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HYD ROGENERATI ON Thedevelopment development of of aa Hydrogen Hydrogen Economy Derbyshire The Economyfor forthe thefuture futureofofAmbergate, Ambergate, Derbyshire

Armand Agraviador | Alexander SchoďŹ eld

M A N A G E M E N T R E P O RT Armand Agraviador 130107491

Alexander Schofield 130103002


JOINT THESIS


T HE P URP O S E

OF THIS

R E PO R T

This report runs in conjunction with a body of research and design that has been conducted over a period of three months by two 6th year students of Masters in Architecture introduced opposite. The work presented aims to situate the hypothetical design scheme in a real world context by; considering current management structures that inform the premise of the scheme’s setup, and by postulating the work, time and resources that would be involved in the project’s realisation. Real-world protocols and data are used in this report to inform the legislative, funding, contractual, procurement, and costing routes for architects and clients to take.

A JOINT THESIS

A NEW ENERGY MODEL

In an academic context, working in collaboration can be a much more representative reflection of work in practice for an architect or designer as compared to working in isolation. The decision to engage in a project partnership for the final-year thesis project was borne out of the desire to further push the lessons learnt from previous group work and apply them to the context of a full design project to learn as much as possible from the issues arising from joint design discourse, execution and ownership.

The project has formed within the themes of the Studio “Future Works”, which focuses on the history and future of manufacture and energy. After developing an understanding of paradigms of production and associated models of ownership, a hypothesis was developed for a context of future technologies.

A successful preceding project worked on together and knowledge of eachother’s previous work ensured the viability of a collaboration in terms of work-ethic, skill-sets and vision. Additionally it was clear that there was a sociable compatibility to facilitate the project progression. The union seeks to utilise both skillsets to produce a more informed and focused design rather than simply double the output, so that the value of the project

AN EXISTING STARTPOINT

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

Perhaps a community-initiated and run hydropower and hydrogen production scheme may be a viable, equitable and lucrative model of infrastructure, employment, and education?

In order to explore this potential, the project works in parallel with a realworld community-initiated hydropower scheme, run by bencom IPS ADVyCE in Ambergate, Derbyshire; and a future technologies research body, the AMRC, based outside Sheffield. The projects identifies a hypothetical consortium between the two as client, funder and benefactor for the project.

commentary section

Design Report main body

(=) sample letter

fig. 1: Sample page

REPORT STRUCTURE AND LAYOUT The report is structured to guide the reader through the entire process of managing a design project. The various sections focus on specific considerations and procedures to be undertaken at various stages of the pre-construction through to post-occupancy. This information is preceded by an introduction into the project premise and university Studio research. This introduction is a stripped down version of one that could be found in this project’s Design Report. Since the data and decisions presented are the culmination of an ongoing discourse between the two project authors, the document presents an informal dialogue in parallel with the report in grey sections on the left of some pages within this document. This dialogue features extracts from written and spoken correspondence between the two authors and seek to provide a further insight into the collaborative design process.

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With thanks to Renata Tyszczuk and Julia Udall for their guidance as studio tutors, and to Ian Jackson of ADVyCE for providing us with resources on Hydropower and site access.


C ON TE N T S

Project Introduction

Phasing and CDM

Preamble 08

Site Phasing 50

Project Premise 11

CDM 54

Challenging Paradigms / Proposal

13

Atlas of Energy

14

Mapping Experiences

15

Launching Future Works

16

Energy Policy in the UK

18

Scenario Framework

20

Narrative Development

22

Narrative Pathway 24 Project Methodology

26

Site

Procurement Comparison Profiles

58

Procurement - Phase 1

59

Procurement - Phase 2

60

Selected Procurement

61

Contract Relationships - Phase 1

62

Contract Relationships - Phase 2

63

Procurement Timeline

64

Planning Approval 66

Site 29 Project Location 30 Ambergate wireworks

31

Existing site typologies

32

Relationships

Other Contracts Considered

67

Costing Schedule of accommodation

70

Estimating project capital costs

72

Life cycle costing

76

Calculating fees 78 The client 36 Client Background - ADVyCE

37

Client Background - AMRC

38

Inclusive Design

Legal Structure 40 Funding support opportunities

41

Inclusive design 82

Stakeholder landscape

44

On site relationships

84

Programme overview

46

Environmental statement

86

Conclusion Bibliography

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

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Project Introduction Preamble 08 Project Premise 11 Challenging Paradigms / Proposal

13

Atlas of Energy

14

Mapping Experiences

15

Launching Future Works

16

Energy Policy in the UK

18

Scenario Framework

20

Narrative Development

22

Narrative Pathway 24 Project Methodology

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AS

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I suppose what we are asking is - can we put a price on a resource that won’t run out? I think what’s interesting is how easy it is to value something like say, coal and know exactly who owns a coal quarry but what about something less tangible like wind? Its not as if people currently own rights to a wind path. Will this change as renewables become more ubiquitous? But there’s an argument to be had that those who harvest the energy from its source have a principle right to its ownership. But then is it moral for a large company, for example, to buy up swathes of land for solar farms? Yes, the sun is an infinite source of energy, but land on Earth is not, a large company in this example is in effect ‘owning’ the resource by using up the land to receive it and subsequently reducing the means for others to do so. I guess the moral question boils down to which resources are human rights and to what level individual members of society are entitled to access. In the solar farm example, there is also a question of the significant technological and labour investment that only a large company has the resources to make, perhaps this can be argued to give them additional entitlement to harvesting this resource.

P R EAMBL E

““[n]o part of the earth’s surface, the atmosphere, the oceans, the geological substratum, or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital”1 -Neil Smith

The pervasiveness of the free-market economy in our daily lives forces us to address a quantifiable value for most things we possess or interact with. Our society has collectively formed a basic understanding of the transferable worth of an object and how proportions of this worth can be distributed to those that contributed to its production and distribution. Of course these quantified values are a social construct and concern the comparative worth of a commodity rather than its inherent value - but since early civilisations bartered for trade, through to coinage and monetisation, up to todays modern banking systems, this social construct has been the fundamental component to global economics.

Smith, N. The Routledge International Handbook of Globalisation Studies Abingdon: Routledge; 2010 Available at: http://core.ac.uk/download/ pdf/1632162.pdf

However, concerning our most base level commodities, natural resources, the question of valuation and also ownership becomes especially pertinent and divisive. How does one individual body claim ownership of natural assets that benefit an entire system, and how does one monetise such an asset when its benefits are difficult to package and quantify? What more if these assets are indefinitely renewable - should they be monetised at all?

fig. 2: Screenshots from 4 min video for “Altered States” studio assignment

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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AA

AS

We could look at the idea of the Commons, it seems to be discussed quite a lot these days in all sorts of contexts. Could a sort of “Energy commons” be a viable model? It seems an obvious statement to make, but everyone has ‘rights’ to the sun, as such should communities have the ‘right’ to fair use of other infinite sources of energy.

The concept of The Commons blurs the boundaries of ownership and stewardship. While commons may still be owned, either collectively or by an independent entity, they are accessible by all members of society. The concept has origin during the medieval era when it referred to a part of an estate, usually a grazing pasture or river, to which commoners had right of access and use. Today the concept of a commons extends beyond environmental resources to information, culture, design and digital media. When a resource is over-exploited by a consumer beyond a tipping point for sustainable use, then the resource is in danger of depletion. This is especially an issue with common resources as, unlike in private land where the owner’s productivity is at the mercy of his own actions, any individual in a commons can still be incentivised by the benefit of an action even if that action is detrimental to the wider system - additionally it is easier to place blame on external factors. This is referred to as the Tragedy of the Commons and was one driver of the mass enclosures that occurred from the Tudor period onwards,2 where huge areas of common land across the country were subdivided and allocated to those deemed to have the right to own it.

2 Lloyd, W. F. on the Checks to Population New York: Population Council; 1980, Available at: http://www. jstor.org/stable/1972412

3 Overton, M. Agricultural Revolution in England: The transformation if the agrarian economy 1500-1850 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1986

The enclosure movement made a significant contribution to accelerated urbanisation and industrialisation due to peasants being forced to move out of the countryside. 3

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

fig. 3: Common land as part of a medieval estate, from the Limbourg brother’s Très riches heures du Duc de Berry

fig. 4: Physical remnants of Enclosure Acts in Derbyshire

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It is difficult to achieve social and environmental benefits while maintaintining profits in the free market. Companies and government organisations usually work towards one of these drivers and try to achieve additional benefits for one of the others. Such work structures fall under fundemental capitalist concepts:

Market Environmentalism

A response to the misuse and overexploitation of the resource; the hope that resource regulation can benefit environmental protection through economic growth by giving the resource a quantifiable value.1

Private Property Rights

A response to inequity in access; the intention is that by determining exactly how the resource is owned and used, there can be more efficiency and fairness in its allocation and distribution.

Accumulation by Dispossesion

The opportunity for profiting from capital; the inherent requirement of constant growth for capitalist models to work means that public assets must be enclosed to allow for trade. The expansion into resources has huge potential for new revenue streams.

Water is an interesting resource example as it exists as an entity that can fall under any of the three asset categories. It is an embedded requirement for infrastructure and societal function, it is a commodifiable product and it is an intrinsic part of the environment.

fig. 5: Representation of an “asset class in an ecosystem’s market� as proposed by George Monbiot. Component of larger model.

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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AS

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The Privatisation vs. nationalisation debate has always appeared to be a contentious issue. The nationalisation of Northern Rock in 2008 is perhaps the most well publicised act of state ownership in recent years. However I think many people tend to associate nationalisation vs. privatisation with the actions of the Conservative Government when Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister. I guess the arguments arise when it is felt that wider society has a collective vested interest in something, and who people feel should be held accountable. Water is a good example because its the most basic of human rights, so the moral argument is everyone should have ownership. Its consumption obviously needs to be regulated, but who has the right to do it and who could do it better might be two different things entirely. The main argument against privatisation is the there are concerns that the companies’ accountability to shareholders, not consumers can undermine water quality and increase rate of aquifer depletion and raise costs.

P R O J ECT P R EMI S E In today’s highly populated and highly bureaucratic landscape, resource Commons can not so much exist as the unregulated free-for-all it once was. Instead when we talk about a common resource we often cede responsibility to a representative regulatory body, usually the government. As such, we usually talk about Nationalisation - a model within which it is assumed that the industries in question are charged with operating in the public interest, which often includes the environment. Here, focus is often taken off profits under the premise that social benefits are prioritised over social costs.

- as well as information, technology and culture. It has flourished in the modern neoliberal economy and has been seen as a key driver in capital growth for a nation. Under this model there is redemptive value placed on the power of financial incentive, and the disconnect from public finances can allow privatised industries to operate more freely for better efficiency. The debate between these two models of industry is enduring and complex. Arguments against each paradigm were explored using the example of water as a commodity.

Privatisation can be seen as a continuation of enclosure that has transcended physical boundaries of land allocation into the ownership of resources, infrastructure, and distribution fig. 6: Mapping of regional reservoir ownership and valuation Data from correspondence with Severn Trent and Yorkshire Water

But there is that analogy of “nobody washes a rental car” that suggests that clear ownership is crucial to stewardship. Could we be trusted to conserve water if we were not metered by an energy company? Society might feel entitled to overuse water when they know their taxes are paying for it in a nationalised system.

1 Stroup, R. Free-Market Environmentalism Concise Encyclopedia of Economics; 2008, Available at: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/FreeMarketEnvironmentalism.html H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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“...oh sorry did I say nature? No we don’t call it that anymore, its now called ‘natural capital’”; and ecological processes are called ‘ecosystems services’ because of course they exist only to service; ...and hills, forests, rivers - I hope you don’t call them that anymore, that’s terribly outdated terms, they are now called ‘green infrastructure’. While biodiversity and habitats - also not at all a-la-mode, my dear, we now call them ‘asset classes’ in an ‘ecosystems market’.”1

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION - George Monbiot, The Pricing of Everything

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AS

AA

When you look at both privatised and commercial models they tend to exist with centralised infrastructure. When we consider localism and decentralised models, it has to be asked whether either of these methods of ownership are appropriate. I keep hearing about how localism is always heralded as a more “resilient� model because it disconnects a system from potential external shocks, but I can imagine it seen as parochial, exclusive and unwilling to embrace the benefits of globalisation and mass-production. There are clearly benefits to both localism and centralisation but i guess what we need to bear in mind is that we do not have to pick one and go with it indefinitely, I imagine a successful system will be one that could adapt its model as time goes on.

C H AL L EN G I N G P AR ADI G MS Whether under a private or public sector model, the distribution of resources, including utility infrastructure in the UK falls within predominantly centralised systems. Such concentration of responsibility facilitates widespread regulation and consolidated bureaucracy. This control and efficiency are ideal for keeping industries competetive and so large scale centralisation naturally flourished with industrialisation and remained since. However such and organisation of power makes the whole system vulnerable to a central failure. Decentralised systems of governance and distribution are seen to be more resilient models. Localism is a fast growing model in the UK. The proliferation of open-source design and the increased affordability of small-scale digital fabrication methods have redifined production and consumption as well as ownership.2 This localist movement, compounded by the rise in popularity of community cultivation and locavorism, has begun to shift the way we see all our commodities including energy. While microgeneration is growing as a sustainable addition to the national grid, backed by government incentives; cooperative initiatives empowering consumers at a local level have begun to ratify the viability of localised grids - inspiring our thesis question:

Can a decentralised energy supply model provide an alternative to the nationalisation and privatisation paradigms so fiercely debated? How would such a model operate and how could it be managed and manifested spatially?

P R O P O S AL

1 Monbiot, G The Pricing of everything lecture transcript, Available at: http://www.monbiot. com/2014/07/24/the-pricing-of-everything/

2 Bollier, D Viral Spiral: How the Commoners Built a Digital Republic of Their Own New York: The New Press; 2008, Available at: http://www.learcenter.org/ pdf/ViralSpiral.pdf

This project aims to explore the potential for a real-world community-run hydropower scheme and expand its scope to benefit the community as well as act as a precedent and educational tool to encourage further schemes. The project will explore new linked technologies in the storage and distribution of energy - this will be done through a programme of hydrogen production for distribution. The challenge of the scheme will be to find the appropriate resilient balance between localised production and the extent of connectivity to national network infrastructure, and how this balance could be adjusted through changing times within an envisaged framework of socio political, economic and environmental scenarios.

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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ATLAS OF ENERGY

FUTURE WORKS : ATLAS OF ENERGY

'WATER'

Studio 1 began working collectively. The studio was divided into subgroups focusing on different resource classes; Hydrology, Geology, Environment, Waste, Trade, Politics, Communications and Power. Each subgroup mapped out various aspects of their resource infrastructures and simplified and consolidated these maps into a holistic Atlas of Energy..

ShefĂželd

GRIPPLE

AMRC BOEING

GEOLOGY

FUTURE WORKS : ATLAS OF ENERGY

SHEFFIELD MASSON MILL

Matlock Bath

CROMFORD MILL

JOHN SMEDLEY

Cromford

AMBERGATE

Belper

STRUTTS MILL

DARLEY ABBEY MILL SMITHS OF DERBY

Derby

SILK MILL

DERBY

Tectonics

Soil Variations The pattern of soil types in most of England (and the lowlands of other parts of the UK) can only be summarized in general terms because of the intricate variations in soil type distribution. Substantial areas with clay and clay loam soils derived from either weathered rock or from glacial deposits occur over the Midlands and north of England, parts of East Anglia and on the relatively higher parts of south east England. These give rise to predominately clay soils, though often interspersed with sandy soils, and with varying degrees of drainage.

Active Quarries

Water

Derwent River

River Trent

Tributory Water Systems

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

Flood Planes

Ground Water

Lake or Resevoir

N

Canal

Urban Area

Scale 1:100000 @ A0 1: 70000 @ A1

Aquifers

fig. 7: Hydrology Composite Atlas

For centuries, the rich geology of Derbyshire, Derby and the Peak District National Park has encouraged the search for workable minerals. The principal sources of Limestones and Sandstones/Gritstones were formed during the Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic Periods, between 354 and 200 million years ago. Most of the National Park and the northern part of Derbyshire is underlain by limestone and gritstone (a hard form of sandstone) from the Carboniferous period.

Bedrock The processes of weathering and erosion affect bedrock. Outcrops exposed to wind and water are often decomposed, or weathered, over time into regolith or smaller particles. In environments characterized by humid conditions that extend for many thousands to millions of years, water may penetrate deep into bedrock to form saprolite, a rock made from the consolidation of clay minerals that remain from the chemical weathering process. Although some bedrock deposits may be strong enough to resist the passage of glaciers and ice sheets over their exposed surfaces, others may be scratched or deeply striated. Erosion may also shape the bedrock of some mountains that serve as the source of glaciers into semicircular basins called cirques.�

The UK sits on the Eurasian tectonic plate, away from the edge, and as a result is not generally associated with earthquakes, however, between 20 to 30 earthquakes are felt by people each year, and a few hundred smaller ones are recorded by sensitive instruments. Most of these are very small and cause no damage. However, some British earthquakes have caused considerable damage, although nothing like the devastation caused by large earthquakes in other parts of the world.

Earthquakes

abandoned mine methane

natural gas

clay and shale

secondary

coal. deep mined

barytes

mine drainage gas

fireclay

slag

sandtone

calcite

oil

gypsum

coal, surface mined

limestone

coal bed methane

sand and gravel

igneous and metamorphic rock

crushed rock

Gh Humic Gleysols

Jc Calcaric Fluvisols

Be Eutric Cambisols

Ge Eutric Gleysols

Lc Chromic Luvisols

Qc Cambic Arenosols

Limestone

Mudstone

Coal Lower Coal Measures Formation

Mercia Mudstone Group

Eyam Limestone Group

Magnesium Limestone

Middle Coal Measures Formation

Widmerpool Formation

Monsal Dale Limestone Formation

Upper Magnesium Limestone

Upper Coal Measures Formation

Edlington Formation

Carboniferous Limestone

Unknown Igneous Intrusion

Milldale Limestone

Millstone Grit Group

Fallgate Volcanic Formation

Mixon Limestone - Shales Formation

fig. 8: Geology Composite Atlas

N

Woo Dale Limestone

Other

Sherwood Sandstone Group

Sandstone

All recorded earthqueakes shown between 1970-2014. Size of circle indicative of magnitude. The larger circles indicate an earthquake of around 3.0 in magnitude.

scale 1:100000 @ A0 1:70000 @ A1

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AA

AS

All of the research subcategories for the Atlas of energy are relevant, but I think it was really lucky that you and I were allocated geology and hydrology. I just think researching hydrology on a regional level was vital to understanding how the river works. Of course and given the amount of people in the studio, dividing up the analysis work allowed us to bring together a massive amount of research in a relatively short amount of time. We were able to consider aspects of analysis, such as geology and trade that I think would typically be overlooked if the research was carried out individually.

1 Studio Future Works. Atlas Mapping reflections. November 2014

MAPPING EXPERIENCES The information gathered as sub groups through both research and the various field trips culminated in a studio wide joint mapping experience. This involved the documentation of sights, sounds, emotions, history and learning on interactive maps in the studio. These were added to in subsequent weeks as the studio progressed further and helped establish connections between the sites across the research area

fig. 9: Arkwright, Belper and Derby experience mapping

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

fig. 10: Detail of Arkwright Mills experient mappings

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AS

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It was great to get a scenario perspective from people outside architecture. The mapping experiences were challenging at points as we, the creators of the maps, were tasked with driving the conversations forwards. The people in my scenario workshop were all really animated in creating future narratives and a couple of them really knew their stuff. It was a great combination of imaginative storytelling and a realistic base for future-prediction. I am pretty sure some of our project concepts can find origins in those conversations! I was fortunate enough to have Ian Jackson in my workshop from ADVyCE. He passed on his details and proposed a site visit to Ambergate after we expressed our interest in his community hydropower scheme. We could finally get past that security guard.

LAUNCHING FUTURE WORKS

Preparation

Vision

Arrival at the silk mill and setting up the space for the launch

Photographer Tim Mitchell recorded our thoughts using ‘thought clouds’ questioning our visions for energy in the future

The mapping experience was pivotal to the launch of future works as part of the studio tutor’s ‘stories of change’ project. We travelled to Derby Silk Mill, the world’s first factory and formally introduced the project. Guests included those involved in factories and manufacturing in the region,, who joined together with creative practitioners to tell stories and spark off conversations about the future of energy, work and making. We presented to the audience and told them about our research and interests so far. Guests were invited to join 8 tables, each with a unique map developed by the studio. Participants were asked to take turns adding their knowledge to the map to develop a future scenario that could be a story about the future of energy and manufacturing. Following this we gathered together to tell our scenarios of the future to the audience. These group presentations were informative in developing our own energy scenarios . .

1 Udall, J. 8’ THEMES, 8 OBJECTS FROM THE SILK MILL ARCHIVES’ 2015 Available at: https://storiesfutureworks.wordpress.com/2015/01/06/8-themes8-objects-from-the-silk-mill-archives/

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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Scenario Mapping

Reflection

Performances

Using the maps as drivers, the studio mapped hypothetical future scenarios incorporating the political, environmental and social themes explored over the past weeks. The event was recorded for stories of change.

Each scenario was presented to the silk mill audience allowing the group to share and reflect on the morning’s activities

The event involved performances and presentations from local singers, historians and filmmakers. Displaying their unique interpretation of the energy past, present and future.

fig. 11: Montage of events from Stories of Change: Scenario Launch Day at the Derby Silk Mill

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

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LEGAL ENTITIES

GOVERNMENT

STATUTORY BODIES Established to support UK Government and Devolved Administrations on emissions targets and report to Parliament on progress made in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and preparing for climate change.

Ministers

Legislation

Carbon Budget Policies

3rd Party Legal Action

Pressures government through legal action should they fail to enact policies

Five-year budgets formulated by civil servants within the government, initially the Office of Climate Change.

INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKS Copenhagen Accord Loose, non-binding agreement to pledge climate change mitigation

UNFCCC

Government ministers have a statutory duty to introduce policies which support achievement of targets as outlined by reports from CCC.

UN international environmental treaty that sets frameworks for enforceable protocols

2008 CLIMATE CHANGE ACT INCENTIVE FUNDING Scheme

Description

Cost

Paid by

Renewables Obligation

Electricity suppliers must buy proportion of their sales from renewable generators, or pay a buy-out charge

£874 million in 2007/8

Electricity consumers

EU Emissions Trading Scheme

Companies pass cost of emissions permits into price of power: Increased electricity prices benefit renewable generators

£300 million in 2008

Electricity consumers

Carbon Emissions Reduction Target

Energy companies must install low-carbon or microgeneration items in homes

£1.5 billion over 3 years

Gas & Electricity consumers

Renewable Transport Fuel suppliers must supply a proportion of Fuel Obligation biofuels, or pay a buy-out charge

£200 million in 2008/9

Fuel consumers

Climate Change Levy

Electricity suppliers need not pay this tax on electricity from renewable generators

£68 million in 2007/8

Taxpayers, via reduced revenues

Lower fuel duty on Biofuels

The rate of fuel duty is 20 pence per litre below that for petrol and diesel

£100 million in 2007

Taxpayers, via reduced revenues

Environmental Transformation Fund

Grants for technology development and deployment

£400 million over 3 years

Taxpayers

Research Councils

Grants for basic scientific research

£30 million in 2007/8

Taxpayers

Energy Technologies Institute

Grants to accelerate development of renewables and othe energy technologies

t.b.a

Taxpayers and company sponsors

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

Kyoto Protocol

779.9 Mt

EU Renewables DirecƟve

26% reducƟon

90% reducƟon 1990

2020

Such benchmarks incentivise UK decarbonisation with competetive aspiration. It is worth noting that the UK target is the result of negotiations within the EU to share out the Kyoto negotiated EU wide target. The baseline date of 1990 favourably coincides with the privatisation of the UK power industry and subsequent “dash for gas” from coal.

2050

This policy consists of a comitment to reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions by target benchmarks on 1990 levels. It is supported by the budget and reports of statutory bodies, who monitor and advise on progress, and enacted through government policies which are legally required to be commited.

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E N E RGY P OL I CY

IN THE

UK

To begin to understand current trends in UK energy, it is practical to map the hierarchy, relationships and financing of national and international policies and targets on energy production and decarbonisation in the UK. (flowchart, left)

The 2008 Climate Change Act was a national manifestation of contemporary international benchmarks and the catalyst for much of the GHG emission reduction around the country. The first report reveals future targets as well as progress.

fig. 12: Data from University of Cambridge Electricity Policy Research Group; ‘UK Renewable Energy Policy since Privatisation’ by Michael Pollitt, 2010 Ofgem; ‘Electricity Network Scenarios for Great Britain in 2050‘ final report 2008; and Shell; ‘New LENS Scenarios’ publication 2013

FIRST REPORT 2008 UK FINDINGS

12.5% Kyoto Protocol target reducƟon

20% reducƟon The UK is the only European country to have already met and exceeded 12.5% 2012 Kyoto redc�on target from its 1990 baseline.

1990

Technology Category

Technology Detail

Wind power

Onshore

50

Offshore

100

Bioenergy

Biomass

41

Geothermal

Ground source heat pumps Large Scale

8

Small Scale

10

�etro��ed and building integrated Wave energy

>1

Tidal barrage

50

Hydro

Photovoltaics Marine

2008

Tidal stream Total

31% reducƟon

*in event of successful Global Deal for Copenhagen 2008

[by 2020] Electricity Sector

5

*Marginal Abatement Cost Curve in Scenario 1

to achieve overall decarbonisaƟon

33

Storage Imports

18

150

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

1. Big Transmission and DistribuƟon TSOs at centre, scaled up version of today

“Paradoxes”

0

10 “Greener” Coal incen�ves

Onshore wind high. mid, low availibility

25 Offshore wind high availibility

Offshore wind low availibility

DSOs at centre, more responsibility than today

40 Biomass

Forced on onshore wind offshore wind marine

MtCO2

Small-Scale Smart-Grids respond live to demand Diverse management

Connec�vity Leadership

3. DistribuƟon System Operators

average net cost of abaƟng one tonne of CO2e

50

Reference projecƟon using current trends

ShellÊs Lens Scenario concept Shell released their own scenario campaign in 2013, focusing on two contras�ng outcomes; top-down focused (montains) and bo�om-up focused (oceans)

ESCOs at centre contracted by networks

emissions reducƟon potenƟal

Gas

3

OfgemÊs „LENS‰ Scenarios

2. Energy Service Companies 100

2

The UK has also had a specic annual target for the percentage of electricity from renewables out to 2015 as part of its Renewables Obliga�on Cer�cate Scheme

Prosperity Large-Scale Reinforced for intermiƩence

Nuclear

Coal

Complete DecarbonisaƟon of Electricity Sector

200

Renewables

200

CO 2

The Great Britain elecricity regulator, Ofgem, presented a range of Longterm Energy Network Scenarios in 2008 for the future of the electricity system up to 2050.

£t/CO2

400

[by 2030] Fuel ConsumpƟon

30-40% Renewable Energy

2050 SCENARIOS

TWh

1*

21% reducƟon

Annual Poten�al (TWh)

~316

2020 SCENARIOS Potential Distributions in Energy Sector

[by 2020] Greenhouse Gas Emissions

INDICATIVE TARGETS

Potentials for different renewable technologies

Greenhouse Gas Emissions 779.9 Mt 623.8 Mt

0

To further inform future scenarios in which to situate the project, projections from the first report were paralleled with key predictions from the primary energy regulator and energy distributor, Ofgem and Shell.

Room to Manouvre “Pathways” Trapped Transi�on

4. Micro-grids Consumers at centre using MSOs for regulaƟon

5. MulƟ-purpose Networks Network companies respond at all levels

“Mountains” Scenario

“Oceans” Scenario

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BA LO G

WO “TECHNO-GARDEN”

Equity Economic growth Public goods

Green technologies Ecological economics

ORDER FROM STRENGTH

ADAPTING MOSAIC

National security

Integrated management Local adaptation Learning

No Con Ara Irri

CA LO 2 Rekacewicz, P. Bournay, E. UNEP/GRID-Arendal, World population scenarios, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2007; Available at: http://www. grida.no/graphicslib/detail/world-populationscenarios_8c18#

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UN high scenario

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It must also be noted no spectrum necessarily implies a best to worst case scenario but, rather, contrasting ways of operation.

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“The four scenarios demonstrate that at every scale there are opportunities for combining advantageous approaches to achieve synergistic benefits” *

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Order from Strength Adapting Mosaic

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“Techno-Garden”

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Global Orchestration 6

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1 Bledzki, L, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Opportunities and Challenges for Business and Industry, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, World Resources Institute, 2008, p19; Available at: http:// www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/ document.353.aspx.pdf

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Environmental Policies

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Looking at scenarios on two axes of spectra implies that possibilities do not operate in isolation and outcomes must be a summation of several occurrences.

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The axes right demonstrate possible outcomes of employing different natures of policy regarding ecosystems services on a spectrum of regional context. The scenario titles are those specified by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

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GLOBAL ORCHESTRATION

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In shaping future development, politics and technology are the most powerful yet notably uncertain forces. Yet they are the primary factors governing predictions over the future of manufacture and energy; including sources, access, ownership and distribution. In order to situate the project within a temporal context, it is necessary to investigate how extremes of responses can begin to inform potential futures.

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S CEN AR I O F R AMEWO R KS

UN low scenario

These scenarios can be mapped against further possible situations on new axes as demonstrated right where future population dictates the most probable nature of action taken. H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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Millenium Ecosystem Assessment

[billion] 2

1955

2015

2100

fig. 14: 2 20


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Top-down directed Native woodland Prime agricultural land protected Irrigation restricted by regulation

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Bottom-up choices Native woodland Local food Agricultural Extensification Shared Resources, water

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Adapting Mosaic

Low GDP growth Inflated energy prices

“Extreme-Water”

FRAGMENTATION

High GDP growth Climate crises Resource shortage

Low GDP growth Social Exclusion Enclaves, Parochialism

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PR UN low scenario

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hyper-tech: rapid counter-urbanization. extreme water: “Techno-Garden” defence of the cities. peak oil: energy price shock: localization of activity. fragmentation: social polarization of cities.

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PEAK OIL

High GDP growth Rapid technological advancement

Global Orchestration 3 Brown, I,6Scenarios and land use futures, The James Hutton Institute, Available at: http://www.hutton. ac.uk/research/themes/realising-lands-potential/ scenarios-and-land-use-futures

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fig. 15: 3

Order from Strength

(right) scenarios for peri-urban areas:

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highatscenario Finally we canUNlook negative outcomes of policy focus to suggest ways the project could avoid, ameliorate or adapt to potential undesirable futures.

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Land Usage (Agricultural Parallels)

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LOCAL STEWARDSHIP

Prioritise food security Coniferous plantations Arable expansion Large-scale irrigation

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NATIONAL ENTERPRISE

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Its likely movements towards localism and globalism will come in waves influenced by constantly changing values and unforeseeable shocks to the system. People are generally very reactionary. One should note that while we can create prediction frameworks like many thinktanks do, they do not provide definitive consequences. These futures are transient and will change again eventually, and two predicted futures can even co-exist, either harmoniously or not.

GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY

No Subsidy Coniferous plantations Arable constant/intensification Irrigation for high-value crops

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Millenium Ecosystem Assessment H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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4 Anon. PLUREL – peri-urban land use relationships, The University of Manchester; Available at: http:// [billion] 2 www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/research/cure/research/ plurel/project/region/scenarios/

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WORLD MARKETS

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Since the spectra of responsive actions are multi-dimensional and scenarios are subject to an inexhaustive range “TECHNO-GARDEN” of possibilities, it is appropriate to Green technologies investigate one specific spectrum, global Ecological economics to local responses, and plot that on several axes. In addition to the effects of global and local models with proactive and reactive environmental action on human wellADAPTING MOSAIC being as seen on the frameworks Integrated management opposite; we can postulate their effects Local adaptation with economic or environmental Learning priorities on future land use. (right)

National security

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Our desires aside, I guess the question is which way we see national and global trends are going. It seems like northern GLOBAL ORCHESTRATION Europe is generally Equity going towards an international centralised energy grid, Economic growth especially with Public windgoods power. But at the same time, all these countries are incentivising microgeneration. Which model will contribute more to our energy production in the next decade, and how will this affect paradigms in other sectors ORDER FROM STRENGTH in the next century?

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Vulnerability to Shock based on Values/Dynamics fig. 16: 4

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N A RRA TIV E D E VE LOPM E NT Together with the data from current UK policy, the regulator and distributor predictions and the scenario frameworks informed the creation of specific future contexts within which we could set our project narrative. As with the frameworks, there is an inexhaustive amount of possible outcomes and so the extremes could be addressed to infer a range of themed possibilities between.

As large renewable projects become incorporated into the National Grid. The U.K. begins to expand its offshore grid connections with neighbouring nations.

Towards localised systems of energy production and fabrication fig. 17: Selected potential scenarios projected for future of energy

Globalised or localised renewable energy networks and manufacture

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

Affordable production and energy equity at ecological expense In the case of a centralised network: Environmental or Social prioritisation for subsidies

Self-sufficient micro-communities within wider devolution of governance, closed loop systems including micro-generation and recycling In case of a decentralised network: Community resilience or lack of ample internal or external support

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Incentivised environmental protection Expensive production and energy poverty

Central Catastrophe or Revolution

Bioprospecting and full privatisation of Natural Assets

In the case of a highly regulated energy economy: Tipping point on poverty, inequity or ecology; or sustained green capitalism

Premature collapse of localised infrastructure due to drought or crop failure or insufficient skill

Unlimited access to harnessing renewable energy sources, with educational programmes

Allocation of renewable community responsibilities, through localised Feed-In-Tariffs according to resource abundance

In case of a successful bottom-up localised resource network model: Unregulated energy commons or resource fiefdoms

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

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Response to Societal/Ecological Cataclysm - Archaeological analysis of our site

Global Scale, Grand-scale landscaping on topography + Meta-Programming, behaviour models, technological network

Small scale, Scavenging and reappropria�on of remnant structures, Species models, localised network

2015

2020

Conception period

Amelioration period

Specialise

Response to potenƟal Environmental/Climate and Anthropological Changes

Compromise

Response to potenƟal PoliƟcal and Societal Changes Na�onal Scale, wider site upheaval and new build, governance models, energy network

Speculate

Response to the site and stakeholder Immediate scale, small focused interven�on, landscaping and retrofit, management models, infrastructure network

Interrogate

Foci Scope

2050

2100

Adaptation period

Flux period

Affordable produc�on and energy nergy equity at ecological expense 4

spectrum

8 Central Catastrophe/Revolu�on

Towards globalised networks in energy and manufacture

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9 Fullll priva�sa�on off Naturall Assets

Full Corporatocracy

5 Incen�vised environmental protec�on Expensive p produc�on p and energy gy p poverty erty er tyy

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10 Unregulated Energy Commons

Tragedy of Commons

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Self-sufficient micro-communi�es within wider devolu�on of governance

Towards localised systems of energy produc�on and fabrica�on

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Resource Fiefdoms

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fig. 18: Potential scenario progression timeline

Premature failure of localised infrastructure

Response to the site and stakeholder

Key Predic�ons

• • • • • • • •

Immediate scale, small focused intervention, landscaping Heavy relience on fossil fuels Public Private Renewable Electricitymodels, on rise andandretrofit, management infrastructure network UK remains resilient in energy security UK Electricity Market Reform implementa�on Rapid decline in Biodiversity UN Post-2015 Agenda implementa�on Deadline for Millenium Development Goals (2000)

• • • • • • • •

Response to potential Political and Societal Changes new build,

Scale, The National UK popula�on reacheswider 70m site upheaval and Peakgovernance Oil → Global Oilmodels, Crisis energy network Renewable grid parity increases nancial viability 1°C rise in average global temperature Heterogenous “Genera�on X” shaping world poli�cs Rapid change in workforce and work loca�on and methods Mass ex�nc�ons and eradicated rainforests Solid waste is reaching crisis levels

Response to potential Environmental/Climate and • • • • • • • •

Anthropological Global popula�on reaches Changes 9 billion and begins to plateau Deple�on of fossil fuelsGrand-scale landscaping on topography + Global Scale, Fusion power is nears commercial availability Meta-Programming, behaviour models, technological network 2-3°C rise in average global temperature Personal 3D prin�ng and printed electronics ubiquitous Open source manufacturing changes produc�on paradigms Resurrec�on of several ex�nct species has been achieved Solar Landlls, and automated waste conveyance infastructure

Response to Societal/Ecological Cataclysm • • • • • • • •

Archaeological project remnants Global fer�lity has stabalisedanalysis at below 2.0of children per woman Arcologies Eco-Nomadic communi�es as an alterna�ve of to ci�es Smallandscale, Scavenging andemerge reappropriation remnant Nuclear power plants are decomissioned structures, Speciesagriculture. models,Sealocalised Deadly heatwaves decimate levels wreaknetwork havoc around the world The average employee works less than 20 hours per week The ozone later has fully recovered 80% of rainforest has been lost Eradica�on of waste produc�on 24

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

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Hypersonic transport infrastructure reduces travel �mes • Space travel and colonisa�on boosts manufacturing innova�on • Antarc�ca is the world’s fastest developing region • Femtoengineering and AI revolu�onises popular technology

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Pollen counts have more than doubled • "Energy islands" are widespread in coastal regions • Orbital solar power is commercially feasible • Doubled effects of heat stress on labour capacity • Claytronics are revolu�onising consumer products

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on

Mercury pollu�on greatly reduced • Glacial regions becoming ice-free • Wireless electricity reaches cri�cal mass• Tradi�onal microchips reach limits of miniaturisa�on • Deple�ng global reserves of an�mony • Fresh water conict

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Agricltural robots on farms • Automated mining industry • Comple�on of i5K (Biodiversity) Project • Electric car ownership: 1 million worldwide • Sales of electric and hybrid trucks: 100,000 annually


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Our proposal should fulfil its remit for empowering the community in a local decentralised local level for resilience but that is not to say that it should reject wider centralised trends altogether. Not only can the project’s construction benefit from external national and global input but, once operational, it has the potential to benefit a much wider scope of people beyond local periphery. The key here is adaptability to changing trends and being local where appropriate and thinking globally when appropriate. I agree, and the research question isn’t necessarily suggesting that we should create a completely independent community model. Its likely given current infrastructure that there will be some unavoidable aspects of the programme which will require the community working alongside private or government organisations, its about empowering them, not isolating them.

NARRATIVE PATHWAY The timeline opposite shows the earlier selection of polarised scenarios mapped onto branching trajectories over the next century. Any prediction within such a chronology would be arbitrarily timed and the intervals between periods of observation are thus based on convention; such as deadlines set by organisations and timeframes that are more readily fathomable as a unique era. 2020, 2050, and 2100, provided convenient markers for differing periods of context to which the project could respond to accordingly. The focus and scale for the project’s response is described along the bottom of the timeline.

Community Stakeholders

Hydrogen Generation

Hydropower Scheme

Publicity Broadcasting

Distributable Energy

Wider Society

Profit Generation

National Benefits

Beneficial Programmes

Global Benefits

fig. 19: Changing relationship of project to global scenarios H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

Conception Period: 2015 onwards The project will build on current plans for the introduction of hydro-turbines in Ambergate while addressing community needs by introducing beneficial programmes for immediate income generation. In the first decade, the scheme is expected to succeed as a model of collective empowerment and agency, supporting an energy-secure, carbonneutral community.

Amelioration Period: 2020 onwards As both Hydropower generation and hydrogen generation become more efficient and the overheads are beginning to be paid off, the community can start seeing increasing benefits from their investment in the form of self sustainance and profit from selling surplus product. Meanwhile the successes are gaining more international attention inspiring similar projects elsewhere.

Adaptation Period: 2040 onwards While energy communities are proving to be a viable alternative to a centralised grid, rapid technological advances in the face of fossil-fuel depletion encourage wider trends to favour global infrastructure. Localism is often percieved as a privilaged and parochial paradigm. The challenge for the project at this point is to adapt its programme and connectivity to assure its relevance while maintaining its integrity as a resilient and empowering model. 25


Thematic Contextualisation

Project Research

Strategic Reflection

Spatialisation

Technological

P ROJE C T M E T H O DO L O G Y The nature of studio group activity combined with the collaborative research of the project partnership, and each partner’s independent work and skill sets, requires multiple methodologies to be employed at the start of the design process. These can be mapped onto a methodology timeline which explains an overall workflow throughout the duration of the project. In Semester 1 the project workflow is multilateral and linear. This explorative portion of the project focuses on bringing together multiple lines of inquiry together to form increasingly informed research pathways that gradually create a solid base for Semester 2’s design work. There are outputs of information and visualisation being produced throughout which is important for a heuristic link between design and research. Mapping these reveals how the project’s outputs inform one another and increase in depth of understanding further along the confluence of thought streams.

Historical

Theoretical

Narrative Dialectic Responsive

Comparative

Legislative

Site Group work

Partner work: split elements

Partner work: independent focus

Partner work: simultaneous-joint

Experiential Stakeholder

fig. 20: Methodology Timeline illustrating workflow

H YH D YR D O RG OE G NEN R A ER TA I OT N I O N

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fig. 21: Conceptual collage of programmatic intentions public interface - education - marketing - conferences - tours/events

hydrogen manufacture - production - storage - distribution

energy production - hydropower - water abstraction - maintenance

ecological provision - SSSI retention - fauna protection

community provision - workspace - site operation


Site Site 29 Project Location 30

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

Ambergate wireworks

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Existing site typologies

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AA

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Any of these sites along the Derwent Valley would be really fascinating to explore with a project. I suppose given they are all quite similar historically and geographically, we need to consider some wider picture that one of these locations could offer. Socially? Economically? Politically? I’d say Strutt’s Mill was a front runner until we visited Ambergate, we wanted a site that ideally sat on or near a weir, or some other water management system.

P R O J ECT L O CAT I O N fig. 22: Location of Project site in relation to the UK

The location for the project was decided by the real-world scenario in which the stakeholders, who were identified as the client group for the hypothetical scheme, were situated.

Project Site: Former Wireworks, Ambergate

The real-world scenario was first brought to the studio’s attention during a brief lecture on hydro-power in the Derwent Valley by Ian Jackson during a visit to Strutts Mill in Belper. It was revealed that a community in the region was investing shares to set up a Hydropower turbine and generator in a disused Victorian industrial estate. The scheme was to be set up in Ambergate, several miles north of Belper and it was relevant to the studio themes in that it would work to restore the centuries-old zero-carbon heritage of the Derwent Valley through a modern take on harnessing the river’s kinetic energy.

Ambergate Village

Peak District National Park

Further meetings with Ian were conducted further along the project which led to stakeholder meetings and site visits that will be discussed in this report.

Derbyshire Derwent River

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

Belper

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fig. 23: Neighbourhood overview of scheme

Matlock 11km

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THE AMBERGATE WIREWORKS SITE

Waterways existed in various forms, either to distribute fresh water from the Ambergate reservoir, operate as transport infrastructure along the Cromford Canal or be harnessed as a kinetic energy source for the milloperated wireworks on the Derwent River. Like in many towns along the Derwent Valley, these infrastructures are intertwined in an almost parallel manner, constrained by the narrow topography.

Cromford canal

Regional trainline

fig. 25: Aerial photograph Ambergate Wireworks site section, courtesy of ADVyCE

A6 Road

Proposed cycle path

Ambergate has a history of confluence of various infrastructures. It was the site of a significant regional rail junction

for passenger trains while freight trains operated on a separate network delivering goods to and from local industries such as the Ambergate lime kilns.

River Derwent

The program for the project requires the site to be accessible by several transport methods, and also to be taken into consideration is if the local infrastructure is capable of supporting the aspirations of the development. The site was chosen partly due to its rural location, as safety considerations need to made with regards to compressed hydrogen been stored on site.

fig. 24: Historic water run at ambergate

Turbine Tailrace

The existing wireworks buildings straddle the River Derwent and are located just north of Ambergate village. Whilst the site is constrained by the A6 road to the east and private land to the west, the north and south extents are not clear, however the extent of the buildings and exterior paved areas stretch 500m along the river.

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fig. 26: Ambergate Wireworks site section,

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

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Ian took us on site at the end of December, exploring some of the existing buildings, the water channels and also get a great insight into the existing use of the site. It was useful for finding out which buildings were structurally unsound and essentially had to go. And which façades are actually rather beautiful pieces of history and would be nice to preserve. We noticed that the site to be largely empty with most of the buildings that were occupied been used only for storage.

EXISTING SITE TYPOLOGIES

fig. 27: Selected views of site as existing

There is a variety of building typologies across six architectural eras on site. Some of these are currently sparsely occupied as material storage. The recent corrugated metal sheds and 60s concrete ones in disrepair are not worth saving for neither appearance nor structural stability None of the buildings are listed but there are some shells with enough notable aesthetic virtue to be considered for retention, these include a late Victorian tudor-revival manor, 1800s stone warehouses- the largest of which is the old wire hall “building 7”, and early 1900s brick warehouse.

Interface between 1960s stone warehouse, rusted metal footbridge and early 1900s brick warehouse extension.

Brick Warehouse annexed to Building 7 A6

partial use empty or unstable building 7 Riv

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1800s stone warehouse façades of buildings 7 and 6 late Victorian tudor-revival manor H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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Relationships The client 36 Client Background - ADVyCE

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Client Background - AMRC

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Legal Structure 40 Funding support opportunities

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Stakeholder landscape

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Programme overview

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THE CLIENT Client Narrative / 2014

Client Narrative / 2020

AMRC

AMRC hydro

hydro

The client is AMRC Hydro, a collaboration stemming from two existing organisations: The University of Sheffield and Boeing founded Advanced Manufacturing and Research Centre (AMRC) and the Amber and Derwent Valley Community Energy Limited (ADVyCE).

1 The Rotherham based AMRC is looking to expand its research of clean energy technologies. This follows the success of its collaborative research model of the nuclear manufacturing supply chain, the knowledge transfer centre (2012) and AMRC training centre (2013). The AMRC begins to research companies, charities and other research groups in the region to assert possible opportunities to have an impact.

3 The AMRC contacts ADVyCE to discuss their work so far and discover the potential of a hydropower scheme at Ambergate, The intention been that the hydropower turbines would be funded by a community shareholder scheme and be owned and operated in the interest of the community. Intrigued, the AMRC send representatives to Ambergate to look at other further opportunities. They find the site up for sale for redevelopment.

5 The AMRC has branched into the research of hydrogen technologies, including the extraction of hydrogen from water using renewable technologies. ADVyCE and the AMRC under the umbrella term AMRC hydro engage in a new project - the construction of a hydrogen plant on site. The scheme is to be part funded by a community share offer as per the hydropower, with part investment through the AMRC.

AMRC hydro

AMRC hydro

fig. 28: Proposed Evolution of Company Structures Note: An overview of the legal structure of the AMRC Hydro can be found on page xx H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

2 The AMRC hear about Amber and Derwent Valley Community Energy (ADVyCE) Limited. ADVyCE was set up to study the feasibility of developing renewable energy projects in the Amber Valley and Derwent Valley areas to aid sustainable development, with the intention of local communities operating decentralised renewable energy projects.

4 The AMRC purchase the site, they agree to let ADVyCE install the hydropower scheme as envisaged, providing that ADVyCE fund the construction and installation as planned and that the AMRC has access to the turbine house for educational and research purposes. The AMRC propose to build a remote extension of the Sheffield knowledge transfer centre focusing on the use of Hydropower technologies in the region. As such AMRC hydro is established and the proposal for phase one of the site is conceived.

6 The AMRC will be able to use the plant for future research and use in the extension of its knowledge centre. In addition to the hydrogen plant, The AMRC is looking to extend its enterprising and educational facilities on the Ambergate site and as such phase two of the hydrogeneration project is established.

36


Stories of change launch event at Derby silk mill establishing contact

Private tour with client at Ambergate site - channels and weir

Ian Jackson

fig. 30: ADVyCE Formation

Joined community hydro forum

Amber and Derwent Valley community energy established

Talk to the land owner

Receive copy of 2008 study

ne

ADVyCE currently are focusing on the Ambergate wireworks site as the location of community ran hydropower scheme. The adjacent diagram is an overview of actions taken, in relation to the hydropower project prior to the bencom been contacted by the AMRC. 1

E.A.

Weir Survey

local community

Fish pass project

Local energy assessment fund hydro study

ing nd Fu

Stakeholders

1 ADVyCE Community Website. The structure of ADVyCE Ltd.; 2014. Available at: http://advyce.co.uk/ filestoadd/Amber%20rules.pdf

Hydro training and peer mentoring

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Transition Belper established

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ADVyCE was founded to study the feasibility of developing renewable energy projects in the Amber Valley and Derwent Valley areas to aid sustainable development, with the intention of local communities operating decentralised renewable energy projects, selling the energy produced and so helping to enhance sustainability and resilience.

semester 1

Amber Valley Borough council

Environment agency

Sign exclusive agreement

Pre-application completed and responded

EA site visit

Co-op fund. Feasibility study

Derwent valley mills WHS

WRAP Rural community energy fund

River catchment partnership

fig. 31: ADVyCE Structures H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

fig. 29: Client correspondence timeline

Ian Jackson

ADVyCE was set up by three core members of a Derbyshire non registered charity called Transition Belper; a group of local people whose purpose is to respond to the twin challenges of Peak Oil and Climate Change by developing resilience at a community level.

ADVyCE stakeholder presentation

Ambergate shareholder open day - surveying of existing buildings

Community shareholders

nd

ADVyCE presentation at strutt’s mill

Amber and Derwent Valley Community Energy (ADVyCE) is a limited company. It is an Industrial and Provident Society for the benefit of the community, more commonly referred to as a Bencom.

La

There was this opportunity at the future works launch where he participated in the scenario mapping, discussing his belief that hydropower was the greatest renewable resource that could be managed in a community network. The diagrams shown here is data emerging from subsequent meetings with ADVyCE, and show their position so far in the community engagement process

CLIENT BACKGROUND ADVyCE

Team

AS

Ian Jackson, founder of ADVyCE, gave a presentation about community energy schemes to the studio during the first weeks of the project. it was sought to engage them as a client due to the community engagement and preliminary feasibility work already conducted on the Ambergate site.

Client correspondence

AA

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Strategic Sites

Marketing of site/scheme

Tier 1 Shareholders 2/3

20 companies, ÂŁ200k/y board membership

1/3

Initial injections of development grants

UK Strategic Partnership LTD AMP Site

Revenue from lease is part paid to initial funders and part fed back to maintain site infrastructure and

provision of 50, 000 sqft of offices and development space and 27, 000 sqft of warehouse space

Tier 2 Shareholders

60 companies, ÂŁ30k/y board membership

Construction of general research and administrative buildings populating the AMP site

Continuous revenue from shareholder funding and lease of site and facilities

Founding LTD Companies

Specialist construction projects such as the Nuclear AMRC, funded by specific shareholders fig. 32: AMRC Company ownership and finance structure

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

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AA

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Despite all the confidentiality surrounding the scheme. The studio visit to the AMP and AMRC facilities was incredibly revealing in terms of shareholder structure and involvement of corporate investors and academic researchers. It was fortunate that we had access to information from the University of Sheffield and members of Studio Poplo who were involved with the project.

CLIENT BACKGROUND AMRC The Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre began in 2001 as a £15 million collaboration between the University of Sheffield and Boeing (LTD) with support from Yorkshire Forward and the European Regional Development Fund. Its mandate was to push research into future engineering technologies through research and prototyping. In 2004, the AMRC moved into a purposebuilt site, the Advanced Manufacturing Park (AMP) in Waverly, a former open cast mine at the border of Sheffield Rotherham. The AMP was devised by the University of Sheffield and local business partners before presented as part of the entire vision to Boeing who proceeded to secure relevant funding streams for the newly formed AMRC. The purchase and reclamation of the AMP site was subsequently funded by a joint venture between Yorkshire Forward and UK Coal with an agreement to split revenue from land sales. Yorkshire Forward, along with Rotherham Investment and Development Office, also undertook business development and marketing activities to attract additional companies locate to the AMP. The AMRC was to be its keystone tenant.

1 Knowledge Transer Partnership 2010 Case Study 6: Waverley Advanced Manufacturing Park Sheffield: The University of Sheffield; 2010 Available at: http://www.portlandworks.co.uk/research/reimagining-portland-works-the-book

Currently the AMRC operates as a consortium of tiered shareholders who invest various sizes of funds in return

for a corresponding proportion of access and use of the AMP site, spaces and research facilities. The larger Tier 1 shareholders fund the construction of technology centres within the site such as the Rolls Royce Factory of the Future, the Nuclear AMRC and the AMRC Training Centre supported by national and EU grants. The land and facilities allow various shareholders to develop and prototype technologies in return for collaboration with researchers across disciplines and granting education opportunities for the University of Sheffield and local apprentices. Specific financing information for the AMRC is largely confidential due to the key tenants being heavily embedded in government, private and match funding, however it is reported that the total investment attracted for the AMP is projected to be £650 million. Much of the initial match funding for the AMRC is intended to be a finite initial injection with the aim of creating a self-sustaining industry non-reliant on ongoing funding.1 The AMRC is now part of a larger consortium of seven established manufacturing and research centres, collectively called High Value Manufacturing Catapult, backed by Innovate UK who are currently investing £200 million over six years.2

2 https://hvm.catapult.org.uk/our-mission H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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AS

AA

The individual legal structures of ADVyCE and the AMRC are quite different so choosing an appropriate legal approach to suit both parties was a challenge. It was also important to ensure that ADVyCE’s community identity was not lost in the process. It is interesting that despite their legal differences, the original AMRC’s shareholder structure can be seen as a precedent for the proposed AMRC Hydro. Where the University of Sheffield and Boeing became the founding entities of the AMRC for mutual benefit, the AMRC and ADVyCE becomes the founding entities for AMRC Hydro. By creating this parallel on the Ambergate site, it can be proven that even small local companies can exchange benefits with large consortia.

LEGAL STRUCTURE The legal status of AMRC hydro could be structured in multiple ways. The intent was to always approach the collaboration between the AMRC and ADVyCE as a consortium. Some debated variations in the legal structure of the consortium are demonstrated on this page.

AMRC hydro

AMRC hydro will be a limited company set up as an incorporated consortium with liability limited by shares. After completion of the project, the AMRC hydro will serve as an ‘umbrella’ term for the continuing collaboration on site between ADVyCE and the AMRC.. In basic terms, the AMRC will own the site and all educational and public facing buildings with community shareholders through ADVyCE owning and managing the hydrology services and jointly owning the hydrogen services on site. (50% community shareholders, 50% AMRC) As part of the company structure there will be a number of agreements in place between The AMRC and ADVyCE namely a Memorandum of Agreement (MoA)

1 Advocates for youth. Creating and using a Memorandum of Agreement; 2012. Available at: http://www. advocatesforyouth.org/publications/publications-az/616-creating-and-using-a-memorandum-of-agreement 2 Community matters. Consortium structure explained; 2014. Available at: http://www.communitymatters. org.uk/content/563/What-is-a-consortium-and-howdoes-it-differ-from-a-partnership 3 Community companies. Limited by shares or guarantee?; 2013. Available at: http://www.communitycompanies.co.uk/differencesshareguarantee.shtml

‘A memorandum of agreement (MOA) is a written document describing a cooperative relationship between two parties wishing to work together on a project or to meet an agreed upon objective. An MOA serves as a legal document and describes the terms and details of the collaboration.’ 1 The use of such an agreement for the collaboration will be essential as there are logistical and service agreements to be made between ADVyCE and the AMRC which will remain in place post completion.

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

Incorporated or lead partner consortium

Limited by guarantee or by shares

‘Lead Partner’ Consortium

Limited by shares

In this model the AMRC would be the ‘lead’ partner in the collaboration. ADVyCE would agree to work through the AMRC however the consortium would be led by a group consisting of members from each organisation.

A company limited by shares, consists of shareholders. Individuals buy into the company in return for a proportion of shares related to the amount of money paid in. The liability of the shareholder is limited to the amount the shareholder originally paid for the shares.

This type of consortium would have no separate legal status as it is presented as an informal partnership. A separate set of agreements would be set out regarding legal obligations and rights within the organisation. The lead organisation would typically be responsible for funding acquisitions on behalf of other members and funds would be distributed based on contractual arrangements.

Incorporated Consortium In this model AMRC hydro would be established as a new company and be formally constituted as a legal entity. An operating model would be agreed upon such as to be run as a company limited by guarantee or a company limited by shares

Selected approach The collaboration will be established as an incorporated consortium. Incorporating the consortium as a company will allow AMRC hydro to create a clear identity. It can be considered that incorporation can be a disadvantage in terms of funding as the new company will not have established a reputation, however the use of ‘AMRC’ as part of the new branding identity should alleviate this concern. Incorporation will also shift liability to the new company and thus protecting the individual organisations. It will also present ADVyCE and the AMRC as more visible collaborators rather than in a lead partner consortium where there is the risk to ADVyCE that they would be a ‘secondary’ to the AMRC. 2

Limited by guarantee In a company limited by guarantee, there are no shareholders, there are members. The liability of the member is limited to the amount set out in the company’s articles which is typically £1. Both share and guarantee companies must register at companies house before been established as limited entities.

Selected limitation. The collaboration will be a company limited by shares. ADVyCE’s current legal structure is a company limited by shares and the use of shareholders in AMRC hydro will allow share offers to be launched through the new company for subsequent new opportunities on site specifically the hydrogen provisions in phase two where it is intended that 50% of plant could be funded through a community share offer., Companies such as charities typically use a limited by guarantee status as the funding sources can be difficult to obtain and the organisation can become insolvent. The wide number of established financial connections through the AMRC and the strong shareholder interest through ADVyCE means that a loss of funds is highly unlikely. 3

40


FUNDING SUPPORT OPPORTUNITIES

1 RO Renewable Electricity team Feed-inTariff Annual Report 2013-2014 Ofgem , 2014; Available at: https://www.ofgem. gov.uk/ofgem-publications/91945/feedintarifffitannualreport20132014.pdf 2 Department of Energy & Climate Change Environmental Transformation Fund UK Government, 2009; Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/ uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/ file/48362/5252-environmental-transformationfund-further-informa.pdf 3 Enhanced Capital Allowance (ECA) scheme UK Government, 2012, updated 2014, Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/reducingdemand-for-energy-from-industry-businesses-andthe-public-sector--2/supporting-pages/enhancedcapital-allowances-ecas

Overleaf: 4 Rural Community Energy Fund Waste & Resources Action Programme: http://www.wrap.org.uk/ content/rural-community-energy-fund 5 European Regional Development Fund European Commission Regional Policy: http://ec.europa.eu/ regional_policy/index.cfm/en/funding/erdf/

In addition to the funding from the project shareholders and the immediate stakeholders, there is plenty of funding support available for the Hydrogeneration scheme at Ambergate. This is due to the multiple programmes of the scheme which fall with in several project categories that are incentivised across scales by the national and local government, private energy suppliers and by the EU. These categories are namely, community empowerment, renewable energy, education, technological innovation and research, energy storage and hydrogen/fuel cell economies. Available funding streams are likely to be limited to specific aspects of each individual programme; for example, a multi-million pound grant from a hydrogen initiative will not be permitted to be spent on the technical training aspects of the site. While a capital allowance scheme may only fund plant equipment and not construction.

Government Incentives Feed in Tariffs The Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme is a government programme designed to promote the uptake of a range of smallscale renewable and low-carbon electricity generation technologies.

Phases 1 and 2 Performance funding

Environmental Transformation Fund

Phases 1 and 2 Carbon Trust Grants £250,000 to £5,000,000

Careful consideration of each source is required to ensure that they are applicable to the scheme, they do not clash with other funding streams or stakeholder interests and that they do not create complications in the ownership structure post-completion, especially with long-term capital investors.

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

The UK element of the ETF was formally launched in April 2008, its focus being to accelerate development of new low carbon energy and energy efficient technologies in the UK. The fund was administered by DECC. The ETF aims to reduce carbon emissions in the long term through the use of technology, accelerate development and deployment of low-carbon energy and efficient technologies, contribute to building of UK skills and capacity in the demonstration of low carbon technologies, and ensure coherent delivery of DECC funding and other related publicly funded bodies.2

Enhanced Capital Allowance Scheme

Phase 2 Tax exemption 100% project value

6 Additional funding stream information: http://www.lowcarbonfunding.org.uk/ http://www.therenewableenergycentre.cso.uk/ grants/

The FIT scheme is available through licensed electricity suppliers. It requires some of them to make tariff payments on both generation and export of renewable and low carbon electricity. Generation and export tariff rates are index-linked which means that they will increase or decrease with inflation.1

The Enhanced Capital Allowance Scheme (ECA) means that a business can invest in energy-saving plant or machinery that might otherwise be too expensive. The first year allowances let businesses set 100% of the cost of the assets against taxable profits in a single tax year. This means the company can write off the cost of the new plant or machinery against the business’s taxable profits in the financial year the purchase was made. An ECA is claimed through a business’s income or corporation tax return.. HMRCs is responsible for the taxrelated aspects of the ECA scheme.3 41


Private Sector Funds EDF Green Energy Fund

Rural Community Energy Fund

Funding is provided to cover the costs of purchase, installation and project management of providing a low carbon energy source. It covers a wide range of technologies and it is open to non profit or charitable organisations and/or organisations involved in education and/or work at the community level.

The Rural Community Energy Fund (RCEF) is specifically targeted at helping rural communities access the money needed to carry out feasibility studies into renewable energy projects, and fund the costs associated with applying for planning permission. It is intended that projects will then be able to attract private finance to pay for renewable energy kit and get projects up and running. Funding can be used to support rural projects across the renewable and low carbon energy spectrum including hydro.4

Phase 1 Investment catalyst grant £20, 000 + £130, 000

Phase 1 Community grant £30, 000

Phase 1 One-off grant £20, 000

Phase 1 Energy Education Grants £25, 000

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

Charities and Research Grants

E.ON Sustainabiliy Fund

European Regional Development Fund

Grants to community groups and not for profit organisations who wish to consider and implement sustainable energy projects in their buildings – from energy efficiency through to micro-generation.

ERDF priorities projects which stimulate regional development in innovation and research, support for SMEs and low-carbon. Grants are typically awarded to the governmental and regional agencies, local authorities and other public sector bodies. However, the European funding through the ERDF is also available to private sector as long as its projects meet the ERDF objectives. The European funds in the form of grants can thus also be awarded to small and medium-sized businesses, however, the grants must not be directly used for profit generation.5

Applications welcome from any organisation if the community building that the technology or measures are to be installed into is available for the whole community to use regardless of religious or political beliefs. Benefits to the whole community must be clearly demonstrated in application.

Phase 2 One-off stimulation grant 50% -70% of project cost

Scottish Power Green Energy Trust

Horizon 2020

Supports renewable energy projects across the UK and aims to promote education in the community on renewable energy generation. It offers grants and awards for new renewable and educational projects that will lead to an increase in the use and knowledge of renewable energy sources.

Horizon 2020 is the financial instrument implementing the Innovation Union, a Europe 2020 flagship initiative aimed at securing Europe’s global competitiveness. It runs from 2014 to 2020 with a budget of just over €70 billion.

Phases 1 and 2 Range of Grants up to € 1 billion

Funding from several EU framework programmes and institutes will be consolidated into a single fund that can be allocated to specific support sectors: € 24 341 million to top-lever research, € 17 015 million to industrial innovation and SMEs, and € 30 956 to climate change, sustainability and renewable energy.6 42


Investment Funding

Phase 1 Capital Investments £ 75, 000 - £ 1, 000, 000

Low Carbon Innovation Fund

Energy Technologies Instittute

Subsidiary of ERDF The Fund builds on the region’s world class low carbon economy and is the largest European Regional Development Fund-funded project in the region.

The ETI is is a public-private partnership between global industries and the UK government focused on accelerating the deployment of affordable, secure low-carbon energy systems for 2020 to 2050.

The Main Fund provides investments between £75k-1M. LCIF funds must always be matched by private co investment of at least the same amount and may not exceed 50% of the total investment round.6

Phase 2 Capital Investment

Not strictly a grant giving body, they make targeted commercial investments in projects in, energy production and distribtion, energy storage, carbon capture and storage, transport, smart systems and heat, and bio energy – underpinned by their world-class capability in energy system modelling.6

North West Fund: Energy and Environmental

Phase 1 Capital Investments £ 200, 000 - £ 1, 200, 000

The North West Fund for Energy & Environmental provides finance from £200,000 to £1.2million to businesses seeking finance from £400,000 to £5million. The investment will be used to support a broad range of needs from start-up and early stage development through to expansion plans for trading businesses. The investment will be in a combination of equity or quasi-equity, as best suits the needs of the company.6

Innovate UK Sponsored by the Department for Business Innovation and Skills, Innovate UK facilitates project access to relevant grants, funding schemes, competitions and investors worldwide.6

Green Backers Phases 1 and 2 Platform for crowdsourced investment opportunities H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

ecoConnect’s unique funding platform, helping investors and cleantech companies meet, evaluate and complete equity funding raises. It is an investment programme with a that combines an FCA-approved online community and platform with Live Boardroom pitches,6 43


Strategic Sites

Tier 1 Shareholders 2/3

1/3

UK Strategic Partnership LTD AMP Site

The partnership of the AMRC and ADVyCE immediately establishes a wide range of stakeholders who by affiliation have a stake in the Ambergate project. Whilst the AMRC has more business and research connections, ADVyCE holds the key to the extensive community network in the Derwent region.

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

Tier 2 Shareholders

44


Local

Regional

Local council

National

Global

County council School leavers National community

Hydrogen communities

Wider community

local economy

School leavers

Research Groups Supply grid

Schools and Colleges

AMRC

Funding

hydro

Derwent hydro Environment Agency

Supply grid Funding

Schools and Colleges national enterprise

Shareholders

Shareholders Shareholders Regional enterprise

local enterprise

Funding

Schools and Colleges School leavers

STAKEHOLDER LANDSCAPE In addition to the stakeholders invested through their affiliation with ADVyCE and the AMRC, there are a number of stakeholder connections, here listed by local, regional, national and global position. All stakeholders shown are involved through both phases of the project. The ones highlighted infer stakeholders only engaged through phase two of the project. It is envisaged that the provisions in phase two will engage those further afield. H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

Ecology groups

Supply grid

Research Groups Local community Hydro community Derwent Valley Mills regional economy

Research Groups

fig. 33: Proposed AMRC hydro Company Structure

45


PROGRAMME OVERVIEW The project will consist of six core programmes which will be developed over two phases. -

Hydroelectric provisions Public facing and visitor centre Community enterprise Hydrogen plant and services Apprenticeship college A site wide ecological strategy.

Hydro-electricity generation

external interest

Public face and visitor education

The public face, visitor centre and community enterprise will be constructed in phase one, with both programmes featuring new builds in phase two.

AMRC hydro

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

AMRC hydro

20 15

The ecology strategy will be founded early in phase one and expand over the project timeline post completion of the other phases.

energy provisions

The hydroelectric provisions will be fully funded through a community share offer. The intention in phase two is for a second community share offer to own 50% of the hydrogen plant and services.

PHASE ONE 46


Hydrogen production

AMRC hydro

Apprenticeships college

energy provisions

Community enterprise

20 21

Ecological stewardship

fig. 34: Programme implementation timeline

PHASE TWO

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

47


Phasing and CDM Site Phasing 50 CDM 54


STRUCTURAL STATEMENT

SITE PHASING

Overview

Overview

The design strategy is to reinterpret preconceptions of what a factory looks like both internally and externally. It will seek to devise, through iterative design , dynamic ways in which an industrial landscape can be structured.

The diagram on the adjacent page gives an overview of the phasing and arrangement of the programme. With the exception of building 7 all existing buildings will be demolished either in phase one or two of the project.

The structural approach can be spilt into two: the energy provisions and the enterprising, apprenticeship and public facing buildings.

Note: The adjacent diagram is for phasing reference only and does not constitute the proposed layout for the Ambergate site.

The design of the energy provisions on site will be driven by function and the structural approach will have to consider this. The use of structural frames that can reflect the energy provisions are anticipated to be used here,. A6

The enterprising, apprenticeship and public facing buildings are all to be constructed in anticipation of expansion not only between phase one and two but provisionally for the future. As such the construction must be framed to allow its extension with minimal reparation works.

partial use empty or unstable

The existing buildings on the site, highlighted by their current use

building 7 Riv

er

tai

lra

fig. 35: Notional phased expasnsion of programmed spaces*

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

ce

De

rw

en

t

50


fig. 36: Notional phased expansion of programmed spaces*

P u b l i c F ac e Phase 1

*for phasing reference only, does not constitute proposed final layout

Phase 2

1. Atrium / Reception 2. Exhibition / Conference space 3. Meeting / Seminar room 4. Classroom 5. Cafe / Gift Shop 6. Services

8

1a. Atrium / Reception Expansion 2a. Exhibition / Conference space Expansion 3a. Meeting / Seminar room 4a. Classroom Expansion 6a. Additional services

Ec o lo g ic a l Pro v isio n Phase 1 SSSI protected area Lodge Groundskeeper accomodation Storage garage

H y dro g en Pro duc t io n

14

Phase 2 9 12

5 11

12 11

2

6a 6

12 11

3a 3

10 1 1a

4a 4a

Gas Compression material hydrogen compressor flare stack PSA hydrogen separation device low pressure hydrogen storage high pressure hydrogen storage oxygen storage

7/9

L o c a l P r o v i s i on

H yd r o l o gy

Phase 1 In c u b a t i o n a n d E n terprise

Ph ase 1

7. Office and startup space 8. Services

Phase 2 E d u c a t i o n a n d A ppren ticesh ip 9. Teaching Hall / Workshops + office space 10. Lecture theatre 11. Classroom 12. Specialised laboratories 13. Cafeteria and Kitchens 14. Services

waterways River Derwent sluice gates underground channel filterwater storage control bridge and weir outflow channel Hydroelectric generation penstock generator scroll case + turbine gantries machine hall tail race transformer + circuit breaker

Provisions expanded to encompass the entire site.

Electrolysis Hall secondary pure water storage heater transformer electrolysis units

4 13

Phase 2

Water Purification water filtration ion exchange purifier primary pure water storage

2a

services

control centre

Hydrogen liquification liquid nitrogen storage + flash tank cold box heat exchanger expansion turbine hydrogen circulation compressor expansion valve Storage and Distribution liquid hydrogen storage distribution centre


Phase one

1.1

1.2

1.3

Few remaining site activities decanted into one building, separate site entrance created to separate workers from demolition. Demolition sub contractor demolishes all structurally unsafe, abandoned and unusable buildings. Contractor site offices established.

The hydrology infrastructure is installed. Due to the size of the site and distribution of the new build, the turbine house, public facing, and enterprising provisions can all commence construction uniformly.

The turbine house and infrastructure is completed first and begins generating hydroelectric. The completion of the other provisions soon after see the site handed over to the client. The site runs as-is for two years before the commencement of phase 2.

phase specific health and safety and other construction issues listed:

phase specific health and safety and other construction issues listed:

a Site hoardings erected across the site to prevent access from non construction personnel. b New site entrance for remaining factory workers. Clear road markings and signage is installed to make drivers on the adjacent road aware of new entrance. Additional signage will be installed to make drivers aware of construction vehicles in and out of site. c Appropriate signage and barriers are installed along the river bank to protect against both risk of workers falling in the river and also restrict debris and other agents contaminating the water. d Given the size of the site, workers will be given clear indications of fire meeting points, safety briefings and site manager contact details.

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

a Site hoardings are reconfigured as appropriate b Due to location of site, the cranes installed do not overhang any non site buildings. One crane passes over A6 road. Permission sought from Local Authority. c Ecology program established will require liaison with the Environment Agency. d Hydroturbines are large and heavy pieces of equipment. Transport across the site is pre planned and coordinated with other site activities. e The hydrology scheme would be completed before the other constructions. Appropriate provisions put in place so the building can be accessed by non site workers.

Guidance on health and safety and construction issues sourced from: 1 Joyce, R. CDM Regulations 2007 explained. London: Thomas Telford; 2007 2 Griffths. O. Understanding the CDM Regulations 2007. London: Taylor and Francis; 2010 3 The National Hydrogen Association. Hydrogen Safety; 2010. Website: http://www.arhab.org/pdfs/ h2_safety_fsheet.pdf

52


Phase two

fig. 37: Illustration of proposed construction phasing with associated CDM

2.1

2.2

2.3

The remaining buildings on site not to be reused are cleared and demolished. The contractor occupies the site. Safety practices are put in place to keep the demolition activity separate from the working buildings from phase one during this time.

The hydrogen infrastructure is installed. The facing and enterprising new builds are constructed in unison as per phase one. Some activity is required in the turbine house connecting the hydrology and hydrogen facilities

The site is handed over to the client by the contractor and any temporary site units are cleared. Workers inhabit the site. The apprenticeship program is launched shortly after.

phase specific health and safety and other construction issues listed:

phase specific health and safety and other construction issues listed:

a Site hoardings erected across the site to prevent access from non construction personnel. b Signage will be installed to make drivers aware of construction vehicles in and out of site. c Appropriate signage and barriers are installed along the river bank to protect against both risk of workers falling in the river and also restrict debris and other agents contaminating the water. d Given the size of the site, workers will be given clear indications of fire meeting points, safety briefings and site manager contact details.

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

a Site hoardings are reconfigured as appropriate b Phase one site remains active, signs, clear indications of footpaths and other logistical considerations need to be considered to allow those occupying phase one to move around the site safety. c Due to location of site, the cranes installed do not overhang any non site buildings. One crane passes over A6 road. Permission sought from Local Authority. d Hydrogen installation involves working with complex and potentially hazardous pieces of equipment. Additional risk assessment required prior to installation. e Hydrogen provisions are expensive, security measures must be put in place to prevent unauthorised access to site.

Hydrogen Precautions ‘Hydrogen is no more or less dangerous than other flammable fuels, including gasoline and natural gas. In fact, some of hydrogen’s differences actually provide safety benefits compared to gasoline or other fuels. However, all flammable fuels must be handled responsibly. Like petrol and natural gas, hydrogen is flammable and can behave dangerously under specific conditions. Hydrogen can be handled safely when simple guidelines are observed and the user has an understanding of its behaviour.’ 3

53


AS

AA

AS

Drafting letters such as the one on this page helps to sit the project in a real world scenario. The structure of the letters was aided through conversations with a project manager and CDM co-ordinator at multidisciplinary design firm Building Design Partnership (BDP.) The programme will mean that a large area will be very active with multiple erections on site during the same construction phase as such a firm logistical strategy will be essential. In addition to this the project will require extensive risk management and health and safety assessments due to nature of the industrial provisions been installed on site. This would be essential during phase two where hydrogen infrastructure is been installed.

HEALTH AND SAFETY AND CDM AMRC

Attn. AMRC Hydro

‘Under the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007, where the project is notifiable, the client needs to appoint a CDM coordinator to advise and assist the client and [...] liaise with the principle contractor.’ 1 All participants involved in the procurement, construction and management of the building have the responsibilty to comply with the regulations. the architect has a responsibility to have a ‘reasonable knowledge of safety regulations and be on the lookout for any infringements on site.’ 2 3 The regulations would apply from RIBA stage two (concept design) onwards and be applicable to both phases of the project as they consist of more than 500 person days of construction.

1 Chappell, D. Willis, A. The Architect in Practice 10th edition. Chichester: Willey-Blackwell, 2010, p. 11 2 Designing Buildings Wiki. CDM Regulations; 2014. Website: http://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/ CDM_Regulations 3 Chappell, D. Willis, A. op. cit. p. 271

hydro

August 2015

The CDM coordinator will be engaged by the client in phase one and then following appointment of the main contractor and novation of the architect. The CDM coordinator will be appointed under the contractor. In phase two they would be directly employed by the contractor. Identification of phase specific health and safety and other design issues are listed on page X below the phasing overview. H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

AMBERGATE HYDRO PROJECT CLIENTS’ DUTIES UNDER THE CDM AND OTHER REGULATIONS You may be aware that under the Construction (Design & Management) Regulations 2007 (CDM 2007) there are important statutory duties for Clients undertaking construction projects. We recommend that you obtain and read a copy of the Approved Code of Practi ce - Managing Health and Safety in Construction, for detailed information on Client’s duties (see HSE website ) http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/books/L144.htm It is a requirement of CDM 2007 that we, as designers, are not permitted to commence work (other than initial design work - i.e. feasibility stage) on a “notifiable project” (over 30 day/500 person days), unless the Client has appointed a CDM Co-ordinator to assist the Client with his CDM duties. Will you therefore please provide us with written c onfirmation of the CDM Co-ordinator’s name and contact details, to enable us to undertake initial concept design work on the project. In addition to the above duties regarding the CDM Regulations, as a developer, employer, or occupier of a building, you may have other legal obligations of which you need to be aware. Also, please advise us of any other hazards, such as contaminated land, live services, presence of gases etc., that you are aware of that may affect anybody visiting the site. As designer, we will take reasonable skill and care to ensure that the legislative requirements for the design of the building will be met in as much as it falls within its responsibilities as a designer and its services and fee agreement. However, your own duties are likely to extend beyond our responsibilities, particularly regarding the occupation of the building. Legislation which is likely to be relevant might include the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order, the Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act and the Disability Discrimination Act, together with other relevant Health and Safety related legislation covering buildings and workplaces. This should not be viewed as an exhaustive list. Advice on these matters is outside of our responsibilities as designer and therefore if you feel that you are not fully aware of your obligati ons we suggest that you seek the appropriate specific advice from a suitab ly qualified person or organisation. If you would like to discuss further the content of th is letter, please do not hesitate to get in touch.

Yours faithfully The Architect

fig. 38: Hypothetical Duty of Care Letter from Architect to client 54


AMRC hydro

UK Designer Competence Questionnaire

The main contractor and client have the possibility of using competence questionnaires when engaging subconsultants to assure CDM and health and safety standards are met by those appointed. An example of a typical competence questionnaire that could be used for both phases is shown here.

Project Reference:

Ambergate Hydropoer Project

Designer’s’Details

Company Name: Address: Telephone: E-mail:

xx

xx xx

xx

Please answer on a separate sheet, giving company details requested in each section and answering all questions (with applicable supporting information where necessary).

Criteria for Assessing

Info prov. (yes/no)

Guidance on competence and traini ng is given in the publication “Managing health and safety in construction: Constructi on (Design & Management) Regulations 20 07 - Approved Code of Practice & Guidance (HSG L144)”, particularly paras.193-225 and Appendix 4.

Assessment (satisfactory/ not satisfactory)

To satisfy Regulations 4 and 9(1) of the Cons truction (Design & Management) Regulations 2007 the proposed Designer is requested to demonstrate a nece ssary knowledge and ability by giving details of:1.0 Health & safety policy

2.0 Health & safety organisation and arrangements

1.1

2.1

Provide a copy of your current health and safety policy.

1.

signed by MD or equivalent

2.

relevant to nature, scale and locations

3.

reviewed in last 12 months

4.

organisational arrangements

5.

implementation, audit and review arrangements

Provide current company organisational management chart identifying health and safety management structure and lines of communication; how your organisation’s structure would be applied to the project; the arrangements for implementing, auditing and reviewing; and how these arrangements are communicated to the workforce.

1. relevant/appropriate to nature and scale of projects

Identify the source/s of competent health and safety advice that the organisation uses, deta iling individual names and qualifications as appropriate.

1. internal h & s advisor qualifications and construction experience

2. defined responsibilities 3. named persons in key positions 4. appropriate arrangements for managing, auditing and reviewing 5. clear indication of how communicated to designers

3.0 Competent advice – corporate and construction related

3.1

4.0 Training and information

4.1

2. external h & s advisor company, qualifications and construction experience 3. evidence of advice prov ided over last 12 months

Provide details of the management procedures adopted to identify and action health and safety-related training needs. In particular when: •

An employee first joins the organisation

An employee works on a new project

Changes in legislation/regulati ons affect health and safety in the design process

1. programme for refresher/life long training (CPD) at all levels 2. evidence of training records/certificates of attendance 3. evidence of induc tions for designers

August 2016

fig. 39: Hypothetical Competence Questionnaire from the contractor to potential sub-contractors and sub-consultants

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

55


Procurement Comparison Profiles

58

Procurement - Phase 1

59

Procurement - Phase 2

60

Selected Procurement

61

Contract Relationships - Phase 1

62

Contract Relationships - Phase 2

63

Procurement Timeline

64

Planning Approval 66 Other Contracts Considered

67


RT

Flexibility - 5 represents the greatest ability to make design variations after the contract is signed Complexity - 5 represents greatest suitability for complex or specialist projects. Q U A LIT Y

Quality - 5 represents the clients control over the design standards through the process

LIT

Y

Responsibility - 5 represents the method where there will be the least chance of confusion about roles and responsibility in the project.

BI

Risk - 5 represents the highest risk to the client

E

SI

ED RE

SP

O

N

Speed - 5 represents the fastest method of procurement

R I SK

Competition - 5 represents the greatest opportunity for competitive tenders. Certainty - 5 represents the most secure guaranteed cost and completion date.

C2 CO ST C3

5

C1

4 3 2 1

T1

Q3

LIT

Y

1 - Lowest priority

UA

Q2

Q

E

T2

T3 H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

P

3

TI M

3 Ibid. pp. 46-47

M

SP

2 Clamp, H. Cox, S. Lupton, S. Udom, K. Which Contract? Choosing the appropriate building contract. 5th edition. London: RIBA 2012, p. 24

4

1

In ‘Which Contract’ The Authors considers: Speed, complexity, quality, flexibility, certainty, competition, responsibility and risk when comparing contracts. This is in conjunction with the books basic contract profile comparing: cost, quality and time. 2

1 Chappell, D. Willis, A. op. cit. p. 169

CO

5

2

Time - economy and certainty Cost - economy and certainty Control - apportionment of risk Quality - in design and construction Size/value - small/medium/large Complexity -complex/simple

Whilst ‘Which Contract’ does not refer to the priorities of the client when comparing procurement methods, the comparison principles, are for the most part, the same. For the purposes of the project the ‘Which Contract’ profile template is the base for the comparison profiles. However note that ‘Which Contract’ refers to ‘complexity’ in terms of the complexity of the contract. The term ‘complexity’ in the diagram is based on the ‘Architect in Practice’ definition of complex/simple construction only.

N AI

TY

...And the priorities of the AMRC must also be factored into this to ascertain a balanced perspective of what the needs of the client AMRC Hydro are.

F L E X I BILI T Y

TY

XI

There are numerous considerations to be made when considering the most suitable method of procurement for a project. Also, depending on which literature is being consulted, the ‘key’ considerations when selecting procurement vary slightly between authors. ‘The Architect in Practice’ state the following considerations should be made in terms of client priority: 1

E TITI O N

In a similar vein to selecting an appropriate legal structure for AMRC Hydro, the selection of procurement route should be made with ADVyCE’s community interest in mind. This is especially important as the premise of the project is to promote local community empowerment.

Traditional Contract profile Design and Build profile Management Contract profile

COMP

AS

PROCUREMENT COMPARISON PROFILES

LE

AA

Selecting the procurement profile best suited to the project had to take into account the priorities of the client and which profile could meet these needs.

CE

AS

Q1 fig. 40: Profiles for contract comparison

5 - Highest priority

C1 - Lowest possible capital expenditure C2 - Certainty over contract price, no fluctuation C3 - Best value for money overall T1 - Earliest possible start on site T2 - Certainty over contract duration T3 - Shortest possible contract period Q1- Top quality, minimum maintenance Q2 - Sensitive design, control by employer Q3 - Detailed design not critical, leave to contractor 58


F L E X I BILI T Y CO

5

TY

4

M

TY

3

1

Q U A LIT Y Y

BI

LIT

Risk

SI

ED

E

The site requires demolition of existing single storey structures and renovation of one building which should not be overly complex however some specialist consultancy will be required for the hydro turbine installation and provisions.

Quality

Due to the sources of funding and the lack of time involvement of the client, the risk must lie with the contractor.

RE

O

N

R I SK

C2 CO ST

Speed C3

The site must be generating electricity within two years of Ofgem approval. So speed is a priority.

Competition

SP

5

C1

4 3 2 1

T1

Q3

Financially, it would be beneficial for the client to be aware of different design and cost proposals

Dues to time requirements and limitations on funding, cost and time certainty is essential.

UA

Whilst the client wishes to have some detailed input into the development, reliance will lie with the contractor.

T2

Q2

Q

Certainty

E

Responsibility

LIT

Y

The hydrology provisions are function led so quality is not of massive importance, the public facing provisions and enterprise spaces must be high standard to account for a footfall anticipated to increase over time.

P

XI

RT

N

2

The spaces are predominantly open plan, and the hydrology requirements are fixed, so minimal flexibility is needed.

Complexity

AI

LE

Whilst not meeting all the requirements, the closest profile to the client’s ideal is the design and build route. Limiting risk for client and keeping cost and time certainty high are the greatest drivers when deciding on the most appropriate procurement.

TI M

These buildings needs also to be constructed with consideration that they will be extended in the instance of any further work on site and as such the design will likely be some kind of structural frame with non load bearing secondary features which could be altered easily later. These type of constructions typically suit design and build methods of construction.

Flexibility

Procurement Profile

SP

AA

So, in terms of the hydrology provisions risk needs to be low for the client with cost and time certainty a priority, and as mention this can be at the compromise of design quality. This seems to lead towards a design and build procurement route. However the other provisions on site need to be considered to see if they can be considered suitable for the same route. The client will be keen to complete the provisions speedily to make capitalise on the interest of the new hydro electricity services.

Using the areas of consideration discussed, the client’s requirements for phase one can be broken down as follows:

E TITI O N

AS

As mentioned the client is conscious of funding sources and as such want to keep risk low and cost certain, in addition to this to meet Ofgem regulations for on site generation of energy, the turbines must be installed within a two year time constraint. The shareholders will also want an anticipated completion date.

PROCUREMENT PHASE ONE

COMP

AA

Risk plays is a major factor for consideration when selecting a procurement route for the project. In phase one the funding source for the hydrology provisions are completely community funded through the share offer and the client, though keen to see a considered design for the turbine house, priorities lie with having the provisions installed on site efficiency and with minimal input in terms of design.

CE

AS

T3

Q1

fig. 41: Client’s ideal contract requirements for Phase1 with comparison H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

59


5 Ibid. p. 181

TY

4 Chappell, D. Willis, A. op. cit. p. 173

XI

3 Brookhouse, S. Part 3 Handbook Third Edition. London: RIBA 2011, p. 185

P

1

Q U A LIT Y Y

LIT

BI

SI RE

SP

O

N

R I SK

Whist Ofgem currently state no time restrictions for the completion and production of hydrogen on site, as they do with hydroelectric, it is expected that similar constraints will apply so a fast construction is preferred.

C2 CO ST C3

5

C1

4 3

Competition

2 1

Due to the sources of funding and the lack of time involvement of the client, the risk must lie with the contractor

Dues to time requirements and limitations on funding, cost and time certainty is essential.

Y

Certainty

Q3

LIT

Risk

T1

Q2

Q

T2

UA

reliance will lie with the contractor.

Whilst the client wishes to have some detailed input into the development,

M

3

ED

Speed

It would be beneficial for the client to be aware of different design and cost proposals, however as the client wishes to add to buildings constructed in phase one there is the practicality aspect of using the same contractor that was appointed originally.

Responsibility

4

E

2 Nicholson, P. Architect’s guide to fee bidding. London: Spon Press 2003, p. 26

Public facing provisions and enterprise spaces must be high standard as high footfall is expected. Hydrogen provisions are function led, however some bespoke design input is preferred.

CO

5

TY

TI M

1 Clamp, H. Cox, S. Lupton, S. Udom, K. op. cit. p.45

Quality

N

2

Complexity The phase requires demolition of the remaining factory structures to make way for the hydrogen provisions. These provisions will require consultation with a specialist.

AI

LE

Risk table based on diagrams from the following references:

Again not all the client’s requirements are met by any one procurement route however, design and build is the most similar profile. There is in increased demand for quality in phase two, which can be met as through good communication between the architect and the contractor.

E

A partnering agreement will also be attached to the main contract setting out mutual principles early in the project between the client, contractors and the architect.

The enterprising and public face buildings in this phase are designed to a similar specification as those in phase one, the hydrogen plant has fixed requirements.

F L E X I BILI T Y

SP

AA

Design and Build seems the obvious choice given the priorities of the client, the use of novation will also be used allowing the architect appointed by the client to be employed by the contractor once a contractor has been appointed.

Flexibility

Procurement Profile

E TITI O N

AS

Unlike phase one, the speed of the construction is not as high a priority, however the generation of hydrogen on site as soon within a reasonable time frame would be of preference to shareholders.

Using the areas of consideration discussed, the client’s requirements for phase one can be broken down as follows:

COMP

AA

The second phase of the project typically has the same consideration parameters as phase one. There second phase can be considered more complex due to the specialist nature of the hydrogen provisions , however the additional new builds to the facing buildings the apprenticeship college will be constructed on the same principles as phase one.

PROCUREMENT PHASE TWO

RT

AS

The client also has little experience in terms of management and given the size of the site it is perhaps more suited for an experienced contractor to have greater control of the project.

CE

AA

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

T3

Q1

fig. 41: Client’s ideal contract requirements for Phase 2 with comparison 60


SELECTED PROCUREMENT Design and Build

Novation

Partnering Agreement

Both phases will employ a design and build contract in conjunction with all parities involved agreeing to partnering approach from. Phase one will see the client directly employ the architect and then the architect will be novated to the contractor. Phase two will see the client appoint the contractor and the contractor employ the architect from the outset.

Novation refers to the common practice of the client entering into two contracts. The first contract is with the architect and the design team who are employed to develop early work stages. Post tender, the second new contract is formed between the client and the main contractor with possibly the architect and the whole design team employed directly by the contractor through to completion of the project. 3

Partnering can be defined succinctly as: ‘a structured approach to facilitate team working’. In most instances ‘partnering’ is simply a number of objectives set out in a non-binding charter alongside a legally binding standard contract. In this instance the ‘partnering’ agreement is not legally enforceable by law as it is separate from the main contract. As such partnering ‘can be seen as purely an expression of how people want to work’ and as such is based on the assumed decent nature of the parties involved. Some form of partnering agreement has been selected for two main reasons: 5

The client’s desires for a low risk high certainty project make the selection of design and build the most appropriate contract for both phases. Novation will see that the original architect is involved in developing the design when the contractor is employed and the partnering agreement will see the project objectives set out in expression of how all parties wish to work. As the project is spread over two phases the partnering approach increases the chances of the same contractor been involved for both phases of the project something that would be a benefit to the project.

Client

Risk

fig. 42: Illustration of comparative risk spectrum across contracts

Contractor

Design and build

Complete ‘package’ by supplier

Design and build

Design input by contractor

Traditional lump sum Fixed Price

Traditional lump sum Fluctuations

Traditional measurements

Bills of approximate quantities

Traditional measurement

Fixed fee prime cost

Traditional measurement

Percentage fee prime cost

Management contracting

fundamental risk

centralised risk

Fire damage, storms collapse, subsidence, vibration, removal of support

pure and speculative risk speculative risk

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

War damage, nuclear pollution

decentralised risk

grounds conditions, inflations, weather, shortages, taxes.

The agreement must be made between all three parties. In novation, a contractor who effectively replaces the employer and assumes all the responsibilities of the employer to the architect, as though the contractor had been party to the contract instead of the employer from the beginning. The architect assumes liabilities to the contractor and releases the employer from liability. The architect is released from liability to the employer. To be effective, the original contract between employer and architect must contain a clause agreeing to novation and the three party novation agreement must be attached to the contract to signify that both parties are agreed on the wording. When tenders are invited, the contractor must agree to the novation and the terms of the novation. The process is sometimes seen as a means of assembling the design responsibility in one place more effectively than can be achieved through other methods. 4

Holistic Approach - The project seeks to produce clean, renewable energy on site alongside educating the local and wider community on the processes and technology so that they can be taken forward. If all parties involved in the procurement can agree on the ‘ultimate goal’ to best benefit the completion of this important project then unity within the construction period should reflect this. Construction continuity - Partnering tends to be more successful in multiple phases as further work is potentially available. It would be expected for the client to make a non legal commitment to the contractor to appoint them for the second phase of the project. This is also in the best interest of design as design standards can be continued. 61


CONTRACT RELATIONSHIPS PHASE ONE In phase one the client appoints an architect, surveyor and other consultants to develop a concept design and outline specification for the project. The Architect is instructed to work with two preferred contractors from the outset of the project to advise on cost and design and comment on the development; the contractors work at risk to themselves at this stage. The contractors would consult specialists for the hydrology provisions.

AMRC hydro

Client

Quantity Surveyor

Two contractors have been appointed to introduce the competitive aspect of the procurement considerations, typically in Design and Build projects the competitive element is lost. Of the two contractors, one would be appointed following a competitive tender process for the construction of the project. The architect is novated to the contractor for the construction of the project. There is partnering agreement in place that carries over to phase 2.

Architect

Consultants

Two prospective Contractors

Specialist Contractors

Architect is novated to contractor AMRC hydro

Client Agent

Client

Quantity Surveyor

Contractor

Other Directly employed consultants

Consultants

Architect

Domestic sub contractors

fig. 43: Proposed contractual relationships for phase 1

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

Domestic suplliers 62


AA

AS

Phase one will follow the design and build structure, however will see the engagement of two contractors early in the project before a preferred contractor is appointed and then the architect working for the client will be novated over to the contractor. The contractual relationship for the second phase follows a typical design and build structure, the client would likely employ the same contractor for the both phases partly due to the principles set out in the partnering agreement and also as the client will wish to use a contractor with knowledge of both the site and constructions from phase one.

CONTRACT RELATIONSHIPS PHASE TWO In phase two, following a second share offer, the client appoints the original contractor as part of the partnering agreement. The contractor directly employs the Architect in this instance to consultant designer. As the public face and enterprising buildings are to be extended to the same specification it makes both financial and practical sense for these appointments take place. No novation is required for phase two as the architect is appointed directly by the contractor from the beginning of phase two. The contractor consults specialists for the hydrogen technology. The Architect is instructed to work with the specialists in developing design ideas for the hydrogen provisions.

AMRC

fig. 44: Proposed contractual relationships for phase 2

hydro

Client Agent

Client

Quantity Surveyor

Contractor

Other Directly employed consultants

Consultants

Architect

Domestic sub contractors

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

Domestic suplliers

63


PROCUREMENT TIMELINE 0 1 2 AMRC

3 Det a i l Pl a nni ng

6

d

e

f

g

h

JAN

JUL

JUL

JAN

7 JAN

c

5

JUL

JUL

JAN

O ut l i ne Pl a nni ng

b

a

4

JAN

Phase 1

hydro

i j

k

l

AMRC

2 019

2 018

2 017

2 016

2 015

hydro

fig. 45: Proposed procurement timeline across both phases

a Architect is appointed by AMRC hydro to prepare feasibility study for funding application. Architect works directly for the AMRC hydro at this stage.

d Outline planning permission granted

g Phase one construction begins on site and lasts for 15 months.

j Contractor work completes on site and is handed over to the AMRC hydro

b Funding applications are submitted

e Main contractor is appointed. Architect is novated to the client. Contractior appoints domestic sub contractors, suppliers and other consultants.

h Due to the size of the site and separation of different provisions, mulitple construtctions can be commence in unison.

k The site begins to be populated with workers, visitors, schools and energy enthusiasts.

c The architect is instructed by the client to work with two prospective contractors. The contractors work at risk at this stage. Partnership agreement made.

f Detail planning approval. Existing operations on site are decanted to buildings not scheduled for demolition. Demolition subcontractor begins work on site.

i Hydrology provisions completed. Agreement made between AMRC hydro and contractor for ADVyCE hydropower operators to occupy this portion of phase

l Architect conducts post occupancy evaluation

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

64


0 - strategic definition 1 - preparation and brief 2 - concept design 3 - developed design 4 - technical design 5 - construction 6 - handover and close out 7 - in use

n p r t

u

JAN

JUL

JAN

JUL

JAN

s

v

JUL

q

JAN

o

JUL

m

0 1 2

Detai l Pl a nni ng

4 5 6

2 024

2 023

7 2 022

2 021

2 020

P ha se 2

Outli ne Pl a nni ng

3

Work stages from RIBA plan of work 2013

m Incubated by the partnering agreement, AMRC hydro directly employs contractor used in phase one and the contractor directly appoints the architect. AMRC hydro is represented by a client agent at this time. n The contractor engages a number of specialists to prepare outline planning document on linking of exisiting hydrology infrastructure and phase two o Funding applications are submitted H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

p Outline planning permission granted

q Contractior appoints domestic suppliers and other consultants.

sub

contractors

r Detail planning approval. At the time no original operations on site are still active. Demolition subcontractor begins work on site.

s Phase two construction begins on site and lasts for 18 months. The site is carefully managed to allow phase one to continue with minimal interuptions.

u Contractor work completes on site and is handed over to the AMRC hydro. A specialist has been employed to manage the hydrogen facilities.

t Whilst the hydrogen infrastructure is more complex than phase one, the other provisions in phase two are based on the original specification used by the contractor in phase on and these are completed much faster than if a new contractor was tendered. As such this balances out the contruction time.

v Phase two begins to be populated with workers, visitors, schools and energy enthusiasts. The apprenticeship program is launched. w Architect conducts post occupancy evaluation

65


AA

AS

In the context of academic architecture there is very little focus placed on the bureaucratic reality of planning. Whilst school projects do provide important lessons into the social and functional realities of programme allocation and spatial design by questioning appropriateness in terms of how a realised proposal would operate, such propositions are always considered under a suspension of disbelief that a planning authority would permit such a scheme in the first place. This educational approach is understandable as applying planning legislation to a theoretical project would be counteractive to the learning process around architectural theory. However, at a thesis level it is important to acknowledge the procedures of planning, and for this reason a fictitious planning application from which we could apply considerations to further situate our project in reality.

PLANNING APPROVAL AMRC hydro

February 2016

Both detail and outline planning applications would need to be made for the project. A summarised example of the outline planning application to Amber Valley Borough Council for phase one is shown adjacent. The application would be submitted by the architect on the behalf of AMRC hydro with the accompanying documents submitted electronically through the Planning Portal. The project can be considered an EIA application: ‘If the proposed development is likely to have a significant effect on the environment then it should have EIA. In such cases, the applicant for planning permission must provide the required information so the environmental effects of the development can be assessed.’ 1 As such an environmental statement prepared by the client will be submitted as part of the planning process.

Amber Valley Borough Council Development Services Town Hall Ripley Derbyshire DE5 3BT

PLANNING APPLICATION FOR A HYDROLOGY RENEWABLE ENERGY PLANT AT AMBERGATE WIREWORKS AND ASSOCIATED ENABLING WORKS, FLOOD MANAGEMENT, LANDSCAPING AND ADJUSTMENTS TO SITE ACCESS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING ACT 1990. Please find attached an application, submitted via the Planning Portal, for the above development. Outline planning permission is sought for the development. The application is submitted with an Environmental Statement and should therefore be considered as an ‘EIA application’ in accordance with the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations 1999. The development is considered to fall with schedule 2 of the above regulations. The application has been submitted electronically and comprises the following documents: -

An Environmental Statement (Ref: (0-)001) A Non-Technical Summary of the Environmental Statement (Ref: (0-)002) A Planning Statement (Ref: (0-)003) An Application Site Plan (Ref: (0-)004) An Application Site Location Plan Ref: (0-)005) An Illustrative Masterplan (Ref: (0-)006) A Site Section Plan (Ref: (0-)007) A Design and Access Statement (Ref: (0-)008) A Sustainability Statement (Ref: (0-)009) A Statement of Community Involvement (Ref: (0-)010) A completed Ownership Certificate (completed on-line) A completed Agricultural Certificate (completed on-line)

An application fee of X has also been submitted separately by cheque. I trust this application can be positively determined, subject to conditions, within the decision period that has been advised previously. Please do not hesitate to contact me in the future if you have and questions.

Yours faithfully The Architect

1 Government Planning Authority. Environmental Impact Assessment Guidance; 2013. Website: http://wales.gov.uk/topics/planning/developcontrol/ environmental-impact-assessment

fig. 46: Hypothetical Planning Application Letter from the Architect on behalf of the Client to the Local Planning Authourity H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

66


AA

AS

Contract selection is a complex procedure and ultimately there is no perfect correct option. Each contract has its advantages and faults and so there were several contracts that did seem like good contenders at different stages compiling this report. As different options presented different benefits for the project, it was necessary to weigh these against both the potential detriments as well as the remit of our project, the philosophy of our thesis and the ethos of our hypothetical practice. While certain options have the potential to add efficiency to the projects, this can be at a moral expense to treatment of the client.

OTHER CONTRACTS CONSIDERED Several contracts were considered for use both in phase one and two. This pages lists three examples of contracts with key points as to why they were considered, but ultimately not chosen

NEC3 Construction Contract This contract was considered for both phases. New engineering contracts (NEC) are a suite of construction contracts intended to ‘promote partnering and collaboration by the contractor’ in reaction to criticism of the complicated nature of the of construction industry. NEC3 is an adaptation of this original suite of contracts. 1 2 NEC3 envisages the project as a collaborative process, similar to the expectations of a partnering contract; with an emphasis on contract administration.

Why we considered this contract. • • •

The founders of ADVyCE have some engineering background so the contracts may provide some familiarity ‘Open book’ policy Suited to complex and technical projects

1 Clamp, H. Cox, S. Lupton, S. Udom, K. op. cit. pp. 123-131 2 Designing Buildings Wiki. NEC3; 2015. Website: http://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/NEC3 3 Chappell, D. Willis, A. op. cit. p. 180 4 Brookhouse, S. op. cit. 124 5 Designing Buildings Wiki. Partnering in construction; 2014. Website: http://www.designingbuildings. co.uk/wiki/Partnering_in_construction

Why we didn’t choose this contract • • • •

Relies considerably on contracted partnering principles. High involvement of client is expected. Risk to client Success of the project is highly dependant on the skill of the project manager

Design and Build with PFI

Project Partnering Contract

This contract was considered for phase two only.

This contract was considered for both phases.

The private finance initiative is system which can be used with any of the standard procurement methods; however the use of it with design and build is the most common alliance. PFI was introduced on the pretence ‘that the private sector should be involved in providing and operating various assets which might otherwise never have been started.’3

Whilst the use of a non-binding partnering agreement has been selected to work alongside the contract for the project. There is a legally enforceable approach to partnering. Either the partnering agreement is part of a standard contract and as such the ‘principles’ are legally binding or there are standalone partnering contracts such as PPC2000. 5 6

Projects with the intention of using PFI are usual set up with a special purpose vehicle (SPV), set up as a joint venture between a finance provider and a building contractor. The agreements are usually over substantial periods of time. 4

Why we considered this contract. • • • • •

PFI ‘brings a high level of technical, managerial , financial skills and expertise. Risk lies with the contractor Guaranteed funding PFI is suitable for projects with a capital cost of greater than £20 million which phase 2 is expected to be around. Consists of a single integrated design team

Why we didn’t choose this contract. • • • • •

The system is not yet proven. Complex contractual agreements High planning risk, the project is tendered before designs are prepared. The ethos of the partnering agreement desired for the project, will likely conflict with the terms of a PFI contract. The government treasury has an established taskforce which is heavily involved in the PFI process and it’s standardisation. As such the use of PFI can arguably go against the decentralisation directive of the project.

The principles of partnering as discussed earlier are that all parties to the contract work together to reduce conflict, and reduce costs for equal benefit.

Why we considered this contract. • • • • •

The client is appointing people of similar principle, vision and ‘contract as a team’ Reduced conflict and ‘in-house’ disputes. ‘Open book’ policy Additional members, such as sub contractors can become party to the contract. Phasing continuity of appointing same design team for subsequent phases.

Why we didn’t choose this contract, but chose a non binding alternative • • •

Concepts of ‘good faith, trust and fair play’ seem more suitable in the context of a non binding agreement. Risk to client The ethos of partnering conflicts with ‘contractual obligations’ - many contractors, clients and architects etc. are unsure what constitutes successful partnering. Legally binding partnering is not yet proven to work as a standalone contract.

6 Mosey, D. Introduction to PPC2000 Partnering Contract. London: Trowsers and Hamlins; 2005 Available at: http://www.ppc2000.co.uk/pdfs/ H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

67


Costing Schedule of accommodation

70

Estimating project capital costs

72

Life cycle costing

76

Calculating fees 78


AA

AS

Even if these spatial arrangements are indicative and the cubic masses are rather abstract, they do begin to show relative locations and give a sense of the scale of the individual programmes. Its a good reflection of the connection activities we undertook, and an essential transition between principal relationships into something that can be translated to the Ambergate site.

S CH EDU L E

OF

A CCO MMO DAT I O N

Public Face 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Hydrology provision

Atrium / Reception: 50sqm 70sqm Exhibition / Conference space: 200sqm 500sqm Meeting / Seminar room: 60sqm x1 x2 Classroom: 80sqm x1 x3 CafĂŠ / Gift Shop: 100sqm Services: provisional 15% of serviced area

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Waterways River Derwent Sluice gates Underground channel Filterwater Storage Control bridge and weir Outflow channel

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Hydroelectric generation Penstock Generator Scroll case + Turbine Machine hall Gantries Hydro-electric production Tail Race Maintenance staff Transformer + circuit breaker

Local Provision Incubation and Enterprise 7. Office and startup space: 1500sqm 8. Services: provisional 15% of serviced area

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Education and Apprenticeship Teaching / Workshops: 3000 sqm Lecture theatre: 300sqm Classroom: 50sqm x3 Specialised laboratories: 30sqm, 50sqm, 100sqm Cafeteria and kitchens: 600sqm Services: provisional 15% of serviced area

Hydrologen Production

Ecological Provision 28. 29. 30. 31.

Hydrogen Liquification 45. Liquid nitrogen storage + flash tank 46. cold box 47. Liquification processor

Water Purification 32. Water filtration 33. Ion exchange purifier 34. Primary pure water storage

35. 36. 37. 38.

39, 40. 41. 42. Running staff 43. Security 44.

Storage and Distribution 48. Liquid hydrogen storage 49. distribution centre

Electrolysis Hall Secondary pure water storage heater transformer electrolysis units

50. Control room 51. Services

Gas Compression Material hydrogen compressor PSA hydrogen separation device Enterprise Flare stack Administration Low pressure hydrogen storage High pressure hydrogen storage Porter/Security Oxygen storage

SSSI protected areas: as specified byVisitor survey Centre Lodge: 100sqm Administration Groundskeeper accommodation: 100sqm Tours and teaching Storage garage: 50sqm

Education/Appreticesh

Administrati

Porter/Secur

Cleaning

Clean

Employees*

Speciali

Apprentic

Porter/Security *subject to occupancy

ESTIMATED DAILY USAGE Hydro-electric production Hydro-electric production Maintenance staffMaintenance staff Running staff

Running staff

Security

Security

Visitor Centre Visitor Centre

Enterprise Enterprise Hydrogen Production Administration Administration Maintenance Staff Porter/Security Porter/Security Running Staff Cleaning Cleaning Employees*

Employees*

Administration Administration

*subject to occupancy *subject to occupancy

Staff H Y D R O GMaintenance E N E R AStaff TMaintenance ION Running Staff

Running Staff

Administration Administration Porter/Security Porter/Security

Onsite Doctor

Cleaning

Cleaning

Specialists

Specialists

Apprentices

Apprentices

Ecology

Oth

Groundskeeper

pote

Botanists/Zoologists Overall Site Visitors

Distribution

Porter/Security Porter/Security

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production

Education/Appreticeship Education/Appreticeship

Administration

Tours and teaching Tours and teaching

Kitchen and cleaning Kitchen and cleaning

fig. 47: Projected average daily scheme users per occupation over a year

Kitchen and cleaning

Security Tours

Initial Ecology phase

Future Phase Ecology

Groundskeeper Groundskeeper Botanists/Zoologists Botanists/Zoologists Overall Site Visitors

Overall Site Visitors

Reassigned in Future Other occupants OtherPhase occupants potential residents potential residents

70


28 16

8

30 31

29

14

15

9

12

5

11

6

2 10

7

28

1

3 4

13 18 34 Hydro-electric production

Enterprise

Hydro-electric productionMaintenance staff

Enterprise Administration

fig. 48: Notional schedule of accommodation, visual comparative*

*for size reference only, does not constitute proposed final layout Hydro-electric production

Maintenance staff

Running staff

Running staff

Security

Security

Visitor Centre

Enterprise

28 Administration Visitor Centre Administration

Maintenance staff Running staff

Tours and teaching Administration Porter/Security

Security

Tours and teaching Porter/Security Cleaning Porter/Security Employees* Kitchen and cleaning

Visitor Centre Administration

Kitchen and cleaning

Tours and teaching

Administration Porter/Security

Administration 35 Porter/Security

Porter/Security

Cleaning

Porter/Security

Cleaning Employees* Education/Appreticeship 17

Cleaning Hydro-electric production Specialists 37 19 Maintenance staff Apprentices Running staff

Employees* Administration

24

Porter/Security

25

Cleaning 21 Hydro-electric production *subject toSpecialists occupancy 22 Maintenance *subject to occupancy Apprentices 23staff Running staff

Hydrogen Production *subject to occupancy Hydrogen ProductionMaintenance Staff

Kitchen and cleaning

Maintenance Staff

Running Staff

Running Staff Onsite Doctor

Hydrogen Production Maintenance Staff

Ecology

Groundskeeper Onsite Doctor Administration

Running Staff

Administration Distribution Security

Onsite Doctor

Botanists/Zoologists Distribution Overall Tours Site Visitors

Distribution

Initial phase

Security

Initial phase

H Y DTours ROG ENERAT I O N

Future Phase

Future Phase

Reassigned in Future Phase

Specialists Apprentices

38

Security Enterprise Administration Visitor Centre Administration Porter/Security

50

Cleaning

51 41

Enterprise

Administration Porter/Security

CleaningEducation/Appreticeship 46 49 Employees*

42 43

26

44

27

Hydrogen Production

Ecology Onsite Doctor

Groundskeeper

Running Staff

Administration

Botanists/Zoologists

Distribution

Overall Site Visitors

Reassigned in Future Phase Onsite Doctor

Security

Administration

Tours

Security

Cleaning

Administration

Specialists

Porter/Security

Apprentices

Cleaning Specialists Apprentices

Ecology

Other occupants

Groundskeeper

potential residents

Botanists/Zoologists

Maintenance Staff Reassigned in Future Phase

Education/Appreticeship

47 Porter/Security 45 40 39

48

Administration

Running Staff

Distribution Future Phase

36

Tours and Cleaning teaching Ecology Other occupants Porter/Security Employees* Visitor Centre potential residents Ecology Groundskeeper Other occupants *subject to occupancy 28 Administration Groundskeeper potential residents Botanists/Zoologists Kitchen and cleaning Tours and teaching Botanists/Zoologists 20 Overall Porter/Security Site Visitors Other occupants Overall *subject to occupancy Site Visitors Hydrogen Production potential residents Kitchen and cleaning Maintenance Staff

Security

Tours

Administration

Education/Appreticeship

Administration Education/Appreticeship 33

Security

Porter/Security

Initial phase

32

Other occupants Overall Site Visitors potential residents

71


ESTIMATING PROJECT CAPITAL COSTS CONSTRUCTION COSTS In order to establish the viability of the project schemes against the available funding sources, it is important to begin to estimate the cost of the proposal at the project’s early stages of spatialisation.

1 Strip-out demolition: costed at £12/sqm for roof and columns +50% where asbestos is present (25% of area) Full Demolition: costed at £15/sqm for sheds 2 Annual Inflation calculated using the composite price index published by the Office for National Statistics: http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/bills/ article-1633409/ Quarterly data: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/ inflation-cpi 3 Location Adjustment measured against Derby Consumer Price Index (CPI) http://www.numbeo.com/cost-of-living/ 4 Pre-1975 allowance as set out by Scottish Assessors Association: http://www.saa.gov.uk/resources/148172/ contractors_basis_land_value_pn_no4.pdf 5 John Hope Gateway Cullinan Studio; http://www.cullinanstudio.com/project/john-hopegateway 6 John Hope Gateway Sust. A+DS http://www.ads.org.uk/sust/case-studies/john-hopegateway 7 Matthew Conduit, SUM Studios, correspondence 8 Burns, J. Specialist costs: Landscaping Building, issue 42, 2005; Available at: http://www.building.co.uk/ specialist-costs-landscaping/3057857.article 9 Austen, T. News: Progress at AMRC Training Centre Rotherham Business News, 2013; Available at: http://www.rothbiz.co.uk/2013/07/news-3502-progress-at-amrc-training.html

Initial projections of space requirements, including floor areas based on estimated occupation and programme, make it possible to consult the Building Cost Information Service to begin to evaluate the building costs. The BCIS would provide a database of values for projects indexed by sector, procurement method and scope - these are broken down in detail for each constituent installation. However, due to both the multi-use programmes of each building and the current uncertainty of proportions of space usage and materiality within each building, it is more appropriate at this stage to consult the costing data of similar programme precedents that have been built. Appropriate precedents have been selected for the project based on typology, scale, and contempreneity.

PRECEDENTS 1.1.1 Enabling Works

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

£ 15 / sqm

http://www.building.co.uk/

Strip-out of Warehouse 71

http://www.aquaticcontrol.co.uk/contact

Waterway, penstock and sluice gate refurbishment

http://www.building.co.uk/

Demolition of ruins1

£ 15 / sqm

£ 67, 500 £ 12, 000 £ 90, 000 £ 169, 000

Subtotal ±5%

Contingency

max. £ 177, 450 min. £ 160, 550

1.2.1 Hydropower

target output: 1, 100 MWh / year £ 976 / MWh

£ 1, 073, 600

Adjustment for inflation

+ 2.9 %

+ £ 31, 134 £ 1, 104, 734

Adjustment for Location (:Lancaster)3

- 4.76 %

- £ 52, 585 £ 1, 052, 149

+ 10 %

+ £105, 215 £ 1, 157, 364

System Installation Cost 2

Halton and Lune, Halton Halton and Lune Hydro (HLH) Community-hydro Scheme December 2013 onwards 1, 000 MWh / year £ 976, 000

Allowance for pre-1975 subterranean construction4

Contingency

Ajustment for inflation

Adjustment for Location (:Edinburgh)

August 2009 2, 762 sqm (5) £ 10, 700, 000 (6)

± 15 %

max. £ 1, 330, 969 min. £ 983, 759

approx. GIFA : 820 sqm Construction Cost

John Hope Gateway, Edinburgh Edward Cullinan Architects Visitor Centre, Shop, Café, Offices

£ 1, 157, 364

Subtotal

1.2.2 Knowledge Centre inc. Ecological Hub

The total inflation rate, from the construction of each precedent to the present day, has been factored into project estimates; future costs are represented in present-day values. Upper and lower contingency values based on the complexity of each phase have also been considered. *all costs at current (Q1 2015) value and exclude VAT and Fees

PHASE 1 - BREAKDOWN

£ 3, 874 / sqm

£ 3, 176, 680

+ 16.39 %

+ £ 520, 658 £ 3, 697, 338

- 6.01 %

- £ 222, 210 £ 3, 475, 128

Subtotal Contingency

£ 3, 475, 128 ± 10 %

max. £ 3, 822, 640 min. £ 3, 127, 615

72


PRECEDENTS

PHASE 1 - BREAKDOWN

PRECEDENTS

1.2.3 Local Enterprise Provision

1, 725 sqm Construction Cost Ajustment for inflation

Adjustment for Location, (:Sheffield)

Sum Studios: Ann’s Grove School, Sheffield Studio Gedye Converted School: Community hub for business May 2013 1, 185 sqm £ 1, 800, 000 (7)

Allowance for pre-1975 conservation

£ 1, 519 / sqm

£ 2, 620, 253

+3%

+ £ 78, 608 £ 2, 698, 861

- 1.28 %

- £ 34, 545 £ 2, 664, 316

+ 10 %

+ £ 266, 432 £ 2, 930, 748

Subtotal Contingency

10,000 sqm £ 15, 000 / ac

(8)

Buildings soft/hard landscaping +2% of buildings

(8)

£ 37, 066 + £ 154, 645 £ 191, 710

Subtotal Contingency RBS Headquarters, Gogarburn, Edinburgh Willerby Landscapes Business campus with parking and wilderness

PHASE 1 - SUMMARY

Demolition of light sheds1 Contingency

2.2.1 Hydropower Expansion

£ 15 / sqm

£ 75, 000

±5%

max. £ 78, 500 min. £ 71, 500

+1, 000 MWh / year

Phase 1

Installation Cost

September 2017 1, 100 MWh / year £ 1, 157, 364

Technological advances

£ 1, 052 / MWh

£ 1, 052, 149

- 30 %

- £ 314, 644 £ 736, 504

Subtotal Contingency

£ 736, 504 ±5%

2.2.2 Knowledge Centre Extension

max. £ 773, 329 £ 699, 679

+ 620 sqm

Phase 1

Construction Cost

February 2018 820 sqm £ 3, 475, 128

Subtotal Contingency

£ 4, 238 / sqm

£ 2, 627, 536 £ 2, 627, 536

±5%

max. £ 2, 758, 913 min. £ 2, 436, 159

£ 191, 710 ± 20 %

max. £ 230, 052 £ 153, 368

Lower Range

Upper Range

Enabling Works Hydropower Knowledge Centre inc. Ecolocal Hub Local Enterprise Provision Landscaping

£ 160, 550 £ 983, 759 £ 3, 187, 615 £ 2, 637, 673 £ 153, 368

£ 177, 450 £ 1, 330, 969 £ 3, 822, 640 £ 3, 223, 823 £ 230, 052

Total Cost

£ 7, 122, 965

£ 8, 784, 934

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

http://www.building.co.uk/

max. £ 3, 223, 823 min. £ 2, 637, 673

1.3.1 Landscaping Landscaping and infrastucture

2.1.1 Enabling Works

£ 2, 930, 748 ± 10 %

PHASE 2 - BREAKDOWN

2.2.3 Technical Apprenticeship College

4, 865 sqm Construction Cost

AMRC Training Centre, Rotherham Bond Bryan Architects Specialist Educational Facilities, workshops, labs September 2013 5, 566 sqm £ 20, 500, 000 (9)

£3, 683 / sqm

£ 17, 918, 164

Adjustment for inflation

+ 2.9 %

+ £ 519, 627 £ 18, 437, 791

Adjustment for Location (:Sheffield)

- 1.28 %

- £ 236, 004 £ 18, 201, 787

+5%

1.2.1, 1.2.3 and historic shell

+ £ 910, 089 £ 19, 111, 876

Subtotal

£ 19, 111, 876

Allowance for interface with

Contingency

± 10 %

max. £ 21, 023, 063 min. £ 17, 200, 688 73


1 Unit Conversion Data for Hydrogen: http://www.uigi.com/h2_conv.html 2 Saur, G. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Electrolyzer Capital Cost Study: Technical Report NREL TP-550-44103, December 2008; Available at: http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/pdfs/44103.pdf

HYDROGEN PLANT CAPITAL COST : SPECIAL STUDY PRECEDENTS

PHASE 2 - BREAKDOWN

2.2.4.1 Hydrogen Production Facilities

target output: 116, 118, 800 litres / year

3 Historic currency conversion: http://www.xe.com/currencytables/?from=GBP&da te=2008-12-02

Output in kg1

projected system simplfication

4 Annual Inflation calculated using the composite price index published by the Office for National Statistics: http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/bills/ article-1633409/ Quarterly data: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/ inflation-cpi 5 Approximate location cost factor: http://www.indexmundi.com/factbook/compare/ united-kingdom.united-states 6 Nuclear AMRC Bond Bryan Architects http://www.bondbryan.com/nuclear-advancedmanufacturing-research-centre-higher-ed

NOTES ON H2O ESTIMATES

14.1 l / kg

8, 235, 376 kg / y 22, 562 kg / d

1000 kg / d baseline cost2 $ 2, 241.141 / kg d

+ $ 50, 564, 623

40 % stack cost reduction

- 18.4 %

2

- $ 9, 303, 891 $ 41, 260, 732

20 % power electronics cost reduction2

- 4.1 %

- $ 1, 691, 690 $ 39, 569, 042

2008 - 2021 technology affordability increase2

- 33 %

- $ 13, 057 ,783 $ 26, 511, 259

USD-GBP Q4/2008 conversion Adjustment for inflation

8 “Most process plants have a non-linear relationship between

Adjustment for location5 (USA - UK civil)

4

the cost of the plant and its production capacity. This is known as the power law, and generally is expressed as follows.

3

$ 1.49 / £

£ 17, 792, 791

+ 17.24 %

+ £ 3, 067, 477 £ 20, 860, 268

+ 11.06 %

+ £ 2, 307, 146 £ 23, 167, 413

Subtotal Contingency

Stack Power Electronics Other

£ 23, 167, 413 ± 15 %

2.2.4.2 Wider Hydrogen Provision £1, 667 / sqm

£ 8, 333, 333

+ 11.83 %

+ £ 985, 833 £ 9, 319, 166

- 1.28 %

- £ 119, 285 £ 9, 199, 880

+ 10 %

1.2.1 and utility infrastructure

+ £ 919, 988 £ 10, 199, 868

Subtotal

£ 10, 199, 868

Adjustment for inflation

Adjustment for Location (:Sheffield) (7) Nuclear AMRC, Rotherham Bond Bryan Architects Production halls, services, research labs 2011 9, 000 sqm £ 15, 000, 000 (6)

Allowance for interface with

Contingency H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

max. £ 26, 642, 525 min. £ 19, 692, 301

5000 sqm Construction Cost

9 Independent Review Panel Current State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Independent Review; U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, 2009; Available at: http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/46676.pdf

11 OJEU information: http://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/OJEU_ procurement_procedures OJEU requirements: http://www.ojeu.eu/whatistheojeu.aspx

Balance of Plant

Fig 49: Capital cost breakdown for plant facilities (Alkaline)

C = Wn

10 Chappell, D. Willis, A. op. cit. pp. 9, 10, 188

The plant facilities chosen are modelled on the established alkaline electrolyser system as they are better equipped for larger hydrogen production capacities as compared to the newer PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) models more suited to microgeneration.

Gas Conditioning

7 Location Adjustment measured against Derby Consumer Price Index (CPI) http://www.numbeo.com/cost-of-living/

Where C is the capital cost of the plant ($) and W is the capacity (e.g., kg/day). The exponent n typically has a value of between 0.6 and 0.8, depending on the type of plant. This gives an economy of scale because costs increase less than proportionally as capacity isincreased Power law relationships generally hold up to a maximum value of W, which reflects the maximum practical size of the limiting process unit. For greater total capacities, parallel units must be installed and the cost relationship becomes linear or nearly so (n approaches 1).”9

Plant installation costs often have an exponential relationship with production capacity. This incentivises higher-capacity electrolysis units with economies of scale up to 1000 kg/d at which point diminishing returns requires the installation additional parallel units. For the purposes of this project we will employ 23 separate electrolysis units to fulfil the target annual hydrogen output.8

± 10 %

max. £ 11, 131, 854 min. £ 9, 107, 881

In alkaline models the stack and power electronics account for most of the capital cost but also have most potential for improvement. Giner Electrochemical Systems have developed a working simplified design that has yet to be implemented in new plants. Projected cost reductions have been employed for this project. In pricing for the electrolysis units, the higher capital cost scenario figures have been used for this estimate breakdown. The decision to invest more in initial capital expenditure is based on trends demonstrating significantly cheaper hydrogen production post-completion for larger-capacity electrolyser units. This is part of a wider ethos of minimising whole life-cycle costs that will be expanded on in the next section.9

74


COSTING CONSIDERATION QUANTITY SURVEYING ASSISTANCE 15,000 sqm

2.3.1 Landscaping Landscaping and infrastucture

£ 15, 000 / ac

£ 55, 599

Buildings soft/hard landscaping +2% of buildings

+ £ 600, 965 £ 656, 564

Subtotal Contingency RBS Headquarters, Gogarburn, Edinburgh Willerby Landscapes Business campus with parking and wilderness

PHASE 2 - SUMMARY

£ 656, 564 ± 20 %

max. £ 787, 877 £ 525, 251

Lower Range

Upper Range

Enabling Works Hydropower Expansion Knowledge Centre Extension Technical Apprenticeship College Hydrogen Production Facilities Wider Hydrogen Provision Landscaping

£ 71, 500 £ 699, 679 £ 2, 466, 159 £ 17, 200, 688 £ 19, 692, 301 £ 9, 107, 881 £ 525, 251

£ 78, 500 £ 773, 329 £ 2, 758, 913 £ 21, 023, 063 £ 26, 642, 301 £10, 199, 868 £ 787, 877

Total Cost

£ 40, 655, 578

£ 62, 263, 851

Lower Range

Upper Range

Enabling Works Hydropower Knowledge Centre and Ecological Hub Local Enterprise Provision Technical Apprenticeship College Hydrogen Centre Landscaping

£ 232, 050 £ 1, 683, 438 £ 5, 653, 774 £ 2, 637, 673 £ 17, 200, 688 £ 28, 800, 182 £ 678, 619

£ 255, 950 £ 2, 104, 298 £ 6, 581, 553 £ 3, 223, 823 £ 21, 023, 063 £ 36, 842, 169 £ 1, 017 929

Total Cost

£ 56, 886, 424

£ 71, 048, 785

PROJECT SUMMARY

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

An experienced architect may be able to provide reasonable estimates of capital costs beyond precedents and benchmark factors demonstrated here. Ideally, Measured drawings and material specifications would improve the accuracy of these estimates - albeit with still a significant contingency factored in. However very few architects are able to accurately tailor design and construction decisions to a set budget or manage the ongoing finance of a project. In this respect quantity surveyors are more suitable consultants as they provide a range of specialist services that can ensure the financial security of a project and its enabling parties. With regards to cost estimates, as well as providing preliminary advice, quantity surveyors are charged with the holistic costing of a project based on the fundemental brief as well as detailed specifications. Importantly, the quantity surveyor has

the responsibility to take into account the development of the process and account for potential changes in design, all the while keeping in mind the financial requirements of the client. This is done by means of a cost plan in which the quantity surveyor allocates proportions of the total budget to specific portions of the project. This enables the architect to operate within established constraints in respect to individual budgeted elements. Cost plans also include investment appraisal and projects’ whole-life costing. Additionally, a quantity surveyor’s role includes the provision of risk analysis, value management, advice in procurement and tendering procedures, contract documentation, tender evaluation, cash flow forcasting, payment structuring, settlement of disputes. The employment of a quantity surveyor is an invalueble benefit for both client and contractor/architect.10

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE E.U. TENDER PROCESS In order to open up public procurement within the EU and to ensure the free movement of supplies, services and works, The European Union Procurement Directives establish public procurement rules which apply to any public purchases above the defined thresholds. The directives are enacted in the UK by The Public Contracts Regulations.

Due to the private aquisition of land, and the local ownership of hydropower and hydrogen, this project is not considered public works, services or supplies, and thus there is no obligation to advertise any contract in the OJEU competetive tender, even if each project phase exceeds the current theshold of €5 million. Additionally, public subsidies account for too small a proportion of the project funding.11

75


AA

AS

The construction cost calculations reveal that this would be an expensive scheme but it is worth bearing in mind that the costings are modelled on extremely high-spec precedents in their respective sectors. It was felt such precedents were appropriate given the remit of the project being a high-performing flagship for future models. In terms of life cycle costing, the large capital investment would be necessary to ensure minimal expenditure during occupancy while ensuring the smooth running of operations

1 Life cycle costings based on data from Building Cost Information Services: http://www.bcis.co.uk 2 Annual Inflation calculated using the composite price index published by the Office for National Statistics: http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/bills/ article-1633409/ Quarterly data: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/ inflation-cpi 3 Saur, G. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Electrolyzer Capital Cost Study: Technical Report NREL TP-550-44103, December 2008, p27; Available at: http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/ pdfs/44103.pdf 4 Landscape life cycle costing: Burns, J. Specialist costs: Landscaping Building, issue 42, 2005; Available at: http://www.building.co.uk/ specialist-costs-landscaping/3057857.article

LIFE CYCLE COSTING The project themes have made it evident that in both privatised and nationalised models of infrastructure there is great impetus to conserve capital - whether for the immediate appeasement of shareholders or to ensure shortsighted popularity during election terms, or simply due to current finances. The same behaviour applies in any construction project. The UK construction sector in particular has more often than not sought to achieve lowest initial capital expenditure, with little consideration of the continuing construction costs post-occupancy. As a result the nation has a history of poor -quality building stock that has been a drain on fuel expenditure due to poor environmental performance, and a financial burden in the case of retrofitting corrective additions. As a major component of this project seeks to challenge ineffficient paradigms of incentivisation, it is especially important that we consider how longterm benefits can more than offset additional capital investment at the construction stage to ensure a more sustainable scheme. For a holistic view of a building’s lifecycle costs it is necessary to assess maintenance, operation, occupation and end of life costs. BCIS life cycle average data has been employed to estimate the running costs of each of the project’s programmes based on established proportional models.1

MAINTAINANCE COSTS Especially in the technical programmes of the scheme, any maintainance work could potentially incur additional costs in the event of the closure pf any facilities. In the case of halt to production electricity of hydrogen, or distribution for any extended period, these costs could be astronomical. Similar damages could arise in the event of a disaster from poor maintainance - especially considering the presence of stored hydrogen on site. High-specification at an early stage is a small price to pay in preventative measures.

Hydropower

Knowledge Centre

Community Centre Model £ 93. 56 /m2

Factory Model £ 65. 07 /m2

MAINTAINANCE

COST £ / m2

Decorations Fabric Services

£ 1. 74 £ 6. 97 £ 11. 04

OPERATION

OPERATION

Cleaning Utilities Administration

£ 10. 46 £ 19. 17 £15. 69

TOTAL ANNUAL COSTS Interphase Post-completion

600 sqm 600 sqm

MAINTAINANCE

COST £ / m2

Decorations Fabric Services

£ 3. 49 £ 10. 46 £ 14. 53

OPERATION

OPERATION

Cleaning Utilities Administration

£ 22. 08 £ 27. 89 £15 .11

TOTAL ANNUAL COSTS £ 39, 042 £ 39, 042

Interphase Post-completion

820 sqm 1, 440 sqm

£ 76, 719 £ 134, 726

*all costs at current Q1 2015 value (adjusted for +16.21% inflation since Q4 2009)2 H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

76


fig. 50: Capital cost vs efficiency: H20 cost reductions for 30% improvement

improved efficiency

OPERATION COSTS

INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS

General long-term savings in energy use can be made in the specification of high-performing insulation and a design that incorporates solar and wind analysis into its environmental strategy. Ideally heating and ventilation can operate passively and the design encourages user behaviour to favour non-mechanical methods of achieving comfort. The client would benefit from being issued with an instruction manual to ensure familiarity with the building features for future occupants.

As mentioned, higher yields of hydrogen could be gained from top end units as modelled right, requiring less energy input.3 Hybrid use of scheme resources, such as the added role of hydrology as a coolant and subsequent district heat source ensures efficiency in a closed loop.

Enterprise Centre

Apprenticeship College

University Model £ 99. 38 /m2

Office Model £ 133. 57 /m2

MAINTAINANCE

COST £ / m2

Decorations Fabric Services

£ 2. 91 £ 13. 36 £ 22. 09

OPERATION

OPERATION

Cleaning Utilities Administration

£ 16. 85 £ 38. 35 £ 40. 01

TOTAL ANNUAL COSTS Interphase Post-completion

Hydrogen Centre

1, 725 sqm 1, 725 sqm

£ 230, 408 £ 230, 408

MAINTAINANCE Decorations Fabric Services

£ 3. 49 £ 13. 94 £ 19. 76

OPERATION

OPERATION

Cleaning Utilities Administration

£15 .11 £ 24. 99 £ 22. 09

COST £ / m2 £ 1. 74 £ 6. 97 £ 11. 04

Decorations Fabric Services

OPERATION £ 10. 46 £ 19. 17 £15. 69

Cleaning Utilities Administration

TOTAL ANNUAL COSTS

TOTAL ANNUAL COSTS

Post-completion:

Post-completion:

4, 865 sqm £ 483, 386

high-capacity system 1000 kg/d

10%

10%

20%

reduced capital

Given the 3:10 ratio of internal to external areas within the 12 acre project site, it is difficult to estimate the upkeep costs of the campus landscape.4 The proportions of hard and soft landscaping are still unclear for both phases but it is estimated that 10, 000m2 of the external grounds would be landscaped in phase one and a further 15, 000m2 in phase two, leaving the rest of the site as a preserved wilderness.

MAINTAINANCE

OPERATION

low-capacity system 100 kg/d

External Site

Factory Model £ 65. 07 /m2

COST £ / m2

microgeneration 10 kg/d

20%

5, 000 sqm

MAINTAINANCE

COST £ / m2 £ 0. 50 £ 0. 30 £ 1. 20

Landscaped areas Irrigation Surfaces and Edgings OPERATION

OPERATION

Machine cutting turf areas Leaf clearance Shrub pruning / groundcover / weeding

£ 0. 05 £ 0. 08 £ 6. 50

TOTAL ANNUAL COSTS

£ 325, 350

Post-completion: 25, 000 sqm > £ 215, 750

fig. 51: Life-Cycle costing proportions as per BCIS models

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

77


AA

AS

AA

AS

Calculation for the approximate costs for construction and upkeep does not present the whole story of expenditure from the viewpoint of the client, nor does it bring into account a major aspect in the real-world incentive for taking on a project when considering our assumed role as architects. Fees are a core aspect of management and negotiation with the client and contractors, and fact in are the subject whence the majority of legal disputes arise. Structuring the project team is a fascinating exercise as it allows us to envisage our role on a more personal situated level - less removed from the notional management of this project. This exercise also provides another opportunity to draw from previous experience in practice to further inform our approach to the project.

ARCHITECT PRACTICE STRUCTURE

Indeed there is an added personal investment once we can imagine our own quantifiable benefits in this hypothetical scenario. In the end we need to acknowledge architecture as a business as well as a craft and social discipline. It is useless to consider just the viability of a single project if the business proposed to enact it is not viable in itself.

The Architecture Practice for the project is a private limited company owned by shareholders and as such is registered at Companies House and operates with its own legal identity,

Also, there is no “right answer” with regards to putting together a project team. This exercise allowed us freedom to explore the potential ways work could be distributed, and what value could be placed on time spent by people of different experience levels.

fig. 52: The “Practice”

The adjacent page lists the design team and gives an example of a fee invoice which that could emerge once the architectural team is appointed.

1 Erskine, G. Architect’s fees: http://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/ Architect%27s_fees 2 Dobson, A. Fee Calculation, Negotiation and Management for Architects, RIBA, 2013; Available at: http://www.architecture.com/Files/RIBAProfessionalServices/Regions/NorthWest/Education/ Part%203/StudyPacks2013/March2013LectureNotes/FeeCalculation,NegotiationandManagem ent-AdrianDobson.pdf

In this scenario, the practice is mid sized, and cosists of a design team of architects, architectural technicians and a small team of landscape architects.

H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

78


CALCULATING FEES

BLACKBURN MEADOWS INVOICING SCHEDULE

Fees charged by architects are extremely varied, especially since abolition of indicative fee scales by the RIBA resulting in a lack of available benchmarking information.

Invoicing Schedule for Phase 1 works

Despite fees being commonly quoted as being between 8 and 12%, a survey by Building Design revealed that only 21% of architects achieve fee levels of above 5% while 55% are paid fee levels of 4% or less. Though these figures do not reveal much due to the dependency on fees on project types and circumstances of appointments. Large new builds, like the proposed hydro-scheme, attract much lower percentage fees than small works to existing buildings, and figures are skewed further by different trends per sector. Fees vary according to: the renown of the architect, the type, size, complexity and quality of building required, the location of the architect and of the project, the amount of bespoke design required, the level and scope of service required, the amount of information available, the state of the economy and perceived risk.1

AMRC hydro

Day Rate

Architecture

July ‘15 September ’ 15

Percentage fees

A percentage of the build cost. The advantage here is that a fee agreement can be reached at the earliest possible time, even before the value or extent of the building work is known. It is normal for the fee to change with the cost of the work and the architect’s fee to change proportionately. An approximate build cost and an indication of the scope and nature of the services required from the architect are preferable so that an appropriate estimate could be calculated. Fees for an industrial building over £1.75m are normally around 4.7% of the build cost.2

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

January ‘16 March’ 16

April ‘16 June’ 16

Days

Total

Director A

650.00

X

X

X

X

X

X

Director B

650.00

X

X

X

X

X

X

Senior Architect

350.00

X

X

X

X

X

X

Architect A

275.00

X

X

X

X

X

X

Architect B

275.00

X

X

X

X

X

X

Technologist

350.00

X

X

X

X

X

X

Senior Landscape Architect

350.00

X

X

X

X

X

X

Landscape Architect

250.00

X

X

X

X

X

X

350.00

X

X

X

X

X

X

Landcape

Management Project Manager

Amount Due (excl. VAT

FEE BASIS OPTIONS

%

October ‘15 December’ 15

X

fig. 53: Hypothetical fee invoice from the Architect to the Client

Lump-sum fees A fixed sum of money is established for an agreed scope of work. Normally the fee will not change if the cost of the building changes. This has the advantage that the client has a high level of certainty of costs of service. However, it is not always easy to calculate a fixed lump-sum fee at the outset of a project, especially if the client is unsure of their requirements, thus architects may wish to quote a percentage fee which will later be converted to fixed lump sum when the scope of works is solidified. Lump sum fees are often paid in proportional instalments upon completion of each work stage.2

Time-charge fees The architect will charge for the work on an agreed hourly, daily or weekly rate. This is generally reserved for work where it is difficult to define the scope of services required or the nature of the project when the appointment is made. It is important in this case that fees are capped to a maximum that can be charged without prior agreement and that detailed records of hours worked are kept. It is also appropriate for where services cannot be related to the amount of construction.2

Chosen Fee Basis A time-charge fee basis was most appropriate for this project due to the large proportion of involvement by multiple specialists owing to the scheme’s the technical complexity. In this sense the services provided by the architect cannot be related to the magnitude of construction. This is most notable in the large volumes of mechanical installation that factor in the construction costs of the hydro-electicity installation, hydrogen plant and teaching laboratories. Additionally there will be significant economic changes and inflation throughout the long project period. Time-charge fees are more flexible in responding to such temporal value variations.

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Inclusive Design Inclusive design 82 On site relationships

84

Environmental statement

86

Conclusion

H Y DROG ENERAT I O N

81


AS

AA

Drawing on community principles incubated in the hydropower scheme, the project will seek to further encourage public participation throughout all programmes on site. Of course inclusivity is not limited to humans, as a site of specific animal inhabitation, the project needs to account for its inherent invasive nature. As militant as it may sound, such considerations are especially pertinent considering the base philosophies of the project included striking an equitable balance between financial, social and ecological considerations.

INCLUSIVE DESIGN

Overview

Use

Engagement with shareholders

‘The design of mainstream products and/or services that are accessible to, and usable by, as many people as reasonably possible ... without the need for special adaptation or specialised design.’ 1

The intention of the site is to be accessible to visitors both energy enthusiasts and those with a passing curiosity. The site must be accessible to all, with a clear spatial layout, signage and directional indications for transport.

Those with shares in the community hydropower in phase one and hydrogen in phase two must be kept involved during all stages of the process. Due to the partnering agreement in place it is intended that the contractor will seek to accommodate shareholder questions and observations.

CABE published and promoted the principles of inclusive design as it relates to the built environment: It must be inclusive so everyone can use it safely, easily and with dignity. The design must be responsive taking account of what people say they need and want. Flexible so different people can use it in different ways. Convenient so everyone can use it without too much effort or separation. Accommodating for all people, regardless of their age, gender, mobility, ethnicity or circumstances. Welcoming with no disabling barriers that might exclude some people. The design must also be realistic and offer more than one solution to help balance everyone’s needs and recognising that one solution may not work for all. 2 1 Designing Buildings Wiki. Inclusive design; 2014. Website: http://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/ Inclusive_design

There are many overlapping functions over a large site, educational, industrial, visitor and business provisions sit amongst an ecological masterplan. These functions, as intended in the ethos of the scheme are interlinked and overlapping and as such route clarity for the different groups of people on site is imperative. Safety considerations must also be made with regards to access as some parts of the hydrogen plant for example, must have restricted access. Each building function on site needs to be considered to accommodate its end user without the design detaching itself from the inclusive vision of the project.

Shareholder meetings and participation events will be held throughout the design and installation of both facilities. ADVyCE and their links to Transition Belper are key to this. Transition Belper’s network of like minded members and trustees will be used as an engagement platform and connection to the regional communities. As an additional point; this would be key to the client in phase two as the hydrogen facilities are of considerable cost - the larger the network of potential shareholders for the community scheme the greater the community investment in the project. The client’s aim in phase two is to source 50% of the funding from a community share offer.

2 The National Archived (CABE) . The Principles of Inclusive design; 2006. Website: http://webarchive. nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118095356/http:// www.cabe.org.uk/files/the-principles-of-inclusivedesign.pdf

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Engagement with users In addition to engagement of the shareholders in the energy schemes. The users of the site facilities must be consulted throughout. This includes users local and regional business, schools, colleges, and the residents of Ambergate village. The AMRC’s existing network of educational, research and business links will be invaluable here. The AMRC’s existing apprenticeship scheme at Sheffield will permit consultation with existing members of the scheme allowing design and planning considerations to respond to their feedback regarding site requirements. The AMRC’s links with research and innovation business will also allow liaison with specialists who will be able to inform design requirements and thus contribute to the structuring and layout of the most practical and innovative building possible.

ENGAGEMENT WITH COMMUNITY SHAREHOLDERS

These engagement exercises will also drum up excitement about the project beyond the region bringing with it the possibility of enquiries of enterprising business and additionally visitor footfall once the site is open to the public. fig. 54: Collaborative, Multidisciplinary process between Architect, Client and specialists

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fig. 55: Shop floor mapping exercise for non-technical functions

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E

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16 12

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ON-SITE RELATIONSHIPS By profiling the potential site users, their behaviour and movements can be predicted. This can later inform interprogramme circulation and rough proportions of visitors, permanent workers and transient users, as well as seasonal trends of use and visitation.

CIVILIAN SHOP FLOOR

D Sporadic tours of large groups: There will be plenty of visitor interest in the scheme’s training centre. This plays a large part in the marketing of the scheme and in widening access. Unlike in (C), such tours are pre-arranged by special groups with a specific interest, these may be researchers or investors. Such tours may have access to less public areas of the scheme.

USER PROFILES A

Similarly to the infrastructural processes mapped out earlier, the non-technical functions on the site can be split into four distinct hubs of activity: the visitor centre, ecological centre, rentable enterprise spaces and the apprenticeship college.

E General flow through site entrance: It is expected that there will be a baseline rate of movement in and out of the site by individual visitors, various staff and operators as well as deliveries and contractors. This will be heightened during the start and close of operating hours. There will be occasional coachloads of visitors from schools and more environment visitors outside winter months.

Abstract movement studies of various users on the site can begin to reveal the relationships of public programmes to one another in terms of footfall and access without being prescriptive about location or spatial form.

B Constant trickle of individual visitors: Many visitors may be regulars who wish to walk around the nature trails or perhaps ecological enthusiasts from the region. These would normally come on their own rather than in tours and use the Visitor Centre as an initial point of call for refreshments and news of events.

C

Scheduled tours of large, random groups With regards to both the wilderness grounds and even the production facilities and possible Hydropark, it is likely that there will be set tours on either a daily or weekly basis depending on the season. These tours will follow a set route laid out in the design of the scheme that has minimal disturbance to its natural and technical functions.

F

G

Stumblers across the site: The site’s location along the river valley places itself along cycle paths and walking trails. Hikers, dog walkers and cyclists may purposefully or inadvertently enter the scheme and may wish to make use of its visitor amenities.

Site Occupants using grounds Naturally there will be those who work on site who may use the site in other ways outside their work, whether this be ambulation through the grounds or use of amenities in other buildings.

Inter-programme Collaboration There will be similar to (F), there will be insite movement though it may be required by the work of the user. The nature of the project’s remit and the diversity of its multidisciplinary stakeholders means that there will be a lot of interaction between the various programmes on site, for example teaching and administration.

fig. 56: Profiling expected user groups

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ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT

Overview

Trees

The position of the scheme nestled within the steep forested valley allows the larger scale buildings to maintain a low profile so as not to affect avian migratory routes through the region.

‘Most significant [planning] applications should include information on site layout plans of tress and other landscape features that are to be retained, and where new landscaping and tree planting are proposed.’ 1

The fluvial bed of the River Derwent at the site section has long been artificial and harbours no life however the river banks are potential sites of specific scientific interest. These banks are to be protected within the scheme’s programme and avoided during construction.

Due to the original function of the site, much of the area around the existing buildings are cleared of trees. As part of the detailed site survey submission to the planning authority a full survey and assessment of trees within the parameters of the site will be conducted.

The surrounding forest is home to certain protected species that may be disturbed during the construction of the scheme, prefabricated design elements will reduce noise during assembly and reduce operational time on site for heavy machinery. Safety grilles and eel-passes will ensure well-being of potential aquatic residents around the hydroelectric systems. The employment of a groundskeeper and resident ecologists into the scheme will be among the first stages to be completed, plenty of spatial provision for ecological wilderness will remain after project completion.

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fig. 57: Envisaged ecological provisions on site

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AS

AA

It will be important to establish and keep a close working relationship between all members of the design team. Maintaining a contractor and design team throughout the design and construction of the programmes should ensure continued quality of design throughout the project. Continued engagement of stakeholders will be essential, drawing on the Bencom principles originally incubated by ADVyCE’.

CONCLUSION The project deals with a consortium client formed from collaborators with considerably different legal backgrounds With a number of complex, interlinked programmes over two phase. The building will be procured through numerous funding streams with a particular focus on community shareholders. The design and build provides a low risk to the client and the shareholders it represents. The novation aspect ensures that the quality concerns sometimes associated with design and build routes are alleviated through a continued close relationship between the project and the original architect. This contract will be complemented by a partnering agreement establishing a common goal between the client and the design team.

1 Chappell, D. Willis, A. op. cit. p. 207 H Y D ROG E NE RA TION

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Hydrogeneration Management Report  

Credit: Armand Agraviador, Alex Schofield

Hydrogeneration Management Report  

Credit: Armand Agraviador, Alex Schofield

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