―demand‖ upon LE (possibly issued by a learner). • The instructional Model Module (IMM) uses the ontological model from LDM and runs reasoning rules upon LDM concepts in order to specify exactly: a) Which instructions we need for configuring LeS, b) What are the exact LeSartefacts and how we are going to support them. Functionality of ManSemLeS pg. 442


The functionality of the ManSemLeS, manags repositories and reasoning according to their purpose. Managing domain of interest at the generic level of DMM repositories. Managing semantics of LeSby creating repositories and constraints within the LDM. Managing configuration of LeSartefacts through instructional design in learning.

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Abstract no. 712: Usability and Interaction Design in Arabic E-commerce Websites a Case Study of Jarir Bookstore’s Website Mohammad Alshehri De Montfort University Over the past few years the Internet has become an essential business platform by aiding trading, distribution and sales between organisations and consumers. This has brought e- commerce to an entirely new level which raised some issues in websites usability and the human-computer interaction. The objectives of this study are to identify and analyse the extent to which Jarir bookstore's website is fulfilling all the user‘s requirements and needs. This research covers the history of human-computer interaction and the benefits of using user-centered approach in developing e-commerce websites, which is the methodology been used in this study. Moreover, a brief comparison between the most important development methods, such as Waterfall and user-centred methods are discussed in terms of addressing the issues of time saving and fulfillment of users‘ needs. In order to address most of the issues that is related to the attributes in the usability stage of the evaluation, the data required to manage this study was collected using three research methods; the questionnaire, direct user observation and interviews. Evaluation of the current website, based on statements of usability goals and criteria were undertaken with regard to the Arabic Usability Guideline and in connection with implementing and testing the proposed website design. User‘s needs, user‘s tasks and data gathered were all involved in the analysis phase, whereas the design comprises the proposed user interface and database design. We, at the end of this study, presented some recommendations based on the results found which should be valuable for future website developing.

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Poster: Politics and Law

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Abstract no. 351: The Potential Impacts of Cyberterrorism on National Security Abdulrahman Alqahtani Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Hull Today there is no issue of such concern worldwide, and arousing such a high degree of hot debate at both national and international levels, as terrorismrelated issues. The threat of terrorism has never been a prominent as it seems to be at the present time. Terrorism is an old phenomenon that has existed since the emergence of human societies. However, the threat of terrorism has increased steadily over the past 30 years. With the technological and technical progress in various areas, the actions of terrorists have become more dangerous and destructive, as the perpetrators of such acts are becoming more elusive. There are few parts of the world that have been left out of the current waves of terrorism, which started in the late 1960s. The proposed research will focus on the field of Cyberterrorism and its impacts. The main issue for this proposal is extent of the impact of Cyberterrorism attacks on national security and the sense of security in society, compared with conventional terrorism. A suggested title is, "The potential impacts of cyber-terrorism on the community's sense of security, in comparison with traditional terrorism". So, research questions are: Does cyberterrorism exist as a reality? If so, what is its definition? What are the differences between it and Cyberwarfare and cybercrime? Why do terrorists resort to information and communication technology to launch their attacks? What are the potential targets of cyber-attacks that affect the national security? Is it possible for cyberterrorism to expose society to the same effects as traditional terrorism? How? Why? To what extent may Saudi Arabia (as a case study) be exposed to cyberterrorism? What are the potential impacts on it? Basically, the research will examine and explore the potential impacts of cyberterrorism on national security, which may affect the sense of security. Interviews will be conducted with officials in the security services, to question them about the changes in the security situation of the community. Also, a random sample of community will be selected to carry out a survey of public opinion, through questionnaires. So, a mixed approach is appropriate. The results of the research will show - by extrapolation - that there will be significant effects of cyber-terrorism on national security and the sense of security and its importance does not differ than the effects of conventional terrorism, especially with the increased reliance on cyberspace in the information age.

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Abstract no. 504: The Application Of The Duty of Good Faith In Insurance law : A Comparative Study Of English And Saudi Laws Arwa Ibrahim Al Jallal University of Southampton The aplication of the duty of good faith has been always problematic for insurers and businesses. Often assureds lose their insurance cover claiming the breach of the duty of good faith, non disclosure, and misrepresentation which may be irrelevant to the risk insured. The English and Scottish Law Commissions have been working on a law reform project which mainly concerns proposals to reform such duty, which paved the way to the Consumer Insurance (Disclosure and representation) Act enacted in March 2012. As the UK is considered the centre of insurance and reinsurance in the world, The UK insurance laws and regulations have been an inspiration to many countries including the newly articulated insurance laws in Saudi Arabia. Before these new laws, insurance was not clearly regulated in Saudi Arabia, and that was exploited by insurers threating assured's rights. The current Insurance laws in Saudi Arabia now adopt the Islamic cooperative model of insurance compared to the conventional model adopted in the UK. In this research I am trying to compare and critique the duty of good faith in UK insurance laws and regulations taking into account the new Act and proposals of the Law commissions with its counterpart in the Saudi insurance laws and regulations adopted under the umbrella of Sharia'a as a prevailing legal system. Such comparison is interesting as it shows how totally different systems in their aspirations and principles deal with the duty of good faith. Suggestions are given to both systems to develop a logical approach to the duty, its concept, limits, application to brokers, remedies of breach with a general view to protect policyholders.

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Profile for Abdulrahman Hariri

Saudi Scientific International Conference 2012 Proceeding Book المؤتمر العلمي السعودي الدولي  

The proceeding book for the Saudi Scientific International Conference (SIC), 2012, which was held at Brunel University. This is a yearly con...

Saudi Scientific International Conference 2012 Proceeding Book المؤتمر العلمي السعودي الدولي  

The proceeding book for the Saudi Scientific International Conference (SIC), 2012, which was held at Brunel University. This is a yearly con...

Profile for aahariri
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