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E | August/September 2008

Deicing Energy Summit Airside Roundtable Part II

On the Ground or in the Air: GIS for Aviation

PLTS ™ for ArcGIS —Aeronautical Solution: A Database Driven Solution Used to Manage Aeronautical Data and Publish Charts

Map Data Courtesy of Clark County, Nevada, Department of Aviation, and Satellite Imagery Courtesy of DigitalGlobe

Airport operators today face unprecedented challenges to provide greater safety and security for their passengers while still efficiently managing their facilities. Modern airports are finding an integrated geographic information system (GIS) can help them to better manage both air- and ground-side operations. With applications as diverse as airspace planning and routing, integrated flight monitoring, real-time flight tracking, environmental planning, and facilities maintenance, GIS is being used successfully across all segments of the aviation industry. Discover how GIS software can play a pivotal role in your aviation information management strategy. Discover ESRI® ArcGIS®.

GIS in Aviation Is Used For ! Airspace Management ! Airfield Monitoring ! Flight Tracking ! Aeronautical Information Management ! Facilities and Lease Management ! Airport Layout Planning ! Pavement and Asset Management ! Parking and Sign Management ! Utility and Facility Maintenance ! Noise Monitoring and Modeling ! Environmental Assessment

ESRI—The GIS Company™ For a list of international distributors, visit


Copyright © 2008 ESRI. ESRI, the ESRI globe logo, ArcGIS, PLTS, ESRI—The GIS Company, ArcMap, ArcInfo, ArcSDE,, are trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of ESRI in the United States, the European Community, or certain other jurisdictions. Other companies and products mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective trademark owners.

Volume 20/ Number 5 | August/September 2008









editorial ad v isor y B O A R D A irport M embers William G. Barkhauer, Morristown, New Jersey Timothy L. Campbell, Baltimore, Maryland Charles Isdell, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Jim Johnson, Odessa, Florida James L. Morasch, Pasco, Washington Timothy K. O’Donnell, Fort Wayne, Indiana Robert Olislagers, Englewood, Colorado Lisa Pyles, Addison, Texas Torrance Richardson, Fort Wayne, Indiana Elaine Roberts, Columbus, Ohio


C orporate M embers Bill Hogan, Reynolds, Smith + Hills STACY HOLLOWELL, Siemens One, Inc. Brian Lacey, Delaware North Companies Steve Pelham, Reveal Imaging Technologies Randy Pope, Burns & McDonnell Laura Samuels, Hudson Group



C hair Jim P. Elwood, Aspen, Colorado F irst Vice C hair John K. Duval, Beverly, Massachusetts


Features: Cover Winter Operations Large Hub Winter Operations | 14 Automating the Deicing Process | 22

S econd Vice C hair James E. Bennett, Washington, D.C. S ecretar y / T reas u rer

special supplement

Kelly L. Johnson, Bentonville, Arkansas F I R S T P ast C hair

Black: The Original Green | 35

Krys T. Bart, Reno, Nevada second P ast C hair Elaine Roberts, Columbus, Ohio

Burns & McDonnell’s annual look at industry trends.

B oard of D irector S DANETTE M. BEWLEY, Reno, Nevada JEFF L. BILYEU, Angleton, Texas THOMAS H. BINFORD, Billings, Montana


LEW S. BLEIWEIS, Fletcher, North Carolina GARY A. CYR, SR., Springfield, Missouri BENJAMIN R. DECOSTA, Atlanta, Georgia

Editor’s Corner


ROD A. DINGER, Redding, California



MICHAEL A. GOBB, Lexington, Kentucky

News Briefs


GARY L. JOHNSON, Stillwater, Oklahoma



MARK D. KRANENBURG, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

GA Airport Issues




ROBERT P. OLISLAGERS, Englewood, Colorado



THOMAS M. RAFTER, Hammonton, New Jersey

Airport Spotlight


DAVID R. ULANE, Aspen, Colorado

AAAE’s Transportation Security Clearinghouse | 20

Airport Billboard


C hapter P residents



TOMMY W. BIBB, Nashville, Tennessee

Users Voice High Praise



KIM W. HOPPER, Portsmouth, New Hampshire

Retail Briefs


Plane Sight


Snow Removal: Small Hub Style | 30


The New Age Checkpoint | 63

LINDA G. FRANKL, Columbus, Ohio

ALEX M. KASHANI, Washington, D.C. SCOTT C. MALTA, Atwater, California JEFFREY A. MULDER, Tulsa, Oklahoma

WAYNE E. SHANK, Norfolk, Virginia

JEFFREY W. KELLY, Houston, Texas PHILLIP E. JOHNSON, Grand Rapids, Michigan BARRY A. RONDINELLA, Sacramento, California ROGER SELLICK, Kelowna, Canada P olic y R e v iew C ommittee

What’s In The Future

BONNIE A. ALLIN, Tucson, Arizona WILLIAM G. BARKHAUER, Morristown, New Jersey

air service

Coming In Airport Magazine:

Energy/Air Service Summit | 24

October/November: NextGen Air Traffic Control Survival Techniques For Air Service

Airports Address Mounting Fuel Prices

THELLA F. BOWENS, San Diego, California MARK P. BREWER, Manchester, New Hampshire TIMOTHY L. CAMPBELL, Baltimore, Maryland LARRY D. COX, Memphis, Tennessee ALFONSO DENSON, Birmingham, Alabama KEVIN A. DILLON, Warwick, Rhode Island THOMAS E. GREER, Monterey, California SEAN C. HUNTER, New Orleans, Louisiana CHARLES J. ISDELL, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

airside trends Airport Relocation Diary | 56 Panama City-Bay County (Fla.) International Airport

December/January: Landside Development Trends Airport Finance

Airport Officials and Consultants Exchange Ideas

LYNN F. KUSY, Mesa, Arizona JAMES L. MORASCH, Pasco, Washington ERIN M. O’DONNELL, Chicago, Illinois BRADLEY D. PENROD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MARK M. REIS, Seattle, Washington MAUREEN S. RILEY, Salt Lake City, Utah

Cover Design: Daryl E. Humphrey Cover Photos: Jim Martin, WIlliam Krumpleman

Airside Development Trends Roundtable, Part II | 70

JAMES A. KOSLOSKY, Grand Rapids, Michigan

LESTER W. ROBINSON, Detroit, Michigan RICKY D. SMITH, Cleveland, Ohio SUSAN M. STEVENS, Charleston, South Carolina MARK H. WEBB, San Antonio, Texas

P resident Charles M. Barclay, Alexandria, Virginia



Hudson’s Kids Works at Nashville International Airport

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editor’scorner M








Lessons learned...and more E ditor

Barbara Cook P u blisher

Joan Lowden E x ec u ti v e E ditor

Ellen P. horton E ditor - A t - L arge


Holly Ackerman staff writer

kevin eaton A rt D irector

daryl humphrey G raphic D esigner


contrib u tors

Jeff Price


Bill Krumpelman JAMES MARTIN S taff Vice P resident S ales and M ar k eting

Susan Lausch E ditorial O ffice

601 Madison Street, Suite 400 Alexandria, VA 22314 (703) 824-0500, Ext. 133 Fax: (703) 820-1395 Internet Address: Send editorial materials/press releases to: R eprint information

The Reprint Department (717) 481-8500 Airport Magazine is published bimonthly by the AAAE Service Corporation Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Association of Airport Executives, and the Airport Research and Development Foundation. Subscription price for AAAE members is included in the annual dues. U.S. subscription rate to non-members is $45 for one year. International rate for non-members is $75. Single copy price is $10. Copyright 2008 by AAAE. All rights reserved. Statements of fact and opinion are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of AAAE or any of its members or officers. POSTMASTER Send address changes to: Airport Magazine 601 Madison Street, Suite 400 Alexandria, VA 22314


n this issue, Airport Magazine is pleased to publish our first LessonsLearned column. This article, written by Melvin Price, project manager-infrastructure development for the Kansas City Aviation Dept., describes how Kansas City International Airport has moved “from the Stone Age to Star Wars” in terms of controlling access at Kansas City International Airport. We welcome LessonsLearned suggestions from airports or companies that describe a problem and how it was resolved. Contact with your ideas. The AAAE-led Energy/Air Service Summit, held July 10 in Washington, D.C., is featured in this issue. Keynote speakers included DOT Secretary Mary Peters and Sen. Byron Dorgan (D-N.D.), a senior member of the Senate Commerce Committee and the aviation subcommittee. The summit followed by one day AAAE’s Energy/Air Service Task Force inaugural meeting. Airport Magazine will follow closely the progress of this initiative. With this issue, we welcome Timothy K. O’Donnell, A.A.E., operations manager at Fort Wayne (Ind.) International Airport and supervisor of Smith Field Airport, and Stacy L. Hollowell, senior marketing manager, Siemens One, Inc., to Airport Magazine’s editorial advisory board. Tim is the new chair of AAAE’s General Aviation Committee, and his contributions will enhance the quality of GA information that we are able to provide to our readers. Stacy’s primary responsibilities include educating Siemens’ customer base on available technologies for the airport market, as well as providing support for large-scale projects involving more than one Siemens operating company or solution. Her contributions will expand our coverage of this important sector. A number of airports are celebrating significant anniversaries this year. Among them are New York’s Kennedy International and Baton Rouge (La.) Metropolitan at 60 years; Southwest Florida International at 25 years; and Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport at 10 years. We congratulate them on their achievements, and we invite other airports to notify Airport Magazine if they will observe a significant anniversary in 2008 or 2009. We hope you have found useful our e-mail announcements regarding the new issues of the magazine. This enables our readers to click on a link and be connected to the magazine before it appears on their desks as a printed copy. As always, we appreciate the support of our advertisers, who make it possible for us to expand our print coverage and also provide timely and informative content at www.airportmagazine. net. Advertisers in this issue are: DME, Daktronics, Delta Airport

Consultants, ESRI, Grenzebach Corp., HDR, HDS Retail, Kimley-Horn & Assoc., Michael Baker, O.R. Colan, RS+H, Burns & McDonnell, HMS Host, Hudson Group, Off The Wall and Ricondo & Assoc.

Barbara Cook A Editor | august/september 2008



Barclay Offers Airport Views On Fuel Crisis


photo by james martin

With fuel prices climbing to new records on a daily basis during July, members of the House aviation subcommittee convened a closed door meeting of key aviation industry officials on July 16 to gain a better understanding of the impact the crisis was having on the aviation industry and on air service. AAAE President Charles Barclay was invited to present the views of the airport community and was joined by a key financial analyst and representatives of the airline industry, the Government Accountability Office and the Department of Defense. During the closed-door session, which was attended by more than a dozen lawmakers, Barclay detailed the challenges that airport executives had described the previous week during the AAAE Energy/Air Service Summit held in Washington, D.C., making it clear that the crisis is impacting airports of all sizes and in all parts of the country. Barclay also highlighted the ongoing work of the AAAE Energy/Air Service Task Force in developing recommendations for a national energy policy, a national air service policy, and emergency actions the federal government could pursue in the short-term to address emerging air service reductions.  Barclay pledged during the meeting to keep lawmakers apprised of the situation that airports face with declining air service levels and to share with them the recommendations of the AAAE Energy/Air Service Task Force. At Airport Magazine press time, the task force had finalized its recommendations and had forwarded them to the AAAE Board of Directors for its consideration

Kennedy INternational To Receive Capacity Improvements

and approval. The task force recommendations were slated to be released publicly in late August.     

statement from the authority. The measures approved by the port authority board and their anticipated benefit include:

PANY&NJ Approves Capacity Program

• Installation of a ground surveillance system at Kennedy International that works like GPS to pinpoint the exact location of all aircraft at the airport. This information will be used to manage swifter movement of aircraft between the terminals and runways, saving more than $10 million annually in aircraft operating costs and value of passenger time. • Widening of 32 taxiway intersections at Newark to increase significantly the amount of available taxi routes for larger aircraft such as the 777 and the A340-600, which will create greater flexibility for controllers to sequence departures and reduce taxi times for all aircraft. • Extension of Kennedy International’s Taxiways YA and FB

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Board of Commissioners in late July approved a $68 million capacity improvement program for Kennedy International and Newark Liberty International airports. The port authority said it is calling for solutions that increase capacity through investments in new technology, stressing that it opposes FAA’s efforts to implement an auction system for airlines to bid on slots. “An auction system is not expected to reduce flight delays and will serve only as an additional tax on metropolitan-area passengers, increasing tickets prices by an estimated 12 percent,” according to a | august/september 2008

to improve departure procedures on Runway 22R. The improvements will cut takeoff times by up to two and one-half minutes for every departing flight, equating to more than $82 million in annual savings. • Construction of a Taxiway KA hold pad at Kennedy International to create more efficient queuing and sequencing procedures for Runway 4L departures. The improvements will reduce delays by about a minute per operation, for an annual savings of nearly $24 million. Separately, the port authority issued a proposed action plan that would block any flights at its New York metropolitan area airports resulting from FAA’s plan to auction flight slots at these airports. The authority’s Notice of Proposed Action would disallow flight departure or arrival slots that are “issued by auction or similar process.” In addition to barring flight activity for auction-acquired slots, the port authority also would prohibit any other use of the airports, such as the lease of gate space in terminals or parking positions on the airfield, by aircraft that acquired slots through an auction system. An exception would be made for aircraft emergencies.

Further, AAAE said FAA’s proposed rule would make operating at Kennedy International and Newark more expensive, causing small communities to suffer as a result.

TSA Concludes Latest Test Of RT TSA on July 24 announced the official conclusion of the latest pilot phase of the Registered Traveler (RT) program, known as the Registered Traveler Interoperability Pilot (RTIP). Launched in 2006, the RTIP was the second phase of testing related to the RT program and was limited to a maximum of 20 airports. There are currently 19 airports with operational RT programs and approximately 150,000 RT participants.  With this announcement, the RT program is no longer a pilot program and can be expanded to any interested airport. Airports still

need to contract with private RT service providers approved by TSA to implement the program at their facilities. RT service providers are responsible for enrollment of RT applicants, biometric identification verification of RT participants at the checkpoint and other related services.  Under the permanent RT program, TSA still will be responsible for setting program standards, physical screening at TSA checkpoints and certain forms of oversight, as the agency is today. However, TSA no longer will conduct the Security Threat Assessment (STA) that was part of the background check for participants and no longer will charge the $28 STA fee.  The Registered Traveler Interoperability Consortium (RTIC), which was formed by airports and AAAE in 2005 to create a permanent and interoperable RT program, will

AAAE Comments On Slot Auction Plan

photo by james martin

AAAE has submitted comments to FAA on the agency’s proposal to impose auction mechanisms to reallocate and retire slots at New York’s Kennedy International and Newark Liberty International airports. The association told FAA that it considers that the provisions of the proposed rulemaking will be detrimental to small communities that currently enjoy and seek to increase their access to the airport.

Registered Traveler Program Ends Latest Test Phase | august/september 2008


news briefs Carol Haave has been appointed assistant secretary for international affairs for DHS. Haave has more than 25 years of combined experience in national security and international affairs…. TSA has named Kevin McCarthy federal security director for Memphis International Airport. McCarthy joined TSA in July 2006 as federal security director for Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport, where he helped coordinate the rebuilding of the TSA workforce and operations at the airport in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. He also will serve as federal security director for McKellar-Sipes Regional Airport in Jackson, Tenn….TSA announced that Verdi White has been named federal security director at Phoenix Sky Harbor International. Since last year, White has served as TSA’s federal security director at Fairbanks (Alaska) International…. Michael O’Donnell, A.A.E., executive director of the South Carolina Division of Aeronautics, has been named to succeed Dave Bennett as director of FAA’s Office of Airport Safety and Standards. O’Donnell has degrees in aeronautics from EmbryRiddle University, with specialization in operations and safety and has managed both commercial service and general aviation airports….Karen Thomas has been named director of concessions and terminal properties for the Tucson Airport Authority. She joined the authority in 1989 in the business projects department. In her new position, she is responsible for managing airport concessions and terminal leasing, including the airlines, airport parking, rental car, food and beverage and retail concessions.… Klaasje Nairne, C.M., manager of San Luis Obispo County (Calif.) Regional Airport, announced her retirement, effective Aug. 9, following 18 years of service with the county. …. Will James, AAAE senior vice president of business development and training, was honored recently with the Chair’s Award from the Airport Minority Advisory Council (AMAC) for his longtime and consistent advocacy on behalf of AMAC in its partnership with AAAE. A 10

continue to work with TSA, airports and RT service providers to ensure that the permanent RT program builds upon airports’ successful experiences during the RTIP and continues to provide interoperable biometric-based identification verification of RT card holders at participating airports. “We have determined that Registered Traveler holds promise as a biometrically enhanced, private sector identity verification program,” said TSA Administrator Kip Hawley. “RT works best when tailored to the individual needs of each location, as determined by the airports and airlines that sponsor these programs and their local federal security directors.”

and 150 feet wide. The repaving contract calls for the outer 37.5 feet of each side of the runway to be milled and repaved. If the warm mix performs as expected on the outer edges of the runway, then it likely will be used for the next runway repaving project, which calls for all of Runway 9/27 to be repaved. The warm mix asphalt compacts better, allowing for sturdy runways that can withstand the impact of heavy airplanes and high-pressure tires, Massport said. Traditionally, runway projects at Logan require that asphalt is laid in 3-inch-thick sections called “lifts”; warm mix asphalt lets workers lay down the pavement in 6-inch-thick lifts, which will shorten the time the runway is out of service.

Boston Runway Repaving To Use Warm Mix Asphalt Millimeter Wave Tested At Miami The Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) has voted to spend $6.3 million to use environmentally friendly asphalt to repave Runway 4R/22L at Boston Logan International. The project, to begin this fall, will use so-called “warm mix’’ asphalt, which is heated to between 250 and 275 degrees, some 75 to 50 degrees less than traditional “hot mix” asphalt. The difference on this project will result in the reduction of nearly 2,000 tons of carbon dioxide, the savings of about 200,000 gallons of diesel fuel, and energy savings of about 26.4 billion BTUs, Massport said. Another environmental benefit is that up to 20 percent of the new asphalt will be made from recycled asphalt. The warm mix first was tested at Logan on a taxiway and apron areas with FAA oversight before the airport received permission to use it on a runway. Runway 4R/22L is 10,005 feet long | august/september 2008

TSA said it has initiated a pilot test of millimeter wave technology at Miami International. Millimeter wave detects weapons, explosives and other threat items concealed under layers of clothing without any physical contact. The technology is currently in use at Los Angeles, New York’s Kennedy International, Baltimore, Denver, Albuquerque, Reagan Washington National, Detroit, Dallas-Fort Worth and Phoenix. The tests will enable TSA to examine millimeter wave’s operational capability, throughput, training, ease of use and privacy perceptions by the traveling public, the agency said. Metal detectors will remain in place at the checkpoints, however, and passengers will go through the traditional metal detector after going through the millimeter wave machine. Miami’s first two millimeter wave machines are in use at Concourse


G and Concourse J checkpoints. An additional four machines will be placed in operation later this summer and in the fall, TSA said. The agency also said it has deployed greatly enhanced explosives detection capabilities for carry-on baggage at Miami International. Multi-view advanced technology X-ray machines recently installed at several checkpoints display clearer and more detailed images; have the ability to be upgraded as enhanced algorithms and computer programs emerge; have a stable, low-maintenance platform; and are smaller than previously available explosives detection

systems, according to TSA.

DOT Issues Fuel Tank Inerting Safety Rule DOT said that, within two years, all new aircraft must include technology designed to reduce the risk of center fuel tank fires. In addition, passenger aircraft built after 1991 must be retrofitted with technology designed to keep center fuel tanks from catching fire. DOT Secretary Mary Peters made the announcement July 16, the day before the anniversary of the July 17, 1996, crash of TWA Flight

800. She stated that the new rule is needed to help avoid a similar incident. Peters said the rule requires aircraft to have technology to neutralize or eliminate flammable gasses from fuel tanks under the center wing of commercial passenger planes. Peters noted that, in the wake of the TWA accident, FAA crash researchers developed a breakthrough system that replaces oxygen in the fuel tank with inert gas, which effectively prevents the potential ignition of flammable vapors. She said that the Boeing Co. also has developed a similar system. FAA said that the cost of installing the new technology would range

photo provided by faa


Runway Status Lights To Be Installed At 20 More Airports

from $92,000 to $311,000 per aircraft, depending on its size.

FAA To Expand Runway Status Lights Program FAA announced that it will install runway status lights at 20 major airports nationwide as part of a stepped-up initiative to improve safety. The status lights, which warn pilots when it is unsafe to cross or enter a runway, are currently being tested at Dallas-Fort Worth and San Diego International airports. FAA said it will award a contract this fall to install the lights at the following 20 additional airports over the next three years: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Charlotte, Denver, Detroit, Washington Dulles International, Fort Lauderdale, Houston, New York’s Kennedy International and LaGuardia, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Newark, Chicago O’Hare, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix and Seattle. FAA also is soliciting industry 12

proposals to acquire and install low-cost ground surveillance systems at airports that are not scheduled to receive Airport Surface Detection Equipment (either ASDE3 or ASDE-X) under current agency programs.

Amp Miser Belting System Passes Airport Tests Forbo Siegling of Huntersville, N.C., introduced its Amp Miser Baggage Handling Belting at AAAE’s Annual Conference and Exposition in New Orleans, June 8-11. The product initially was tested at Dallas-Fort Worth International, with the test independently validated by CAGE, Inc. Robert Pollard, President of CAGE, Inc., noted that his company tested the Amp Miser at DFW’s Terminal C. The test conveyor was a 40-foot mainline conveyor with a belt speed of 300 feet per minute and a distributed load of 1,600 pounds. The ambient temperature for the various tests ranged between 18 degrees and 105 degrees F. “The final results | august/september 2008

indicated a 38.5 percent reduction in power consumption,” Pollard said. Another comprehensive series of tests was conducted at Denver International by the consulting firm Logplan. Dr. Matthias Frenz, president and CEO of Logplan, said that a test of the Amp Miser belt on the Denver conveyor system resulted in a 39.9 percent reduction in energy consumption on the transport conveyors.

RELAY Gains Indianapolis Contract RELAY at IND, LLC, a partnership between HDS Retail and DRE Retail, LLC, a DBE firm based in Indianapolis, was awarded a 10-year contract to operate six stores at Indianapolis International’s new, $1 billion terminal, which is scheduled to open in November. Stores that RELAY will introduce in the airport include USA TODAY Travel Zone, Fruits & Passion and Artizan. A

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winter operations

Winter operations

14 | august/september 2008

By Kevin Eaton, staff writer


photos provided by jim martin

now equipment is beginning to show off what it can do during the warmest days of the year with a new breed of multi-function equipment that can pull double duty in winter and summer. In Reno, Nev., where during the winter of 2004-2005 the region received 81 inches of snow in a single week, operations personnel at Reno-Tahoe International have several pieces of equipment that are useful year-round. One piece, the Haige GST20 with a 90-foot chemical application boom, is used in the winter to apply chemicals to the runway, then during the summer for the airport’s weed abatement program. Reno-Tahoe also uses a Boschung JBJ 8000 with hydraulic gates, a rotary broom with air blast and a rear suction unit. In the winter, the machine is used for plowing and sweeping work, while in the summer it’s used for runway rubber removal. Paired with a 3,500-gallon water truck spraying the runway, the Boschung can remove 90 percent of residue rubber with its broom without using any chemicals. Another piece of equipment that was adapted from winter operations is Reno-Tahoe’s Toolcat, Michael Dikun, airfield maintenance superintendent, said. A pavement planer was added to the Toolcat to remove old paint all the way down to pavement, so that new layers of paint are more visible and only one layer of new paint needs to be applied. In Toronto, where the average snowfall is 52 inches, multi-use

snow removal equipment for many years meant a dump truck with towbehind sweepers. More recently, Toronto Pearson International has made advances in its snow removal fleet and now uses a Vammas 5500 that includes a plow, sweeper and blower all in one unit that can effectively remove snow at speeds of 15 to 18 kilometers an hour. While the Vammas is dedicated to snow removal, the airport employs more traditional multi-function vehicles, including farm tractors with the option to attach a front-mounted broom, to improve visual aids like runway paint markings. During

warmer months, the tractor is refitted to mow grass. Like Reno, Toronto uses a frontmounted broom in the winter to clear snow and, come summer, uses the same equipment to clear rubber from runways. The airport’s 5,000-gallon chemical sprayers also pull double duty, removing snow in the winter and rubber residue in the summer. | august/september 2008


winter operations

Denver Winter Ops

In the winter of 2006, the combination of inaccurate forecasting, holiday travel and a heavy snowfall closed Denver International. The storm lasted for 35 hours, and the airport finally reopened 22 hours after the snow had stopped. The airport and airlines were caught off guard. When the storm hit, Frontier had 80 percent of its fleet at the airport. United and regional carrier Great Lakes Airlines were in the same situation with many of their planes at the airport. Passengers were stuck three and four days, many missing the holidays and thousands missing flights. While runways remained covered in snow, incoming roads and parts of the parking lots were cleared, creating an invitation for more people to come to the airport, further exacerbating the problem. When all was said and done, the airlines lost $60 million, and the airport set out to change the way it handles winter operations. According to John Kinney, 16

director of operations at Denver International, one of the issues that led to the problems in 2006 was the airport’s corporate culture. While normally the fact that the airport hired and promoted from within was a strength, the fact that employees were too familiar with operations, combined with self-assessments that rated winter operations consistently good, let them become complacent, according to Kinney. To fix the problem, airport officials went back to the drawing board and reworked snow operation procedures. They looked at the numbers and developed metrics to determine how many runways the airport needed to operate properly, and they assigned priority surfaces. In the old system, personnel moved planes from runway to runway as the snow banks shifted. Every surface was a top-level priority. The new procedures created a three-tiered priority system and called for more communication with FAA. The airport created the position of “Snow Man/Ice Queen,” which called for one member of the | august/september 2008

operations staff to be located in the tower to be the liaison between the tower and the snow removal teams on the ground. The airport also began using Megadata Corp’s PASSUR OPSnet system, which provides protocols for the smooth management of an airport during irregular events such as snow and ice. It includes an enhancement designed for Denver to track snow and deicing resources to ensure airport capacity is meeting demand. The airport also reviewed the equipment it was using during the storm. When the storm hit, 40 percent of the snow removal equipment was near the end of its useful life, and the airport realized it had to invest significantly to ensure against a repeat of 2006. For maximum efficiency, the operations department recommended using fewer but larger pieces of multi-function equipment. While the price for multi-function equipment is high, the airport successfully tapered down the initial sticker shock of $37 million by showing that the new equipment could have the runways clear

and would require fewer In Detroit, operations faster drivers. Using 48 pieces of standard personnel have been equipment, it would take between 25 30 minutes to clear a 200-footworking to reduce the and wide runway. The multi-function amount of chemicals equipment only requires 27 pieces and can have surfaces clear in 10 to used during the winter 15 minutes. and have increased their use of forced air NextGen Technology The Calgary Airport Authority has technology to deice installed global positioning system devices in all vehicles that planes. (GPS) drive on the runways, as well as made it mandatory for contractors to install the devices. There is no tower control of vehicles on the taxiways and each driver is individually responsible for using situational awareness to avoid accidents. The airport has said the system is comparable to drivers using a four-way stop sign rather than being dependent on a traffic light. The GPS devices are programmed to alert the driver if he or she is in a restricted space. The devices log all

vehicle activity for historical analysis, including speed and movement of all vehicles. Wayne Smook, senior director of airside operations and environment for the Calgary Airport Authority, said that the recording function provides due diligence in case of a runway incident or accident. In Detroit, operations personnel have been working to reduce the amount of chemicals used during the winter and have increased their use of forced air technology to deice planes. The airport has made a push for greater use of forced air technology for several reasons, including Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) effluent guidelines. Bryan Wagoner, environmental programs administrator at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, said Detroit Metro is the largest user of deicing fluid in the world. Concern for a possible urea ban coupled with shortages of potassium acetate also played into Detroit’s | august/september 2008


winter operations

“We have got to start thinking smarter. Glycol is going to cost us more to buy and recycle, and the EPA will regulate it more.�

18 | august/september 2008

move toward forced air technology. With an effluent disposal fee of close to $8 a gallon, “The more you spray, the more you pay,” said Wagoner. The combination of the savings from the lowered disposal fees and the purchase of less deicing fluid means that the specialized trucks needed for forced air can be bought quickly, said Wagoner. At Cleveland Hopkins International, operations personnel are using proportional mix technology to reduce the amount of glycol needed to deice planes as a way to lower their dependency on the petroleum-based product. The trucks that deicing company AeroMag 2000 uses in Cleveland combine glycol concentrate with water and balance the mix according to the outside temperature, thus ensuring that the fluid is at the correct temperature.

Tom Powers, general manager of AeroMag 2000, said that reduced glycol use due to the proportional mix technology has resulted in the company using 17 percent less of the product than before. In addition to using glycol more efficiently, AeroMag 2000 also is using labor more effectively by employing single-operator vehicles, Powers said. The trucks being used allow for the operator of the cab to drive the vehicle as well. This means reduced labor costs, training costs and the ability to get aircraft cleaned off faster. AeroMag 2000 has been able to deice 300 aircraft in a day with 14 single manned vehicles, Powers said. “We have got to start thinking smarter. Glycol is going to cost us more to buy and recycle, and the EPA will regulate it more,” he said. A The information above was provided during AAAE’s Eighth Annual Large Hub Winter Operations Conference, held July 27-29 at New York’s LaGuardia airport. The three-day conference featured speakers that included JetBlue CEO Dave Barger, as well as operations directors from airports across the snow belt. The July 2009 conference will be held in Detroit. | august/september 2008


TSC Receives High Praise In New Survey


AAE’s Transportation Security Clearinghouse (TSC) continues to be rated by its airport and airline users as highly responsive, efficient and cost-effective, according to the results of a quarterly customer satisfaction survey completed in July. As the largest civilian clearinghouse in the nation, processing both Criminal History Record Checks (CHRC) and name-based background vetting requests, TSC has facilitated more than 3.2 million biometrically based and more than 1.4 million biographical background checks since its startup in 2002. The just-completed survey, while emphasizing TSC’s value to its users, also underscores that the clearinghouse is a leader in customer service. TSC won repeated praise from respondents for offering guidance on issues of compliance and placing a high priority on resolving problems promptly. Many respondents contact TSC at least several times a day and reported that TSC staff “is always looking out for the good of the customer.” This includes notifying users of changed TSA badging requirements through TSC’s Web site and other communication tools such as alerts, notices and bulletins.

Survey Comments: “I continue to be pleased and greatly appreciative of the level of personal and professional customer service TSC provides.” “It is extremely important to airports to know that we can continue to rely on the experience, know-how and dedication of the TSC.”

20| |August/September august/september2008 2008

‘Highly Satisfactory’ Experiences Nearly 30 percent of the total survey responses were from Cat X/Cat I airports. Ninety-eight percent of those responding rated their experience with TSC as highly satisfactory overall. Further, 92 percent of respondents reported that they regularly use TSC’s expertise, while more than 95 percent surveyed found great value in TSC’s services in terms of convenience and cost effectiveness. TSC provides background check services at a cost of 50 percent to 70 percent less than other service providers in the transportation industry in less than half the amount of time. In October 2007, TSC implemented a fee reduction that saves airports more than $1 million annually. The fee reduction lowered the cost per fingerprint record for the aviation community from $29 to $27, representing the second $2 decrease in the fee.

Among the TSC staff are:

Jessica Dawson Team Leader, TSC

Critical Function TSC operates in partnership with TSA and the federal government, which performs the actual vetting of individuals. Specifically, TSC provides a number of critical functions, including expedited processing and resolution of fingerprint-based and name-based checks through required federal channels; cutting-edge quality assurance processes to provide efficient, accurate and complete fingerprint and data submissions; centralized billing tied to record submittals; provision for regulated entities to submit fingerprints either electronically or physically on “inked cards”; secure handling of investigation results; accounting reconciliation services; standardization of airport interface with federal databases; facilitation of access to training expertise and assistance to the industry in purchasing electronic fingerprinting equipment; and facilitation of the resubmission of fingerprints for regulated parties. TSC also serves as the Central Information Management Systems (CIMS) for the nationwide, interoperable Registered Traveler program. CIMS is the world’s most advanced interoperable information management system of travelers’ biometric data, using both fingerprint and iris biometric data.

Jesse Hill Internet Developer

Danielle Barnett Customer Service Representative

“We are proud of TSC’s consistent record of excellent customer service to airports and the aviation industry,” AAAE President Charles Barclay commented. “In the six years that TSC has been in operation, we’ve reduced the average turnaround time for a background check; we’ve developed a system with an error rate four times lower than that of the average federal agency; and we’ve reduced the price our customers pay. TSC also provides great value as the Central Identity Management System for the Registered Traveler program and serves as an outstanding example of the results that a first-class team can produce.” A| |august/september August/September2008 2008


snow removal

The Deicing Process

by Michael Codrington


A Case Study at Toronto Pearson International Airport


n the current environment of elevated fuel prices and high overhead costs, competitive pressures necessitate greater efficiencies in airport deicing operations. Safety also is a prime driver, as any safety incident, beyond its human impact, will have both direct and indirect (insurance, procedural/administrative, etc.) costs associated with it. The Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) is responsible for the day-to-day operation at Pearson International Airport, the busiest airport in Canada. During winter, the process of deicing/anti-icing of aircraft is key to the safe, efficient flow of air traffic through this critical hub. GTAA has a central deicing facility (CDF) comprised of an “icehouse� cab, staging/deicing pad areas and associated taxiways, and glycol blending and recycling facilities for deicing operations at 22

Pearson. Operation of the CDF is carried out by Servisair Inc., with Inland Technologies providing spent-glycol processing services. Aircraft are guided through the deicing process at the CDF by 48 signboards placed in the middle and at either end of pad safe zones. The signboards are connected through fiber links to the CDF’s Bay Management System, a system that automates the movement and positioning of aircraft on the staging/ deicing bays through visual instruction to pilots. In conjunction with verbal instruction, the Bay Management System provides a safe and efficient means of guiding aircraft through all phases of deicing/anti-icing operations.

Financial Returns Automating the movement and guidance of aircraft during deicing operations produces a safe, steady, efficient and predictable flow of aircraft. Visual guidance through aircraft ingress, staging, fluid application and aircraft egress reduces pilot error and provides for the most efficient flow of aircraft. The improved safety and efficiency reduce the costs of insurance and fuel burn, and minimize the costs associated with delays from extended ground time. Several challenges emerge in the provision of visual instruction within a deicing environment. Most prominent among these are the means to prevent ingress of glycol into signboard enclosures, and the need for an integrated, high-reliability system to execute all automated functions. Giffels Professional Engineering was tasked in 2000 with the design, installation and commissioning of an automated system to guide aircraft through the deicing process at the CDF, and has supported and performed many enhancements in the ensuing years. The automation of the CDF at Pearson has resulted in major economic | august/september 2008

benefits to the GTAA, the airlines and the general public. These benefits have been brought about primarily due to the improved throughput that has resulted from the provision of visual instruction and the concomitant reduction in radio chatter. The intensity of the sign displays automatically is adjusted to meet ambient light conditions, and the signboard lettering and graphics conform to Transport Canada Airfield Standards, providing excellent visibility, regardless of weather conditions. Aircraft are guided into assigned bays and are accurately positioned within staging and deicing areas by the system. The Bay Management System used at this facility incorporates a “virtual flightstrip� that has replaced a paper flightstrip system. These virtual strips are graphical depictions of flightstrips appearing on the computers of cab personnel; they provide for more efficient transfer of aircraft responsibility, as well as improved interaction among cab personnel. An additional benefit that derives from the virtual flightstrip system is the ability to analyze and quantify aircraft throughput and identify any bottlenecks in the deicing process.

Increased Safety All deicing vehicles on pads at the CDF must be confirmed to be out of the way before clearance is given to any aircraft to leave a deicing bay. Only after safe confirmation is attained can radio frequency and exit instructions be posted on the signboards. The visual instructions, coupled with verbal confirmation, provide for highly accurate directions to pilots. The reduction in insurance costs, resulting from the reduced frequency of safety incidents, and in operational costs, resulting from the enhanced operational efficiency, can be significant.

Accounting And Billing Data from the virtual flightstrips are logged and stored in a large database. The data includes start time, holdover time, end time, fluid type, and any comments that staff may have noted during deicing operations. The database is accessed by Servisair invoicing systems to provide accurate and timely billing to carriers, reducing the typical billing cycle by seven days and cutting the administrative and clerical costs by half.

Efficient Glycol Storage Glycol is delivered and stored in concentrated form at the CDF and blended with water to pre-determined concentrations according to varied winter temperatures. A dedicated monitoring and control system ensures that glycol concentrations are precise. This automated blending system optimizes storage capacity, and essentially increases inventory and reduces fluid delivery costs by 50 percent.

Environmental Benefits Significant benefits are associated with avoidance of environmental incidents. An automated glycol recovery system at the CDF ensures that spent fluid is efficiently captured, and that all environmental regulations are strictly followed. Spent fluid is streamed and captured into low- and high-concentration tanks. Low-concentrate fluid is pumped directly to sanitary treatment facilities, and high concentrate is processed on-site with the recycled product sold into a secondary market.

Enhancements Underway Currently, the GTAA is implementing a data transfer system to enhance further the safety of deicing operations. This system, using radio frequency (RF) communications, will enable deicing vehicles to transmit data electronically, thereby alleviating the duties of cab personnel and deicing vehicle operators, and facilitating placement of more deicing vehicles per bay. Additionally, the status of key deicing vehicle parameters will be acquired through RF communications, permitting efficient scheduling and assignment of vehicles to deicing bays. Additional work underway will provide the ability to individually power down signboards remotely, through system software. Energy costs can be brought down significantly by idling signboards that are not in use. Previous operation of the CDF was bi-directional, with CDF staff having the ability to reverse the flow of aircraft traffic through the facility, based on runway/taxiway configuration. The GTAA recently has approved a plan to make the flow uni-directional, which will eliminate the time period required to implement a change in direction. Elimination of this changeover period is significant, particularly in conditions of heavy deicing activity. A Michael Codrington is a senior engineer-control systems for Giffels Professional Engineers, a member of the IBI Group. | august/september 2008



AAE hosted an industry Energy/Air Service Summit on July 10 that drew nearly 200 senior airline and airport representatives, leaders from Congress and federal agencies, energy sector officials and financial experts to analyze the impact of rising oil prices on air service and discuss possible strategies and outcomes. The summit followed by one day AAAE’s Energy/Air Service Task Force inaugural meeting. Representatives of more than 50 airports of all sizes from across the country met in Washington, D.C., as part of the task force, to discuss and address increased fuel prices and their impact on air service nationwide. “The aviation fuel crisis is beginning to have a significant impact on air service to communities across the country, as airport executives made abundantly clear during this important task force meeting,” said AAAE Chair and Aspen/Pitkin County Airport Director Jim Elwood, A.A.E. “The situation is stark and demands immediate attention from Washington decisionmakers.”

as airlines are being impacted negatively by the rising cost of energy. “Airport directors tell me their budgets are being hit from all directions,” she told delegates. “Higher energy prices add to operating costs, while the slowing economy and cutbacks in airline flight schedules reduce airport revenues, including passenger facility charges.” She commended airports “for doing what you have to do to squeeze inefficiency out of your operations” and for developing creative ways to reduce energy consumption. “I have heard that airports that are able and equipped are making power available at the gate and providing pre-conditioned air,” she said. “As a result, airlines are able to turn their engines off while at the gate and save valuable fuel. Airports also are working with the airlines and our Air Traffic Organization for ways to more efficiently manage the airfield to reduce airfield taxi times.”

Service Cuts

Peters announced that FAA Acting Administrator Robert Sturgell would meet over the summer months with key aviation stakeholders to discuss initiatives and strategies to help reduce aviation fuel costs. Implementation of NextGen technology will be accelerated in specific ways, she said. For airports, NextGen will mean better use of capacity, greater design flexibility, reduced physical footprint and reduced separation between runways, she said. “Again and again, aviation has shown its resilience,”

During the task force meeting, airport executives described the specific effect airline capacity cuts are having on air service to their airports and communities. A number of airports anticipate 10 percent to 20 percent reductions in service in 2008 compared with 2007, with some detailing losses of 60 percent to 100 percent. DOT Secretary Mary Peters opened the Energy/Air Service Summit by acknowledging that airports as well

24 | August/September 2008

NextGen Technology

Peters told delegates. “I am confident that, with the right incentives, this dynamic industry can retool and refuel to cope with high energy costs.”

‘A Perilous Time’ Sen. Byron Dorgan (D-N.D.), senior member of the Senate Commerce Committee and the aviation subcommittee, told delegates that it is “a very perilous time to run an airline or an airport.” He argued that the spike in the price of oil largely is due to “unbridled, reckless, excess speculation,” and he stated that, “We need to set the futures market straight and wring speculators out of it.” Dorgan urged delegates to contact their members of Congress and press for “short-term aggressive measures,” as well as long-term initiatives to deal with the energy crisis. Delegates also heard from panels that included airline/ energy analysts, the airline/general aviation/labor perspective, airports and government. John Heimlich, vice president and chief economist of the Air Transport Association, noted that while large airports “are not immune” to the effect of escalating oil prices, small communities or those that are reliant on a single carrier are being impacted disproportionately. If oil prices remain at this level for another year, an “iconic” airline name or two will disappear, predicted William Swelbar, research engineer at the MIT International Center for Air Transportation. Members of the airports panel agreed that the industry faces a long-term problem that requires airports to

position themselves for the downturn. Larry Cox, A.A.E., president and CEO of the MemphisShelby County Airport Authority, stated that his authority is practicing “prudent cost management” and is prepared “to do whatever we have to do to maintain our airline service.”

Be Flexible Elaine Roberts, A.A.E., president and CEO of the Columbus Regional Airport Authority, said that Port Columbus International in April, following the shutdown of Skybus, implemented a number of costcutting steps, including a reduction in the operating budget and a hiring and wage freeze. Ben DeCosta, A.A.E., general manager of HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International, said his strategy is to be flexible. There are “no clear answers and no silver bullets,” he said. Industry organizations that joined with AAAE to cosponsor the summit were: the South Central Chapter/ AAAE, Air Transport Association, International Air Transport Association, Airports Council InternationalNA, Regional Airline Association, National Business Aviation Association, Air Line Pilots Association, National Air Carrier Association, Air Carrier Association of America and Cargo Airline Association. Video highlights of the summit have been posted on the official meeting site at The summit programming also is available on AAAE’s ANTN Digicast service (, which requires a subscription.

photos by Jenifer Morris and Bill Krumpelman | August/September 2008


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Energy Crisis Hits GA Airports


hile U.S. media outlets are publicizing the service cutbacks expected at commercial service airports due to the worsening energy crisis and its effect on fuel prices, general aviation airports also are voicing concern about the impact that fuel availability and cost will have on their operations. At the AAAE-led Energy/Air Service Summit held July 10 in Washington, D.C., a number of GA airport officials discussed in public and in private their worries about the future health of their fueling operations and the potential for a drop-off in corporate travel. For GA airports that are the sole provider of fuel at their facilities, a drop in fuel deliveries means a direct decline in airport revenues. “That’s what pays for the airport,” one director said. A decline in operations could impact the funding of his airport’s FAA contract control tower, one GA official said. If operations fall below a certain level, the airport is faced with losing 100 percent federal funding for controller staffing and would be transferred to the cost-share program. Yet, despite these nagging concerns, other GA airport officials told summit delegates that business aviation continues to thrive, even with a falloff in jet fuel sales. Ed Bolen, president of the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA), told delegates that his members “buy at the pump. We don’t have volume discounts, so the impact is heavy on us.” Business aircraft users are implementing a number of steps to reduce fuel usage, he said. These include flying at lower speeds; cutting back on hours flown; only going to airports with at least two FBOs; and doing more flight planning. He said the aviation industry should recommit itself to advocating for rapid deployment of NextGen technology, which is intended to update the nation’s air traffic control system to ensure that future safety, capacity and environmental needs are met. DOT Secretary Mary Peters, who opened the summit, stated that, “American aviation is struggling with one of the greatest challenges in its history.” She outlined the administration’s position in support of expanding domestic oil supply by allowing drilling in areas of the country now off-limits. Peters highlighted the steps her department is taking to assist aviation, noting that, “We have given general aviation business jets approaching Cincinnati area airports the flexibility to fly higher

longer.” However, she emphasized that, “The most dramatic improvements will be realized through the transition to a modern, satellite-based air traffic control system.” To achieve these benefits faster, FAA Acting Administrator Robert Sturgell “is leading the charge” to accelerate implementation of NextGen technology, Peters told delegates. “By improving operations and taking advantage of technology, we can manage our airspace and our ground space much more efficiently than we do today, saving significant amounts of fuel,” she said.

On the GA security front, AAAE recently surveyed its GA members to learn the issues of most pressing importance to them at this time. An initial analysis of the survey results indicated that issues related to access control, funding, perimeter security and badging are the most important for non-commercial service and general aviation airports. Of the issues identified, funding, or lack thereof, was the top priority for GA airports.   As always, AAAE continues to advocate for federal funding to implement GA security measures, especially measures mandated by TSA or DHS. In a recent interview with AAAE staff, Michal Morgan, TSA’s general manager for GA, noted that TSA is required to conduct a GA security vulnerability assessment. According to Morgan, this assessment will provide the agency with the necessary data to determine the feasibility of a grant program. Morgan stated that TSA is working with the GA community and leveraging the security guidelines and security assessment tool from the GA Airport Security Guidelines of 2004 to develop a process and a tool for GA airports. More information is expected in the coming weeks. A | august/september 2008


snow removal

Snow W

hen it comes to snow removal at large commercial service airports, life may be a bit easier with a sizeable budget and ample staffing. But, how about snow removal at small hub airports, where careful planning is necessary to maximize both resources and personnel?

30 | august/september 2008

Snow crews at small airports also are faced with implementing a revised FAA advisory circular on snow removal that emphasizes clearance times, which just adds to the pressure. One airport that seems to have it figured out is New York’s Syracuse Hancock International. Syracuse has won the Northeast Chapter-AAAE’s prestigious Balchen Post award for outstanding achievement in airport snow and ice control eight times, plus has earned one honorable mention. Award recipients must excel in several snow removal categories, including the snow removal plan, equipment readiness and personnel training, overall safety awareness, the effectiveness of the snow plan, communication with airport

Airfield Maintenance Supervisor John Smorol said that the snow removal strategy is to keep one of the airport’s two active runways open, and to do as much clean-up as possible at night.

photos by jim martin

Removal Small Hub Style By Jeff Price

stakeholders and post-storm clean-up. Syracuse Hancock International is located just north of the city of Syracuse, a place that is the “beneficiary” of lake effect snow from nearby Onondaga Lake and Nor’easter storms, which combine to produce an average local snowfall of 115.6 inches per year. The city itself frequently receives the annual Golden Snowball Award, which is presented by the cities of Albany, Buffalo, Binghamton, Rochester and Syracuse to the Upstate New York city receiving the most snowfall in a season. With statistics like that, it’s amazing that Syracuse International not only can keep up with the snowfall, but also do it well enough to win awards. At the heart of Syracuse’s snow removal efforts are the maintenance and operation divisions of the department of aviation. They are responsible for snow removal and ice control on the runways and taxiways and more than 100 lane miles of pavement, including landside access routes. Airfield crews must keep in excess of 16 airlines happy to ensure that passengers have clear landing surfaces. Airfield Maintenance Supervisor John Smorol, who has been at the airport for 23 years, said that the snow removal strategy is to keep one of the airport’s two active

runways open, and to do as much clean-up as possible at night. “Snow removal is a little bit easier than at large hubs,” said Smorol. “We have two runways, and we try to keep the main runway open at all times. During the day, we do the best we can on both runways without closing, but if the second one gets too much snow, we just close it.” Since the airport receives more than 100 inches of snow annually, the second runway cannot be neglected for too long as snow accumulations quickly will build up. “We try not to let it stay closed for more than a day or so, so we work on it when we can,” explained Smorol. Airport crews use the evening shifts when flight operations drop off to catch up on areas that were left untouched during the day. The airport is responsible for the runways and taxiways and primary access roads to the airport. Ramp snow removal is contracted out. Airport operations personnel conduct airfield inspections after snow removal operations, issue NOTAMS as needed, and communicate airfield conditions to the air carriers to ensure safe operations. “Snow removal at any airport should always focus on the safety issues for passengers, aircraft and on snow removal | august/september 2008


snow removal

equipment operators,” explained Tim Phillips, a principal with Critical Path, Inc., in Missoula, Mont. Phillips’ company provides snow removal consulting services and was called in to help revise snow removal plans at Denver International after a blizzard in 2006 closed the airport for several days. “In today’s snow removal world, it is all about safety and speed. If you can remove the snow more quickly, you reduce the accumulation of snow, which makes subsequent removal easier and faster. This reduces the associated risks to pilots and snow removal equipment operators,” he said. While many small hub and general aviation airports are functioning with last decade’s model of snow removal equipment, Syracuse has gone the other way with great results. The airport has two multi-function Patria Vammas snow removal units. With a plow blade on the front and a sweeper cartridge in the center of the Vammas, one unit can do the work of two operators. Smorol sets the front plow blade about an inch off the ground, which helps reduce wear and tear on the pavement and the blade, then the broom comes in immediately behind to dust off the pavement. “We used to have to go with plows first, then brooms,” Smorol said. “Now I only need one guy to do two functions.” Phillips agreed that the multifunction unit is the correct approach. “I believe that the use of highspeed, multi-function snow removal equipment has a higher cost-benefit ratio at small airports than at large airports. High-tech snow removal equipment is not just for the large snow belt airports, it makes sense for smaller operators, too. “The new [FAA] advisory circular on snow removal increases the premium on speed of snow removal,” 32 | august/september 2008

Phillips added. “With high-speed, multi-function equipment, you remove two or three times the amount of snow using half the number of snow removal equipment operators in a given time period.” Syracuse also has seven brooms and five large plows with sanders on the back, four rotary plows (blowers) and two other sweepers/ blades. The airport does some deicing with potasssium acetate but only if freezing rain is in the forecast. Otherwise, personnel put down

photo by jim martin

While many small hub and general aviation airports are functioning with last decade’s model of snow removal equipment, Syracuse has gone the other way with great results. | august/september 2008


snow removal

sand without chemical to help improve traction for landing aircraft. The airport has not increased the size of its maintenance crew since Smorol started at the airport — back in the 1980s, around the first time Syracuse was winning the Balchen Post award. Smorol attributed his success to retaining good people, conducting annual training, even for the veterans, and strategic staff scheduling. During snow ops, the airport puts most of its 25 total crewmembers on the day and midnight shift. A skeleton crew on the swing shift is supplemented by day shifters staying over a few hours and midnight workers coming in a few hours early. As part of the annual summer training, Smorol requires his crews to practice snow scenarios to see how they work out solutions. In the winter, during snow evolutions, Smorol personally inspects the airfield 0801-026 Anz PTX Showguide Baggage Handling

with his crew leaders, and then maps out a removal strategy. However, Smorol was quick to give credit for the airport’s success to his crew. “I’ve got to say that the guys I have out here are the guys that have been out here for a few years,” Smorol said. “If things go good, they take the credit, if things go bad, I take the fall. We recognize them at the end of the year, and the airlines send letters to the (Balchen Post selection) committee.” With eight Balchen Post awards and an honorable mention, it sounds as though the airlines are well satisfied with the snow crew at Syracuse Hancock International Airport. A Jeff Price is a professor of aviation management at Metropolitan State College of Denver and owner of Leading Edge Strategies, an airport training and consulting firm.


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A Report for the Aviation Industry Prepared by Burns & McDonnell

2008 Aviation Special Report

THE COLOR OF SUCCESS At a time when sustainability initiatives and high fuel prices put pressure on costs, cost cutting is more challenging than ever. Our clients don’t shy away from a challenge, and neither do we. The question is: How do our aviation clients maintain cost efficiency while embarking on the initiatives they need to stay competitive and serve their customers?


That’s where we can help. Within this issue of the Burns & McDonnell aviation industry report, our aviation professionals discuss Burns & McDonnell’s successes


in lowering energy costs, how information technology can be efficient for our aviation clients, and the cost and


operation advantages that can be gained through building

Aviation & Facilities Group

information models.

Burns & McDonnell These topics get to the heart of what’s important to our clients: maintaining efficiency, minimizing their bottom line while preserving their competitive edge. And that gets to the heart of what’s important to us: finding ways to make our clients more effective — and more successful.

Burns & McDonnell




















CORPORATE MARKETING DIRECTOR: Joe Brooks CONTRIBUTING EDITORS: Darla Amstein, Joe Bathke, Margaret Chilcoat, Kindra Guetlich PRINTING PRODUCTION MANAGER: Teri Stegmann DESIGN: Lee Orrison EXECUTIVE COORDINATORS: Erin Pursel, Megan Stephens

© 2008 Burns & McDonnell

2008 Aviation Special Report

Marketing, Communications & Research


JET FUEL By Mike Roberts, PE The desire to use more environmentally friendly energy

As noted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,

sources coupled with the rising cost of petroleum products

another key element for successful use of an alternative fuel

has the transportation industry, including the aviation sector,

is the fuel’s compatibility with current aircraft and airport

taking a serious look at alternative fuels.

infrastructure. Infrastructure for supply, delivery and storage of aircraft fuel is specifically optimized for kerosene fuels.

Various alternative fuels have been considered for use in aircraft,

Any significant change in fuel type or specification would require

including ethanol. Ethanol is in mass production and made from

modifications to all of these elements. Changes in aircraft

renewable sources. However, ethanol, like many other potential

design and/or airport infrastructure involve major efforts and

alternatives, is not practical for aviation fuel because it doesn’t

costs, so to be practical, alternative fuels must work

provide sufficient energy in terms of its energy-to-mass content.

with existing aircraft equipment and support infrastructure.

For the weight-conscious aviation industry, an adequate A promising alternative fuel that meets these criteria can be

in determining acceptable fuels.

created synthetically using the Fischer-Tropsch process


energy-to-mass ratio is one of the most important factors

(a catalyzed chemical reaction) to convert natural gas, coal and even biomass (oils from edible and inedible animal fats, waste oils and agricultural crops such as soybeans, algae, etc.) into liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In this case, synthetic jet fuel. Using natural gas and to a more limited extent coal, this approach to creating synthetic jet fuel has been in development since the mid-1990s. Recently, there has been a focus developing renewable synthetic jet fuel made from biomass. Biomass fuels have exhibited qualities similar to synthetic fuels developed from natural gas and coal. Syntroleum, a synthetic According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a key element for successful use of an alternative fuel is the fuel’s compatibility with current aircraft and airport infrastructure. Photo courtesy of the 446th Airlift wing.

fuel supplier, is scheduled to provide 500 gallons of ultra-clean,

Burns & McDonnell

renewable, synthetic jet fuel produced entirely from animal fats

Fischer-Tropsch process and blended with 50 percent

for research development and performance testing in military

petroleum-derived jet fuel has been used by every commercial

turbine applications as part of the U.S. Department of Defense

airplane that passes through the airport. In 2007, flight testing

assured fuels program, aimed at evaluating the possibility

with an Airbus A380 aircraft was conducted with one of its four

of using renewable alternative jet fuel made from biomass.

engines running for three hours on a blend of synthetic jet fuel

Initial testing has shown that synthetic jet fuel developed with

and normal aviation fuel.

biomass exactly matches the fuel created from natural gas. The advantage of synthetic jet fuel created from natural gas On the commercial air carrier front, while industry and the

and/or coal is the exciting possibility of lessening our

public alike are excited by the potential of synthetically created

dependence on petroleum products and our ever-increasing

alternate fuel, little activity is happening in the commercial jet

demand for foreign oil. In addition, tests have found synthetic

sector. One success story is the airport in Johannesburg,

fuel to be less polluting — as it has little or no sulfur content.

South Africa. For years, jet fuel made from coal using the



2008 Aviation Special Report


By Ed Mardiat, DBIA Everyone in the aviation industry is concerned about rising

The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority and Burns &

costs resulting from the escalation of aviation fuel prices, but

McDonnell are planning a new energy efficient chiller plant

energy expenditures at ground-based facilities are also a

at Dulles International Airport. One of the innovations under

concern for airport operations. Today, more than ever, the

consideration is a large chilled water thermal energy storage

industry needs to rethink the energy efficiency of aircraft,

tank that will allow electric centrifugal chillers to be turned off

ground transportation, terminals and other operational facilities.

during peak demand periods. This will significantly reduce the airport’s seasonal energy costs while increasing reliability and

Burns & McDonnell is working with aviation clients to minimize

operational flexibility.

the risk of rising fuel costs and maximize the energy efficiency of airport facilities.

Two years ago, the City of Kansas City, Mo., selected Burns &


McDonnell to operate and maintain the central utility plant that Columbus Regional Airport Authority and Burns & McDonnell

serves the American Airlines overhaul base at Kansas City

recently implemented a comprehensive energy conservation

International Airport. In addition to operational cost savings

program at Port Columbus International Airport to increase

through improved staff utilization, Burns & McDonnell is working

the overall energy efficiency of the terminal. The program

with American Airlines and the city to optimize the chilled water

included: new energy-efficient boilers, lighting replacement

supply and return systems for improved efficiency and reduced

and controls, power quality improvements, escalator controls,

energy costs.

energy-management enhancements to timed shutoff of flight information displays and gate area HVAC systems to reduce

Burns & McDonnell is also working with the Department of

energy use when airlines are not using gates. The improvements

Energy to develop modular and packaged combined heat

will be funded by $7 million in annual energy savings, which are

and power (CHP) generation. CHP systems will allow airports

guaranteed and verified by Burns & McDonnell.

to generate electricity on-site while using the waste heat to produce useful thermal energy without additional fuel. These types of systems have been installed at more than 200 hospitals and other critical-energy-needs facilities across the United States. When installed at airports, these on-site energy systems will provide improved efficiency and reliability, while significantly reducing emissions when compared to central utility plants fed from the commercial grid. During these uncertain economic times, Burns & McDonnell brings the necessary expertise and resources to aviation facility projects, allowing minimized risk and maximized operational efficiencies that lead to an improved bottom line.

Among the transformations that have taken place at Port Columbus International Airport: high-efficiency lighting systems and integration of mechanical and electrical systems with the airport’s flight information display system.

Burns & McDonnell

BUILDING COMMISSIONING: Helping Your Facility Achieve an On-Time Arrival

By Gene Sieve, PE, LEED® AP Building owners in the public and private sectors are

As the construction industry continues to realize the value of

increasingly turning to building commissioning to help get their

commissioning, an interest in a more inclusive validation of

facilities into operation with as few warranty-period problems as

facility construction and performance is developing. Fueled

possible. These owners recognize that construction deficiencies,

by sustainability initiatives such as the U.S. Green Building

which traditionally go unnoticed, can be minimized through the

Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

execution of a commissioning process.

(LEED®) program, the commissioning of facility components such as the building envelope (walls, windows, roof assemblies,

In the mid-1990s, the construction industry developed

etc.) are being requested by building owners. Owners are

formalized processes to use in the commissioning of

learning that even the most optimized, trouble-free HVAC

buildings and building systems. Commissioning, as defined

systems do not provide the value of efficient operation if

by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air

the building envelope is not constructed with the same

Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), is the process of verifying

level of quality.

and documenting that the facility and all of its systems and Burns & McDonnell’s Commissioning Services Group

and maintained to meet the owner’s project requirements.

has assisted many building owners in getting their facilities ready for occupancy and operation. The formalized

The commissioning approach includes a holistic process that

performance validation process provides a driver for project

spans from pre-design planning to post-construction operation.

completion and gives owners an assurance that building

It can be thought of as a checks-and-balances system. The

systems can provide better, more trouble-free operation

steps include:

at the onset of occupancy.

• • •

Clearly document the owner’s project requirements (OPR). Confirm that the construction documents’ intent meets the OPR. Evaluate construction to confirm that long-term maintenance and operations aspects of equipment

and systems are accommodated. Verify proper coordination among systems, assemblies and all contractors, subcontractors, vendors and manufacturers

• • •

of furnished equipment and assemblies. Systematically verify and document that systems and assemblies perform according to the OPR. Verify that operation and maintenance personnel and occupants are properly trained. Establish performance baselines for building systems to be used by the building owner for ongoing performance measurement. Building commissioning saves costly delays and limits potential problems.

2008 Aviation Special Report


assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, operated


I.T. By Ron Crain In spite of technological advancements, the construction and

organization’s business objectives and operational requirements.

information technology (IT) industries are still at odds about

Then, a document specifying how IT systems will achieve or

how to incorporate technology into the design-bid-build

support those goals is created, followed by a procurement

process. This debate comes partially from each industry’s

process where function and performance have a higher priority

approach to project delivery.

than the lowest cost. These opposing goals often result in a head-on collision during the construction project.

Historically, the construction process has been precisely outlined — requests for information; bidding; schematic

Both disciplines, however, have come to understand the

design; programming; 15 percent, 35 percent and final

problems associated with these traditional approaches.

design; punch lists; and close out — while the IT process

In an effort to shorten delivery times, create better solutions

is far less defined.

and manage budgets, the construction industry is moving

The construction industry is occupied with maintaining

construction management and integrated project delivery.

margins, obtaining the lowest-bidding providers, permitting

System integrators and technology companies are looking

and inspections, and conducting functional and performance

for ways to engage the architect and engineer earlier in the

testing. The IT process typically begins with identifying an

design and construction processes to assure the facility


to alternative delivery processes, including design-build,

needs of IT are met. To resolve this dilemma, Burns & McDonnell offers integrated technology project delivery. Based on the integrated technology project delivery process first described by the Lean Construction Institute and adopted by the American Institue of Architects in 2007, it is a merging of airport technology systems, building information modeling (BIM) and the design-build contracting process now embraced by so many commercial and government organizations. This innovative, turnkey project delivery method stems from the combination of Burns & McDonnell’s century of experience as engineers and program managers; 10 years of delivering designbuild projects; worldwide airport design and construction expertise; and a technologically savvy staff. Information technology can only be successfully incorporated into the designbid-build process for airport design when new methodologies are considered. Burns & McDonnell’s approach of integrated technology project delivery eliminates the hassle of contracting, construction and schedule delays.

Burns & McDonnell

No longer is it necessary to produce a 100 percent bid package, which can waste time and money.

With integrated technology project delivery, the customer maintains control of system requirements and detailed design, but avoids all of the contracting and construction

Manages all construction issues and coordinates

Closes and documents the project

with the general contractor


hassle. Two major contractors — the general contractor and the technical systems contractor, Burns & McDonnell — effectively deliver the project. The integrated technology project delivery process is straightforward:

• •

Controlling cost through a method that makes the client feel comfortable — cost-plus, guaranteed maximum price or open book — is a primary concern of Burns & McDonnell’s

The client creates a requirements document, design

approach to integrated technology project delivery. Yet the

description or master plan and target cost using its

greatest advantage Burns & McDonnell’s integrated technology

conventional programming methodology.

project delivery offers is a compressed delivery schedule. When

The client performs a qualification-based selection

an element of the design is settled, we immediately begin

of a technology design-build contractor.

implementing it. Considering how rapidly technology changes, we can delay relevant hardware and software selection and

Burns & McDonnell takes care of the rest:

• • • • •

purchase until the last possible critical-path moment.

Completes the design jointly with the client Selects the exact hardware and software the

Together, we can work intelligently to achieve the business

client prefers

goals of the airport, unrestrained by conventional design-bid-

Contracts with the client’s selected suppliers

build procedures. With integrated technology project delivery,

and negotiates competitive pricing

Burns & McDonnell clients gain more control over critical design

Creates all engineering drawings, sealed as necessary

issues, yet avoid all pains of contracting and scheduling.

Performs quality control and peer review

2008 Aviation Special Report


Envisioning a Future Where Building Information Models Bring Value to All Stages of the Process By Mike Fenske, PE, DBIA, and Steve Cline, PE Building information modeling (BIM) is moving from dream to

While full implementation of all the possible functionality

reality and changing design and construction processes along

envisioned is still years away, the industry is moving with

the way. Although Burns & McDonnell has been modeling

accelerating speed.

buildings and other facilities in 3D for decades, the term BIM has only recently been accepted by the industry.

At Burns & McDonnell, our integrated delivery team is thinking out of the box. What if a design team had modeled the non-

Standards such as the National Building Information Modeling

critical portions of your facility in advance, allowing the focus

Standard have defined BIM as a “representation of the physical

of the design to be on the main function of the building rather

and functional characteristics� of a building. Thus, a building

than the bathrooms? What if an as-built model was integrated

information model is more than just an unintelligent 3D model.

with your building control system to allow building operators

It includes data about the fixtures, equipment and structure of

easy electronic access to information about the fixtures and

the building as well as specific information.

equipment? What if construction managers could minimize job


site personnel and create a cleaner and safer construction site?

Building information modeling is moving from dream to reality and changing design and construction processes along the way.

Burns & McDonnell

Facility Management Data An as-built BIM tied to fabrication and purchasing information allows airport operators access to information usually only accessible by searching through reams of drawings. The terminal BIM is tied to facility operation systems so building engineers can virtually control building systems while security personnel monitor access.

Schematic Data

Design Data

Initiating the building information model (BIM) during schematic design of a terminal enables superior space visualization allowing owners to make better informed decisions.

Areas such as passenger lounges, security areas and bathrooms are added to the schematic model.

At the schematic level, the model includes only the most critical components, such as space relationships and building form.

Architects are able to easily evaluate space constraints while engineers create structural, mechanical and electrical analysis models within the BIM.

Environmental Data


LEED Ž points are actively tracked as the design progresses allowing owners and designers to understand the environmental impact of their decisions. The resulting HVAC loads determine if the airport’s central plant can handle new loads from the terminal.

Bidding and Negotiation Data Whether the terminal is delivered through a design-build or design-bid-build process, subcontractors understand the 2D construction documents better when accompanied by a BIM. Quantity takeoffs from the model allow for more accurate bids and visualization of the project gives a savvy contractor an understanding of the complexities of the job.

Construction Management Data The terminal model is tied to the construction schedule creating a 4D representation of the building. Construction planners use the 4D model to evaluate construction positions and project sequencing. Subcontractors coordinate fabrication models with each other and fabricate more elements off site, creating a safer and cleaner construction site.

2008 Aviation Special Report

Construction Documents Extraordinary visualization in the earlier stages of the project allows the terminal’s stakeholders to make layout and functional changes early reducing the amount of time spent in this stage to complete construction documents. 2D construction documents are cut from the model, and changes to the BIM result in live changes to the drawings.


RECOVERY FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS By Grant Smith, PG Airports are continually required to renovate and add

operations. Airport construction projects also present unique

infrastructure to accommodate increased air traffic and

challenges in management of environmental aspects.

operational changes. Often these projects encounter contaminated soil and water. It is important to document

The following is an overview of the key steps recommended

the location, type and concentration of contaminated media

in planning and implementing an environmental program

as well as disposal and treatment costs, in order to seek

for an aviation construction project in order to maximize

environmental cost recovery. The leaseholder or former

the environmental cost recovery.

leaseholders should be approached early in the process to identify possible environmental costs that may be incurred during work on the leased areas.

Establish Risk-Based Standards for Soil and Groundwater Cleanup


This step should be taken well in advance of construction. Major airport projects also include demolition and construction

Establish risk-based, site-specific cleanup standards for

of facilities, activities that may have environmental impacts.

soil and groundwater through negotiation and coordination

Large construction projects pose challenges, including

with the airport authority and regulatory agency. Risk-based

arranging security clearances for work on the airport operations

standards will minimize the amount of contaminated material

area, and night work in order to minimize impact on aircraft gate

that has to be taken off site for disposal. The regulatory status

Environmental cost recovery in airport construction projects, like this terminal expansion at Philadelphia International Airport, requires careful documentation of details surrounding contaminants and their proper removal.

Burns & McDonnell

of any aviation fueling system should also be clarified with the appropriate agency. In some instances, airport hydrant systems

Develop Environmental Cost Tracking System

are exempt from federal underground storage tank regulations;

Develop a system to track environmental costs during individual

therefore, written clarification of the system’s regulatory status

phases of the project. Identifying potentially responsible parties

is recommended before construction starts.

and involving or keeping them informed from the beginning of

Conduct Environmental Baseline Assessment

the project may help in deferring cost during the project and aid in cost recovery efforts after construction.

Establish Communication with All Affected Parties

conditions prior to construction. This data set will serve

Establish a system to ensure that proper communication is

as the baseline condition for the leaseholder who is taking

maintained throughout the project with all parties, including

responsibility. In addition, a study of the existing area may be

airlines, leaseholders, contractors, the airport authority,

necessary for regulatory closure, as permits may be required

environmental regulators and other affected tenants.

for abandonment of system components and treatment and disposal of contaminated soil or water.

Implement Contracting Methods to Control Environmental Costs

Environmental considerations present unique challenges for airport construction projects. Careful planning, proper cost tracking and effective communication can make the entire process run more efficiently and cost effectively. Detailed

Develop special construction specifications for use in the

records of contaminated media encountered, its disposal and

bidding process. This will provide advance notice to bidders

treatment costs are critical to recovering environmental costs

regarding the environmental conditions likely to be encountered

from responsible parties after construction is complete.

and the procedures to be followed for handling impacted soil and groundwater. This step serves to control project costs and reduces the possibility of change orders for unknown environmental conditions.

Prepare Contaminated Soil and Water Management Plans Plan and describe detailed procedures to be followed in removing, handling, storing and disposing of contaminated soil and water encountered during construction.

2008 Aviation Special Report


footprint of the construction area to establish existing

Conduct a subsurface sampling program at the proposed



By Renita Mollman, PE, LEEDÂŽ AP, and Jeff Bourk, AAE Branson Airport Executive Director The City of Branson, Mo., eagerly awaits its new municipal

The back offices will include common break areas that can

airport, scheduled to open in May 2009. The new airport will be

double as training rooms or conference rooms. Since most

a single story with a four-gate terminal capable of handling more

of the ground handling activities will be performed by airport

than 1.4 million passengers. Early programming efforts, careful

staff, tenants at the airport will use a single locker and shower

planning for future expansions and minimizing overlap between

area — a feature that will reduce both initial construction and

operations will allow this 58,000-square-foot terminal, which

operating and maintenance costs.

also includes airport rescue and firefighting space, to operate with the same passenger convenience as much larger facilities.

Additionally, the baggage claim device is located at the

However, at about $200 per square foot, the initial construction

opposite end of the single-story structure from the ticketing

cost of this terminal is easily 25 percent to 30 percent less than

lobby and outbound baggage. This layout allows building

similar facilities, allowing lower operating costs for airlines.

expansion in both directions without impacting existing

All spaces are designed for maximum efficiency and flexibility.

designed for explosive trace detection machines. In-line devices

The interior check-in counters will have kiosks that can be

can be added with minor modifications to the belt device.


operations. The outbound baggage room is initially being

for common use or for use by individual carriers. The inside ticketing and check-in area will be supplemented with additional

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) checkpoint will

check-in kiosks next to the rental car return area immediately

have two screening lines. A third screening line can be added

outside the main entrance to the terminal.

with the simple movement of a wall and relocation of a few

This rendering shows the completed Branson Airport. The airport will have a 58,000-square-foot terminal that will operate with the same passenger convenience as much larger facilities.

Burns & McDonnell

offices. This design will allow all screening to remain in one location even when the ticketing and baggage claim areas are expanded. The airside lobby will include a retail area and a seating area that can easily be expanded with concourses on either side to accommodate future enplanements. The value engineering and programming efficiencies designed into this facility will help reduce operating costs for the airport and airlines. The savings also result in an overall lower cost base against revenue generated by the more than 9 million annual visitors to the Branson/Tri-Lakes region of southwestern Missouri.

All value engineering and programming efficiencies that have been designed and will be built into this facility will help reduce operating costs for the airport and airlines. 14


Maximizing gate usage is another way to save on lease

By Katherine Goudreau

passengers onto the planes to reduce wait time at the

and operational costs. Again, efficiently processing

As fuel costs rise, airlines are looking at not only traditional

gate saves money and increases the ability to use the same

methods of reducing costs but at new ideas too. Efficiently

gate for additional flights. Adding gate readers for the agents

processing passengers from the time they enter the airport

to quickly scan boarding passes and send passengers onto

through the time they board the plane and controlling the

the plane also saves time. While the plane is sitting on the

weight and amount of baggage brought onto the plane

ramp for boarding, providing ground power (400 hertz) and

are two areas airlines are targeting to reduce costs.

preconditioned air rather than running the aircraft power unit saves fuel, thereby reducing costs.

Self-service kiosks continue to be added not only to ticket counter locations but to areas convenient to travelers not

Using technology to help passengers move through the

checking bags, in order to help sort passengers for a more

airport more efficiently is helping airlines to save time,

efficient check-in. The self-service kiosks require significantly

resources and more efficiently use limited facilities. Burns &

less staff than a face-to-face check-in process. Scales at

McDonnell has actively partnered with airlines to implement

every check-in position, including self-service kiosks, are

these types of changes throughout their systems in the

proving to be valuable ways to monitor and control added

United States and abroad.

weight on planes while appropriately charging passengers for their share of the weight.

2008 Aviation Special Report



By Ted Beer, AIA, LEED® AP The world is going green — airports, employees, suppliers,

Renewable Energy Systems

vendors and, of course, passengers. Regardless of opinions on

Renewable energy systems such as photovoltaic solar panels

climate change, everyone wants to conserve natural resources

can be viable in some regions, depending on local power costs

and increase energy independence. Naturally, airports also want

and state and utility company incentives. These systems can be

everyone to know about their efforts.

financed by outside investment firms, provide guaranteed lower long-term electric rates and represent a public commitment by

The ways to go green seem endless, and most are beneficial.

the airport or airline to go green with no capital expense.

But when you begin to walk down that green path, be sure you get the most green for your dollar. The aviation industry requires

Large expansive roof systems such as on airport terminals

smart financial choices now more than ever. Green programs

and aircraft hangars are ideal candidates for photovoltaic

are no exception. Commitments to green programs by airports

solar power systems.

and airlines are public and subject to intense scrutiny, making


the choices all the more important.

Airport terminals and aircraft hangars are excellent candidates for rooftop photovoltaic solar power systems.

Burns & McDonnell

California, New Jersey, Arizona, Florida and other states

Choosing the Right Path to Green

with higher power rates and good incentives can make the

Mapping a comprehensive path for your green initiatives — or

renewable systems pay. The incentive programs are political

modifying your existing plan — can help you get the most green

in state and federal circles. Congress is wrangling with the

for your buck. Carefully list and evaluate your options based

Clean Energy Stimulus Act of 2008 to extend the 30 percent

on affordability, return on investment and public commitment

renewable energy tax credit, which is due to expire at the end

advantages. Even if your budget for such programs is small

of the year. State and utility company incentives also are in flux.

or nonexistent, there are programs to match. Some investor-

A reliable information source is the Database of State Incentives

financed options allow green energy improvements at virtually

for Renewables & Efficiency from North Carolina State

no cost.

University (, which is updated regularly. Going green and being a good steward of natural resources is an admirable goal that everyone can embrace. Managing your

programs, tax consequences, building codes, equipment

financial resources closely by choosing your green path wisely

and investors is essential before committing to a renewable

is a companion goal that makes good business sense.

energy program. Building codes often are inadequate for this fast-growing market, and shoddy — even dangerous — installations are being discovered. Charles Hemmeline, a solar program manager with the Department of Energy, reports that the department is trying to establish national standards for model building codes on photovoltaic systems, especially in electrical standards.

The ways to go green seem endless, and most are beneficial. But when you begin to walk down that green path, be sure you get the most green for your dollar.

2008 Aviation Special Report


Selecting a consultant or engineer familiar with the incentive


By Bret Pilney, PE, and Vince Aragon After Sept. 11, 2001, the focus on improving airport security

Administration requirements, provide flexibility for future

intensified. That is still the case today. With new technology,

requirements, be adapted into the existing area and add

airports can keep security at the lowest cost possible without

sustainability into the equation. Our efforts will address the technical and sustainable needs for the mechanical, electrical

sacrificing safety.

and communication systems. That’s where the rubber meets the road — keeping airports safe, cost-effectively. The cost focus is twofold: initial installation and

Faced with an aging airport infrastructure, the cost of upgrading

ongoing operations. While the initial installation cost can seem

versus leaving existing equipment needs to be considered.

high, the airport lives with ongoing operational costs, which over

Performing a life cycle cost (LCC) analysis addresses this issue.

the years will be many times the installation cost.

Air handling units are an example. The LCC examines the


overall cost — both initial installation and ongoing operations The Lambert-St. Louis International Airport is addressing these

— over the life of the improvements. Why do an LCC? Because

issues with the airport experience program. The initial phases

replacing or leaving existing equipment can have a significant

include improvements to the main terminal ticketing hall, baggage claim and concourses. Burns & McDonnell is responsible for the design enhancements and renovation of the main terminal and concourse mechanical, electrical, plumbing and special systems. One goal of this project is to improve the passenger’s experience by redesigning the passenger screening checkpoint area. The reconfigured checkpoint layout must meet the current Transportation Security

Lambert-St. Louis International Airport addresses security and cost-effectiveness with its airport experience program.

Burns & McDonnell

lifetime operation cost. Over the long term, installing new,

the airport. Heating, ventilating and air conditioning system

more efficient equipment may be more cost-effective.

improvements will keep costs down through efficiencies and controlling air quality throughout the airport.

Burns & McDonnell is also responsible for upgrading the utility, fire/life safety and communication systems. Improving

Cost-effective security improvements keep passengers moving,

the electrical system will decrease the energy required to run

safely and efficiently.

By Tony Schoenecker, PE, FPE, LEED® AP As more aviation facilities are executed using a fast-track, design-build method, the role of fire protection engineering becomes more imperative. In a traditional approach, each discipline completes its design, complying with the prescriptive codes applied to

A fire protection engineer’s task is to provide the best, most cost-effective method meeting the intent of the code and the stakeholder’s goals. The advantage of having a fire protection engineer on the project is that he or she pulls the other disciplines together when producing a consolidated approach to life safety and asset protection. Fire protection engineering brings great value to a project:

systems, reducing capital and life-of-the-building

a hangar it may be possible to use wet-pipe sprinklers, deluge foam-water sprinklers, low-expansion foam, highexpansion foam or a combination. However, in a support area for chemical storage compartmentalization, a better option may be to use suppression, which minimizes the environmental impact of runoff and hot gases containing potentially hazardous materials. Each of these options affects the mechanical, electrical and architectural approaches to designing the hangar.

2008 Aviation Special Report

inspection, testing and maintenance costs Minimizes costly retrofits required to obtain occupancy certification caused by issues with cross-discipline

the trade. Unfortunately, compliance of these codes can be achieved through several methods. For example, in

Eliminates unnecessary over-design and redundant

• •

coordination Increases mission continuity by decreasing the potential for false alarms Uses performance-based design to achieve project goals while complying with the appropriate codes


SAVE LIVES AND BUDGET WITH FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING 9400 Ward Parkway Kansas City, Mo. 64114 For more information contact: Randy D. Pope, PE Phone: (816) 822-3231 Fax: (816) 822-3517

OUR SERVICES For nearly 70 years, Burns & McDonnell has designed functional, efficient, flexible and cost-effective aviation facilities for clients around the world. Services include program management, master planning, facilities design-build, and environmental planning and design.



Burns & McDonnell

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Panama city airport Relocation Diary

by Randy Curtis, A.A.E.

Editor’s Note: Construction is underway on Florida’s new Panama City-Bay County International Airport, an ambitious undertaking that will create a greenfield facility designed to avoid the capacity limits of the current airport and to incorporate new security technologies. Airport Magazine is pleased to begin an occasional series of reports by airport Executive Director Randy Curtis, A.A.E., that will chronicle the progress of the new airport’s development. In this article, Curtis explains the reasons for relocating the airport.

The renderings (at left and below) show the intended look of the relocated Panama City-Bay County International Airport. The aerial view (above) shows the site work underway at the new airport location and the expanse of ground available for development.


anama City, Fla., which sits near the geographic center of the Florida Panhandle between two major U.S. Air Force bases, is a gateway to the region’s spectacular white sand beaches. Approximately 8 million tourists visit the region each year. The existing Panama City airport was built on 700 acres of land donated to the community in 1932. Commercial operations began in 1948 and have continued without interruption ever since. Today, Panama City-Bay County International Airport is a primary non-hub commercial service airport with nonstop airline service to Atlanta, Memphis, Charlotte, Cincinnati and Orlando. The existing passenger terminal complex is a 55,000-square-foot building that was redeveloped in 1996. The airport has two fixedbase operator (FBO) facilities that provide an array of services to the general aviation community. There is a 4,000-square-foot air cargo facility. 56 | august/september 2008

The new airport is intended to be a facility that will serve the entire region of the Florida Panhandle, opening new markets and creating new connections with other parts of the country in much the same way as Southwest Florida International Airport benefited the Fort Myers/Naples region.

The number of aircraft flight operations is up almost 22 percent through May 2008 in comparison with the same period last year, despite recordbreaking increases in aviation fuel prices.

Constrained Site While the existing airport was able to serve and grow with the community for more than 60 years, the time came when the site and the facilities no longer could be adapted to meet the community’s

needs. The constrained location in a residential area, the short runway, the non-standard safety areas, the adjacent incompatible land uses and the airspace conflicts with nearby Tyndall and Eglin Air Force bases were limiting air service and economic development in the region. The existing airport has two intersecting runways: primary Runway 14-32 and crosswind Runway 5-23. The primary runway is 6,304 feet long — one of the shortest commercial runways in Florida. The crosswind runway is 4,888 feet long and used primarily for general aviation. Neither the primary nor the crosswind runway has standard runway safety areas (RSAs). At the northwest end of the primary runway, only 58 feet separate the runway from the waters of St. Andrews Bay. A number of airlines have refused to serve this region because of the short runway, and that lack of competition keeps fares the highest of any airport in Florida. There is no room nearby for job-producing commercial development.

‘Preferred Alternative’ A large portion of the airport is in a hurricane surge zone and a coastal flood plain. Further, incompatible surrounding land uses and lack of significant land for expansion to support commercial/industrial activities and economic development made existing site solutions or modifications very expensive and disruptive. Community officials in Panama City and Bay County have been working to address the deficiencies at the airport for more than 20 years. In the 1980s, the airport authority believed the | august/september 2008


panama city diary

The top photo indicates the expanse of land available for the new airport. The bottom photo is a rendering of the new terminal.

58 | august/september 2008

only viable option for bringing the airport up to federal safety and design standards was to extend the runway system into St. Andrews Bay. This proposal caused tremendous controversy. Local and state environmentalists fought the extension into the bay because it would harm protected seagrasses located at the foot of the runway and cause other negative environmental impacts that would be difficult to mitigate. In the mid-1990s, several regulatory agencies suggested that the airport authority abandon the runway extension plans and instead seek a new site for the airport. The authority in 1999 began to seriously consider relocation. At this time, authority officials met with representatives from the St. Joe Company, Bay County’s largest private landowner, to seek assistance in studying the possibility of relocating the airport. It was the beginning of a broad-based public/private partnership that eventually would lead to the creation of a long-term vision for the West Bay Sector, a 75,000-acre planning area anchored by the new airport. The new airport will be located approximately 12 miles from the existing facility. Between 2001 and 2006, FAA considered as part of its Environmental Impact Statement analysis more than two dozen alternatives for addressing the deficiencies at the airport, including many existing site alternatives. It was only after considerable analysis that the agency also determined relocation was the best solution. The St. Joe Company since has donated more than 4,000 acres for the new airport, along with an additional 10,000 acres for environmental mitigation. The authority already has permitted and mitigated a large portion of the 4,000-acre site, even though some of the development will not occur for many years into the future. This provides a “bank� of land for future development and expansion, helping to avoid costly and in some cases prohibitive land acquisition and permitting in the future. The new airport is intended to be a facility that will serve the entire region of the Florida Panhandle, opening new markets and creating new connections with other parts of the country in much the same way as Southwest Florida International Airport benefited the Fort Myers/ Naples region. A


Airport Sustainability | reducing the footprint


aircraft taxi length to reduce fuel burn for aircraft; promoted mass transit, bicycle racks, hybrid rental cars, compressed gaseous hydrogen powered or CGH2 buses and electrical car charging; converted to electrical and bio-diesel-powered ground service equipment; and installed solar photovoltaic panels. Water management, a key aspect of creating a sustainable airport site, requires compensation for water run-off from many acres of concrete. Opportunities to integrate water conservation into an airport’s sustainability plan include bioswales on the site to reduce run-off; installing lowflow plumbing fixtures and automatic faucets; harvesting and storing rainwater in cisterns to make it available for irrigation and toilet flushing; and re-using gray water — the wastewater collected from clothes washers or bathroom sinks — for landscaping, car washing and sewage conveyance. In locations with abundant sunshine, airports can implement solar thermal power generation, solar photovoltaics, roof shading and thermal energy storage. Airport leaders also should, whenever possible, harness site-specific energy, including wind, geo-thermal and tidal power. Implementing sustainability initiatives requires some additional initial expenditures — all of which can be paid back over time in saved energy costs. Efficient lighting fixtures and lighting controls, updated building management systems, electrical charging stations for ground service equipment and new control systems for efficently running baggage systems, moving walkways and other motoroperated equipment can provide payback in under two years. Within two to 10 years, recycled gray water systems, high-performance glazing, daylighting, solar shading devices and site-specific energy sources pay back on their investment. Solar photovoltaics, tidal power, vegetative roofs and solar thermal concentrator power generation pay back periods are longer — from 10 to 20 years. A number of cities already have made LEED certification a requirement of all public buildings, including airport terminal buildings. As an industry, owners and airport designers must continue to seek out and implement the sustainability best practices that not only support conscientious environmental stewardship, but also provide a foundation for overall sound business practices. A

By Tom Rossbach

oday, airports increasingly face pressure to reduce their environmental footprints. That is why sustainability heavily influences the design of today’s airport projects. The trend toward sustainability has moved from a public moral imperative to an economically sound business practice. In the new economics of sustainability, where natural gas costs have increased 50 percent over six months and oil prices have neared $145 per barrel, designing and building airport projects for sustainability makes good business sense. Among other benefits, such facilities enhance passenger comfort, trim operating costs, decrease natural resource consumption and minimize the strain on local infrastructures. The U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards are considered the touchstone that guides commercial building environmental design, construction and operation. While the airport industry has yet to designate sustainable design benchmarks, architects who are designing green components into new airport projects typically follow LEED standards, which allow a facility to earn various certification levels by accumulating points based on sustainability and performance during its life cycle. LEED standards, however, do not adequately address airports, as they were developed primarily for urban office building types of structures. By their nature, airports face unique difficulties in achieving LEED certification because the sustainability points relevant to landside development amount to a significant part of receiving a LEED-certified project. Aircraft emissions and vast amounts of runway and airfield concrete, which tend to decrease environmental friendliness, comprise a large part of a typical airport project. Airside development must work to achieve sustainability through innovative methods, by using LEED criteria as a basis for identifying airport-specific best practices and looking at areas that can most impact green initiatives. In reality, the opportunities to design for sustainability are plentiful. In Santa Barbara, Calif., for example, airport leadership responded to a city request for a greenhouse gasses inventory by addressing the largest emission contributors: aircraft, motor vehicles, aircraft ground service equipment and airport electrical usage. The airport reduced the

Tom Rossbach is a senior aviation project manager for HNTB Architecture Inc. and a key leader for the firm’s complex airport projects. | august/september 2008


lessonslearned Kansas City International Adopts New Access Control System the airport’s three C-shaped terminals featured a “drive to the gate” design that minimizes walking distance from the curb to the gate. As a result, each terminal building is less than 100 feet deep, and there are numerous access points throughout the The Kansas City Aviation Department has moved entire facility. The access control project originally began in from the Stone Age to Star Wars in terms of 1997 with design consultant Ross & Baruzzini controlling access at Kansas City International Airport (KCI). Since KCI was rated in 2007 determining the needs and objectives of an ACS. as the most passenger-friendly medium Once the preliminary work was completed in 1998, the next step was the creation of construction hub airport by a nationally renowned customer survey documents. This process reached just 90 percent firm, this was no easy completion because airport management embarked on the massive undertaking of renovating the task. Opened in 30-year-old terminals. Dubbed the Terminal Improvement 1972, Project, the program brought with it the construction of 18 communication rooms to use the campus-wide fiber “backbone.” The “backbone” became an integral component to ultimately facilitate the distribution of voice, data and video signals across the airport. The airport’s Kansas City (Mo.) International transitioned from an antiquated lock-and-key access control system (ACS) to a fully integrated and seamless system. Following is the story of the airport’s experience.

by Melvin Price

60 | august/september 2008

campus fiber backbone system consists of single-mode fiber optic cables routed between the terminals and around the airport. The fiber backbone supports connection of campus distribution and core network switches through an OC-48 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) ring and meshed Ethernet network. Seventy-two strand outside plant single- mode fiber optic cables originating from the campus server room form two main redundant loops throughout the campus via redundant pathways. The redundant loops allow airport buildings on campus to be connected to the network. These loops also facilitate the connection to the network of future airport and tenant building additions by connecting to the fiber backbone. However, before any of these improvements could come to fruition, security was changed dramatically because of the 9/11 attacks,

At the time of installation, the system was so advanced that a delegation came from South Korea’s Incheon International Airport for a demonstration.

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which resulted in a new way of thinking about security and regulations. With the effects of 9/11 still fresh on the nation’s mind and renovations drawing to a close, the aviation department resumed the design of the ACS, which now included incorporation of the CCTV system. Realizing that the contract must be able to adapt to what may be needed at any given time, the department opted to go with a professional services contract. The winning team was comprised of C&C Group Inc. as the prime, GE for the access portion and JVC for CCTV. The project was resumed to ensure that FAA and TSA requirements of automatically controlling access through any controlled portal in real-time were met. These portals included personnel doors and vehicle gates. With the imposition of more stringent rules for securing gate areas in the existing facilities, restrooms had become inaccessible to passengers after going through security, so they would have to be added. Since the terminal buildings are less than 100 feet deep, adding new restrooms within the gate area created new obstacles for security cameras. As a result, many more cameras were needed to “see” around corners and angles to monitor access points. By the end of the project, the airport had doubled the number of security cameras from 250 to 500. This was all in addition to the network-based security solution developed for the airport, which was one of the first applications in North America to feature all data signals converging on a common network instead of a dedicated security network. The ACS distributes all of the data signals across the Internet protocol (IP) network, which also manages all of the access and video images used for both recording and general monitoring. The system provides instantaneous monitoring and control capability within the airport communications | august/september 2008

center, which is staffed by airport police. A video wall was installed to display CCTV camera “tours” using sequencing and alarming video. This makes it easier for airport police to make better informed command and control decisions about when to dispatch personnel based on event information. Another integral feature of the system is “incident activation,” which has two parts, a live video feed of that door and a 30-second playback before the incident. To meet federal funding criteria, the security solution also provided a number of other innovations. This included seamlessly matching older technology with new state-of-theart solutions to enable both legacy and CCTV equipment to operate in a hybrid arrangement. Also, there is more than one-quarter of a petabyte (one petabyte equals one quadrillion bytes) of available digital video storage to meet the processing demand. Most important, the entire security system was designed with maximum upgrade potential. For example, after the system was in place, TSA enacted new regulations for Security Threat Assessment (STA) screening for individuals receiving Security Identification Display Area (SIDA) badges. Department staff worked with the software engineers in order to configure the data that already was being loaded into the system, so the additional information could be uploaded directly into AAAE’s Transportation Security Clearinghouse. At the time of installation, the system was so advanced that a delegation came from South Korea’s Incheon International Airport for a demonstration. The security system project was completed in 2007 and demonstrated how close collaboration among all involved agencies can overcome obstacles to create success. A Melvin Price is Project Manager - Infrastructure Development for the Kansas City Aviation Dept.

by Jeff Price

photos by Jim Martin

This is the Dawning of the New Age Checkpoint


or far too long, security screening checkpoints have struggled to keep pace with the evolving terrorist threat. Since the early 1970s, airports essentially have had the same walk-through metal detectors, which only detect metal, not explosives, and X-ray machines that present a single, top-down X-ray view, with only a screener’s eyesight and insight available to identify the elements of a gun or a bomb. Now, all of that is changing, along with the overall checkpoint experience itself. That is, it will change if TSA’s experiment at Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI) works out as planned. At AAAE’s June 8-11 Annual Conference and Exposition in New Orleans, several industry experts gathered to discuss the future of the security checkpoint, which TSA calls “checkpoint evolution,” or PAX 2.0. “It’s all the same thing. It’s basically the evolution of how we’re going to do security at the checkpoints,” said Scott Johnson, assistant federal security director for Washington Dulles International. “It’s basically a new way of doing things, not just taking care of passengers, but to somehow get the 2 million passengers that pass through our airport [to be] members of our security force, so we can all work as a team to try to pick out that one bad apple in a checkpoint environment.” The checkpoint improvements are multi-faceted and include technology upgrades plus environmental controls to reduce stress and make additional security measures more effective by trying to calm passengers during the screening experience. TSA believes this will allow its personnel to detect hostile intent more effectively. The improvements one day may allow passengers to keep their shoes on and laptops in their bags. While contract screeners were by and large replaced after 9/11 with TSA personnel, checkpoint technology remained essentially the same until August 2004, when two Russian airliners were downed by suicide bombers. Shortly thereafter, the industry began deploying portal trace detectors (PTD) to U.S. checkpoints to be used in secondary screening. The PTDs have had their share of maintenance issues and take longer to scan than conventional walk-through metal detectors, but they do one thing metal detectors cannot — they detect explosives. PTDs were a stopgap and another needed component, but this year airports are witnessing the first real overhaul of screening technology. | august/september 2008


new age Checkpoint Privacy rights groups have long opposed whole body imaging technology.




Come to the Alamo, and a whole lot more...


64 | august/september 2008

Standard X-ray machines used to screen carry-on baggage are being replaced with new machines that provide high-definition images, and employ multiple view X-ray angles, automated threat detection capability and high-definition zoom. “Now the TSO (transportation security officer) can rotate the bag around using several manipulative tools in the workstation to zoom, pan, etc.,” explained Peter Harris, a security expert working with American Science and Engineering Inc. “We look at feature extraction where we look at the mass density of the objects and discriminate on what could be the threat object. A sheet bomb is fairly clear in the 3-D (computed tomography) CT system.” Passenger screening also is being enhanced with the use of whole body imaging (WBI) technology. TSA uses two types of WBI technology: backscatter X-ray and millimeter wave imaging. The WBI systems are used in secondary screening as an alternative to a physical pat-down search. Backscatter X-ray systems operate by using a low intensity X-ray beam, scanned over the body at high speed. The technology is based on the X-ray radiation that is reflected back from the body, i.e., backscatter. A computer compiles and interprets the images for the operator. Millimeter wave technology works by beaming radio frequency energy in the millimeter wave spectrum. The energy that reflects from the body of the individual is used to construct a 3D image that can show threat images. The amount of radio energy emitted is 10,000 times less than a cell phone transmission. Since the images from both millimeter wave and backscatter are very revealing, both technologies employ privacy features to blur faces, and the images are not stored. Privacy rights groups have long opposed WBI

technology, but that has not stopped its implementation at several U.S. airports. Another technological solution that is being tested is bottled liquid scanners. TSA already has piloted two handheld liquid explosives detection systems. These technologies could be used to screen medicines, baby formula, items purchased at duty-free shops and other liquid travel essentials. At BWI, TSA is testing its new screening checkpoint design. Using a mix of blue and green hue lighting and soothing music, the environment is meant to calm passengers. The new checkpoint also includes TSO storyboards to show personality profiles of the officers. The more practical elements include walls to enclose the screening checkpoint, and a dump station where passengers can shed prohibited items and prepare for the screening experience. Beyond the checkpoint, re-composure benches are provided to allow passengers to sit down, put their shoes back on and repack their belongings. It remains to be seen whether these new improvements to the screening environment will truly benefit travelers and airport operators with smoother passenger flows, but the technological advances alone are good steps forward in making air travel safer. A Jeff Price is a professor of aviation management at Metropolitan State College of Denver and owner of Leading Edge Strategies, an airport training and consulting firm. | august/september 2008



TSA Tunnel Of Truth May Come Your Way In the not-too-distant future, TSA would like to scan, photograph and inspect airline passengers without anyone being wanded or taking off a shoe. The concept, being worked on by the Transportation Security Laboratory, the research arm of DHS that specializes in technology to detect explosives, would have passengers undergo a battery of electronic scanning techniques while standing on a movable walkway. Called the “tunnel of truth,” the idea was suggested by the director of the laboratory, Susan Hallowell, during a conference held in January by the National Defense Industrial Association. The tunnel would incorporate several existing technologies, including X-ray backscatter machines and millimeter wave (MMW) sensors, currently in use at BaltimoreWashington Thurgood Marshall International and being deployed to 21 other airports. “You’re in line anyway…why not enclose that in a little glass thing and do your analysis there?” said Hallowell, according to National Defense Magazine, sponsor of the conference. She noted that heat sensors and puffer machines that dislodge molecules from passengers and test for explosives also could be incorporated into the system. One step in the right direction for an eventual “tunnel of truth” for passenger terminals is the ScanPort, a shipping container equipped with cameras, X-ray and MMW technology to scan people remotely. The ScanPort, a 20-foot-long cargo container created by Brijot Imaging Systems, has an entrance and an exit so that people could be scanned one at a time. If a person is caught with 66

anything suspicious, the container can act as a kind of mantrap. While not designed to withstand a blast from the interior, a cargo container has some inherent blast minimization characteristics. Designed for military use in Iraq, ScanPort bundles existing technology so that people can be scanned remotely from an operations center up to 300 feet away. In addition to X-ray and MMW technology, the container has an electronically locked entry and exit, air conditioning, lighting and two-way communication with the operations center. A system similar to the military version could be coming to airports. Brijot told Airport Magazine that the ScanPort could be used to scan employees or others who have been prescreened, like those in the | august/september 2008

Registered Traveler program. “ScanPort and bundling a lockdown capability would best apply to employee screening,” said Troy Techau, retired lieutenant colonel and vice president of business development for Brijot. “From a gate outside to a secure area, employees could go through a ScanPort and be scanned and a guard could be a mile, mile and a half away in the airport proper.”

EMAS To Be Added At 12 Airports FAA is scheduled to add Engineered Material Arresting Systems (EMAS) to 12 additional airports in the near future. The crushable concrete system will be added at Wilkes-Barre Scranton,

Pa.; Chicago O’Hare; Newark Liberty; San Luis Obispo, Calif.; Charlotte; Worcester, Mass.; Minneapolis-St. Paul; Key West, Fla.; Winston-Salem, N.C.; Lafayette, La.; Telluride, Colo.; and Groton-New London, Conn. Currently EMAS is installed at 21 airports in the U.S. and has worked successfully in four incidents in which aircraft overran the runway, including an incident in 2005 when a 747 overran the runway at New York’s Kennedy International. When an aircraft rolls onto an EMAS area, the tires sink into the

lightweight concrete and are then slowed as the aircraft rolls through the material. According to FAA, the technology provides benefits where it is not possible to have a 1,000-foot overrun, and it can be used if less than 600 feet of land is available.

TSA Funds Research For Faster Baggage Screener TSA is funding research for baggage screeners that can detect threats at

high speeds, to be used in larger terminals with heavy traffic. The funding went to L-3 Security & Detection Systems for the final testing of its eXaminer XLB (extra large bore) screening system. The scanner uses continuous computed tomography to generate 3-D color images in real time and with a 360-degree view. According to the company, the system would be able to handle more than 1,000 bags an hour and should be available in summer 2009. A | august/september 2008



T.F. Green Airport


hode Island’s T.F. Green Airport, operated by the Rhode Island Airport Corp. (RIAC), is nearing completion of an $83 million terminal improvement project intended to allow more seamless travel from curbside to planeside while providing state-of-the-art security features and new concessions options. Among the features included in the terminal redesign are an inline explosives detection system for screening baggage, an expanded checkpoint to accelerate screening and concourse bypass ramps leading to the baggage claim area. Addition of the concourse bypass ramps requires extra airport security staff, noted Kevin Dillon, A.A.E., RIAC president and CEO, but at the same time it increases screening capacity at the checkpoint, which was one goal of the renovation. “This was important enough that we were willing to pay for the staffing because it increased throughput at security,” Dillon explained. Projects completed so far include the bypass ramps and an expanded checkpoint. New pre- and post-

security dining and shopping options, scheduled to open in the next few months, include Starbucks, Providence Oyster Bar, Johnny Rockets, Wolfgang Puck, Brooks Brothers and Borders Books. Airport revenue from concessions is expected to increase to $20.5 million from $17 million when all new locations are operating. In addition, infrastructure projects are underway to support the construction of the Warwick Intermodal Facility, a new transportation hub that will take passengers from “train to plane” and offer commuter rail service from Providence, Boston and beyond. A 1,250-foot elevated, enclosed moving sidewalk will connect the facility to the T. F. Green terminal. The project, which includes a consolidated rental car facility, bus hub and 1,000 parking spaces for rail commuters, is scheduled for completion in 2010. “We have a specific interest in this because it’s a great service to our passengers,” Dillon stated. He pointed out that many international passengers expect connectivity, a factor that “will give us a major leg up in attracting international service.” European low-fare carrier RyanAir is one airline


Gre en’s term inal impr proj ovem ect ent will allo seam w mo less re trav curb el fr side om to p whil lane e pr side ovid ing s of-t tate he a rt s ecur feat ity ures and new con cess ions optio ns.


68 | August/September 2008


n, A.A


Quick Facts

that has expressed interest in Providence, spurred by tourism and business interest in the region from U.K. travelers, Dillon said. While FAA projected that T.F. Green Airport could reach 9 million to 11 million passengers annually by 2020, Dillon said the airport is revising that number in light of the downturn in the economy. However, he added, “I still think that once the industry can get its arms around the issues confronting us, we will have significant growth over that term. This is a fairly large catchment area, with 5 million passengers living within 90 minutes’ drive of the airport. And we have Southwest, so we can attract a lot of that population base.” RIAC recently approved an air service development incentive program to encourage flights by new carriers and additional service by existing airlines. “While we are still very much looking forward to advancing our capital construction work, we are very focused on cost structure,” Dillon said. “We are very sensitive to the condition the airlines are in, and we are working hard to reduce costs to the carriers here.” He noted that in 2009, the airport will reduce the landing fee by 15 cents per thousand pounds. “I want to make T.F. Green one of the best bargains in the Northeast as it relates to airline costs,” he said. A

• T. F. Green Airport, a medium hub, serves passengers from Rhode Island, southeastern Massachusetts and eastern Connecticut with nonstop service to more than 26 domestic and international markets. The airport is located in the city of Warwick, R.I., eight miles south of Providence. • T.F. Green generates nearly $2 billion in total economic activity, according to an economic impact study commissioned by the airport and updated in 2006. Of that total, $0.6 billion in earnings is paid to an estimated 21,857 full-time equivalent jobs. The city of Warwick currently receives $11.5 million in airport-related taxes and other revenues from T.F. Green-related aviation activity. State of Rhode Island revenue from hotel, off-airport parking and rental car taxes distributed back to Warwick total another $3.6 million. Additionally, RIAC pays the city of Warwick $500,000 annually for fire and police support. • Airlines serving T.F. Green are Air Canada, American Eagle, Cape Air (seasonal), Continental, Delta, Northwest, Southwest, United, US Airways and SATA International (seasonal). FedEx, UPS and DHL are the airport’s cargo carriers. • The airport has 21 gates: 19 jet and two commuter. A Federal Inspection Services facility is located in the lower level of the terminal. • The airport has two runways: 5/23, which is 7,166 feet long, and 16/34, which is 6,081 feet long. • Current on-airport parking capacity is 8,325 spaces, located in three garages and two lots. The lowest parking rate is $11/day. A

ly ent rec C an RIA ed rov app e vic ser nt air pme ram elo rog dev p e v i ent age inc our enc o new t by hts g i l n f a d e rs vic rie r a ser c l a s. n line itio air add g n ti exis by | August/September 2008




PANEL: (left to right) CHARLES LAMB, C.M., P.E., president, Delta Airport Consultants STEVE MOULTON, P.E., national airfield service group leader and vice president, RS&H TOM KINTON, executive director and CEO, Massachusetts Port Authority BARBARA COOK Airport Magazine Editor CALVIN DAVENGER, JR., deputy director of aviation, planning and environmental stewardship, Philadelphia International Airport RENITA MOLLMAN, principal in charge, Aviation Civil Engineering Group, Burns & McDonnell JEFFREY MISHLER, P.E., associate vice president, HNTB Corp.


This is Part Two of a roundtable discussion on airside development trends held April 7 at AAAE’s headquarters in Alexandria, Va. Part One may be found in the June/July issue of Airport Magazine. Both print articles were edited for length. For a video version of the entire roundtable, go to www.antndigicast. com. (Note: subscription required.)

LAMB: There will be a lot more talk about going green in the next five years. Currently, the average airport is 80 to 82 percent open grassfields. You say, “Hmm, how can I get much greener than that as far as a large acreage parcel?” The answer is there are a lot of things that can be done. Fuel containment for incidental spills on the apron can be readily designed into your drainage system without having really any impact on cost, if you think of it up front. Deicing is going to be greener. Environmental things such as energy consumption, if, in fact, we can go to a true LED‑type fixture that uses DC power, could reduce power consumption. | August/September 2008

The way we do our housekeeping at the terminal buildings and how the terminal buildings are designed and configured for a green sustaining terminal building can make a big difference also. KINTON: I think the future generations, the Xs and Ys particularly, are going to make decisions as to whether to travel based on the carbon footprint they leave. I believe it is incumbent upon airports to demonstrate that they are doing everything they can to reduce the carbon footprint because aircraft in and of themselves really can’t. I think a lot of it can be done on the airport’s Web site, to provide

a button the consumer can push to see how they can leave the smallest carbon footprint when traveling. It can range from recommending green limo companies to identifying the greenest airline out there, the greenest hotels, the greenest country I can travel to, because the last thing we want people doing is not traveling because they are concerned with this. Then you are going to see companies step up and mandate that their employees take the greenest road when they travel. MISHLER: There is a cost to implementing a lot of these green initiatives at airports. So there has to be some kind of cost benefit or balance moving forward that is not so onerous on the traveling public and the carriers. MOLLMAN: One thing we have been seeing over the last few years on the green initiative is recycle and reuse. For the last five to seven years, 90 percent of the pavements we have reconstructed have been recycled somehow, either as a base course or by airports using it on very remote service roads that were not paved. MOULTON: One thing that is going to be needed is a unit of measure. It is one thing to say that you are green or that you have sustainability initiatives. It is another thing to measure how well you are actually doing up against a standard, up against another airport, up against an industry trend. Airports also are using sustainability as a factor in consultant selection. MISHLER: Regarding future technology, I hear proclamations out there that someday airports will have automatic dependent surveillancebroadcast (ADS‑B), dependent IFR approaches, maybe independent simultaneous approaches to

close‑spaced parallel runways with this technology. But, in five years, will this fully be implemented? I don’t think so. I think that there are still a lot of proof of concept issues with the technology that will need to be addressed, including the compatibility of the equipment that is out there, training, the amount of investment that is required by the carriers to get certified and pilot certification. KINTON: I think, certainly, capacity is the question of the day as it relates to the U.S. industry, really the world industry. I saw a stat recently where 90 percent of the airports that are flown into worldwide account for 60 percent of the delay, or something like that. I think technology has got to be the answer here, but it is a long‑term answer, unfortunately, because of the issues you raised, of cost, training, implementing it in an entire fleet, for instance. In Boston, we are saying absolutely technology, absolutely new runways. More runway infrastructure is required to address the capacity issue going forward, but what can we do now? What tools do we have in the tool box today to help with the capacity issue? I think one of those is peak pricing or congestion pricing. DAVENGER: We are probably one of the most congested and delayed airports out here. So we are looking to get whatever help we can get to reduce delays and to add capacity aside from infrastructure changes. Also, we have this New York, New Jersey, Philadelphia airspace redesign that has just been completed by the FAA, which looks to make some changes and give some different dispersal headings from not only our airport, but also airports in New York and New Jersey, to help to alleviate congestion and speed up some of the flow of aircraft.

We look to get whatever we can get at this point while looking to the FAA to finish their NextGen projects and get everything else, all the other pieces in place. Tom had mentioned congestion pricing and the like. Again, that is a tool maybe in the toolbox that we can pull out. MOULTON: In terms of airside development, let’s say ADS‑B comes into play and you are able to better utilize the airspace and get more aircraft into an airport. I think one of the big deficiencies that exists from an airside standpoint is the actual capacity of the airfield to handle more flights coming in. There are a lot of airports that don’t have an adequate taxiway network. You bring more aircraft into an airport, and you can’t get them to a gate. They lack adequate gate capacity. So that is one issue that has to be looked at there. The other issue that we are not clear on in terms of airside development is, if NextGen comes into place, what navaids are still going to be required on the ground? MISHLER: I do think that the main part of this is a communication datalink, and over time, it will require less and less ground‑based instrumentation, which is good. I think the other benefit is that if you can eliminate a lot of the ground‑based equipment, it also eliminates a lot of the limitations caused by terrain and other obstructions. Airports that are in the mountains or are surrounded by high terrain all of a sudden have more capacity by flying precise routes to avoid terrain. LAMB: It goes back to ADS‑B. I think it is the case where the FAA is pretty far behind the power curve on getting it up and implemented. It is like a fax machine. If you have | August/September 2008


Roundtable pt. II

only one fax machine in the country, it doesn’t do you much good. ADS‑B won’t be of much value until every airplane is equipped with it, so that you know where, in fact, the other aircraft are. So it is a case where both air carrier and general aviation are going to have to come up with a way to put the equipment in the aircraft. I don’t think it will be there five years from now. The FAA has not even started to transfer the ADS‑B information over to their radar scopes, and talk is they won’t be able to for another 10‑plus years before they will have the hardware and the software in place to accommodate that. Going back to navaids, I think ground based will flatten out as far as installation. Non‑directional beacons have already decommissioned. In a lot of states, they have already decommissioned a third to a half of them. I think it is a case where five years from now, there will be hardly any non‑directional beacons in service, only those with critical needs. I think it is a case with VORs, no new ones will be installed. Five years from now, I don’t think many will be decommissioned, though. ILSs, I think some new ones will be installed at key locations, but without a doubt, at any airport, if you want an excellent instrument approach procedure to all your runway ends, you can accommodate that today. The FAA is well ahead of the curve with how fast they are rolling out the LPVs, the satellite‑based navigational‑type approaches. They are even ahead of the aircraft. I think they are well ahead on that one, and just now beginning to enter the market are some very cost‑effective ways of being able to shoot these high‑precision, satellite‑based instrument approach procedures. MOLLMAN: I don’t even think we have touched on the capabilities of 72

what GPS‑type systems can use. I think the corporate world is probably a lot farther ahead than the commercial market. Most corporate aircraft have a lot more equipment in their aircraft to be able to utilize satellite. I think, however, with the amount of regional jets entering the market, the capacity issue may still be limited with the in‑trail distance. If you have a larger airport where you have a lot of heavy traffic, as well as a lot of regional jets, you are still going to have the wake turbulence issue behind those heavies coming in. You still have to have a minimum amount of in‑trail distance to satisfy those regional jets and the smaller commuter aircraft following in. MISHLER: There are a lot of interesting things that Frankfurt is doing right in terms of runways having multiple thresholds. So, if you had a heavy landing and then a narrow‑bodied after that, the glidepath of the narrow would be above the heavy. So it would never go through the wake turbulence. Plus, NASA on close‑spaced parallels is developing some technologies to detect and predict wake vortices using wind and weather data. AM: What could change the dynamic that allows outdated technology to remain in place in the U.S.? LAMB: Some things are behind, and ADS‑B is one of them. As far as the satellite‑based instrument approach procedures, that is just the flip of it. The FAA is well ahead on that. You mentioned close parallels. I think that is someplace where the satellite‑based approaches can help a lot, and the ADS‑B can help a lot. Both of those can help a lot. Right now, we are developing RNP (required navigation performance) | August/September 2008

satellite‑based approaches where a tenth of a mile is the standard deviation for where the aircraft is located. When you can predict the aircraft location with that precision off a satellite‑based system, then your close parallels, like at Raleigh, you get much better utilization out of those facilities. MOULTON: In terms of timing, you ask “why do things take so long?” Tom brought it up earlier that the FAA’s mission is safety. That is always number one, and these systems have to be put in, and they have to be tried. You have a think tank that might think this is a great idea, but when you put in an actual application and some of the users get involved in providing feedback and the airports providing feedback, you may find, “Oops, we didn’t think of that one, or that one wasn’t properly planned for.” So you have to get it out there in the real world and get people used to using it, get them comfortable with it, and then implement it, and of course, funding is going to be a big initiative. AM: At the time of this roundtable, we have just had four airlines go into bankruptcy. What does that tell you about our capacity discussion for the rest of the year for airports? KINTON: Well, I think you are absolutely right. What happened this last, I think, seven to 10 days in terms of my career has been unprecedented, to see four airlines shut down, Skybus — the most recent one — Champion Air, Aloha and ATA. I have never seen it this bad, and I think it is the price of oil. It is fuel that is driving it and the combination of that and the capital markets. A hundred dollar‑plus per barrel of oil going forward does not spell profitability for this industry, and therefore, for us to be sitting around here talking about capacity, we may

be talking about the survivability of the industry. On the plus side, it may mean that some of the excess capacity has been squeezed out of the system, and it may allow the carriers that remain to raise prices, but that is not good news either. If all we are going to do is lead towards an industry that there are a few players and they are charging large dollars to fly, that is not healthy as well.

of how can we get people to and from the airport more en masse than in the individual automobiles.

we are dealing with at the airports because of airspace constraints, but also because of fuel efficiency. Then lastly, I think we have to look at the ground transportation coming to the airport. Again, with the fuel issue and the cost issue, you are going to see I think more of a drive

DAVENGER: Certainly, I agree that safety is paramount, but we don’t know where the airline industry is going to go in terms of mergers.

AM: If we were having this same discussion 10 years down the road, what would be the timely subjects on airside development? LAMB: I think safety will always be number one. If you look at the safety record now, it is phenomenal. If we had the same accident rate per passenger mile that there was in the 1950s, there would be a major accident every three weeks. We go for years without a major accident, but I think the FAA’s main cornerstone is aviation safety, and I think 10 years from now, that will still be job one and discussion one. MOULTON: I share a little bit of Tom’s concerns, certainly with the airlines going out of business. That has taken some capacity out of the system, but if you look at the overall oil issue, if you look at the overall economy issue — and FAA has projected this — there is going to be a flattening or perhaps even a reduction in the number of people flying in the short term because of the cost. I think the oil issue is going to be driving technology for alternative fuels. Ten years from now, we may see aircraft starting to be powered by an entirely different fuel system because there is only so much oil in the world, and eventually, it is going to run out. I think we are going to see larger aircraft, a trend toward larger aircraft

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Roundtable pt. II

So how is that going to play into the future of aircraft?

You also have to look at the age of the fleets— these airlines that are flying older aircraft or lesser efficient aircraft that cost more money. So maybe they are trying to cut routes or cut service, and again, that might contribute to some of the up-gauging of some of the larger aircraft, but then we have these very small aircraft.

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MOLLMAN: I think sustainability and green initiatives will continue to be a hot topic for years. We as a country can’t continue to use up our natural resources at the rate we are using them, and I think that will


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continue to be a hot topic with the new generation, the Gen Y‑ers or the next generation of people coming out of colleges and universities. MISHLER: I will be the optimistic one here. We are going through a rough patch right now, but I think in 10 years things will be a lot better. I am particularly excited to see what happens with the international open skies. From an airport capacity standpoint, I have heard trends like a lot more frequency with smaller aircraft, which I think at international gateway airports could have a potential capacity impact during that late afternoon, early evening bank where you have a lot of your international arrival/departures. In 10 years, I am optimistic about where the industry will go. We all hope the carriers are healthy, but I think that with the increased demand, we will see a lot more pressure industry‑wide to get some of these new technologies online because it is not going to be any easier to add runways in the future. A

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2008 INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT CONFERENCES Hosted by the American Association of Airport Executives and the International Association of Airport Executives

These events create the ideal environment for top-level U.S. and international airport executives to share and exchange information within an ever-changing global aviation industry.


The American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the International Association of Airport Executive (IAAE) and the Vienna Airport are pleased to present this conference to be held in Vienna. Aviation equipment, technology and overall aviation security policies will be addressed at this meeting. Topics also will include advancing the next generation of passenger and baggage screening; examining whether aviation security policies and procedures can be better developed to anticipate threats to aviation; examining the growing costs for aviation security; working toward global implementation of security measures; and more. For more information, contact Colleen Chamberlain, AAAE, at Ext. 117,, Spencer Dickerson of the AAAE/IAAE staff in the U.S. at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 130,, or George Paldi, European consultant to AAAE, at 011 36 209427005,

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This is your chance to learn about what some regional airports are doing to develop their commercial and retail programs and increase their financial performance by attracting low-cost, low-fare carriers. This conference, sponsored by AAAE and IAAE, also will address the importance of regional airports and low-cost carriers to the local economies and how the growth of regional airport and low-cost carriers has changed the face of the aviation industry. For more information, contact Spencer Dickerson of the AAAE/IAAE staff in the U.S. at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 130, or sdickerson@aaae. org, Rebecca Morrison, Ext. 152,; or George Paldi, European consultant to AAAE, at 011 36 209427005,


AAAE, IAAE and APCO Worldwide are pleased to present this comprehensive conference to be held at the Conrad Brussels Hotel. Industry and government leaders from the United States and Europe will come together to discuss such issues as air services liberalization, environmental policy, security, air traffic management and others. For more information, contact Melissa Sabatine, at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 138,, or Spencer Dickerson of the AAAE/IAAE staff in the U.S. at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 130,, or George Paldi, European consultant to AAAE, at 011 36 209427005,

Visit historic Athens, network with airport colleagues from Central Europe/U.S. and corporations and learn about infrastructure development, airport safety and security, airline/ airport relations challenges. The conference is sponsored by AAAE, IAAE and Athens International Airport. For more information, contact Spencer Dickerson of the AAAE/IAAE staff in the U.S. at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 130, or, or George Paldi, European consultant to AAAE, at 011 36 209427005,

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This forum will contain informative business sessions on issues facing the industry in this region and a tabletop exhibit area. Aviation and airport decisionmakers from Caribbean and Latin American countries will join with U.S. airport executives and suppliers to discuss today’s challenges and solutions. U.S. government cosponsors will facilitate meetings between U.S. companies and officials from Caribbean and Latin American countries. This meeting is sponsored by AAAE, IAAE and the AAAE South Central Chapter. For more information, contact Joan Lowden of the AAAE/ IAAE staff in the U.S. at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 137,, or Susan Lausch, Ext.128,


The purpose of this program, sponsored by AAAE, IAAE and Guam International Airport, is to promote training and the exporting of aviation/ airport-related U.S. products and services by providing direct contacts and meaningful dialogue between aviation-related companies and key airport/aviation officials in the Pacific region. Equally important, the conference will offer important and valuable networking opportunities for U.S. and Asian airport and aviation officials to discuss and debate management and operational challenges facing the airport management profession. For more information, contact Will James at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 149,

By attending this unique conference, you will learn from airports around the world how and why GIS is being used, as well as the ways in which GIS has made airports safer and more efficient. The conference will include presentations on how airports have used GIS to support security, operations, planning, design, construction, maintenance and much more. The conference, sponsored by AAAE and IAAE, also features an exhibit area. Please contact Greg Mamary of the AAAE/IAAE staff in the U.S. at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 176, or greg.mamary@ or George Paldi, European consultant to AAAE, at 011 36 209427005,

Individual and package sponsorship opportunities are available for all of these conferences. Please contact Spencer Dickerson of the AAAE/IAAE staff in the U.S. at (703) 824-0500, Ext. 130, or More information is also available at the AAAE/IAAE meetings web site

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assengers by airport Traffic for MAY 2008

Airport Albuquerque (N.M.) Sunport Int’l Bradley (Conn.) International Chicago Rockford (Ill.) International Colorado Springs Airport Denver International Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood (Fla.) General Mitchell (Wis.) Int’l Harrisburg (Pa.) International Houston Bush Intercontinental Kansas City (Mo.) International Manchester-Boston (N.H.) Regional Nashville (Tenn.) International Orlando International Palm Beach (Fla.) International Portland (Ore.) International Quad City (Ill.) International Raleigh-Durham (N.C.) Int’l Reno-Tahoe (Nev.) International Rogue Valley (Ore.) Medford San Diego International San Jose (Calif.) International South Bend (Ind.) Regional Southwest Florida International Spokane (Wash.) International T.F. Green (R.I.) Airport Domestic and International Fares Airlines Reporting Corporation

2007 584,919 595,161 17,866 178,726 4,229,721 1,853,955 642,110 115,695 17,619,372 1,011,344 332,156 901,411 3,132,935 564,509 1,239,571 84,313 449,237 370,145 56,398 1,514,752 924,289 65,821 603,870 145,411 443,630

% Change 3.9 -4.6 7.3 4.3 5.2 6.4 14.3 -1.6 1.0 -2.3 3.6 -5.1 0.3 -11.5 1.1 -4.7 -0.2 -13.8 -4.2 5.1 -5.6 -4.7 -4.6 2.1 -3.3

07 Domestic Fares 07 International Fares 08 Domestic Fares 08 International Fares

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Dollars in Billions



2008 607,818 567,824 19,169 186,474 4,450,742 1,971,806 733,862 113,825 17,788,183 987,877 344,068 855,087 3,141,596 499,403 1,252,847 80,385 448,128 319,212 54,002 1,592,638 872,310 62,757 576,143 148,411 429,003

FAA has awarded an $880,000 grant to Cleveland Hopkins International to study aircraft noise problems. The study, which is expected to take 18 months, will determine which homes in Cleveland and its suburbs qualify for federal soundproofing money. Siemens Mobility Division has received a $70 million contract from Delhi International Airport for a terminal baggage system. The project is scheduled to be finished by March 2010, when the airport’s new Terminal 3 is set to open. When the system is complete, bags will be handed in at 168 check-in desks at the departure level of the terminal. The sorting system has been designed for a capacity of more than 11,300 bags per hour and has a total length of almost 5 miles. Because of the length, tilt-tray sorters, as well as vertical sorters and high-speed diverters, will be used. Lambert-St. Louis International has selected Kwame Building Group, Teng & Associates, Kozeny-Wagner and Apple Designs for a $105 million renovation campaign called the Airport Experience program. The renovations will modernize the main terminal, restore the terminal’s domed ceilings, replace inbound baggage claim systems, overhaul roadway signs and add new restaurants and concessions. The Perini Building Company has been awarded a $1.2 billion construction contract to build Terminal 3 at McCarran International Airport, Las Vegas. The project includes a new terminal building with an elevated roadway structure fronting the facility, over-roadway pedestrian bridges, underground automated transit system infrastructure and an aircraft ramp. The terminal will be approximately 1.9 million square feet and will include a baggage handling system for outbound and inbound processing and an in-line explosives detection system for baggage screening. The timeline to complete the project is estimated at three and a half years. A

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Challenges Emerge for Cargo Screening Deadline

by Kevin Eaton, Staff Writer



ue to capacity constraints at airports, TSA is working to move screening operations away from the airport to meet the 2010 deadline to screen 100 percent of cargo on passenger aircraft. A midway milestone that is part of the cargo screening program specifies that, by February 2009, 50 percent of cargo on passenger aircraft must be screened. John Sammon, TSA assistant administrator, said on July 16 before the House Committee on Homeland Security that lack of capacity makes it impractical to break down, screen and reassemble large consolidated loads on airport property with timeliness and efficiency. TSA faces several major challenges in meeting the deadline, according to Cathleen Berrick, director of homeland security and justice issues at the Government Accountability Office. She testified that some of the issues facing TSA include resource challenges, difficulties with inbound international flights, creating standards, and unfinished technology and air cargo vulnerability assessments. Brandon Fried, executive director of the Airforwarders Association (AFA), echoed these sentiments during his testimony. Because of the high cost of purchasing machinery without federal assistance, many forwarders may choose not to participate in the voluntary Certified Cargo Screening Program (CCSP), he said. “We are extremely concerned about the lack of government funding for the 100 percent screening mandate,” said Fried. “Congress has stated that homeland security is a federal government priority — certainly, aviation security is included on that list of responsibilities. If it is a government mandate for a government responsibility to secure our planes, why then is it not the government’s money that provides for that security?” CCSP is designed to screen cargo earlier in the supply chain by certified facilities. The facilities are subject to TSA inspection and must follow more stringent security standards, as well as share responsibility for supply chain security. A survey of AFA members showed that a majority of those with fewer than 10 offices would not participate in the program without additional funding. According to AFA, airports do not have the real estate to screen all cargo with existing resources and airlines do not have the financial or human | august/september 2008

resources to efficiently expedite screening all “just in time” cargo at the airport. These elements could combine to cause delays and new security concerns, as well as jeopardize delicate and perishable products such as medical supplies, fresh foods and electronics. To obtain comments from shipping and freight forwarding companies about the program, TSA implemented an outreach program for the initial nine airports in phase one of CCSP that recently concluded. The airports are Seattle-Tacoma International, San Francisco International, Los Angeles International, Dallas-Fort Worth International, Chicago O’Hare International, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International, Philadelphia International, New York Kennedy International and Miami International. Field teams of transportation security inspectors have been deployed to each of the nine initial participants. The teams are concerned primarily with two kinds of security threats: an improvised bomb going off on a passenger aircraft and a stowaway commandeering a cargo aircraft. To meet screening goals, TSA has added additional inspectors, canine teams and surprise cargo security inspections that the agency calls “strikes.” TSA has been conducting one random air cargo strike a month at the nation’s largest airports with inspectors going over regulated parties’ areas such as cargo facilities, ramps and warehouses. In preparation for the 2010 deadline, TSA also has increased the number of canine units. By the end of 2008, the agency plans to have more than 600 canine teams, with 150 focused solely on cargo. In addition to the canine teams, TSA is increasing the number of inspectors focused on cargo to 450 from 300. The cargo inspectors are trained to observe suspicious behavior. In 2006, inspectors conducted more than 30,000 compliance reviews and more than 1,300 investigations. In the next step to reach the 100 percent screening goal, TSA will issue a policy that requires cargo screening on all narrowbody aircraft that account for more than 90 percent of passenger flights and 25 percent of passenger air cargo. Compliance for the narrowbody aircraft screening begins in October. A

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International Concessions and the



t’s second nature in Oregon to consider every way possible to reduce, reuse and recycle. And the concessions program at Portland International Airport is no exception. The airport has built cutting-edge sustainability features into the planning and development of its retail and food and beverage offerings. Tenants and program administrators work closely with the Port of Portland’s aviation environmental staff, and even involve travelers, to help separate their plastic bottles and aluminum cans from the other trappings of their lunch or dinner. In fact, near the restaurants on Concourse D, there’s a station for the public to sort food scraps, napkins and food-soiled paper, and a container to collect liquid and ice. Airport officials said they believe Portland is the first airport in the U.S. to collect public-side food scraps for composting. On the retail side, popular retailer Nike joined with Northwest Airlines and the port to install 84 solar panels on the roof of the airport. That array now provides 75 percent of the power for the store, with a goal ultimately to provide 100 percent. As travelers go through security, the concessions program helps them consolidate all the good bargains they’ve purchased in the airport. Free shopping bags branded with a reminder for travelers to “shop, dine and fly” at Portland are made of compostable plastic, superior to biodegradable material, because it breaks down safely into water, carbon dioxide and a small amount of inert residues, airport officials said. Behind the scenes, airport restaurants are collecting their used cooking oil and grease — 20,000 gallons of it — and it’s being converted into biodiesel and base products for other industries. Through the food waste program, the airport diverts between three and four tons per week of pre- and post-consumer food waste and coffee grounds from landfills and sends it to an outside facility, where it is converted into nutrient-rich compost. Along with its partners — including flight kitchens, hotels and more — Portland diverts about seven tons of food waste every week. A

Retail Briefs Raleigh-Durham International Airport’s new terminal will provide an improved means for local and national businesses to reach passengers with their advertising messages. Interspace Airport Advertising will display the messages on 57-inch, high-definition LCD screens throughout the terminal; stretched tension fabric displays; and interactive visitor information centers equipped with a Bluetooth application in the baggage claim area… The Paradies Shops has been awarded a 10-year contract to bring exclusive retail stores to the new facilities of Indianapolis International Airport, opening later this year. The new offerings will combine national brands and regionally inspired concepts. The stores will include Civic Plaza TravelMart, Vera Bradley, Brooks Brothers, CNBC Indianapolis, Cultural Crossroads, Hoosier MarketPlace and Indiana MarketPlace… SSP has acquired the airport restaurant business of Lufthansa subsidiary LSG-Airport

Gastronomiegesellschaft. The agreement incorporates all LSG’s concessions in landside and airside areas at Berlin-Tegel Airport, Berlin-Schonefeld Airport, Bremen Airport, Cologne/Bonn Airport, Frankfurt Airport and Munich International Airport. The acquired business has an annual turnover of around 27 million, and operates 36 cafes, bars and food courts. The acquisition of LSG’s airport restaurant business adds to SSP Germany’s existing airport operations in Düsseldorf International, taking to six the total number of German airports in which SSP is present… Vino Volo (derived from “wine flight” in Italian), a contemporary wine tasting room and retailer, has opened for business at Detroit Metro Airport. Vino Volo also has locations at Washington (D.C.) Dulles International, Seattle-Tacoma International, Sacramento International, Baltimore-Washington International, New York’s Kennedy International and Philadelphia International. A | august/september 2008



photo by aaae staff

82 | august/september 2008

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Profile for Airport Magazine

Airport Magazine AugSept 2008  

Winter Operations, Deicing, Energy Summit, Airside Roundtable Part II

Airport Magazine AugSept 2008  

Winter Operations, Deicing, Energy Summit, Airside Roundtable Part II

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