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www.airportmagazine.net | February/March 2010

Runway Rehabilitation Air Service Development Successful Use of GIS

Dealing with


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Volume 22/Number 1 | February/March 2010








editoria l ad v isor y B O A R D A irport M embers William G. Barkhauer, Morristown, New Jersey MARK GALE, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Jim Johnson, Odessa, Florida James L. Morasch, Pasco, Washington Timothy K. O’Donnell, Fort Wayne, Indiana Robert P. Olislagers, Englewood, Colorado Torrance Richardson, Fort Wayne, Indiana Elaine Roberts, Columbus, Ohio


C orporate M embers Bill Hogan, Reynolds, Smith + Hills STACY L. HOLLOWELL, Siemens One, Inc. Brian Lacey, Delaware North Companies Randy Pope, Burns & McDonnell Laura Samuels, Hudson Group

AAAE BOARD OF DIRECTORS C h air John K. Duval, Beverly, Massachusetts F irst Vice C h air


James E. Bennett, Washington, D.C. S eco n d Vice C h air Kelly L. Johnson, Bentonville, Arkansas S ecretar y / T reasurer


Bruce E. Carter, Moline, Illinois F I R S T P ast C h air Jim P. Elwood, Aspen, Colorado

Cover Feature


Dealing With Recessionary Times | 12

Editor’s Corner




Airports Discuss Their Strategies

Features Forensic Analysis Reshapes Runway Rehabilitation | 16 Building on Traditional Methods

Successful Use of a Geographic Information System | 19 Technology Aids Airport DecisionMaking

Improving Terminal Evacuation Procedures | 22 Adding the Customer Service Element

Air Service Development in a Down Economy | 32 Practical Steps to Stay in the Game

Krys T. Bart, Reno, Nevada

News Briefs










Retail Briefs






Advertiser Index


B oard of D irector S DANETTE M. BEWLEY, Reno, Nevada TOMMY W. BIBB, Nashville, Tennessee JEFF L. BILYEU, Angleton, Texas THOMAS H. BINFORD, Billings, Montana LEW S. BLEIWEIS, Fletcher, North Carolina GARY A. CYR, SR., Springfield, Missouri BENJAMIN R. DECOSTA, Atlanta, Georgia ROD A. DINGER, Redding, California LINDA G. FRANKL, Columbus, Ohio STACY L. HOLLOWELL, Carrollton, Texas KIM W. HOPPER, Portsmouth, New Hampshire GARY L. JOHNSON, Stillwater, Oklahoma MARK D. KRANENBURG, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma SCOTT C. MALTA, Atwater, California JEFFREY A. MULDER, Tulsa, Oklahoma ROBERT P. OLISLAGERS, Englewood, Colorado THOMAS M. RAFTER, Hammonton, New Jersey BRIAN REED, Jacksonville, Florida

Coming In Airport Magazine April/May 2010 Winter Operations Airfield Safety: Bird Strike Buyer’s Guide Dallas Terminal Development Program

Dulles AeroTrain Opens | 27 Airport Debuts Rail System

seco n d P ast C h air

ROBERT F. SELIG, Lansing, Michigan DAVID R. ULANE, Aspen, Colorado C h apter P reside n ts WILLIAM F. MARRISON, Knoxville, Tennessee WALT STRONG, Norman, Oklahoma STEPHEN E. KORTA, Hartford, Connecticut SHAWN SCHROEDER, Springfield, Missouri TODD L. McNAMEE, Camarillo, California JOHN S. KINNEY, Denver, Colorado P o l ic y R e v iew C ommittee BONNIE A. ALLIN, Tucson, Arizona

June/July 2010 Concessions NextGen Security Airfield Safety Safety Management Systems

ROSEMARIE ANDOLINO, Chicago, Illinois WILLIAM G. BARKHAUER, Morristown, New Jersey THELLA F. BOWENS, San Diego, California MARK P. BREWER, Manchester, New Hampshire LARRY D. COX, Memphis, Tennessee ALFONSO DENSON, Birmingham, Alabama KEVIN A. DILLON, Warwick, Rhode Island EDWARD C. FRENI, East Boston, Massachusetts MARK GALE, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania THOMAS E. GREER, Monterey, California

The Defense of Duffer’s Municipal Airport | 35

JAMES A. KOSLOSKY, Grand Rapids, Michigan LYNN F. KUSY, Mesa, Arizona

GA Airport Security Lessons

JAMES L. MORASCH, Pasco, Washington ERIN M. O’DONNELL, Chicago, Illinois BRADLEY D. PENROD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ELAINE ROBERTS, Columbus, Ohio RICKY D. SMITH, Cleveland, Ohio

Cover Design: Zev Remba

Unconformity, LLC

SUSAN M. STEVENS, Charleston, South Carolina PAUL WIEDEFELD, Baltimore, Maryland P reside n t Charles M. Barclay, Alexandria, Virginia


AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


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editor’scorner In this issue, Airport Magazine takes a detailed look at strategies that airports are employing to adjust to the financial downturn that has impacted the aviation community. It’s not all layoffs and turning off the lights. We appreciate the many airports that shared their stories with us as we compiled Dealing With Recessionary Times. Also in this issue, we present the first half of The Defense of Duffer’s Municipal Airport. This takeoff on a military classic on small tactics was written by Centennial Airport Executive Director Robert Olislagers, A.A.E., and outlines lessons learned in general aviation security. The entire article will be posted on the magazine’s Web site at www.airportmagazine.net this month, for those of you who can’t wait until the April/May issue to read the rest of it! Other features in this issue outline runway rehabilitation technology; keys to successful use of a Geographic Information System (GIS); air service development tactics in a down economy; and the customer service aspects of terminal evacuation procedures. Lynn Hampton, vice president and CFO of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, writes in the Finance Column about the practical applications of ICAO’s Airport Economics Manual. In the Operations Column, Mark Coates, senior manageroperations at Seattle-Tacoma International, explains the steps that went into the development of a Safety Management System at his airport. And there is still more: AirporTech describes technology advances at U.S. airports; FBR highlights new food/beverage and retail offerings at Albany (N.Y.) International; UpFront provides a roundup on airport happenings; Billboard summarizes recent airport statistics; and MarketScan offers a view of first-quarter 2010 traffic projections. We thank our advertisers in this issue: Astronics DME Corp., Burns & McDonnell, Delta Airport Consultants, Georgia Pacific, Kimley-Horn and Associates Inc., Michael Baker Corp., Northeast Chapter AAAE, Oshkosh Corp., Ricondo & Associates Inc. and RS&H. We appreciate the support of these companies, which help to make our magazine possible. Please support them in return. Airport Magazine welcomes Mark Gale, A.A.E., CEO of Philadelphia International Airport, as a new member of our Editorial Advisory Board. At the same time, we say goodbye to Tim Campbell, A.A.E., the former executive director of Baltimore-Washington International, who has retired. Thanks to those of you who e-mailed to say you appreciate the attractive calendar sponsored by the Hudson Group that was included with the December/January issue. The front cover of the calendar is a photo of Phoenix Sky Harbor International, supplied by the airport. Sincerely,

Barbara Cook 6

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010









E ditor

Barbara Cook barbara.cook@aaae.org P ub l is h er

Joan Lowden E x ecuti v e E ditor

Ellen P. horton E ditor - A t - Large


Holly Ackerman A rt D esig n

Unconformity, LLC G rap h ic D esig n er


Bill Krumpelman JAMES MARTIN ad v ertisi n g a n d sa l es

aaaemarketingteam@aaae.org E ditoria l O ffice

601 Madison Street, Suite 400 Alexandria, VA 22314 (703) 824-0500, Ext. 133 Fax: (703) 820-1395 Internet Address: www.airportmagazine.net Send editorial materials/press releases to: magazine@aaae.org Airport Magazine is published bimonthly by the AAAE Service Corporation Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Association of Airport Executives, and the Airport Research and Development Foundation. Subscription price for AAAE members is included in the annual dues. U.S. subscription rate to non-members is $50 for one year. International rate for non-members is $100. Single copy price is $12. Copyright 2010 by AAAE. All rights reserved. Statements of fact and opinion are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of AAAE or any of its members or officers. POSTMASTER Send address changes to: Airport Magazine 601 Madison Street, Suite 400 Alexandria, VA 22314

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upfront Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport

Crews deal with the February snowstorms at Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport.

Barclay Presses Lawmakers For Airport Funding AAAE President Charles Barclay told approximately 20 members of the Senate Democratic Caucus that economic stimulus legislation passed by Congress last year helped airports move ahead with critical infrastructure projects and created jobs. Barclay also outlined the airport priorities for a subsequent jobs package as part of an invitation-only group that included local officials and representatives from various associations and unions that met with the caucus in January to discuss rebuilding America’s infrastructure. Barclay defended infrastructure spending and urged the lawmakers to include additional AIP funds in the legislation and provide airports with permanent relief from the Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT). “I started with the general point that infrastructure spending isn’t intuitive with the public, so we should work together to drive that message home,” Barclay said. He explained that, “We haven’t done future generations any favors” if they are left with zero debt but

are encumbered with “crumbled infrastructure.” The key concept to explain is that investment spending is different from consumption, he said. “There is nothing wrong with financing facilities like bridges, roads, airports, and other things that have a 30-year useful life.” Barclay also told the senators that, “Airport bonds have been disadvantaged. We need to fix the AMT issue permanently.”

2011 Budget Proposes $3.515 Billion For AIP The Obama Administration on Feb. 1 unveiled its fiscal year 2011 budget request, which includes $3.515 billion for AIP and significant proposed increases in funding to deploy Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT) machines at screening checkpoints and for other homeland security priorities. AAAE President Charles Barclay issued the following statement on the proposed budget: “Given the difficult budget environment, airport executives are gratified to see that the request reflects a continued recognition of the need to invest in aviation security

and critical airport infrastructure. We look forward to working with Congress in the months ahead to ensure that airports have the tools they need to address aging infrastructure and meet increased safety and security demands. “AIP is certainly an important part of that effort, and the President’s request of some $3.5 billion for the program represents an important starting point as the debate begins on the fiscal year 2011 budget. Additionally, airport executives remain committed to seeing the enactment of an increase in the federal cap on local PFCs to $7.50 with indexing for construction cost inflation, along with a permanent extension of relief from the Alternative Minimum Tax penalty for airport bonds. Taken together, these measures would improve our infrastructure, stimulate the economy and create good-paying jobs.” Specifics of the President’s budget request that relate to airports include: AIP: The administration is requesting $3.515 billion for AIP, the same amount that Congress approved for the program in fiscal year 2010. The administration is calling for $100.2 million of that amount to

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


News Briefs


administer the program, up from $93 million in fiscal 2010. Of the $3.515 billion, another $27.2 million would go toward airport technology research and $15 million for the Airport Cooperative Research Program. National Infrastructure Innovation and Finance Fund: The administration is proposing a $4 billion National Infrastructure Innovation and Finance Fund that would provide grants to transportation infrastructure projects “of national or regional significance.” According to budget documents, funding would go toward “multimodal projects that include highway, transit, rail, aviation, ports and maritime components.” FAA Facilities and Equipment: The budget calls for $2.970 billion for FAA Facilities and Equipment. Congress appropriated $2.936 billion for F&E in fiscal year 2010. NextGen: The budget proposal includes $1.14 billion for the Next Generation Air Transportation System — a 32 percent increase from fiscal year 2010. FAA Operations: The budget recommends $9.793 billion for FAA Operations for fiscal year 2011. Congress approved $9.35 billion for FAA Operations in fiscal year 2010. FAA Research, Engineering and Development: The budget includes $190 million for Research, Engineering and Development in fiscal year 2011 — slightly less than the $190.5 million that Congress approved for RE&D in the previous fiscal year. FAA Cost-Free Space: The budget proposes to eliminate a provision included in the fiscal year 2010 DOT spending measure and numerous previous appropriations bills that requires FAA to pay for the space it uses in airport-owned facilities. The budget proposes to keep a narrow provision from the fiscal year 2010 DOT spending bill

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010

that would prevent airports from receiving AIP funds unless they agree to provide to DOT cost-free space in non-revenue producing areas “for the purpose of conducting outreach on air passenger rights.” Small Community Air Service Development Program: For the second year, the administration did not request any funds for the Small Community Air Service Development Program. Although the House and Senate versions of the FAA reauthorization bill recommend $35 million per year for the program, Congress approved only $6 million for the program in fiscal year 2010. Essential Air Service Program: The administration is proposing a total of $182 million for the Essential Air Service (EAS) program in fiscal year 2011. Of that amount, $132 million would come from the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. Congress appropriated $200 million for the EAS program in fiscal year 2010. Airport Cooperative Research Program: Again, the administration is requesting $15 million from AIP to pay for the Airport Cooperative Photo by Curt Vanio / Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority

Mark Gale, A.A.E., has been appointed CEO of the Philadelphia Division of Aviation, effective immediately. In his post, Gale is responsible for directing the development, planning and administration of all the activities of Philadelphia International and Northeast Philadelphia airports, and the management of about 800 airport personnel. … President Obama announced that he will nominate Michael Huerta as FAA deputy administrator. Huerta has his own consulting firm, which advises clients on transportation policy, technology and financing. Until April 2009, he was group president of the Transportation Solutions Group of Affiliated Computer Service, a technology services provider supporting transportation agencies worldwide. He previously served in senior positions at DOT, currently is chairman of the board of directors of the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and served as a member of President Obama's DOT transition team. … The Metropolitan Nashville Airport Authority was named a 2009 Commitment Award winner in the annual Excellence in Tennessee recognition program administered by the Tennessee Center for Performance Excellence. The award was scheduled to be presented during the 17th Annual Excellence in Tennessee Awards Banquet on Feb. 24. … Edward Kelly, TSA’s general manager for air cargo security, died Dec. 5. Mr. Kelly joined TSA in 2006 as the first general manager for air cargo security in the Office of Transportation Sector Network Management after a long career in the air cargo industry. He led a team that developed air cargo security systems, including a system to ensure that all the cargo transported on passenger aircraft is screened before being loaded. ... The National Air Carrier Association announced that A. Oakley Brooks is the organization’s president and CEO. Brooks is a 40-year veteran of the aviation industry, including service with Bombardier Aerospace. He succeeds Tom Zoeller, who recently accepted the position of executive officer at the National Transportation Safety Board. A

Snow operations at Washington Dulles International Airport


Photo by Rick McMullin, Philadelphia International Airport.

The $45 million Terminal E Expansion at Philadelphia International opened In February.

Research Program. Both versions of the FAA reauthorization bill also recommend $15 million for the program in fiscal year 2011. During consideration of Vision 100, AAAE’s Airport Legislative Alliance successfully urged Congress to create and fund the Airport Cooperative Research Program. Advanced Imaging Technology at Screening Checkpoints: The administration proposes $783 million to support the deployment of up to 1,000 new AIT machines at screening checkpoints and for “new explosives detection equipment for baggage screening.” EDS Purchase and Installation: The budget request calls for some $625 million overall to purchase and install explosives detection equipment in airports. The request also calls for a maximum federal share of 90 percent for any project and for giving TSA discretion to fund projects in “any manner deemed necessary to ensure aviation security.” Screening Performance: Budget documents call for TSA to take steps to ensure that wait times for aviation passengers are less than 20 minutes.

On international facilitation issues, the budget proposes $94 million for 300 new Customs and Border Protection officers for passenger and cargo screening at ports of entry, as well as expansion of pre-screening operations at foreign airports and land ports of entry. Aviation Security and Enforcement: The administration calls for a significant increase in funding to more than $1 billion for TSA law enforcement and regulatory activities at airports and to ensure compliance with required security measures.

Southers Withdraws As TSA Nominee President Obama has accepted “with great sadness” the withdrawal of Erroll Southers as the nominee for TSA administrator. A White House spokesperson praised Acting TSA Administrator Gale Rossides as “very able,” and added that the TSA staff is “a solid team of professionals.” This ensures that TSA is carrying out “vital national security work to keep us safe,” the spokesperson said.

Although Southers’ nomination cleared two Senate committees, his confirmation by the full Senate was blocked by a long-standing hold from Sen. Jim DeMint (R-S.C.) related to concerns about unionization of TSA personnel, and a more recent hold by several senators related to Southers’ censure during his tenure with the FBI. Southers issued a statement that said, in part, “It is clear that my nomination has become a lightning rod for those who have chosen to push a political agenda at the risk of the safety and security of the American people. This partisan climate is unacceptable, and I refuse to allow myself to remain part of their dialogue.”

FAA Issues Wildlife Hazard Mitigation Fact Sheet FAA has issued a new Wildlife Hazard Mitigation Program fact sheet that summarizes its safety initiatives since the 2009 US Airways Flight 1549 emergency landing in New York’s Hudson River. Among these initiatives, FAA listed its decision to make public the National Wildlife Strike Database; the certification alert issued to airport operators on June 11, 2009, reminding them of their obligation under Part 139 to conduct Wildlife Hazard Assessments if they experience a triggering event; and continuing efforts to utilize technology to warn aircraft of wildlife hazards. The new fact sheet is available at http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/ news_story.cfm?newsId=11105.

Controllers Using ADS-B In Gulf of Mexico Region Air traffic controllers now are using satellite-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) to separate and manage aircraft flying

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010



over the Gulf of Mexico. ADS-B, which is one of the technologies at the center of the transformation to NextGen, brings air traffic control to the Gulf of Mexico, an area that has not had the benefit of radar coverage. Before ADS-B, controllers relied on an aircraft’s estimated or reported — not actual — position. Individual helicopters flying under Instrument Flight Rule conditions at low altitudes to and from oil platforms were isolated within defined spaces in order to remain safely separated from other helicopters. Aircraft equipped with ADS-B in the region now will know where they are in relation to bad weather and receive flight information, including Notices to Airmen and Temporary Flight Restrictions. FAA was able to install ground stations on oil platforms as part of an agreement with the Helicopter Association International, oil and natural gas companies and helicopter operators, the agency explained. A network of ground stations was deployed on oil platforms and the surrounding shoreline. The Gulf of Mexico is the second site where ADS-B is being used by controllers to separate aircraft. The new technology also is being used by controllers in Louisville, Ky., which was chosen in part because UPS voluntarily outfitted much of its fleet with ADS-B avionics. Four ground stations give controllers at Louisville International Airport and the Louisville Terminal Radar Approach Control facility an ADS-B coverage area extending 60 nautical miles around the airport up to 10,000 feet. Controllers in Philadelphia began using ADS-B in February, and the system will become operational in Juneau, Alaska, in April. ADS-B is expected to be available nationwide by 2013.

were checking in at Delta-branded counters and kiosks and departing from Delta-branded gates. The final airport, Philadelphia International, was rebranded Jan. 18, 2010.

Delta Integrates Northwest’s Res System Delta said it has completed the integration of the Northwest Airlines reservation system, including the transition of all Northwest flights into the Delta schedule, migration of Northwest passenger reservations into the Delta system and retirement of nwa.com. Customers who booked Northwest for travel now are booked on identical Delta flights, the company said. Delta also said it has increased customer service agent staffing in airports and reservation call centers to ensure a smooth experience for customers. Integrating the Northwest reservation system into Delta’s system marks the completion of one of the final merger milestones between the two companies. Delta began rebranding airports worldwide in December 2008. By March 2009, customers at more than 100 airports served by Northwest

Santa Barbara’s Rental Car Facility Gains LEED Gold Santa Barbara Airport’s recently constructed rental car service facility has achieved Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold Certification, the airport announced. The new 3.6-acre quick turnaround (QTA) facility includes a 10,000-square-foot light maintenance and support building, car wash bays, a fueling operation, and secure storage for more than 300 vehicles. The rental car QTA was designed to meet LEED guidelines that include energy and water efficiency, indoor environment quality, solid waste reduction, renewable energy generation, and the use of green building materials. The QTA is the first Gold Certified LEED facility constructed by the city of Santa Barbara under the U.S. Green Building Council rating system for new construction, the airport said. A

Santa Barbara Airport’s recently constructed rental car service facility. 10

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


Dealing With Recessionary Times Airport Management Strategies During the Economic Downturn By Barbara Cook


he global recession that has caused airports to resort to personnel layoffs and wage/ hiring freezes also has given rise to creative thinking that is paying off in financial and

operational terms. In a time of shrinking enplanements, it may sound like a sensible idea to cut back or defer maintenance as a short-term, cost-saving measure. However, the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority (SDCRAA) reported that it has implemented a life cycle asset management 12

program that assesses the shortand long-term gains to be realized through proper maintenance of facilities and systems over their expected operational life. Matthew Harris, SDCRAA senior director, noted that, “Once a deferred maintenance approach is taken, the

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costs to recover can be prohibitive, even in strong economic times.” The life cycle view, he stated, “provides for a continued trend of facility improvement, resulting in long-term operating cost reductions.” Further, SDCRAA has taken advantage of the lower-cost materials and decreased local labor rates generated by the recession to support needed airport projects while saving money, Harris said. The authority has executed a number of on-call service contracts that allow San Diego International to augment its staff on a temporary basis. In addition, SDCRAA is “retrocommissioning” older facilities to


improve the operating systems that support them. This program examines the operating parameters of building systems, compares them to the manufacturer’s installation guidelines and specifications, then makes modifications to optimize the systems. “This process can be a source of significant operating cost reductions and can pay for itself in a matter of weeks or months,” Harris said. Several airports have revamped parking lot shuttle bus schedules to match current passenger demand and cut costs. Denver International’s Patrick Heck, deputy managerrevenue development, explained that, “This has reduced the number of mostly empty buses at non-peak times and saved money.” Denver International implemented several revenue-generating ideas in

2009, including raising parking rates for the first time in 10 years in the economy lots and for the first time in three years in the surface shuttle lots. These adjustments will add $1.4 million annually to the airport’s revenues and will be used to defray airline costs, Heck stated. Renovating a number of concessions and opening new concessions last year also generated more revenue, he said. An increase in marketing was one tactic employed by Gulfport-Biloxi (Miss.) International, according to Executive Director Bruce Frallic, A.A.E. The airport lost Skybus service following the carrier’s bankruptcy in the first quarter of 2008, an event that caused personnel to focus on marketing, developing a creative air service outreach program, and finding ways to minimize spending.

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


“We further enhanced our airline incentives and offered incumbent carriers incentives to add or hold the line on seats,” Frallic said. A new marketing initiative undertaken at South Carolina’s Greenville Downtown Airport involved hiring a contract employee for one year to develop a program that includes helping airport tenants with Web site design and updates, signage and promotion of their businesses. The employee also is charged with helping the airport to attract a restaurant. “We are optimistic that we will be successful with this effort,” commented airport Director Joe Frasher, A.A.E. For Southwest Florida International, the recession strategy included changing the frequency of janitorial service without sacrificing overall cleanliness, reducing insurance costs for liability and building casualty losses, reducing the rates paid for contract maintenance, and reducing lighting, air conditioning and other energy costs. Reduction of utility usage also is one of the tactics being used at Terre Haute (Ind.) International to cut costs. Personnel now turn off all nonessential electrical equipment at the end of the day, according to Director Dennis Wiss, A.A.E. Terminal building lighting is reduced to minimal levels after hours and a number of non-essential lights are turned off in the parking lot, he said. Tucson International’s Director of Information/Government Affairs Paula Winn Perino said her airport “did not lay off, furlough or reduce health insurance or retirement benefits.” Among the strategies employed by the airport to achieve this goal were fee reductions to allow lowvolume carriers to lease half a gate rather than a full gate; right-sizing leased space; and capitalizing on the favorable construction bidding climate. The airport “took the opportunity to move ahead with several 14

construction projects, resulting in some extremely favorable pricing that allowed us to maximize available resources while at the same time creating much needed jobs in the community,” Perino said. The Metropolitan Nashville Airport Authority eliminated its regular pickup schedule for large trash compactors in favor of a process that permits a pick-up only when the compactors are full, resulting in a reduction in per pick-up charges. Among its many other tactics for increasing revenue, the airport authority reviewed all fees and increased a few, including the fuel

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010

flowage fee and the gate fee; and advanced work on a new hangar that will result in $250,000 in annual income. The authority is considering an energy generation program to sell power to utility companies, and the potential use of quarry water for airport irrigation and HVAC needs. Offering flexibility to airport tenants with regard to lease dates, extensions, terms and other financial matters is one strategy employed at Chicago Executive Airport to keep revenue flowing. The airport hasn’t pulled back on marketing the facility despite the recession and recently launched an outdoor advertising


The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey opted to continue the planning function for priority airport projects while delaying certain capital expenditures. campaign featuring the tagline: “TIME. The Ultimate Non-Renewable Resource.” The slogan emphasizes the airport’s convenience factor. Carrie Novick, A.A.E., manager of Oregon’s Redmond Municipal Airport, explained that her facility has been operating on a lean budget for several years in anticipation of a

on the light poles in the parking lots and to sell the name of the terminal. Easing the airport’s reliance on contract personnel and building the internal staff is a strategy being used by Long Beach (Calif.) Airport, according to Director Mario Rodriguez. The airport also has refinanced existing debt and used Build

planned expansion of the terminal, which is nearly completed. “We have restricted purchases to only necessary items and made minor fee adjustments that are not significant to our advertisers or users but that add up over a year,” she said. For 2010, the airport plans to sell advertising

America bonds for capital needs. In early December 2009, the airport broke ground on a $44 million parking project that will serve to enhance customer service, but also provide “an incredible boost to the economy and jobs,” Rodriguez said. Knoxville’s McGhee Tyson has taken a number of steps to adjust to the stresses of the recession. “The first thing we did as a result of the financial crisis was to refinance our airport revenue bonds,” explained Mike Bachman, A.A.E., vice presidentfinance and administration. He noted

that the airport’s operating revenue has stayed fairly constant, primarily because parking rates were increased in 2007 to prefund a planned expansion of the parking garage. “However, the revenue from the 20 percent increase in rates never materialized,” Bachman said. Passengers have become more frugal with their travel dollars and are opting for the cheaper economy lot or are being dropped off at the airport, Bachman explained, and the garage expansion has been placed on an indefinite hold. Memphis International also refunded and restructured existing revenue bond debt as part of its game plan to reduce expenses during the recession, according to Larry Cox, A.A.E., president and CEO of the Memphis-Shelby County Airport Authority. However, the airport authority continues to move forward with AIPfunded projects and is taking advantage of lower construction costs to improve facilities. The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey opted to continue the planning function for priority airport projects while delaying certain capital expenditures. In early December 2009, the port authority voted to restrict the replacement of LaGuardia’s Central Terminal Building and Newark Liberty’s Terminal A to planning dollars only. Further, the Ramada Plaza Hotel at Kennedy International will be closed at a savings of $1 million per month. However, the port authority detercontinued on page 43

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Forensic Analysis Reshapes Runway Rehabilitation

Photos Courtesy of Justin Jones/PBS&J

By Justin P. Jones, P.E.


unways are one of the most important assets that an airport owns. No runways, no planes taking off and landing. No planes, no airport. And, with thousands of tons of machinery landing on them continuously throughout any given day, runways have to be smooth, strong and safe. In the past, airport runway pavement rehabilitation evaluations typically focused on analyzing the physical condition of the existing pavement to determine the best method for maintenance and reconstruction. This type of approach isn’t good enough anymore. An important piece of information is lacking: the root causes for pavement distress. Knowing these causes is the key to developing a site-specific, cost-effective, long-term rehabilitation plan. Some airport pavement rehabilitation experts now are incorporating forensic investigation and finite element analysis (FEM) in parallel with traditional evaluations to provide the missing elements needed for effective pavement rehabilitation design. FEM is a mathematical analysis method for simulating the stresses, loads and resulting displacements on an object, in this case the runway pavement, at the micro level in a 3D model. Airport owners are finding that this innovative approach to pavement 16

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rehabilitation evaluation results in a more cost-effective, constructible, site-specific rehab design package.

Finite Fundamentals Conventional pavement rehabilitation evaluations typically focus on identifying the material properties of the existing pavement to determine the best method for reconstruction. Investigative methods generally include a topographic survey of the pavement surface, a geotechnical investigation and core sampling, nondestructive testing of the pavement section to determine heavy weight deflections (HWD), and so forth. At any given site, the causes of pavement deterioration vary considerably. Sometimes, the causes are clear. Perhaps the pavement has reached the end of its useful service life, or has had to handle heavier weights than initially planned, or is deteriorating because of a problem in the way the pavement layers originally were constructed. However, sometimes the answers are not so clear. A “perfectly good” pavement may be experiencing premature distress, for instance. That’s when forensic investigation and 3D finite element modeling — combined with traditional pavement analysis — provide solid answers. These more advanced investigations allow pavement


engineers and analysts to model complex configurations and incorporate a variety of materials. PBS&J and its partners recently applied this three-tiered approach to two major pavement rehabilitation evaluation and design projects in Texas, producing substantial results.

Hunches and theories Runway 9-27 at George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston, Texas, is a 10,000-foot-long runway exhibiting significant pavement distress. The runway is comprised of discrete layers that include a polymodified asphalt concrete (AC) slab underlain by a lime/cement/flyash (LCF) base course and a stabilized sub-base course, as well as a half-inch-thick, stress-absorbing membrane interlayer (SAMI). Here’s where the forensics came in. Like the crew on the popular TV show CSI (Crime Scene Investigation), investigators developed hunches and theories, tested them using the latest forensic tools, put the pieces together, and refined their initial hypotheses. Initially, the PBS&J investigators suspected that the SAMI layer was a major contributor to the runway’s short lifespan. The team first used a layered elastic computer model of the pavement to simulate the pavement response under a

25,000-pound load. Next, they used finite element modeling to assess typical heavyweight deflection back-calculation results using different layer combinations. Using ISLAB2000 (a finite element modeling program designed for analyzing rigid pavements), the team analyzed the role of weak interlayers, including the SAMI layer, in the pavement structure with respect to shear stresses and their impact on shoving and crazing within the AC layer. Crazing refers to closely spaced vertical cracks emanating at the surface and moving downward, or closely spaced top-down cracking. The investigators also evaluated the relationship between air void and crack distributions in core samples and the distresses observed in different locations of the runway using X-ray computed tomography (CT), a non-destructive technique used to visualize the internal characteristics of pavement. In X-ray CT, an X-ray source emits a beam of known intensity through the pavement sample, producing an image that depicts relative densities of aggregate, air voids and so forth. As the sample rotates 360 degrees with respect to its center and moves vertically, images are recorded for the entire sample volume. The results of the X-ray CT scan indicated high air void content consistently at a depth of approximately 3 inches, indicatAirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010



ing a point of separation or slippage layer. This led the investigators to conclude that the pavement section was not acting as a homogenous layer to resist the shear stresses imparted by aircraft. The culprit was not the SAMI layer at all. On the basis of the results of the forensic evaluation and finite element analysis, the investigators concluded that the current distress in Runway 9-27 pavement likely is due to high shear stresses resulting from the braking and cornering action of aircraft, and to the geometry of the asphalt layers. They found that the asphalt binder used was very stiff. The synergistic effects of a stiff polyethylene binder, oxidative aging in the top inch of the pavement, and the high nearsurface shear stresses resulted in shoving and crazing. Fully understanding the causes of distress allowed the team to develop an efficient design for pavement rehabilitation that led to a significantly lower cost and shorter repair schedule. If the design had been based on the assumptions that the SAMI layer was the culprit, then the entire pavement section would have been ripped up and replaced. By comparison, the project actually was completed within four months and produced a runway that will last 20 or more years with proper maintenance. From a financial standpoint, forensic analysis on Runway 9-27 added about 7 percent of additional design cost, which was more than offset in the savings achieved from the efficient design and by the nonmeasurable benefits relating from a very durable sitespecific pavement section.

Sustainable Alternatives Runway 14-32 at Lone Star Executive Airport in Conroe, Texas, provided another opportunity to demonstrate the potential of forensic analysis. Poor drainage and grading issues caused the 6,000-foot runway to require constant patching and replacement. Previous efforts at 18

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010

rehabilitation and repair had failed to provide a runway service life of more than 10 years. Using forensic analysis, the analysis team opted for full-depth asphalt pavement reclamation, a process in which the existing asphalt pavement is ground up to a specific depth, then mixed with cement and reused as a base for the new runway section. Full-depth reclamation proved more cost effective than a conventional asphalt overlay, improved drainage, and reduced the environmental impact of the project by re-using the existing asphalt material, helping earn the airport Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) points on the project.

The Future of Forensics It’s important to remember that forensic analysis is not for every pavement rehabilitation project. The cause of most runway issues often is readily evident to pavement design experts using conventional techniques. However, forensic analysis can help to assess complex or unique pavement conditions not resolved using more conventional design procedures. Complex pavement conditions might include those pavements that undergo extreme climatic conditions or situations in which a pavement is exhibiting distresses that shouldn’t exist based on conventional analysis. Forensic analysis can help an airport owner understand what is causing the failure and thereby find solutions to resolve the problem. In the big picture, the cost of forensic analysis is negligible and often offset by savings elsewhere in the project when compared with the end result — a more sustainable, long lasting pavement built to support the airport conditions. A Justin Jones, P.E., is an associate vice president in PBS&J’s Houston office. He may be reached at jpjones@pbsj.com.

Keys to Successful Use of a Geographic Information System By Ed Maghboul


he Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) became an early user of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology after recognizing that paper drawings pieced together with data from various business systems failed to produce accurate location information for its property managers. At Boston Logan International, one of Massport’s major facilities, the problem was particularly acute. Often the information that the airport’s property managers accessed was inaccurate or out of date. Generating a floor plan to reflect an increase in the size of a tenant’s leasehold could take hours to coordinate, for example. Further, when employees made the change to the relevant map file, they had to enter the new measurements manually into the billing system. Massport set out to remedy this situation and issued an RFP for acquisition of a Common Lease Management System (CLMS) to update its existing lease management method. The specifications for the new system included the ability to interact and interface with Computer

Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) drawings. The selected system was one of the first breed of the new browser-based applications that used a Web browser to deliver

information to desktops. The use of a Web browser-based solution instead of a traditional desktop application provided an unprecedented flexibility to integrate seemingly unrelated

Figure 1. CLMS Login Screen AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010



products into a single user interface. One of the cornerstones of the selected application was the ability to integrate and display floor plan drawings in the form of interactive maps beside tenant and agreement data. In essence, CLMS delivered a GIS-enabled application to users. Subsequent to the implementation of CLMS, it became apparent that the GIS data available in CLMS would be extremely helpful for other users at Massport. An essential factor for making the GIS data available to a broader user base was the ability to restrict sensitive financial information to the appropriate users. The Massport Geographic Portal (MGP) was developed to fulfill the requirement to provide real-time spatial information to all authorized users while masking financial information. CLMS has enabled a single employee to maintain lease plans and geospatial data for more than 10 million square feet of space, covering exterior areas and 39 buildings. All of the data is stored within an Oracle database and integrated with information from Massport’s business systems. The GIS engine of CLMS drives information sharing by delivering real-time maps that blend geospatial and financial data to authorized users. When lease managers need to view a lease plan and contract information, they can find the information instantly on Massport’s intranet. “Our GISenabled application has proved very valuable,” explained Greg Zanni, Massport’s manager, airport properties and leasing. “I use it every day to review vacancies and spaces that tenants occupy throughout the airport. Compared to our old system, it is a tremendous time-saver because we no longer require assistance from a CAD [Computer-Aided Design] specialist to view electronic lease plans.” The system also ensures the 20

continuous alignment of spatial and financial information. If an airline acquires new gates or maintenance space, the system automatically adjusts the billing based on the tenant’s negotiated price per square foot. “Space planning is a breeze. Just set up a proposed contract; code the rooms you want into it; and

Figure 2. MGP User Interface

Figure 3. Terminal Floor Plan

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010

run accurate reports and drawings right out of the system in minutes,” said Kevin Gabel, CADD specialist, Massport Airport Business Office. Moreover, access to information extends beyond lease managers. For example, grounds managers use the system to plan maintenance operations and measure landscaped areas.


Massport has witnessed a measurable improvement in the way it manages lease plans and shares spatial data. “Airport terminals are very large and dynamic,” said Gabel. “Our system delivers real-time maps and business information, helping us to improve productivity and make better decisions. Our lease managers save hundreds of hours each year, and more than 200 employees access dynamic facility maps each day through MGP.” Throughout the airport industry, GIS increasingly is being viewed as an enabling technology and no longer simply the domain of technical experts and analysts. It has become available to a broader user community. The value of data as a resource is greatly increased by the widespread and appropriate use of this technology. “Building a strong GIS platform to provide a fast, flexible system that accesses trustworthy information has become a vital aspect of the airport's

Figure 4. Underground Utilities

access management; and

important are:

Utilities, including electrical, HVAC, water, sewage, communication, gas, and fire prevention and detection equipment.

Adoption of a robust CADD/ GIS standard such as FAA’s AC 150/5300-18B or the Department of Defense’s Spatial Data Standard for Facilities, Infrastructure and Environment (SDSFIE) to ensure the quality of GIS data.

Seamless flow between CADD and GIS, since more than 80 percent of geometric data in GIS originates as CADD drawings.

Implementation of a data-centric model to avoid duplicate data, control revisions, eliminate data conversion errors and control data quality.

Our system delivers real-time maps and business information, helping us to improve productivity and make better decisions. daily function,” stated John White, former head of the Geomatics center at Brussels Airport. According to White, GIS systems have become the cornerstone for decisionmaking at airports in the areas of: •

Airport construction, infrastructure management, safety and operations;

Environmental issues and crisis scenarios, including “what if” options;

Space management, cable management and asset management;

Security, including key and

Data acquisition and maintenance is the single most expensive and vital factor for a successful GIS, and as the usage of geospatial data increases, a generic and centralized approach for data storage is critical. One of newest trends in GIS is the development of a data-centric model instead of an application-centric one, based on an open and non-propriety database. In other words, this means adopting and implementing a system/ data architecture that enables full interoperability among all CADD/GIS software vendors. Several critical factors must be considered for a successful implementation of GIS. The most

As the role of GIS in support of all aspects of airport operations increases, a well-planned and executed approach to implementing such a system is the key to success. A Ed Maghboul is president of x-Spatial, LLC, a software development and consultancy firm based in Los Angeles. He may be reached at ed.maghboul@x-spatial.com.

AAAE’s annual GIS conference is scheduled for March 21-24 in San Antonio. Information is available at www.airportGISconference.com.

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


Adding Customer Care to Features

Terminal Evacuation Procedures

Photos Courtesy of Sacramento International Airport

By Barry Rondinella, A.A.E.


t was the Saturday before Thanksgiving 2007, nearly 5:30 a.m., cold, dark, misty, with visibility down to about 60 feet. The early morning telephone call from the Sacramento International Airport Communication Center was a stinging reminder to me of the roundthe-clock nature of airport operations. The message indicated there had been a fire in one of the Terminal B restaurants, and a terminal evacuation had been ordered. The TV news coverage showed our customers huddled outside, cold, confused and ready to talk with reporters. One


particularly frustrated would-be passenger told a reporter, “I don’t know what’s going on; they just told us to go outside.” I realized at that moment that while we had successfully ensured the safety of our passengers, we had failed from a customer service standpoint. Part of the Sacramento County Airport System’s mission statement, and an often-repeated mantra at all staff levels of the airport system, speaks to the provision of customer service as second to none. We clearly did not live up to that ideal during this emergency operation. In the aftermath of after-action reports and reviews of communica-

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010

tion center logs and video recordings, it became evident that the small, quickly contained fire did not warrant a total evacuation of the terminal. It also revealed the limitations of the standard National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) protocol in which emergency responders — typically police and fire — react with an almost knee-jerk default to an “everyone out now” mindset. It brought to mind questions such as: where is the advocate for customer care and comfort? Do we need a total, immediate evacuation of the entire terminal for a small grease


fire that was put out quickly with a standard fire extinguisher? Could we have moved customers to another location in the terminal that provided warmth, shelter and amenities such as food, water and restrooms? Over the next several weeks, we set about drafting an operating procedure that would ensure public safety but also would add the care and comfort of our customers as primary concerns. While both the responding police and ARFF units report to operations, their emergency response training is too deeply engrained to ask them to step into a “customer service first� role. Doing so actually could conflict with their primary roles. Ultimately, the

airport operations officer is in the best position to advocate on behalf of the care and comfort of our customers. We drafted an airport operating procedure that identified the many hazards that could affect our customer and assigned an incident commander (IC) for each. For example, the IC for a bomb threat would be the senior police officer on site; for a fire, the IC would be the senior ARFF representative, and so on. The airport operations officer, acting as the customer care and comfort guardian, gained prominence in any unified command and was made the IC for any and all terminal evacuations. Police and fire were to be consulted

and relied upon, but a decision to evacuate, and how the evacuation would be executed, rested with the operations officer rather than police or fire personnel. Also new to the airport’s procedures was the concept of partial, slow and controlled evacuation. As in the November 2007 grease fire, many times it is safe and practical to move some customers to an unaffected area of the terminal rather than evacuating them entirely. Fast-forward to April 2009: an unattended and suspicious bag resulted in first a partial, then complete, terminal evacuation. The tenets of the terminal evacuation airport operating procedure were fol-

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


lowed. However, due largely to the training and personalities of safety professionals (fire and police), the operations officer was overshadowed and, while engaged, took a secondary role in the evacuation. It was clear that we were close, but not yet there. It then occurred to us that we needed practice: practice for the safety professionals to defer to the operations officer and for the operations officer to be more assertive in a unified command with safety professionals who themselves have been trained to be highly assertive. We drafted a curriculum to do just that. The operations manager, the ARFF chief and the sheriff lieutenant assigned to the airport team-teach the curriculum and lead the trainees through a series of role-play scenarios. Through education, role play and supervisor-led critique, we are instilling in our responders the tools not only to protect lives and property but

also to be mindful of the treatment of our customers. Additionally, we are assembling a team of non-operations managers that can be dispatched to customers who have been evacuated to ensure they understand what is happening, what they should be doing, what we are doing to resume normal operations, and how long they should expect to be inconvenienced. This customer care team also is charged with ensuring evacuees are adequately hydrated, have access to restrooms and other facilities and receive medical treatment if/when necessary. Moreover, through study and experience we have learned that people

receive and process information differently and, in stressful situations, they may not absorb or retain information provided one time or through one medium. So, to ensure our message is reaching our customer, we have instituted a multi-layered approach to communication. First, customized terminal announcements of a pending and/ or ongoing evacuation are broadcast; second, responding operations and law enforcement personnel reinforce and augment as necessary the message to individuals and assembled groups; third, airport Web site, Facebook and Twitter messages go out for those seeking information on PDAs or laptops and for the media to distribute; fourth, a customized message is broadcast over the airport AM radio station for those tuning in for airport traffic updates; and fifth, customized information is provided by public relations/marketing staff to the media to be broadcast to our customers. The message describes what is happening, where to go and what to do. We now can provide customer service second to none, even during emergency operations. A Barry Rondinella, A.A.E., is Sacramento International Airport’s deputy director of operations. He may be reached at rondinellab@saccounty.net.


AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


Burlington’s Green FBO All photos courtesy of Heritage Aviation

By Sean Broderick


the runways,” Hill said. “The turbine was selected, BO operator Heritage Aviation has gone and installation completed, so as not to exceed this deep green at its new facility at Burlington limiting height.” International Airport. The facility features Possible adverse effects on FAA radar also a 100-kilowat wind turbine, a solar were investigated, Hill noted, but the agency gave photovoltaic (PV) system for electricity generation the all-clear. As of early February, the windmill and a solar thermal, or hot water, system. had been operational for about 40 days “with no Alteris Renewables installed the renewable adverse effects reported,” he said. energy systems and Vermont’s Northern Power Heritage capitalized on a Systems supplied the wind Careful planning ensured statewide effort to stimulate turbine. The PV system renewable energy projects, includes 120 panels on an office that the unusual design features didn’t interfere securing a $20,000 grant from building roof. The systems with the airport’s main the Vermont Clean Energy are expected to offset nearly concern: maintaining Development Fund (CEDF) for $15,000 in energy costs each a safe operating the PV system. CEDF’s goal is year, Heritage said. environment for aircraft. to increase the development Careful planning ensured that and deployment of costthe unusual design features effective and environmentally sustainable electric didn’t interfere with the airport’s main concern: power resources in Vermont. The fund supplies maintaining a safe operating environment for grants and loans for approved projects, in some aircraft. The solar panels face south, which — due to Heritage’s location — means they pose no threat cases requiring local matches. “CEDF, with their funding, and Alteris of glare in pilots’ eyes, Heritage President Chris Renewables, with their sophisticated engineering Hill explained. capabilities, helped make this renewable system Getting the wind turbine right for an airport possible,” said Hill. environment took a little more effort, Hill noted. The FBO includes 79,300 square feet of hangar “Measured to the top of the arc of the highest blade space, offices and amenities for pilots, including sweep, the turbine is 135 feet tall. That is near a fitness center, as well as traditional briefing the maximum height available for the installation rooms, lounges and rest areas. The facility is given the limiting [FAR Part 77 requirements] that open for business, but work remains to be done determine maximum obstacle height in relation to AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


Airportech on one wing of the building. Once that work is wrapped up — Hill estimates project completion in late April 2010 — Heritage hopes to earn a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) silver rating for the facility. Total cost for the project is about $18 million, Hill said.

Seattle Expands Bird Radar Research Seattle-Tacoma International has deployed a radar-based bird tracking system that delivers live, graphical data to wildlife management staff as they patrol the airfield. The system was developed by the FAA-designated Center of Excellence for Airport Technology (CEAT) at the University of Illinois; its deployment is the latest and most advanced step in an avian radar research effort that dates back three years at the airport. Edwin Herricks, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Illinois, is the project’s leader. Herricks said the research program has progressed from validation of radar capabilities to an operational assessment phase. The project’s


AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010

goal is to develop field-tested guidance for avian radar use at civil airports under the FAAsponsored research and development program. “Although radar has been around for a long time, its use at civil airports for bird tracking is new and requires exacting assessments to establish needed requirements and standards for general use,” Herricks said. “Sea-Tac is a leader in the evaluation of this technology. I don’t know where this program would be without the input and reallife evaluation efforts by the staff and support from the Port of Seattle.” At Sea-Tac, a trio of radars provided by Accipiter Radar tracks bird movements, and the system overlays the data on Google Earth images. Wildlife staff can access live data from airport avian radars using laptop computers as they patrol the airport. Other options are available to follow movements on larger monitoring screens. System users can access summaries of bird track histories on a day-to-day, week-to-week, or season-to-season basis to better assess bird movement patterns and analyze flock and individual bird patterns. “This technology will give us situational awareness of the entire airfield day or night — it will be like wearing a huge pair of binoculars,” said Steve Osmek, Sea-Tac airport’s wildlife biologist. “Rather than depending only on what we can see from our particular location, we’ll be able to know if there are bird issues anywhere around the airfield so we can respond quickly and appropriately.” A Sean Broderick is AAAE’s Vice President-External Communications. He may be reached at sean.broderick@aaae.org.

Washington Dulles International Airport Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority


AeroTrain W

ashington Dulles International on Jan. 26 introduced AeroTrain, an underground, automated dual track rail system, the centerpiece in the Dulles Development Program, the airport’s more than $3 billion improvement initiative. The total AeroTrain project, including the trains, tunneling, stations and the Main Terminal Security Mezzanine, is an approximately $1.4 billion investment in the future of Dulles International. Federal security requirements following 9/11 required airports across the country to install screening equipment that crowded the interior of many terminals. In the case of Dulles, the security screening operation subtracted from the space allotted to passengers and meeters/greeters in the Main Terminal, and reduced many sweeping views of the airfield.

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010



The new security mezzanine that opened in late 2009 provides 26 to 34 TSA checkpoints.

Passenger Options The new AeroTrain station at the Main Terminal changed that situation. It is located 60 feet below ground and is directly adjacent to the airside of the landmark Eero Saarinen-designed terminal. The AeroTrain station runs the entire length (1,600 feet) of the Main Terminal, which now encompasses four levels: departures (49,600 square feet); arrivals (49,600 square feet); security mezzanine (121,700 square feet); and the train platform (54,500 square feet). Twenty elevators and 32 escalators transport passengers from level to level. The new security mezzanine that opened in late 2009 provides 26 to 34 TSA checkpoints. Departing passengers enter the Main Terminal, take an escalator or elevator down to the security mezzanine and pass through a TSA security lane. At this point, passengers have three options: board the AeroTrain to travel to the midfield concourses; continue to the Z Gates at the Main Terminal; or use 28

the existing passenger walkway to access Concourses A and B. Passengers with boarding passes who are not checking luggage may bypass the ticketing level of the Main Terminal altogether and directly enter the security mezzanine from the ground floor. Constructing an underground rail system on the scope of AeroTrain while operating the airport on a “business as usual” schedule required careful phasing of the project. The plan called for the use of three separate methods to excavate the tunnels. The “cut and cover” process, which involves excavating a large trench down from the surface, was used near existing facilities and where aboveground access was feasible without disrupting airport operations.

Tunneling Techniques The New Austrian Tunneling Method, which uses a combination of techniques to grind the rock face in layers, was employed in areas where the design called for the tunnels to curve.

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010

The third technique, the Tunnel Boring Method, was utilized to bore the straight tunnel runs. In this process, the boring machine, known as a mole, installed precast concrete wall-lining sections as it moved forward. The master plan for Dulles envisions the addition of a terminal at the south end of the airfield to complement the existing main terminal at the north end and four permanent concourses in-between the two facilities. AeroTrain will expand gradually to link each new facility until the total system is joined in a continuous loop. Jim Bennett, A.A.E., president and CEO of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, commented that, “Washington Dulles International Airport represented the best of architecture and aviation facility planning when it opened in 1962 as the first U.S. airport built for commercial aviation. With the opening of AeroTrain, Dulles continues its evolution to meet the needs of the flying public.” A



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Airport Economics Manual: A Resource for Airport Operators By Lynn Hampton, C.P.A.

United Nations, was formed. ICAO coordinates many issues concerning international air transportation. The Chicago Convention outlined broad aviation policies, including establishing that international aircraft fees should not be discriminatory and that member countries should not have lower fees for national aircraft of the same class and service. The economics manual states that its objectives are to provide practical guidance to member countries, airport managing and operating entities, and designated charging authorities to assist in the efficient management of airports and in implementing Doc 9082, ICAO’s Policies on Charges for Airports and Air Navigation Services (Airport Economics Manual, Doc 9562, Page iii, Second Edition-2006, ICAO).

Airport Experts


ave you ever considered how helpful a reference on airport economics would be to you? Remember the one you studied in school, or saw at some point in your aviation career? Well, such a manual exists and can be viewed at www.icao.int/icaonet/ dcs/9562/9562_en.pdf.

Practical Guidance In 1986, the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) Transportation Committee determined that a manual on airport economics would be useful to the international aviation community. The first edition of the Airport Economics Manual was published in 1991, and in 2006 the manual was revised and then published as Second Edition-2006. As a result of the 1944 convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention), ICAO, a non-governmental organization under the 30

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010

To develop and create the initial manual, ICAO engaged a panel of experts on airport economics and management. In 2001, the organization’s Transportation Committee decided the manual should be updated, and a new panel was convened to begin work on what was to become the Second Edition-2006. The U.S., with FAA’s leadership, was a major participant in the process, as were many member nations throughout the world. I was a resource to FAA for the 2006 edition and continue to work to provide the U.S. delegation an airport’s view on issues contained in the manual. Other advisors included representatives of trade associations representing airports, airlines and general aviation. The manual has seven chapters: 1. ICAO Policy on Airport Charges; 2. Organizational Structure of Airports; 3. Airport Financial Management; 4. Determining the Cost Basis for Charging Purposes; 5. Charges on Air Traffic and their Collection; 6. Development and Management of NonAeronautical Activities; and 7. Financing Airport Infrastructure. Included in six attachments is a chapter on service level agreements. The Airport Economics Manual recognizes that users of airports are responsible for their fair share of the cost of the airport, including the cost of capital. The manual recommends a cost basis for

airport charges and discusses the importance of consultations with airport users before airport charges are established. Airports’ financial management techniques discussed in the manual range from “single till,” or in U.S. terminology, residual charging methodology, to “dual till,” or compensatory charging methodology. The Airport Economics Manual discusses and provides guidance in the means of measuring performance and productivity. It recognizes that the primary purpose of performance measurement is the assessment and improvement of performance over time, while acknowledging the difficulty of comparisons between airports.

of airport users, principally airlines. I encourage airport operators to read the manual, share it widely with airport staff, and let it become a toolbox in your inventory of aviation information. I enjoyed being a part of

Creating Value ...

Lynn Hampton, C.P.A. is vice president and CFO of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. She may be reached at Lynn.Hampton@mwaa.com.

Capturing volumes of highly accurate data at the speed of light was once only theory. Today, Baker is doing just that with its Mobile LiDAR capabili�es. Imagine safely collec�ng valuable airport runway and aviation facili�es planning and design data within a 200-meter, 360-degree field-of-view with little or no down time, during the day or night—and doing so in an efficient and cost-effec�ve way. Explore infinite applications—experience infinite solu�ons

Privatized Airports The 2006 Edition of the Airport Economics Manual recognizes that privatized airports have become common in all regions of the world, often bringing benefits to airport management. The manual also recognizes that airport revenue may be such to cover all costs and provide for a reasonable return on assets. ICAO recognizes that competition can be a regulator of pricing and is concerned that a single provider of airport services could permit the distortion of aviation charges. To counter this potential effect, the Airport Economics Manual establishes the need for member countries to provide economic oversight and outlines the objectives of the oversight. The Airport Economics Manual is an excellent reference tool and is designed for usage at airports throughout the world. It provides many good ideas on airport financial management. And, because the manual was developed with input from government and industry representatives, it provides positive guidance in dealing with cost issues

the updating process and recognize the many similarities U.S. airports share with airports internationally. A

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... Delivering Solutions Crea�ng value by delivering innova�ve and sustainable solu�ons for infrastructure and the environment. George M. Perinis, R.A., Senior Vice President, 412.269.6322 (office), 412.512.8284 (cell), or gperinis@mbakercorp.com. For more informa�on on Baker’s LiDAR capabili�es, go to www.mbakercorp.com/LiDAR and click Mobile LiDAR, or contact Aaron J. Morris, GIT Project Manager at 601.607.8752 or amorris@mbakercorp.com. AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


An Airport’s Treasure Hunt for the Pot of Gold

By Howard Mann


AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


Imagine reaching the end of the rainbow and finding

the elusive pot of gold. Now imagine locating the end of the rainbow only to learn that a competing airport has paid

a lump sum of money for your pot of gold and will use it in a ribbon-cutting ceremony to celebrate new service to Success-Town. Yet, winning the pot of gold — in this case, new air service — is still possible for many airports, despite the down economy and intense competition from other airports. Most airports are attempting to retain their current air service while continuing initiatives to secure new route opportunities for their communities. For airports seeking to develop air service, each airline presents a different business case, and each carrier has a different strategy to allocate capacity to new markets. Airports that are keeping up to date on industry news are best positioned to negotiate with air carriers. Airports should identify whether changing airline alliances and growth strategies pose any positive or negative impacts on their short- and long-term air service development plans and not be afraid to adapt accordingly. The airport’s air service development program tool box may not include the same tools as last year or even last month.

Realistic Expectations Maintaining an air service development program in today’s economic turmoil should include a realistic expectation of what is needed to win new service and/or reinstatement of discontinued service. Simply presenting airlines with origin and destination traffic figures does not produce a solid business case, and the airlines have that data anyway. Airlines are becoming smarter and more sophisticated in their analysis of new route opportunities. Your airport needs to focus on what is driving traffic between points A and B. In a bid for new nonstop service, for example, the airport must answer the following questions: Why are people flying between these two cities, and is this particular airline indeed a target for nonstop service? What companies would support this new service? Does a company have headquarters in City A but a significant presence in City B? Does your community have a large presence from an incumbent carrier, and will the new carrier have to overcome strong frequent flyer program loyalty to competing carriers? Will your community pay a premium over current connecting fares for nonstop service to be introduced? Detailed answers to these questions must be provided to the target carriers to support an airport’s argument for

nonstop service. Reinstating discontinued services also can pose challenges, depending on the market dynamics. If the market is truly large, then the business case is stronger. On certain routes, such as Providence (R.I.)-Fort Lauderdale, which has a large local traffic component, when one carrier discontinues a flight, other carriers often are waiting to fill the capacity in a more sustainable way. In the ProvidenceFort Lauderdale example, Spirit discontinued its nonstop service, and Southwest came in to fill the void, developing the service into twice-daily operations in the peak season. New carriers that institute previously discontinued service often see a business case that is more attractive in their business model than it was for the previous operator of the service. In certain cases, the airport can play a role in preventing service from being discontinued, if it can deliver an effective and convincing business case. In 2009, officials at New York’s Elmira Corning Regional worked with Delta to prevent a frequency from being cut in the low season due to poor traffic loads. The airport team had been educating the airline on the positive changes occurring within the local business community and had metrics in place to highlight expansion of corporate activity within the region. When faced with a potential loss of air service, the airport quickly reached out and identified additional short-term synergies with local companies that were increasing their air travel needs. The airport’s air service team provided relevant and timely corporate information and ultimately prevented a frequency cut from being instituted. While not all route cuts can be saved with a last-ditch effort, the airport-airline partnership in place can help to convince the carrier to reinstate service or support a business case for a future new entrant.

Important Partnerships Partnerships between airports and airlines are more important than ever today. In most cases, the airline will not even entertain the possibility of serving a route without a revenue guarantee, significant marketing assistance and/or fee waivers for multiple years. In other cases, the airline just wants to be reassured that costs will remain low indefinitely. In some situations, the airline is looking for a AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


AIR SERVICE DEVELOPMENT partnership with the airport and community, such as assistance with pre- and post-launch marketing to raise awareness of the service. It is important to realize that sometimes non-monetary partnerships can be as important as the monetary support offered to the carrier. These arrangements could include local speaking engagements at chamber of commerce or convention and visitor bureau events, local political/ community leaders mentioning air service in their speeches, the display of air service schedules on Web sites, community leader involvement in air service development meetings when appropriate, working with colleges and universities to raise awareness of air service, and the bartering of airline tickets for radio or television advertising. Ultimately, when the airport and community help to facilitate the introduction of new

service, the air service has the potential to be sustainable in the long term. There is never a time to suspend the pursuit of new or expanded air service. The pot of gold may be harder to find, but airports must continue to search for it. For air service development, maintaining consistent communication with current and new entrant carriers is imperative because the airport may be unaware of factors affecting the carrier. Perhaps the airline is considering ordering a new aircraft type that will help the carrier to become more efficient in the future. Or, the airline may be planning to add a new focus city that could connect to your market. Perhaps most relevant, however, is the possibility that capacity may have been shifted out of loss-making routes, and your route proposition may make more sense for the airline. Regular communication between

Over 20 Years Aviation Planning Experience

the airport and the airline also can keep carrier management current with corporate expansion in your region or any facility changes that impact airline decisions about expanding operations at your airport. Your pot of gold may be out there. Or perhaps it is an aluminum pot in the shape of a larger aircraft or an additional frequency. Even with traffic loss and discontinued nonstop service, your airport team effectively can develop targeted opportunities in today’s troubled environment. By staying relevant, developing partnerships and matching market targets to realistic service expectations, your airport will be poised not only for short-term growth and route retention, but also for longer-term expansion in better times. A Howard Mann is vice president, policy and market analysis, InterVISTAS Consulting Group. He may be reached at howard.mann@intervistas.com.

Airside · Air Traffic · Environmental · Financial Forecasting / Demand Analysis · Landside Land Use · Operations Research Terminal / Facilities

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2/19/2010 1:35:49 PM


The Defense of photo of Phoenix Deer Valley Airport courtesy of Phoenix Aviation Department

Duffer’s Municipal Airport

By Robert P. Olislagers, A.A.E. © 2010

(Editor’s Note: The following article is part one of a fictional story, and the views expressed in it are strictly those of the author. The conclusion of the story will run in the April/May issue.The entire article is posted on the Airport Magazine Web site, www.airportmagazine.net.)

Introduction Ernest Swinton’s 1905 novella “The Defence of Duffer’s Drift” is a military classic on small tactics and, while fictional, is loosely based on the experiences learned during the Boer War against Great Britain at the end of the 19th century. In successive dreams that have the same starting point, a young British officer is permitted to learn from his mistakes in each previous dream, remembering only the lessons. Eventually he succeeds in the objective assigned to him. Written in tribute to Swinton, “The Defense of Duffer’s Municipal Airport,” though considerably shorter and obviously less eloquent, is a similar story, except that Duffer’s Municipal Airport (DFA) is a general aviation airport located very near Lalaland, and the new airport manager is given the task of defending it.

Dream One Oliver Neversleep, A.A.E., ACESecurity, a graduate from a most prestigious aeronautical school, was recently hired to his first assignment as an airport manager. He is told by his new boss, the city manager of Duffer, that the airport is a vital asset to the community but is often under siege, and it his duty to defend it.

Oliver, confident of his knowledge acquired from years of study and his last stint as an assistant airport manager, immediately took to the task at hand. Having specialized in security and assuming it was the city manager’s focus, Neversleep immediately set out to make his little airport more secure by having maintenance personnel

check all the gates and fences around the airport. Being satisfied everything was in order, Neversleep went home that evening, confident the airport was secure and that he could get some rest after his first day on the job. When his phone rang at 0330, Oliver at first was confused about his surroundings but quickly snapped into reality when the local sheriff told him that someone had climbed the airport fence and broken into an airplane. The owner had left the single engine hiwing unlocked but did not leave a key. Frustrated, the would-be thief smashed the avionics to bits, causing lots of damage, and left. Upon hearing this, Neversleep went to the airport to obtain the incident report and wondered what his city manager would say in the morning, not to mention the owner of the airplane. How could this have happened and how could he have prevented it the first place? Back in his office, Oliver pondered and concluded: (1) fences are for honest people; (2) always lock your aircraft; and (3) never assume

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


Photos on left show operations monitoring equipment and security camera and security fencing at Centennial Airport. Photo on facing page shows security camera and hangars. Photos courtesy of Centennial Airport.

what the boss has in mind. Somewhat sleep deprived, Oliver dozed off in his chair just as the sun peeked across the horizon, when his second dream appeared before him.

Dream Two

Remembering only the three lessons learned in the first dream, Oliver woke up realizing he could do better. He immediately called the city manager and asked if the city manager wanted him to “secure the airport” from intruders or if he had something else in mind? Of course the city manager wanted Neversleep to secure the airport from intruders, but he also wanted Neversleep to concentrate on residential encroachment, bad land use planning, realtors and developers, the

Glossary CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosives) CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) CHRC (Criminal History Records Check)

mayor’s cousin, throughthe-fence outfits, NIMBYs or anyone/anything else that posed a threat to the airport…but security came first. “Aha,” Neversleep murmured. He was right after all. Security was priority one, so he began to think about the lessons. At once he issued a notice to all tenants to lock their aircraft. Knowing that to be insufficient, he had CCTV installed to monitor activity at the airport and, being rather pleased with himself, he called it a day and went home to get some rest. After a restless night of tossing and turning, Neversleep went to the airport in the morning. To his unspeakable horror, he discovered several aircraft had been broken into, and avionics, headsets and even a few bottles of booze from a small jet were stolen. How could people be so brazen and come to his airport, climb the fence in spite of the CCTV system he had installed and still break into aircraft and steal gear? As Oliver started to dial the number of the city manager’s office, his heart sank lower and lower. Would he survive this, only a few days into the job? As he pondered his fate, he concluded: (4) unattended CCTVs are good only after the fact; and (5) never be too sure of yourself by thinking you have covered all bases. Tired, Neversleep began to drift off and soon found himself in yet another dream.

CSR (Customer Service Representative) FBO (Fixed Base Operator) LEO (Law Enforcement Officer) NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) RFID (Radio Frequency Identification ROE (Rules of Engagement) 36

Dream Three Now having learned five valuable lessons, Neversleep first assured his tenants all would be well. As long as they cooperated and locked their airplanes, he would have the cameras monitored by his able staff throughout the night. Not satisfied that monitored

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cameras were sufficient, he installed signage with myriad warnings and ordered his staff to patrol the airport on the hour and half hour. To ensure staff members made their appointed rounds, Neversleep even installed RFID guard scans. Oliver stayed an extra few hours to ensure that the staff monitoring the camera and the guards understood their post orders. Finally, being satisfied but still concerned, he left for the evening. Sitting exhausted on his couch, Neversleep dozed off before eating a single bite of his take-home pizza. At 0415, the phone rang and a frantic guard was trying to tell him something terrible had happened and to come to the airport immediately. Groggy and bewildered, Neversleep rushed to the airport where he found his hapless guard sitting on the sidewalk, head buried deep between his hands. “What happened?” asked Neversleep. “Boss, you will never believe it but someone stole an airplane tonight,” whimpered the guard. He proceeded to walk Neversleep through the timeline. It had started to rain around 0340, and the rain made the cameras completely useless. The droplets distorted the wireless feed, and the staff person monitoring the camera decided to leave the office and assist the guards in their rounds. As he left the office, someone gained access and stole an aircraft key hanging in an open key locker. The FBO was supposed to move the aircraft in the morning, but the owner ran late and left the keys with the airport manager. Knowing that the guards patrolled on the hour and half hour, the thief waited for the right moment to take the airplane. It was all caught on tape, although digitally unintelligible. Neversleep quickly realized: (6) never patrol the same route at the same time; (7) technology is limited in scope and capabilities; (8) never be the custodian of airplane keys because you become


responsible; and (9) never leave your post. Armed with four new lessons and reeling from insomnia, Neversleep slipped into yet another dream.

Dream Four Thoughts swirling, Neversleep felt delirium setting in; yet he could not shake the nine lessons he had learned. Strangely, he realized for the first time that, while the lessons were spot on, perhaps this was bigger than himself and he was going to need help. Following purchasing protocol, he contracted a security consultant and the two set out to refine the scope of work. “First, we must conduct a vulnerability assessment,” said the consultant, and

Oliver could not agree more. “What is the threat?” asked the consultant, and Neversleep, one eyebrow raised, let out a deep sigh. He had not really thought about the question before, and after much deliberation concluded everything was a threat. “Very well,” said the consultant, “let’s do the vulnerability assessment.” It did not take long for the consultant to come up with a long list of recommendations that included hardening critical targets around the airport; installing lights and motion sensors; ordering the FBOs to have sign-in procedures; requiring everyone to be badged and carry visible ID badges; implementing tailgating mitigations; installing asymmetric behavior protocols to avoid patterns; creating awareness programs complete with rewards for excellence in

TSA Issues GA Airport Vulnerability Assessment TSA on Jan. 13 announced the release of its General Aviation Airport Vulnerability Assessment. The voluntary assessment is based on the requirements of the 9/11 Commission Recommendation Act of 2007, which mandated TSA to develop and implement a standardized threat and vulnerability assessment program for GA airports. In addition, TSA is required to evaluate the feasibility of a program to provide grants to GA airport operators for the completion of projects in order to improve security. According to TSA, the assessment survey will be requested from approximately 3,000 GA airports that meet the following criteria: runway of at least 2,000 feet; proximity to major metropolitan areas and/or high-value targets; proximity to standing prohibited areas such as those around Camp David, Md. In other GA news, AAAE’s General Aviation Issues and Security Conference is scheduled for June 29-July 1, in Morristown, N.J. Information is available at www.aaae.org/meetings.

vigilance; improving access controls; and many other countermeasures too sensitive to mention here. Of course, all of this would be documented in a written security protocol. Realizing this was going to cost real money, Oliver implemented what he could, especially the awareness program. After briefing all his tenants to have their heads on a swivel and to report anything unusual, Oliver headed home, recognizing he could do only so much with the resources he was given. He was looking forward to a home-cooked meal and turning in early. Before our man in Duffer could get to REM sleep, the phone rang. The city manager called to report that a small airplane deliberately had crashed into a building downtown, and the plane was registered to the flight school at Duffer’s Muni. Other than the person flying the airplane, there were no fatalities and damage to property was minimal. This was more than he could bear, as Neversleep felt personally responsible. The ensuing investigation revealed a disgruntled student pilot committed suicide but not before leaving numerous posts on the Internet about his hatred for life in general. His friends told police later he had threatened to take an airplane and crash it, but everyone thought he was just being weird and didn’t take him seriously. Oliver read the reports and concluded: (10) people need to act on threats made by others; (11) capital improvements for security require funding; and (12) security is everyone’s job. As he was contemplating the lessons he had learned thus far, Neversleep fell asleep. A To be continued... Robert P. Olislagers, A.A.E., is executive director of Colorado’s Centennial Airport and a member of AAAE’s Board of Directors. He may be reached at rolislagers@centennialairport.com.

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010



The Safety Management System at Sea-Tac International By Mark Coates

At Sea-Tac, we have a long history of consistently and diligently focusing on safety and, following our sixth zero-discrepancy certification inspection in a decade, we know we are doing a good job of keeping our airfield safe for passengers, staff and tenants. But, as Bill Voss, president and CEO of the Flight Safety Foundation, adroitly states in his August 2008 president’s message, “Compliance is still important, but we can no longer allow compliance to lull us into complacency. We must continue looking for the next risk, the next potential error, whether it involves a rule or not.” It is with this important message in mind that we strongly advocate for the implementation of Safety Management Systems (SMS) as an important next step in the future of airport safety. The predictive nature of an SMS program will help to ensure that we anticipate possible risks, hazards, and threats to our operations. We believe SMS will be and should be the future standard for our nation’s airports. It is a program that will provide management with trends and data to further enhance the existing compliance-based operational oversight. Although at Sea-Tac we knew SMS was an emerging global best practice, we came to our decision to pursue fully an SMS implementation as a result of our participation in FAA’s SMS Airport Phase I and Follow-on Study Pilot Programs. With the help of our embedded consultants, who committed to a high onsite presence for the duration of each pilot program, we created a team that worked hard to understand the application and implementation of SMS, not only for SeaTac, but also for other airports across the country. Briefly, here’s how we approached each of the studies.

Phase I Pilot Study To understand how an SMS fits into a Part 139 airport, our focus was to deconstruct completely the operations relating to compliance and map them to a possible SMS program through a gap analysis. The gap analysis compared the current state of Sea-Tac processes and procedures under Part 139 to the future state following the SMS implementation and identified the differences, or gaps, between them. We took Title 14 CFR Part 139 and completely dissected it line by line. 38

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010

Each compliance area was analyzed to determine if it could align with a new SMS program. For example, we agreed that existing Part 139 programs such as wildlife reporting, foreign object debris (FOD) and pavement programs, snow and ice removal, ARFF, emergency planning, hazardous materials and personnel record-keeping all would require very little modification for incorporation into an SMS. Other programs such as selfinspection of the Movement Area easily could extend to the Non-movement Area with minor adjustments and additional staffing. Additionally, existing accident and incident investigations conducted by our airport duty managers and informal collaboration and hazard identification activities conducted in conjunction with our tenant community could be leveraged. An SMS program would formalize these processes and relationships without negatively impacting our existing Part 139 certification programs. After the gap analysis was completed, we realized that SMS was something we could accomplish with the help of our consultants. This finding led us to pursue the next FAA Follow-on Pilot study.

Phase II Follow-on Study The focus of the follow-on study was to take the deconstructed Part 139 elements and reassemble them to build an SMS program that would work for Sea-Tac operations. Landry Consultants committed to performing a minimum of 70 percent of its work onsite to ensure that we thoroughly could test our assumptions from Phase I and apply new findings and processes to our existing operational environment. The team consisted of industry experts in risk, FOD, ramp safety, legal, data, and training, in addition to our internal subject matter experts. Their work was to ensure we were developing programs that were based on best practices and also were adaptable to other similar-sized airports (one of FAA’s pilot program requirements). After we completed our 12-month project, we were surprised to find that many of the assumptions from our gap analysis were incorrect. For example, developing minimum standards would require more effort than we thought, and anticipated tenant participation was higher than we would have predicted. However, we also discovered that many of our assumptions were

Protected burrowing owls live on the airfield at Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport.

accurate; most notably, that an SMS program will not detract from an airport’s Part 139 certification program but, if implemented correctly, can leverage, build upon, and enhance the safety of the entire airfield.

What We Learned 1. Airport participation is central to an SMS program’s success; air operators will have their own SMS programs, as will FAA’s Air Traffic Organization. The airport is where these operations come together. It is the airport’s role to provide leadership, coordination and direction to make the SMS work at each facility. 2. Partnerships with tenants must be established early. This can be accomplished by jointly agreeing to minimum safety standards and processes to ensure a just culture is created and maintained. 3. SMS does not increase an airport’s liability; documenting decisions is a good thing. An airport is not less liable simply because it does not know about the hazards that exist; in this case, ignorance does not equal bliss. 4. SMS and Safety Cases (Safety Risk Management Documents, or SRMDs) are not the same thing. Safety Cases are a product of the Safety Risk element, one of four key elements that comprise SMS. 5. Airports are great at quality control (inspections) but have limited experience with quality assurance (audit) programs. To fully realize the benefits of SMS, airport operators will need to identify critical success factors and establish methods to determine whether they are meeting or exceeding their goals.

6. A great first step to collaboration and future data sharing is to work with tenants on hazard reporting. 7. SMS is not just an administrative task; it needs to be integral to daily operations on the ground. 8. Compliance with regulations doesn’t mean it’s an effective SMS; SMS is about people, processes and relationships. 9. A safety manual does not mean an SMS program is in place; an SMS program needs to be integrated into the airport’s operations. One size does not fit all.

Next Steps At Sea-Tac, we have decided to move forward with SMS implementation in advance of a potential Notice of Proposed Rulemaking or other FAA requirement because we believe strongly in the strength and effectiveness of SMS. We believe that SMS is the right thing to do, right now. Over the last two years, due in large part to the work on our SMS pilot studies, we have seen a renewed interest by our staff and tenants in safety. Tenant participation and attendance at our monthly safety action meetings has increased steadily, candid reporting of accidents and incidents has grown, terms such as hazard analysis and risk outcome are used frequently throughout our airport community, conversations about safety are less strained, and overall collaboration has improved. We are excited and energized by our progress to date and eagerly anticipate the benefits we will realize when we have fully implemented our SMS. A Mark Coates is senior manager-operations at Seattle-Tacoma International. He may be reached at Coates.M@portseattle.org.

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


Photos by


Albany International

Gains Racing-Themed Restaurant


MSHost Corp. recently opened Silks Saratoga Bistro, a regionally themed, fullservice restaurant, at Albany (N.Y.) International as part of an ongoing development program at the airport. Silks is a proprietary restaurant concept developed by HMSHost specifically for Albany International. Located in the main terminal, postsecurity, in the Times Square area, the restaurant is part of a 10-year food and beverage concession contract awarded to HMSHost in 2008. “Travelers will find that HMSHost and the airport have embraced the heritage of the region with the addition of Silks Saratoga Bistro,” said David Langdon, chairman of the Albany County Airport Authority.


“Silks represents a superb dining experience and is an excellent start to our new partnership with HMSHost.” Silks’ menu features selections from upscale Albany restaurant Jack’s Oyster House, as well as a selection of Old Saratoga Brewing Company beer on tap, cocktails, wine, domestic and imported beer and non-alcoholic beverages.

Racing Heritage One of the statues from the city’s Horses, Saratoga Style, exhibit welcomes guests at Silks’ entrance, in keeping with the region’s horse racing heritage. Also highlighting the entrance is a “rail” similar to the one that circles the Saratoga Race Course. The décor includes large wall murals

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and framed replicas of silks worn by jockeys during Saratoga Races, as well as flat screen televisions airing local horse races in real-time throughout the day. “As we complete our food and beverage program at Albany,” said HMSHost Vice President of Business Development Michael Jones, “we anticipate the traveler’s day will be made better by finding a collection of local and national brands from which to choose — whether it’s coffee at Starbucks, a quick meal at Brioche Dorée Café Bakery, or a glass of wine from the Hudson Valley Wine Bar….”

Local Themes In addition to the new Starbucks Coffee and a Dunkin’ Donuts that

Retail Briefs

Another locally themed proprietary concept, Hudson Valley Wine Bar, will open on Concourse B in the spring...

opened pre-security in fall 2009, HMSHost unveiled the new Brioche Dorée Café Bakery, a traditional European café, on Concourse C in December 2009 and will add Adirondack Lounge, a “fast casual” restaurant designed as an indoor replica of the wooded wilderness settings of New York state, on Concourse A in spring 2010. Another locally themed proprietary concept, Hudson Valley Wine Bar will open on Concourse B in the spring as well, HMSHost said. The concept is a fullservice wine bar and casual dining restaurant that showcases the growing popularity of the New York wine industry. Silks Saratoga Bistro will be staffed by 19 HMSHost associates. A

The San Antonio City Council in January approved new, 10-year airport concession agreements with five firms. This action clears the way for San Antonio International to move forward with opening Terminal B with a variety of new food and beverage and retail storefront concepts. Five different companies will open and operate 10 different retail, restaurant and fast food operations within the new Terminal B. In addition, three news and gift shops will be added to the existing Terminal 1 during 2011. Terminal 1 will be renamed Terminal A when Terminal B opens in November 2010. The companies winning contracts are Host International, JDDA Concessions Management, Sbarro-Seven Hills, Edwin Enterprises and HDS & Partners at SAT LLC. … Delaware North Companies Travel Hospitality Services, along with its local partners, has been awarded contract extensions that include expanded operation of restaurants and retail stores at Austin-Bergstrom International Airport. The Austin City Council voted unanimously to approve a two-year extension of Delaware North’s food and beverage contract and a five-year extension of its retail contract. Delaware North also will operate four new food and beverage locations near the Barbara Jordan Terminal for the next seven years. The new restaurants will be operated through a joint venture between Delaware North’s Brazos Concessions Co. affiliate and the owners of the original Salt Lick BarB-Q restaurant in Driftwood, Texas. … El Paso International has gained new eateries as part of a new food and beverage concessions program developed by HMSHost. Local Mexican favorite Carlos & Mickey’s Express and international brands Starbucks Coffee and Pizza Hut have opened in the new post-security, Concourse B food court. HMSHost said it has hired 35 full and part-time associates to staff these new food court concepts. … BAA Cleveland said that Swatch has signed a lease to open a new store at the Airmall at Cleveland Hopkins International. Swatch, which sells watches, jewelry and accessories, is expected to open a unit (450 square feet) on Concourse C in February 2010. Separately, Cheeburger Cheeburger and Subway have opened new units at the Airmall. Cheeburger Cheeburger (900 square feet), operated by Robinson Hill CH, opened in the Main Terminal Food Court. The 1950s-style restaurant features burgers, shakes, french fries and onion rings. Subway (915 square feet), operated by Cleveland-area franchisees Deb and Joe Lukasik, opened on Concourse D. The Airmall also saw the opening of Great Lakes Brewing Company, a Cleveland original that brews award-winning lagers, ales and porters. Operated by Cleveland Partners, LLC, the Great Lakes Brewing Company (approximately 3,000 square feet) is located on Concourse C and includes a full-service restaurant and bar. … HMSHost Corp., Parbel of Florida and L’Oréal Luxury Products Travel Retail Americas announced the opening of two new retail stores at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International. A

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continued from page 15

mined to advance the JFK Flight Delay Reduction Program and continue with the program to modernize Stewart International. Louisville Regional Airport Authority Executive Director Skip Miller, A.A.E., pointed to a successful year in 2009 for completion of planned improvements at Louisville International and Bowman Field. At the same time, however, Miller noted that budget projections were reduced for fiscal 2010, while a soft hiring freeze and an overtime reduction program were put in place. Christine Klein, A.A.E., Alaska’s deputy commissioner-airports and aviation, reported that management “had a heads-up that our revenue stream was changing in early 2008” at Ted Stevens Anchorage International. The airport, the fifth largest in the world for cargo tonnage, experienced a decrease in international cargo flights, leading to a drop in the facility’s primary source of revenue. Management immediately implemented cost-cutting measures that included curtailing capital improvement projects. To boost international passenger traffic at Anchorage and Fairbanks, the Alaska International Airports System (AIAS) employed a successful incentive program that provided up to $1 million of value for airlines that increased or provided new service between Alaska and Asia, Klein said. At the same time, working closely with its airline partners, AIAS signed an operating agreement that had been in holdover status for five years. Michigan’s Capital Region Airport Authority has been impacted severely by a loss in scheduled seats at Capital Region Airport, especially through the Northwest/Delta merger, according to Executive Director Robert Selig, A.A.E. As part of its response to the downturn, the authority undertook a strategic planning process that recognized its finances “were far too dependent upon scheduled airline revenues,” he explained. As a result, the authority initiated a diversification process that converted the airport into Capital Region International, offering international passenger, cargo and foreign

trade zone services. “This isn’t to say that the development of international capabilities is the solution for other airports,” Selig advised. However, exploring/investing in diversified business options and revenue streams may be a key to survival for the future, he noted. A Barbara Cook is editor of Airport Magazine. She may be reached at barbara.cook@aaae.org.

Whether your project is airside, landside, commercial, military, or GA, you can count on Kimley-Horn to provide the best in service and satisfaction. To learn more, contact aviation@kimley-horn.com or call Loy Warren at (972) 770-1376.

Trusted. Engineers. Planners. Environmental Scientists.


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assengers by airport traffic for November 2009

Airport Austin-Bergstrom International Bradley (Conn.) International



% Change












Chicago Rockford (Ill.) International Denver International Duluth (Minn.) International




+ 1.5

Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood (Fla.)




Houston Bush Intercontinental




Kansas City (Mo.) International




Orlando International




Palm Beach (Fla.) International

Portland (Ore.) International


Quad City (Ill.) International









Raleigh-Durham (N.C.) Int’l




Reno-Tahoe (Nev.) International







Rogue Valley (Ore.) Medford San Antonio International San Diego International

San Jose International
















San Luis Obispo County (Calif.) Regional Southwest Florida International

Domestic and International Fares Airlines Reporting Corporation

08 Domestic Fares 08 International Fares 09 Domestic Fares 09 International Fares



Dollars in Billions







The New Orleans Aviation Board, under its Capital Improvement Program, has awarded the $16.8 million expansion of Concourse D to McDonnell Group LLC of Metairie. The expansion will add six gates to the current seven, in an open rotunda-style format. The project will include new food and beverage outlets, new retailers and restrooms. The board also awarded the interior terminal improvements, phase 1-restrooms construction contract to Gibbs Construction of New Orleans. The $4.4 million contract includes the complete renovation of 12 restrooms and minor renovations to nine more restrooms. The restroom project is expected to be completed by the end of 2010 and the Concourse D expansion should be completed by late 2011. Both projects are being funded by PFCs. A new four-level, 4,800-space parking structure has been completed at Gerald R. Ford International Airport in Grand Rapids, Mich. Airport officials report that the deck provides covered parking, a canopy to protect passenger drop-off and pick-up, and pedestrian bridges connecting the deck to the terminal. In addition, the airport’s rental car desks and ready/return lot are located in the deck, with capacity more than doubled from the previous facility. Gresham, Smith and Partners provided design and construction administration services for the project; Carl Walker provided structural services; and The Christman Company served as contractor. FAA will provide $90.5 million toward the cost of replacing the south runway at Port Columbus International, airport officials announced. The replacement of the runway will boost capacity by allowing an increased number of aircraft operations and creating space for a future second terminal. The pre-design estimate for the project is $160 million, which includes the construction of the runway 702 feet south of its current location, modifications to the airport golf course, demolition of airport structures, purchasing and installing aircraft navigation aids, and converting the existing runway to a taxiway, among other projects. Design work will continue through much of 2010 with earth and utility work to start in the spring of 2011 and paving and electrical work to get underway later that year. The new runway, which will be far enough from the north runway to allow simultaneous arrivals and departures, is expected to open in spring 2013, officials said. A

Grey- 09 Domestic Black- 09 International









June July

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010







Total ASMs Top 10 Markets International-U.S. — 2Q 2009 vs 2Q 2010

2Q 2009 2Q 2010

Total ASMs Top 10 Domestic U.S. Markets — 2Q 2009 vs 2Q 2010

2Q 2009 2Q 2010

Total Flights Top 10 Domestic U.S. Markets — 2Q 2009 vs 2Q 2010

2Q 2009 2Q 2010

AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010


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3, 42, 46

Astronics DME Corp.



Burns & McDonnell


Inside Front Cover

Delta Airport Consultants



Georgia Pacific



Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.



Michael Baker Corp.



Northeast Chapter AAAE



Oshkosh Corp.


Inside Back Cover

Ricondo & Associates, Inc.





Back Cover

AAAE, in cooperation with numerous airport and industry security officials, has developed a new Authorized Signatory interactive, computer-based training course, created in response to TSA’s Security Directive 1542-04-08 Series. The course covers the role and responsibilities of an authorized signatory or designee and the requirements for being an authorized signer. The content has been reviewed by industry experts to ensure that the training meets the TSA requirement.

This universally applicable, non-airport-specific course is available on DVD with capability for local printing for certificates of completion, or may be integrated into AAAE’s Interactive Employee Training (IET) or eCISTM learning management systems.

For information, contact Jim Martin at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 166, or e-mail jim.martin@aaae.org. 46 more AirportMagazine.net | FEBRUARY/MARCH 2010



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